VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on November 12th, 2019 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today : - increasing activity reported at the Shishaldin volcano (Alaska-USA) - eruptive activity continued at the Sheveluch volcano (Kamchatka)

 

ECUADOR - Guagua Pichincha volcano

June 16th, 2016

No new report since 2016 - The Washington VAAC reported that on 14 June 2016 a possible ash emission from Guagua Pichincha was visible in satellite images drifting NW. Seismicity was elevated. A VAAC report issued about five hours later noted that no further notices of activity had been received. Previous news 2015 - IGEPN reported that seismic activity was detected since end of March 2015. (58 earthquakes during the 31st of March) A second swarm has been reported from 14th to-15th of April probably due to rocks fracturation. As of the 17-18 and 19th of April sulfur odor was detected from the rifugio and according to visual observation the main fumarole close the 1981'crater was more active that the previous days. As of the 20th of April, two phreatic explosions occurred (at 5:06 and 5:58 local time) on the Cristal dome complex active zone. As of the 29th of April, IGEPN recorded a signal tremor type probably in relation with geothermal activity under the volcano. Last previous activity was reported on 2010 : As of the 14 th of September 2010, IG reported that no significative change between 6-12 September period. Seismic network continues to record important number of events related to fracture of rock to the interior of the volcano, nevertheless did not register any type of additional anomaly. As of the 17th of April 2010, IG reported that there no change, both the seismic activity and fumarole emission remained at a low level. Previous significative information : as of the 20th of February 2009, IG reported that the seismic stations Geophysical Institute have registered for days back a slight increase of the internal activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. In previous days 4 phreatic explosions of moderate size have been registered. These explosions happen due to an increase of the internal steam pressure, possibly related to the increase of precipitations observed in the zone of volcano. Therefore the Geophysical Institute recommends that it is not allowed to descend to the interior of the crater since the phreatic explosions could be repeated and the people could take the rock hit, other materials and/or rarefaction waves that are generated by these events. These phreatic explosions they happen generally at times of much rainfall, this is the reason why these explosions not necessarily are indicative of a substantial increase of the activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. The Geophysical Institute in its preprecautionary eagerness of the security of the people maintains a monitoring permanent of the state of this and other volcanos of the country and will inform opportunely into any change that these can present/display. The activity of the volcano shows a slight increase in its seismic activity with respect to the previous months. 40 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes have been registered, which are related to the fracturing of rocks to the interior of the complex between the 14th and the 18th of February. These earthquakes are of small magnitude, which is the reason why they have not been perceived by the population. It is possible to indicate that during the 2007, an average of 4.2 VT earthquakes per day was had. Also in this time interval 6 events of long period (LP) per day were registered when the average in the 2008 was of 0.3. LP events are related to resonances of cracks full of flowed inside the volcano. In addition it is important to mention the presence of explosions of moderate magnitude, related to the phreatic activity. The 16th of February the guardian of the refuge of the volcano perceived an increase in the scent to sulphur in the high part of the crater. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador's capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. - Information : I G Quito

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Cratère du Guagua Pichincha - Aôut 1999 -Viracucha

ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

October 6th, 2016

IG reported that during 27 September-4 October seismic activity at Tungurahua remained at moderate levels, characterized by 1-8 long-period earthquakes and up to three volcano-tectonic events per day. An hour-long period of tremor was recorded on 1 October. Minor fumarolic emissions rose above the crater rim. IG reported that Tungurahua's seismic network detected a significant increase in the number of long-period (LP) earthquakes on 12 September and small episodes of tremor beginning on 16 September. A swarm of 24 LP events were detected during 0408-0424 on 18 September. Starting at 1400 on 24 September the number of LP events again increased. Gas emissions were low, and together with the increased seismicity, possibly indicates a blocked conduit. IG noted that a possible large-scale eruption may happen within hours to days. In response, the Secretaria de Gestion de Riesgos (SGR) announced that the Alert Level was raised from Yellow to Orange (the second highest on a 4-color scale) on 26 September. Previously IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate-to-high levels during 16-17 March, moderate levels during 18-21 March, and low levels on 22 March. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano; the weather cleared for a brief period on 20 March and no activity was observed. IG reported that moderate-to-high levels of activity at Tungurahua continued during 9-15 March. Gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater on most days, often to heights less than 2 km above the crater, and drifted NW, W, WSW, and SW; cloud cover sometimes obscured views of the volcano. Explosions were recorded daily, and crater incandescence was reported almost nightly. Ash fell on 9 March in Pillate (8 km W), El Manzano (8 km SW), Cotalo (8 km NW), and Macas. On 10 March a small pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km NW down the Achupashal drainage. On 15 March residents in the Runten sector (NNE) heard an explosion and sounds resembling rolling rocks on the NE flank. Ash fell in Patate (NW) and Juive (7 km NNW). Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano. Tungurahua - Live webcam

ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

October 17th, 2019

IG reported that during 8-15 October seismic data from Reventador's network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather often prevented views of the summit area, although during clear conditions ash-and-steam plumes were visible rising sometimes higher than 1 km above the crater rim and drifting NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence was periodically observed at night. Blocks were observed rolling down the flanks on 10 and 14 October.
IG reported tha activity remainned at high level on 18 September.The seismicity is marked by 37 LP earthquakes, 40 explosion earthquakes, 7 emission tremor episodes and 4 harmonic tremor episodes. Emissions of gas, more or less charged with ashes, formed plumes that rose to 1,000 meters in height and dispersed to the north and west.Nighttime glowig was observed at the crater, as well as on the avalanches of incandescent blocks on the west flank about 400 meters.Alert level remains orange.
IG reported that during 21-27 August seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather often prevented views of the summit area, although during clear conditions ash-and-steam plumes were visible rising as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifting W, NW, and N. Crater incandescence was periodically observed at night. Blocks were observed rolling 800 m down the flanks during 26-27 August. IG reported that during 10-16 July seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather often prevented views of the summit area, although during clear conditions ash plumes were visible rising at least 600 m above the crater rim and drifting W and N. Blocks were observed rolling 500-600 m down the flanks on 10 and 16 July.IG reported that during 14-21 May seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather conditions often prevented views of the summit area, although when clear (during 17-18 and 20-21 May) severalash plumes were visible rising as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifting W and NW. Crater incandescence was visible on some mornings and evenings. On 19 May a 500-m-long pyroclastic deposit on the N flank was visible. Blocks were observed rolling 800 m down the flanks on 21 May. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sangay volcano

August 8th, 2019

A video taken during a control overview on August 6, 2019 by the IGEPN showed that the height of the emission exceeded 1700 meters above the crater level and towards the west. Based on these considerations, a slight presence of volcanic particles in the environment could be recorded, mainly in the province of Guayas. The Institute of Geophysics of the National Polytechnic School monitors the activity of the volcano and informs changes that may be recorded. IG reported that a new eruption at Sangay began on 7 May and was continuing as of 3 July. Activity was concentrated at two eruptive centers: the Central Crater and the Ñuñurcu dome (located 190 m SSE of Central Crater). Sporadic explosions at Central Crater produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted W and SW. The Ñuñurcu dome fed at least three lava flows that traveled down the SE flank. Collapses of the lava-flow fronts generated small pyroclastic flows and numerous block flows that traveled as far as 3,888 m elevation. Staff of the Parque Nacional Sangay observed atypical sedimentation consisting of volcanic material at the confluence of the Upano River and its tributary, the Volcán River, 23 km SE of the summit. Areas of steaming in the Volcán River were possibly from hot blocks originating from the volcano. Residents of Macas (42 km SSE) reported increased turbidity in the Upano from pyroclastic material.IGEPN reported that eruptive activity is still continuing. On June 6 from 18:54 of the emission of a lava flow on the south-east flank, accompanied by falling incandescent blocks. IGEPN reportede that the explosive type activity in the central crater  and effusive type at the Ñuñurcu dome is still continuing. On May 26, one could observe from 9:15 pm a lava flow on the eastern flank, generating avalanches of blocks, accompanied by emission of gas.In its last special report, the IGEPN informs the measurements of the lava flow of the Ñuñurcu dome: it is characterized by a length reaching 470 meters from its point of emission, and a width of 175 meters, If its average thickness is 5-10 meters, we estimate its minimum volume between 300.000 and 600.000 m³. The collapse of the lava front causes small pyroclastic flows and falling rocks.IG reported that a new eruption at Sangay began on 7 May and was continuing as of 21 May. Activity was concentrated at two eruptive centers; the Central Crater and the Ñuñurcu dome (located 190 m SSE of Central Crater). Explosive activity at Central Crater producedash plumes that rose an average of 1 km above the crater rim and drifted W and NW. Ejected blocks rolled as far as 2.5 km down the SE flank. The Ñuñurcu dome produced a lava flow that had a maximum width of 175 m and traveled about 470 m down the SE flank. Collapses of the lava-flow front generated small pyroclastic flows and numerous block flows; one of the pyroclastic flows traveled 340 m.Mirova reports moderate thermal anomalies since May 10th (see table) and the May 17th Sentinel images show a gas plume from the central crater towards the southwest and a lava flow at the start from a lateral vent on the southeast flank. IG reported that two M2 seismic events, recorded at 0028 and 0116 on 10 May and located 3.5-9 km below Sangay’s S and W flanks, possibly corresponded to explosive activity. Four thermally elevated pixels were identified in satellite data at 0124. A small emission was visible drifting W. On Friday, May 10, 2019, the IGEPN warned against a new eruptive surge of the Sangay volcano and had already recommended to tourists to avoid climbs up to 5 230 meters above sea level. This increase in activity was reported by the GOES 16 satellite images, NASA FIRMS thermal alerts, and acoustic signals that could be explosive episodes. A new eruptive phase began on March 26, 2019, observed in an ash emission by the Washington VAAC and an image of the GOES 16 satellite.The explosion was recorded by the SAGA multiparametric station (W side of the volcano). On Tuesday, March 26, 2019 at 06:00 local time (TL) (11:00 UTC), the VAAC of Washington reported an ash cloud emission alert whose source is the Sangay volcano, the estimated height of this column is < 1 km snc, with a preferential direction towards the southwest. Thermal warnings were not observed until the release of this report. At 6:15 am (11:15 am local time), thanks to an image of the GOES16 satellite, we can observe the emission whose preferential direction is the southwest. IGEPN reported that during the last month, seismicity was characterized by an average of about 1 earthquake per day; these earthquakes are mainly of the volcano-tectonic type (linked to the fracture of the rock) and long period (related to the movement of the fluids). News 2018 - IG reported that the eruption at Sangay that began on 8 August ended on 7 December after about four months of activity. The eruption was characterized by the extrusion of lava flows, and ash emissions that rose between 0.5-1.4 km (and occasionally higher than 2 km) and mainly drifted W and NW. Minor amounts of ash fell in Guayaquil on 18 September. Lava flows traveled 1-2 km down the ESE flank, and both block avalanches and possible small pyroclastic flows from the flow fronts traveled additionally as far as 7 km.IG reported that since 8 August activity at Sangay was characterized by the extrusion of lava flows on the ESE flank and ash emissions that rose between 500 and 1,500 m and mainly drifted W and NW. Lava flows were 1-2 km long, though block avalanches from the flow fronts traveled additionally as far as 5 km. The seismic network recorded more than 50 signals per day indicating explosions. The activity continued at least through 21 November; the report noted that this phase has lasted longer than any other since 2015. Based on satellite images and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 19-20 September ash emissions from Sangay rose to 5.8-6.1 km (19,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted WNW and W, and became diffuse after 37 km. Based on satellite images and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11, 13, 15, and 17 September ash emissions from Sangay rose to 5.8-6.4 km (19,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. A thermal anomaly was visible each day, and also on 16 September.Based on satellite images and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 28 August-3 September ash emissions from Sangay rose to 5.8-6.7 km (19,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly was sometimes visible. In a special report IG stated that a new phase of activity at Sangay began on 8 August, with surficial activity characterized by low-energy ash emissions rising as high as 2.3 km above the crater rim and a possible new lava flow on the SE flank. The Washington VAAC reported that prior to 1500 on 8 August an ash emission rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l., or 500 m above the crater rim, and drifted SW. On 11 August a possible ash plume rose to 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l., or 2.3 km above the crater rim, and drifted WNW. Thermal anomalies were identified in satellite data on 14 August. That same day a webcam image showed incandescence on the upper part of the SE flank, suggesting a lava flow from the Ñuñurco dome. The report stated that no activity at Sangay had been observed since the last eruption ended in November 2017. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Cuicocha - Cotachi

October 6th, 2018

IG reported that, after an earthquake swarm consisting of 62 volcano-tectonic events during 2-3 October, seismicity at Cuicocha returned to background levels on 4 October. Carbon dioxide levels were normal, and deformation data did not show any anomalies. IGEPN reported an increase of the seismic activity of the Cuicocha-Cotacachi volcanic complex in Ecuador. During the days of October 2nd and 3rd, 60 VT earthquakes associated with rock fracturing were recorded; almost all earthquakes are located near the Cuicocha volcano. Ten earthquakes, the strongest of magnitude 2.5 occurred on October 2 at 10:58 local time, were reported as significant by Quiroga population. The scenic lake-filled Cuicocha caldera is located at the southern foot of the sharp-peaked Pleistocene Cotacachi stratovolcano about 100 km N of Quito. Both Cotacachi and Cuicocha were constructed along the Otavalo-Umpalá fracture zone. Eruptive activity began about 4500 years ago and continued until about 1300 years ago. The 3-km-wide, steep-walled caldera was created during a major explosive eruption about 3100 years ago that produced nearly 5 km3 of pyroclastic-flow and fall deposits. Four intra-caldera lava domes form two steep-sided forested islands in the 148-m-deep lake. A pre-caldera lava dome is situated on the outer E side of the caldera. Pyroclastic-flow deposits cover wide areas around the low-rimmed caldera, primarily to the east. Gas emission continues from several locations in the caldera lake.The last historical eruption dates back to the year 650. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sierra Negra volcano (Galapagos)

September 2nd, 2018

As of the 1st of September IG reported that due to the continuous decrease in seismic energy levels, reaching even earlier values ​​at the beginning of the eruptive period from June to August 2018 at the Sierra Negra volcano, and the decrease in the number of thermal alerts and SO2 emission , the IGEPN reported the possible end of the eruptive activity or the entry into a period of calm after 58 days of eruption. By 25 August the lava flows in total covered an area of 30.6 square kilometers. Activity continued to decline the last week of August with decreased
seismicity, gas emission, and no surficial activity visible. . IG reported that during 20-21 August both steam-and-gas emissions and incandescence from lava flows were visible on the Sierra Negra webcam. No activity was noted when the weather was clear during 22-28 August. On 15 August satellite images showed lava from Fissure 4 continuing to enter the ocean. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 7-14 August. Incandescence from active NNW lava flows was visible almost nightly. A steam-and-gas plume rose 1.8 km a.s.l. and drifted W on 7 August. IG reported that on August 9, at 17:45 GMT, the tremor increased in amplitude, in relation with a new surge of activity on the northern flank.
Seismicity is further characterized by 52 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, and 6 LP earthquakes.The largest earthquake occurred at 10:55 am M3,1 TG and a depth of 2 km. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 1-7 August. Incandescence from active lava flows was visible daily. An increase of tremor began at 2220 on 3 August and lasted two hours, signifying a new pulse of activity on the N flank. Small gas emissions were visible on 4 August, and steam-and-gas emissions were noted on 6 August. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 25-31 July. Sulfur dioxide flux was as high as about 1,400 tons per day (on 28 July), and daily counts of volcano-tectonic and long-period events were 24-65 and 3-32, respectively. Nightly incandescence from advancing lava flows was visible. Gas plumes rose more than 1.8 km above the vents and drifted N, NW, and W. As of the 20th of July, IGEPN reported that the activity remains unchanged, at a superficial and high internal level.During the last measurement period, 18 to 19 July at 11am, the number of VT earthquakes decreased, with 39 events; the number of LP earthquakes is 11.The gas emissions are at least 1,800 meters above sea level, and go to the WNW.Nighttime glow is observed at the emission points, and on the lava flows.As of the 10th of July, IGEPN reported that Sierra Negra's surface and internal activity levels remain high. The eruptive process continues, as evidenced by numerous volcano-tectonic earthquakes and emission tremor; thermal anomalies are noted as well as the emission of a plume of vapor, gas and ash rising to 2,400 meters in height, then moving towards the southwest sparing the populated areas for the moment. Lava flows come from a source located in the lower part of the northwestern flank of the volcano; the emission of lava would have increased significantly since July 7 at 17h local. From July 2nd to 3rd at 11am local time, the IG reports 241 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 37 LP earthquakes and 2 VLP earthquakes. During the last 24 hours, about fifty volcanic earthquakes have been located at a depth of less than 5 km; the strongest was on the east flank of the volcano, at a depth of 2 km, with a magnitude of 3.4.The satellite images show gas and vapor emissions, and the presence of lava flows. IGEPN reported that after a small earthquake on July 1, 2018 at 15:52 GMT, tremor appeared. At 18 o'clock, the National Park staff reports incandescence and the presence of lava flows on the northwest flank of the volcano. The IGEPN informs, for the period from 01 to 11 am to 02 July at 11 am, 286 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 43 LP earthquakes, 3 VLP earthquakes and emission tremor. An ash emission was mounted 1,000 meters above the crater, then headed west. IGEPN reported that the activity of the past 12 hours was characterized by a gradual decrease in seismic and acoustic tremor, but these signals nevertheless indicate the continuation of the eruption with a lower intensity.One hundred and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded; the largest, with a magnitude of 3.3, is located south of the caldera at a depth of 4.3 km. The others are located at a shallower depth, and in the western part of the caldera. Previously, IGEPN and PNG reported that following a rise in seismicity for some months, and some more recent major earthquakes, including one of M 4.2 on June 22 at 6:24 GMT and another of M 5.3 on June 26 at 3:15 GMT under the Sierra Negra volcano / Isabela Island to the Galapagos, the seismicity was marked by replicas and tremor. On June 26, from 11:17 am TG, a new seismic swarm began in Sierra Negra; earthquakes are characterized by a depth of between 3 and 5 km and a magnitude of 4.6 maximum. Since the earthquake of M 4,2 at 13:38 TG, the amplitude of seismicity and infrasonic signals has greatly increased. Galapagos National Park staff reported rumbles from the volcano. all these signs suggest the beginning of the eruptive process. Images from the GOES-16 Satellite show a strong thermal anomaly in the northern area of ​​the caldera. The Park staff then reported lava flows inside the caldera and on the northern flank of the volcano towards Bahia Elizabeth. As Isabela Island is populated, the authorities have ordered the evacuation of 50 residents, who will be cared for by host families; tourist access to the Sierra Negra volcano area and the El Cura area is restricted. On 8 June IG reported a continuing high level of seismicity at Sierra Negra, characterized by a larger number and magnitude of earthquakes, indicating magma movement. The number of events per day had been significantly increasing since mid-2016. In the previous 10 days there was an average of 42 local events/day; on 25 May there were 104 events, the largest number of earthquakes per day recorded since 2015. In addition, in a 24-hour period during 7-8 June there were a total of 48 volcano-tectonic events, two long-period events, and three hybrid earthquakes; a M 4.8 long-period earthquake was recorded at 0715 on 8 June. The earthquake epicenters were mainly located on the edges of the crater, in two NE-SW trending lineaments; the first covered the N and W edges of the crater and the second went from the NE part around to the S edge. Data showed very large deformation at the caldera's center, compared with lower levels of deformation outside of the caldera. The broad shield volcano of Sierra Negra at the southern end of Isabela Island contains a shallow 7 x 10.5 km caldera that is the largest in the Galápagos Islands. Flank vents abound, including cinder cones and spatter cones concentrated along an ENE-trending rift system and tuff cones along the coast and forming offshore islands. The 1124-m-high volcano is elongated in a NE direction. Although it is the largest of the five major Isabela volcanoes, it has the flattest slopes, averaging less than 5 degrees and diminishing to 2 degrees near the coast. A sinuous 14-km-long, N-S-trending ridge occupies the west part of the caldera floor, which lies only about 100 m below its rim. Volcan de Azufre, the largest fumarolic area in the Galapagos Islands, lies within a graben between this ridge and the west caldera wall. Lava flows from a major eruption in 1979 extend all the way to the north coast from circumferential fissure vents on the upper northern flank. Sierra Negra, along with Cerro Azul and Volcan Wolf, is one of the most active of Isabela Island volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Fernandina volcano (Galapagos)

June 20th, 2018

IGEPN reported that after two days of intense eruptive activity, tremor levels decreased significantly, thermal anomalies decreased (though continued to remain intense), and a significant
drop in sulfur dioxide emissions was recorded. Previously, IGEPN reported that earthquakes occurred on Fernandina Island on June 16, from 8:37 am; the largest at 9:22 am TG was of magnitude 4.1 and a depth of 4 km.
The seismic swarm preceded an eruptive activity that began between 11h and 11h15, confirmed by a boat passing to the Galapagos National Park. Located on the NNE side of the volcano, the eruption is characterized for the moment by lava flows, and gas plumes 2-3 km high.The entrance to the lava at sea generates a powerful plume of steam and gas.Fernandina, the most active of Galápagos volcanoes and the one closest to the Galápagos mantle plume, is a basaltic shield volcano with a deep 5 x 6.5 km summit caldera. The volcano displays the classic "overturned soup bowl" profile of Galápagos shield volcanoes. Its caldera is elongated in a NW-SE direction and formed during several episodes of collapse. Circumferential fissures surround the caldera and were instrumental in growth of the volcano. Reporting has been poor in this uninhabited western end of the archipelago, and even a 1981 eruption was not witnessed at the time. In 1968 the caldera floor dropped 350 m following a major explosive eruption. Subsequent eruptions, mostly from vents located on or near the caldera boundary faults, have produced lava flows inside the caldera as well as those in 1995 that reached the coast from a SW-flank vent. Collapse of a nearly 1 km3 section of the east caldera wall during an eruption in 1988 produced a debris-avalanche deposit that covered much of the caldera floor and absorbed the caldera lake. (GVN/GVP)

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Tungurahua volcano 1999 - H. Gaudru

MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

December 14th, 2018

Latest MVO report about period 1st of April - 30th of September 2018 - The pause in lava extrusion that started on 11 February 2010 continues and is now more than 103 months long as of 30 September 2018. This prolonged period of persistent low-level unrest, (i.e., continued inflation, sporadic seismicity and persistent de-gassing) clearly demonstrates that the magmatic system has not shut down. Thus, the potential for a restart remains. Consequently, MVO continues to hold the view that little has changed in regards to the Hazard and Risk posed by the Soufriere Hills volcano at this time. Overall, activity during the reporting period has been low. Seismic activity has consisted of sporadic volcanotectonic (VT) earthquakes, sometimes in strings or brief swarms. Low-frequency seismicity has been completely absent, while rockfall activity has continued at a very low level - Read complete report - No recent news since 2016 - latest MVO Weekly Report for the Period 26 August to 2 September 2016 - Activity at the Soufriere Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded eight rockfalls, seven volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week. Four of the volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred in a very brief swarm on 28th August. The rockfalls were probably a continuation of the increased activity following the heavy rainfall on 24 August. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were not possible during the reporting period. No recent activity reported since September 2015 - Based on satellite image analyses and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 September 2015 possible re-suspended ash from Soufriere Hills drifted WNW at an altitude of 1 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. - latest previous report about eruptive activity dated for the period from 8th of March 2013 to 5th of July 2013 - Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 28th of June to 5h of July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 271 tonnes/day with a maximum of 427 and a minimum of 161 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 21st to 28th of June. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 353 tonnes/day with a maximum of 459 and a minimum of 221 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded four rockfalls and nine volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes the week from 14th to 21st.of June. Six of the VT earthquakes occurred in a brief swarm on 16 July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were only possible on three days this week and gave an average flux of 289 tonnes/day with a maximum of 332 and a minimum of 247 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 7th to 14 th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 281 tonnes/day with a maximum of 428 and a minimum of 185 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded nine rockfalls, five volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event the previous week frm 31st of may to 7th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 485 tonnes/day with a maximum of 543 and a minimum of 430 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event this week from 24th to 31st of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 395 tonnes/day with a maximum of 588 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. . The seismic network recorded three rockfalls the week from 17th to 24th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 380 tonnes/day with a maximum of 536 and a minimum of 281 tonnes/day. Many residents of Montserrat felt an earthquake at 7:51 pm on 18 May 2013. This earthquake had a magnitude of 4.9 and was located south-west of Barbuda; about 100 km north of Montserrat. It was not associated with the Soufrière Hills Volcano. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic this week from 10th to 17th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 373 tonnes/day with a maximum of 553 and a minimum of 137 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week from 3rd to 10th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 313 tonnes/day with a maximum of 435 and a minimum of 160 tonnes/day. Measurements were only possible on three days this week because of adverse wind conditions. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 26th of April to 3rd of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 379 tonnes/day with a maximum of 466 and a minimum of 254 tonnes/day. The wind has been mainly towards the north and north-east since the night of 1/2 May. This has blown the volcanic plume over inhabited areas and the smell of volcanic gases has been noticeable at times. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 19th to 26th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 366 tonnes/day with a maximum of 535 and a minimum of 181 tonnes/day. There have been no good views of the dome for over a month now. Reports from helicopter pilots suggest that most of the large slab on the eastern side of the dome is now gone; removed by the pyroclastic flow on 28 March 2013. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week from 12th to 19th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 556 tonnes/day with a maximum of 1155 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. Past week 5th to 12th of April, the seismic network recorded no seismic events related to the volcano this week. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 325 tonnes/day with a maximum of 585 and a minimum of 186 tonnes/day. MVO reported that during 22-29 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the Tar River Valley (E) at about 0500 on 28 March. The flow was not observed directly, but the deposits indicated that it traveled halfway down the valley, 1-1.5 km from the dome. There were no reports of ashfall; any ash was probably blown over Plymouth and out to sea. The source of the flow was not known due to cloud cover, but was likely from the failure a large slab that had been slowing moving away from the dome. Heavy rainfall during the evening of 28 March generated large lahars in several valleys around the volcano, including in the Belham Valley (NW). These started at about 1900 and lasted for several hours. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded one rockfall and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 15th to 22nd of March.Sulphur-dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 359 tonnes/day with a maximum of 540 and a minimum of 258 tonnes/day. There appear to have been no changes in the large slab recently observed to be peeling away from the dome above the Tar River Valley. The slab is now estimated to have dimensions of 80 by 60 by 4-6 metres. If this slab falls as a single block it will produce a large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas. previously , the seismic network recorded one rockfall this week from 8th to 15th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 251 tonnes/day with a maximum of 264 and a minimum of 227 tonnes/day. During a helicopter inspection on 8 March 2013, we observed a large fissure in the cliff on the eastern side of the dome, part of which has existed since 2007. This fissure is the result of slow cooling and erosion of the dome. It is parallel to the cliff face and is estimated to be two metres wide, suggesting that a large slab is slowing peeling away from the dome. If this slab falls as a single block it will probably produce a moderate-to-large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas The seismic network recorded one rockfall, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one hybrid event this week from 1st to 8th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements for the week gave an average flux of 368 tonnes/day with a maximum of 552 and a minimum of 213 tonnes/day. Variable winds blew the volcanic plume over inhabited areas for much of the week, particularly the first half, and the smell of volcanic gases was very noticeable at times. There has been no visible emission of ash from the volcano this week. Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)
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Grenade - Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano

March 25th, 2018

On 22 March the University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) and the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) reported that seismicity at Kick 'em Jenny continued to decline. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the maritime exclusion zone was adjusted to a radius of 1.5 km.
The University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) and the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) reported that during 12-15 March seismicity at Kick 'em Jenny significantly decreased. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) with a 5-km maritime exclusion zone. The University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) and the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) reported that on 12 March the Alert Level for Kick 'em Jenny was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) due to non-specified increased activity. The report reminded marine operators of the 5-km maritime exclusion zone. Kick 'em Jenny, a historically active submarine volcano 8 km off the north shore of Grenada, rises 1300 m from the sea floor. Recent bathymetric surveys have shown evidence for a major arcuate collapse structure that was the source of a submarine debris avalanche that traveled more than 15 km to the west. Bathymetry also revealed another submarine cone to the SE, Kick 'em Jack, and submarine lava domes to its south. These and subaerial tuff rings and lava flows at Ile de Caille and other nearby islands may represent a single large volcanic complex. Numerous historical eruptions, mostly documented by acoustic signals, have occurred at Kick 'em Jenny since 1939, when an eruption cloud rose 275 m above the sea surface. Prior to the 1939 eruption, which was witnessed by a large number of people in northern Grenada, there had been no written mention of Kick 'em Jenny. Eruptions have involved both explosive activity and the quiet extrusion of lava flows and lava domes in the summit crater; deep rumbling noises have sometimes been heard onshore. Historical eruptions have modified the morphology of the summit crater.

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Soufriere Hills dome on December 6, 2000 (Courtesy Caraibean Helicopter)

 

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

November 9th, 2019

CENAPRED reported that 64 exhalations occurred accompanied by gas and sometimes with ash during the last 24 hours. The most important ones were presented on November 9 at 08:58 and 09:41., both at a height of 2 km northwest ; an explosion occurred on 9th of November at 09:23, between the last two exhalations. In addition, 52 minutes of tremor were recorded. On 5th of November CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 96 exhalations were identified, accompanied by gas and light amounts of ash, and six explosions occurred, two moderate at 11:07 and 22:19 which generated a column of 1.5 km and ejected incandescent materials; and four minors at 17:24, 21:49, 22:27 and 00:09 today. In addition, a volcano-tectonic earthquake with a preliminary magnitude of 1.9 and 148 minutes of tremor was recorded.At 11:00 am on October 5th, there was a slight steady emission of water vapor and volcanic gases. Any emission containing ash will be scattered west-southwest. As of the 5th of November specialists from CENAPRED, CNPC, and researchers from the UNAM Institute of Geophysics carried out an overflight and observed the formation of the No. 85 dome, 210 m in diameter and 80 m in diameter. thickness, with an irregular surface. The inner crater has a diameter of 350 m and an approximate depth of 90 m.CENAPRED reported that intense explosive activity occurred during the night of November 4, after a quieter day characterized by 92 low-level exhalations and an explosion at 00:38, which watered the flanks of incandescent fragments over 2 km and produced a plume ash of about 1,500 meters.Explosions occurred at 21:58 and 22:19, the latter marked by a strong incandescence and projections to more than one km. crater. At 00:09 on November 5th, an explosion was accompanied by a plume of ash 1,000 meters high, with a dispersion to the northwest. Previously CENAPRED reported two moderate explosions respectively at 23:33 on 3 October and 6:01 on 4 October. These explosions ejected incandescent fragments on the flank of the volcano and were accompanied by plumes of ash and gas from a height of 1,000 and 1,200 meters, dispersed towards north.Two other minor explosions were recorded at 0:09 and 8:38 on 4 October.At the seismicity level, the Cenapred reports 217 minutes of tremor. The alert level remains at yellow phase 2. CENAPRED reported that sustained activity was still continuing with on October 2nd at 11am local, a total of 215 exhalations during the last 24 hours. About 15 explosions were also reported, at 00:43, 01:28, 01:33, 01:50, 01:56, 02:38, 03:24, 03:27, 03:44, 04:07 and 06: 03. The explosion of 04:07 was accompanied by an ash plume of about 2,000 meters and an expulsion of incandescent fragments that covered the east flank of the volcano; that of 06:03 emitted a plume of 1,500 meters in height. The ashes dispersed to the southwest, and falls were reported on the municipalities of Atlautla Ozumba, Ayapango and Ecatzingo.The seismicity was characterized by 483 minutes of tremor, and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes of M 1,5 and 2,5, respectively at 16:53 and 00:19. CENAPRED reported that a loud explosion occurred on 29th of September at the end of the night. due to poor weather conditions caused by the tropical depression no direct observation or photo were possible.Over the past 24 hours, Cenapred has identified 181 exhalations, accompanied by gas and light amounts of ash, as well as 11 minor explosions. At the seismicity level, 565 minutes of low to medium amplitude tremor were recorded. CENAPRED reported that an overflight on September 27th revealed the presence of a small dome, 30 meters in diameter in the internal crater of 350 meters in diameter for a depth of 150 meters. During the past 24 hours, the activity consisted into 224 exhalations, accompanied by gas and light amounts of ash, as well as six minor explosions and a moderate one. The seismicity was marked by 486 minutes of low to medium amplitude tremor, in addition to emission tremor episodes. CENAPRED reported that 95 exhalations were identified by Cenapred, accompanied by gas and light amounts of ash. In addition, 16 explosions were recorded this September 24, respectively at 01:31, 02:28, 03:06, 03:20, 03:28, 03:58, 04:13, 04:21, 04:28, 04:59, 05:15, 05:42, 05:46, 07:24, 07:35 and 08:26 h. In addition, 846 minutes of low and medium amplitude tremor were recorded. An absence of visibility on the volcano was followed during the day, but emissions of gas and ash were observed dispersing towards the north. As of the 20th of September, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, Cenapred reports 183 gas exhalations and light amounts of ash tand 16 explosions. The plume has been dispersed to the northwest. Nightime glowing wasobseerved.At the seismicity level, there is a volcano-tectonic earthquake of M 2.6 and 690 minutes of tremor.The volcanic alert remains at yellow phase 2. As of the 31st of August CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 135 exhalations occurred accompanied by water vapor, gas and ash, with a maximum height of 1 km of wind dispersion to the west. In addition, 6 explosions were recorded, accompanied by ash columns from 1 km to 2 km high, the largest having been recorded at 8:16 today. Incandescent fragments were observed at night. Ash falls have been reported in the municipalities of Amecameca, Atlautla, Ozumba and Tlalmanalco, in the State of Mexico.604 minutes of low amplitude tremor were recorded.Emissions of volcanic gases and ashes dispersed to the west-northwest. CENAPRED reported that in the last 24 hours 203 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by water vapor, gas and small amounts of ash dispersed north-northwest. In addition, 18 explosions were recorded, including 12 on 23 August at 09:25, 14:34, 15:32, 15:37, 16:17, 17:36, 17:57, 18:05, 19:41, 19:49, 21:37 and 23:47 and seven on 24 August at 04:31, 06:30, 06 : 39, 06:57, 07:31, 07:45 and 08:00. However, due to the high cloudiness in the volcano area, visibility was partial. Similarly, 167 minutes of low amplitude tremor were counted. As of the 25th of August on the morning morning the volcano with gas emission was drifted to north-north-east. As of the 16th of August, CENAPRED reported that the volcano showed intense activity in recent days: during the last 24 hours, 188 exhalations, accompanied by water vapor, gas and low quantities of ash, five minor explosions (4 on the 15th between 10h and 12h, and one the 16.08 to 8.40) and two moderate explosions (16.08 to 9.08 and 9:51) occurred. At the seismicity level, 790 minutes of tremor and a volcano-tectonic earthquake were recorded. The volcanic alert remains in Amarillo phase 2, with a 12 km safety zone. As of the 15th of August, CENAPRED reported that in the past 24 hours, 162 exhalations have been identified using Popocatépetl volcano monitoring systems, accompanied by water vapor, gas and small amounts of ash. In addition, 13 explosions were recorded today at 00:34, 01:00, 01:45, 01:47, 02:08, 02:27, 02:33, 03: 20, 03:39, 05: 56, 06:44, 08:10 and 08:27 h.In addition, 711 minutes of low amplitude tremor were recorded. From August 15 in the morning to 11 am local, there are gas emissions west-northwest. CENAPRED reported that each day during 7-13 August there were 125-209 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained ash. As many as seven explosions were recorded daily, with the exceptions of 7 August (no explosion were detected) and 11 August (16 were documented). Two explosions on 13 August were characterized as major (at 0427 and 0453) and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 28th of July, Cenapred has identified 333 exhalations during the last 24h at Popocatepetl, accompanied by gas, water vapor and ashes. Eight explosions were recorded: July 27 at 11:14 and 14:50, and July 28 at 0:09, 6:03, 7:59, 8:11, 8:50, and 8:55. The ashes drifted in a northwesterly direction. Nighttime glow was observed in the crater.The seismicity was marked by 211 minutes of harmonic tremor. An overflight on 27 July by the UNAM CNPC and Cenapred teams, with the support of the Guardia Nacional, revealed the destruction of dome # 83 by previous explosions with ash emissions; the thermal photographs and images made it possible to determine that the internal crater retains its dimensions (70 meters in diameter and 15 meters in depth). As of the 23rd of July CENAPRED reported that In the past 24 hours, Popocatepetl volcano monitoring systems have identified 291 exhalations, accompanied by water vapor, gas and light amounts of ash, as well as 23 additional low ash explosions. Also recorded were 90 minutes of tremor and a volcanic earthquake with a magnitude of 1.5. In the night, incandescence marks the crater. Around 4:00 pm on July 23rd, the crater is visible and there is a continuous emission of steam, volcanic gases and some amounts of ash that the wind disperses to the west - southwest direction. Alert level remains at Yellow phase 2. On July 19, the Cenapred with the support of the federal police, carried out a reconnaissance flight of the crater of the volcano Popocatépetl. During the flyover, photographs showed the presence of a new dome with a diameter of 70 meters and a thickness of 15 meters; On the other hand, the internal crater retains its dimensions.The presence of the dome number 83 and its possible destruction are confirmed, because of recorded explosions and ash-containing emissions, which reached some town halls of Mexico City on Saturday, July 20, as well as minor explosions projecting incandescent fragments short range on the flanks. In the last 24 hours, Cenapred reports the recording of 306 exhalations, accompanied by steam, gas and some ashes, 26 light explosions and moderate explosions. Incandescence is noticed during nighttime explosions. As of the 17th of July, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, exhibited 236 exhalations accompanied by water vapor, gas, and slight quantities of ashes; four explosions were recorded: three moderates, the first on July 15 at 22:53, the others on July 16, at 3:50 and 5:42; a last small explosion occurred on July 16 at 14:10. There is no mention of ashfalls. At the seismicity level, 309 minutes of tremor were recorded, as well as 2 volcano-tectonic earthquakes with respective magnitudes of 1.9 and 1.6. At around 11:00 am on July 16, the Cenapred observed an emission of steam, gas and light amounts of ash towards O-NO. The alert remains at yellow phase 2. As of the 8th of July, CENAPRED reported that In the last 24 hours, 22 low-level exhalations have been reported at Popocatépetl, accompanied by low ash emissions.In addition, three explosions occurred : two, of low intensity, were recorded on 7th of July at 4:14 and 7:58, producing columns of ash in small quantities and whose height does not exceed 1 km. The dispersion, in general terms, has been directed to the western sector; the activity continued with the emission of a plume of gas and steam. Same day at 23 h 27, a third, moderate explosion, projected incandescent fragments on the east flank of the volcano over a distance of about 1500 m. The column of ash generated reached a height of 1 km above the crater, moving later to the west. Similarly, 70 minutes of low-level tremor were recorded. The volcanic alert remains at yellow phase 2. Previously, there were 5 explosions, two of which occurred on June 29 at 1:36 p.m. and 3:09 p.m., and due to weather conditions, height and direction could not be determined, and three explosions recorded on June 30 at 12:52 a.m., 4:40 a.m. and 9:18 a.m. with moderate ash content. The explosion at 00:52 reached a column height of 1.5 km and dispersed in a southeasterly direction, throwing incandescent fragments onto the slopes at 1 km. In the last 24 hours, CENAPRED reported 138 exhalations of gas, water vapor and some ash ; they were followed by constant emissions of gas and steam towards the west southwest. Around 10:33 PM , ash content has increased in emissions. At 11:26 PM an explosion was observed, accompanied by a plume of ash at a height of 1,500 meters, southwest direction, and incandescent fragments which have watered for a distance of 1 km the flanks of the volcano. Light falls of ash are possible in an eastern sector. The volcanic alert remains at yellow phase 2, with a 12 km safety zone. CENAPRED reported that a new explosion occurred on June 21 at 8:58 pm, which emitted an ash plume. at 2,500 meters and incandescent fragments 1 km from the crater.Ash falls are reported on Ozumba, Atlautla y Ecatzingo in the state of México and on Tetela del Volcán, in the state of Morelos. As of the 18th of June, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano have been identified185 exhalations, accompanied by water vapor, gas and light amounts of ash.In addition, two explosions were observed this morning, the first at 06:44 and the second at 07:04. In addition, a volcanotectonic earthquake was recorded yesterday at 19:07, with a calculated magnitude of 3.1 and 166 minutes of tremor. At 12:40, a third explosion was recorded, about 8 km in height, with a moderate ash content that winds dispersed to the southwest. Possible falls of ashes are to be feared on the states of Morelos, EdoMex and Puebla. On June 14, 2019, Popocatépetl was the scene of three explosions at 4:03, 8:54 and 10:40 respectively.The last, stronger, was accompanied by a plume of ash quickly reaching an estimated altitude of 5,000 meters, surmounted by a pileus, then dispersed to the SSO. As of the 12th of June, CENAPRED recorded for the last 24 hours 77 exhalations of water vapor, gas and a little ash, as well as an explosion at 2h16 local, accompanied by a plume of ash with a height of about 1,000 meters high and ballistic projections on 1 km distance on the east flank. Ash falls are reported on Tetela del Volcán / Morelos. CENAPRED reported that Two explosions took place on June 3rd, at 9:17 am and 9:47 am, accompanied respectively by ash plumes at about 3,500 and 2,800 meters above the crater. The first ejected materials at 2 km on the southern flank of the volcano. CENAPRED reported that each day during 15-21 May there were 22-72 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained ash 19-21 May). Two explosions, at 0817 and 0831 on 16 May, generated ash plumes that rose 1.6 and 1 km above the crater rim, respectively. During 20-21 May crater incandescence was visible during some emissions. The Alert Level had returned to Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale) on 7 May and remained there through 21 May.As of the 14th of May, CENAPRED reported that during the day, 33 exhalations were registred accompanied by emissions of water vapor and gas, interspersed with light emissions of the same type. No night glow was also reported. Images of the May 8 following flyover the volcao, jointly conducted by Cenapred, Unam and the Federal Police, went online; they showed the absence of a dome (open system) and the dimensions of the crater was about 350 meters in diameter and 250 meters deep.The volcanic alert remains at yellow 2. CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 23 exhalations of gas and vapor were recorded; these emanations continued afterwards. A slight nocturnal incandescence was observed. At the seismicity level, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes are reported with M 2 and 1.7, as well as 50 minutes of low amplitude tremor. A reconnaissance survey of Popocatépetl was conducted on April 26 by teams from Cenapred and UNAM with the support of the Federal Police. The formation of a new dome was not observed.CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, 16 exhalations occurred, with water vapor, gas and small amounts of ash. Nighttime glowing was observed at the same time as the most important exhalations.The seismicity is characterized by 318 minutes of tremor of very low amplitude, and by a volcano-tectonic earthquake of M1,4.On the 25th in the morning until 16h, the constant emission of a plume of gas, vapor and ashes is observed, dispersed towards the east. Latest CENAPRED report on April 15th, noted that since 9:55 local, the Popocatépetl presented a constant emission of ash, water vapor and volcanic gases, moved towards the east by the winds. Cenapred also reported that in the past 24 hours, 41 exhalations have been recorded, with plumes of gas, steam and light amounts of ash. A volcano-tectonic earthquake was reported at 2:42, a magnitude of 2.8, and 214 minutes of tremor. Nighttime glow was observed at the time of some exhalations. CENAPRED reported that 29 exhalations occurred during the past 24 hours, probably accompanied by gas and some ashes, plumes to 400 to 500 meters above the summit, largely obscured by intense cloud cover.The bad weather prevented the presence or no of a new dome during overflight on April 8th. CENAPRED reported that a period of Strombolian activity began at 0247 on 30 March and lasted for 14 minutes, generating ash plumes that rose 800 m and drifted SE. Incandescent ejecta fell onto the flanks 300 m below the crater rim. As of the 30th ofr March, CENAPRED and UNAM also reported that during an overflight, it was verified that, following the latest explosions, the internal crater had increased in size, reaching 350 m in diameter and 250 to 300 m deep. The presence of a new lava dome cannot be corroborated. During the past 24 hours, 28 exhalations have been identified using the surveillance systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, accompanied by water vapor and volcanic gases.During the night, no glow was observed on the crater.CENAPRED reported that a new explosive eruptive episode occurred on March 27 at 1:23 UTC / March 26 at 19:23 local producing an ash plume 3,000 meters high, then drifted to the northeast. Incandescent materials were projected more than 2km from the crater, causing fires on the slopes of the volcano. The VAAC Washington reports volcanic ash at an altitude of 8,500 meters asl, to dissipate within 12 hours. The activity remained in the standard yellow alert phase 2. As of the 22nd of March, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours 104 exhalations were identified, accompanied by water vapor, gas and small amounts of ash dispersed preferentially towards the east. In addition, two volcanotectonic events were recorded yesterday at 3:12 and 07:57, with a magnitude of 2.1 and 1.6 respectively. During the night, little incandescence was observed at the time of certain exhalations. At 18:11 an explosion generated a column of ash, steam and gas than drifted to the east. Falls of incandescent fragments were observed on the slopes at a distance of 1 km. Mirova recorded a VRP / inferred volcanic radiative power of 14 MW this March 22 at 8:15. CENAPRED reported that during an overflight of the crater on 15 March observers noted that lava dome #82 was gone, and that the inner crater was 300 m wide and 130 m deep. Explosions at 0255 and 0930 on 16 March produced ash plumes that rose 2-2.5 km and drifted NNE. Explosions were detected at 2206, 2321, and 2325. Gas, steam, and ash plumes from an event at 2138 on 18 March rose 4 km and drifted E. Incandescent fragments were ejected 2.5 km onto the flanks and set fire to some grasslands. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). CENAPRED reported that an explosion that occurred on 14 March at 2.30 pm was accompanied by an ash plume of 5,000 metres in height and the ejection of incandescent fragments at a distance of 2 km. CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours 57 exhalations of gas, water vapor and a little ash were recorded and two explosions occurred , respectively at 5:10, accompanied by a plume of 1,500 meters and incandescent fragments , and a second at 7:30, which generated an ash plume of 3,500 meters; the ashes dispersed to the northeast with possible falls on Huejotzingo, San Nicolás de los Ranchos, San Buenaventura, Santiago Xalitzintla and San Andrés Calpan. A short Strombolian episode was observed from 5:00 am to 5:15 am, with emission of incandescent fragments on the east-southeast flank of the volcano. CENAPRED reported that two explosions were recorded: the first on March 8 at 3:24 pm, which initially reached a height of 1,500 m above the crater. Subsequently, when the winds moved to the southwest, and emissions reached about 3,000 m. A slight ash drop has been reported in communities in this area, such as Tochimilco, San Francisco Huilango and Huaquechula. CENAPRED reported that on March 6, two explosions were observed: the first at 8:27; the second at 17:56, accompanied by a plume with a low ash content that rises 2,500 meters above the crater, as well as fragments of fragments over 1 km on the slopes of a large eastern sector.Cenapred reported that 116 exhalations and six explosions, including three on 28 February, and three on 1 March at 3:34, 4:51 and 7:13 am. One hundred and fifty-seven minutes of harmonic tremor were recorded. The 3:34 explosion expelled incandescent fragments on the flanks over 2km, associated with the destruction of the dome. An overflight on February 28 had found that the # 82 dome had still a diameter of 200 meters.On 20 February CENAPRED noted growth of lava dome #82. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). CENAPRED reported that from an overview carried out on 19 February, with the support of the Federal Police., confirmed the formation of a new dome, N° 82, with a diameter of 200 meters. An explosion at 0704 on 18 February produced a plume that rose 2 km and drifted NNE. During the last 24 hours, thanks to the surveillance systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 23 exhalations were identified accompanied by steam and gas, as well as an explosion at 06:13. During 0044-0606 on 16 February Strombolian activity ejected incandescent material that fell back into the crater. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted SE. A period of harmonic tremor began at 1600, accompanied by emissions of water vapor and gas that rose 1.5 km. By 1830 ejected incandescent fragments were visible and fell onto flanks 400 m from the crater. Plumes rose 2 km and drifted NNE. Seismicity decreased by 2100 and material was no longer being ejected above the crater rim, though crater incandescence remained visible. There were at least 14 explosions detected on 17 February; the more significant events were recorded at 0438, 0457, 0719, 0821, and 0956, generating plumes that rose 2 km and drifted NNE. Minor ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Tlaxco (85 km NE) and Xalostoc, Nativitas (40 km NE), Hueyotlipan (57 km NNE), Amaxac de Guerrero (60 km NE), Tepetitla de Lardizábal (37 km NE), Texoloc, and Tlaxcala (51 km NE). .CENAPRED reported that activity mentioned that on 14th of February, lasted seven hours; this episode of Strombolian activity consisted of explosions and ejections of incandescent fragments over 1,500 meters on the flanks of the volcano, accompanied by a plume of ashes going up to a height of 2,000 meters, scattered towards the southwest. Ash fallout is reported from the communities of Hueyapan, Tetela del Volcan, Zacualpan, Temoac, Jantetelco, Cuautla, Ocuituco and Yecapixtla, Tochimilco, and Puebla.The seismic activity then returned to previous levels. In addition, 67 exhalations of steam and gas and five explosions were recorded during the day; ten minutes of harmonic tremor have been recorded. The activity remains at yellow phase 2. CENAPRED reported that on February 14 permanent explosive activity occurred from 9 pm, accompanied by steam and gas exhalations at an altitude of 2,000 meters towards the south-west and incandescent materials at 1,200 meters above the crater. During the last 24 hours, 140 exhalations were recorded, as well as 5 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude between 1.8 and 2.1. CENAPRED reported that each day during 28 January-5 February there were 81-207 steam-and-gas emissions with low ash content. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).An overflight of the crater was carried out on January 27th by the Cenapred teams, with the support of the Federal Police helicopter.The inner crater has a diameter of 300 meters and a depth of 150 meters, without visible dome. A slight emission of gas is observed during the overflight.During the last 24 hours, 61 exhalations, with emissions of steam, gas and a little ash were observed; the associated plumes rose between 200 and 500 m highl, then drifted to the east. In addition, 29 minutes of harmonic tremor of low amplitude were recorded. CENAPRED reported that a strong explosion occurred on January 22, 2019 at 9:06 pm; it was accompanied by incandescent projections over 2 km on the north-east flank, and a plume of ash and gas observed at 3,000 meters above the crater.The ashes dispersed to the northeast. The last 24 hours had been characterized by 94 exhalations of steam, gas and a little ash. At the seismicity level, 68 minutes of harmonic tremor and two volcanoteconic earthquakes at 15:53 ​​/ M2,3 and 20:16 / M1,9 were recorded.As of the 18th of January, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, 254 exhalations with emission of steam, gas and ash occurred. An ash emission at 12:44 lasting 25 minutes was accompanied by a plume reaching 1,000 meters, before dispersing to the E-NE, generating a few falls of ash in the localities downwind. As of the 15th of Jnanuary, CENAPRED reported that the last 24 hours, presented 303 exhalations of water vapor and gas, accompanied by a little ashes. The eruptive plumes are observed at a height of about 1,500 meters above the crater, dispersing towards Puebla. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City and is North America's second-highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages. (GVN/GVP) . - Live cam of Popocatepetl -

MEXICO - Colima volcano

July 16th, 2019

Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and two small explosions were recorded during 5-12 July. Five lahars descended the Montegrande ravine. An overflight on 9 July revealed that the diameter of the vent had slightly increased, likely caused by subsidence, and other areas of minor subsidence within the crater were noted. An area of collapsed material on the outer W wall was also identified. Temperatures inside the crater were 116 degrees Celsius, lower than the temperature of 250 degrees Celsius recorded in May. The temperatures in the fumarolic area decreased from 202 degrees Celsius in May to 169 degrees. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with fumarolic emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and three small explosions were recorded during 29 June-5 July. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater and small explosions continued to be recorded during 8-14 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, originating mainly from the NE side of the crater, continued to be recorded during 1-7 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during 25-31 May small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater continued to be recorded. During overflights conducted during 23-24 May scientists observed that the new feature (a crack or cavity) reported the previous week had become a hole due to the combination of excavation due to explosions and probable subsidence. The maximum temperature recorded with a portable thermal camera was 252 degrees Celsius, an increase of 80 degrees since recorded on 1 May. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that 51 low-magnitude explosions mainly from the NE part of Colima’s crater were recorded by the seismic and infrasound network during 11-24 May. Emissions from the explosions consisted mainly of water vapor and gas, and were the first surficial manifestations of activity since seismicity increased in the past few weeks. Footage from five drone overflights conducted on 22 May showed fumarolic activity on the inner wall of the NE part of the crater and a new small explosion crater near the center of the main crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported increased seismicity at Colima during 20-26 April characterized by a considerable increase in the number of high-frequency and volcano-tectonic events. On 26 April a consensus was reached to raise the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and extend the exclusion zone to a 8-km radius during a meeting of the Coordinación Nacional de Protección Civil (CNPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil Colima (UEPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil y Bomberos de Jalisco (UEPCBJ), the Universidad de Colima (UdeC), and la Universidad de Guadalajara (UdeG). Seismicity continued to be elevated through 3 May. The largest events (M 2.4-3) were located 0.5-3 km deep in the N and NE parts of the volcano. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base - new webcam *************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

October 10th, 2019

INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-18 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 2-8 October, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, W, and NW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San
Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El
Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows traveled 200 m down the Seca drainage on 6 October and were active in the Santa Teresa (W) drainage on 8 October. Lahars descended the Ceniza, El Mineral, and Seca drainages during 3-7 October, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks 1-3 m in diameter. As of the 5th of October, INSIVUMEH reported that constant rains over the past few days are likely to cause floods, lahars and landslides. Especially in the area of ​​the Fuego volcano, weak to moderate lahars were reported in different drainages: the Ceniza, Las Lajas, Seca and Rio Mineral barrancas are involved. These lahars were characterized by the transport of ash, blocks 1 to 2 meters in diameter and generate steam columns and shock waves.
Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that at night and early June 22 in the morning, incandescence was observed at a height of approximately 350 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches in the crater contour, some over long distances to vegetation in the direction of the crater. Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, El Jute, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash fallout is reported from Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimache I and II. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 15-18 June, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km W, SW, and E. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluya¡ (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofi­a (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Previous month, INSIVUMEH reported that there were 15-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 16-17 and 19-20 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, and W. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 300-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). A lava flow on the W flank was 300 m long. On 16 May lahars carrying variously-sized blocks and tree branches and trunks descended the Las Lajas ravine. On 20 May hot lahars with a sulfur odor descended the Ceniza, El Jute, and Las Lajas drainages, carrying blocks 1-3 m in diameter. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 13-24 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 9-10 and 12-14 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km S and SW. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in areas to the S and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (and reached vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW).Lava flows were 500-600 m long on the W flank. On 11 May steaming lahars descended the Las Lajas, Seca, Ceniza, and Mineral drainages, carrying variously-sized blocks and tree parts. Lahars on 14 May carried blocks and tree trunks down the Ceniza drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that on 18 April steaming hot lahars descended Fuego's Ceniza (SSW) and Taniluya (SW) drainages, carrying variously-sized material including blocks up to 2 m in diameter. The lahars were 1 m deep, 15 m wide, and had a sulfur odor. During 20-23 April there were 17-22 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1.1 km and drifted 15-20 km S, SW, and W. Shock waves vibrated local structures. Incandescent material was ejected 300-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines. A lava flow, 600 m long, advanced in the Seca drainage. Ashfall was reported in reported in Yepocapa (8 km N), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Panimache (8 km SW). INSIVUMEH reported that on April 11 between 18 and 22 low to moderate explosions occurred every hour, with ash plumes as high as 4,800 meters asl, before dispersing to the east. During the night, incandescent impulses rose 300 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches to the barrancas.A lava flow extends for 500 meters, from the crater to the direction of Barranca Seca. A low ashfall is reported on Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja, and La Reunión; according to the direction of the wind, the ashes could fall back on Antigua Guatemala.Persistent heavy rains on the Fuego volcano in Guatemala resulted in lahars in various drainages on April 11th: the Taniluya, Ceniza and El Jute barrancas were impacted, and thousands of people from surrounding communities were blocked. Previously, a special bulletin from INSIVUMEH was issued on 31 March describing another increase in activity with the number of explosions ranging from 14 to 32 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted W, SW, and S. The explosions vibrated local residences. A lava flow that had emerged in the early morning hours advanced 800 m in the Seca drainage. On 1 April there were 13-16 explosions recorded per hour. Ash plumes rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-15 km S, SE, and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate residential structures. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, reaching vegetation. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I, Morelia, Palo Verde Estate, Santa Sofia, La Rochela, and San Andres Osuna. INSIVUMEH reported that on 29th of March, the eruptive activity was characterized by constant periods of increase in its eruptive behavior, with 20 hourly explosions, and plumes of ash reaching 5,000 meters asl. before moving for 15 to 30 km. These explosions generate avalanches in the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas, which remobilize materials; at night, they were incandescent and visible over 350 meters from the crater. The respect of the instructions is recalled in view of possible new eruptions, accompanied by pyroclastic flows. As of the 22nd in the morning, INSIVUMEH reported an increasing activity of the volcano; between 15 and 20 moderate and strong explosions occurs every hour, columns of ash and degassing rising up to 5 thousand meters above sea level, dispersing at 30 kilometers south, west, south-west, east and southeast, generating moderate and strong crater avalanches that take the direction of Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash falls were reported on La Rochela, Ceylon, Osuna, Las Palmas, Siquinalá and Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa; other communities could be affected up to 30 km from the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that explosive activity was still contnuing during recent days, with 13 to 16 weak to moderate explosions accompanied by ash plumes at 4.400-4.700 meters asl, scattering over a wide area according to the winds.Incandescence was observed at 200 -300 meters in height, as well as avalanches in the contours of the crater and the barrancas.Ash falls occurred in El Rodeo, El Zapote, Celan, La Rochela, Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, and Sangre de Cristo. INSIVUMEH reported that on the 1st of February, nocturnal glow was observed, and the rhythm of the explosions was13 to 18 per hour at the beginning of the day, with plumes of ashes reaching 4,800 m. asl. The ashfall occurred toward the Northeast on Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja, and the capital Ciudad Guatemala. Avalanches were observed in the barrancas Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that 10-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 29-31 January. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted E and NE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE), and Guatemala City (70 km E). Incandescent material was ejected 300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. During 31January-1 February there were 14-16 explosions recorded per hour, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km and drifting 20-25 km S and SE. Ash fell in the communities of El Rodeo (10 km SSE), El Zapote, Ceilan, and La Rochela. Incandescent material rose 200-400 m high causing avalanches of material to descend the Seca, Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda (E) ravines. Shock wave causing vibration in the communities near the volcano.INSIVUMEH reported that on January 22, the activity was maintained with 15 -25 low to high explosions, per hour, a plume of ash amounting to 4,800 m asl. before dispersing to the west and south-west, and incandescent impulses 100-300 meters above the crater.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché I y II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Yepocapa. As of the December 5th, few explosions occurred accompanied by plumes of gray ash at a height of 4,500-5,000 meters asl. dispersing to the west and southwest over 25 km. Incandescent impulses are reported at a height of 150-200 meters above the crater, generating fallout in the vicinity of the crater and to the main barrancas. INSIVUMEH repored that heavy rains during 28 and 29 November generated hot lahars, accompanied by the smell of sulfur and degassing columns, towards the Seca, Santa Teresa and El Mineral barrancas. The lahars carried ash and blocks 1 to 3 meters in diameter, volcanic materials deposited during the last eruptions.INSIVUMEH reported that moderate to strong explosions continued at a rate of 12 to 15 per hour, this vulcanian-type activity is accompanied by eruptive columns with ashes rising to 5,000 meters asl. and shock waves and vibrations felt within a radius of 25 km. A change of wind direction, November 26 in the morning from south to north, produced ashfalls on Alotenango, San Miguel, Dueñas, Antigua Guatemala and Ciudad Guatemala. During 24-25 November there were 12-15 weak-to-moderate explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate local structures, and ashfall was again reported in Panimache, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Moderate-to-strong Vulcanian explosions on 26 November generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted N. The explosions were heard, and shock waves felt, mostly within 25 km, though some explosions were audible to residents of Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Explosions continued the next day at a rate of 10-15 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high, and avalanches of material descended multiple drainages. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. As of the 22nd of November, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions accompanied by expulsions of a dark gray plume continued.The avalanches of blocks and ashes, accumulated during the eruption of November 18, continued in the Seca, Ceniza, El Jute, Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that the strong eruption of the Fuego was accompanied on November 19 in the morning by constant explosions, and a sustained ash plume rising to about 7,000 meters asl, before dispersing 50-60 km to the west and southwest.The incandescent source was observed 800-1000 meters above the crater, with ballistic materials scattered for more than one kilometer around the volcano.The main lava flow reached about 3,000 meters in length towards the barranca Ceniza ; two other shorter flows, of about 300 meters, were observed in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. The flows was accompanied by avalanches and mobilization of ashes.Pyroclastic flows descended from the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. Abundant falls of ash and particles are falling on Panimache, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Paolo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, San Juan Alotenango, and Antigua Guatemala.The Conred also reported light ash falls on Mazatenango, San Bernardino, San Antonio, San Miguel Panán, Chicacao, San Juan Bautista, Santa Bárbara Río Bravo and Patulul, and that 2,052 people were safe and 3,000 have been evacuated; 76,145 people would be affected. At about 11h40 AM slight decrease in seismicity was observed, as well as a decrease in the height and extension of the ash plume: height of 6,000 meters asl dispersing over 20-30 km. In the evening (6PM) the seismogram and the RSAM showed a drop in activity, and according to the observatory this 5th eruptive phase of the year was over, after a duration of 32 hours. However, Explosions were always recorded, weak to moderate, accompanied by a plume of ash at 4,800 meters asl, drifting to a west and southwest sector over 15 km.The incandescent impulses were reduced to 100-300 meters, generating weak avalanches mainly in the crater contour; some ejections reach the limit of vegetation towards the main barrancas. A special INSIVUMEH bulletin of 18 November reported that at 10.10 local, the fifth eruption 2018 started. It was characterized by a permanent ash plume at 4,900 meters asl, dispersing to the south for 15-25 km, and generating moderate to strong avalanches in the Ceniza and Tanilyua Barrancas, up to the vegetative limit. The incandescent fountain was observed up to 300 meters high above the crater. A lava flow, 2,000 meters long, in the direction of the barranca Ceniza, has a front generating avalanches and ash rising. A possibility exists of the beginning of lava flow in the Taniluya barranca in the next hours, and of pyroclastic flows.Ash falls have been reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, and Finca Paolo Verde.During the night, the explosions generated a plume rising to 5.200 meters in height before dispersing 20-30 km in a westerly and north-easterly direction; the incandescent fountains rose up to 500-600 meters above the crater and the ballistic ejections reached 800 meters in various directions. The lava flow towards the Ceniza gorge reaches a length of 2,500 meters.At the time of the 0h40 report, a pyroclastic flow descended in the direction of the Seca barranca. Comred declared the red alert and activated the Emergency Operations Center-COE-Municipal to coordinate the response actions. National Highway 14 is closed. Self-evacuation is in progress. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that on 18th of November, the activity increased again rising: 8 to 14 explosions, low to moderate, per hour are accompanied by emission of plumes of ash to 4,700 meters asl., drifting on 15-20 km to the southwest and west. Incandescent pulsatile emissions at 150-200 meters are observed, as well as moderate avalanches in the crater contour. A lava flow reaches a length of 1,300 meters in the Ceniza barranca, permanently fed.Ash falls are reported on Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde.INSIVUMEH reported that 7-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 8-12 November. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 8-20 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porveni, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-300 m high and caused avalanches that traveled far, reaching vegetated areas in multiple drainages. Lava flows as long as 1.2 km advanced in the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, though lava-flow activity greatly decreased by 12 November. As of the 9th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity continued; the lava flow in the Ceniza barranca reached a length of 1 200 meters. Avalanches were reported in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas.Low to moderate explosions occurred ranged from 12 to 18 per hour, with ash plumes rising to 4,600-4,700 meters asl, before dispersing over 10-15 km. towards a western sector, accompaznied with fallout of fine particles on this zone, including Sangre de Cristo, Santa Sofia, Panimaché I and II, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir. The explosions were accompanied by outgassing noises for 2 to 5 minutes.INSIVUMEH reported that a new eruptive phase began on November 6 in Fuego, the fourth in 2018.Low-to-moderate steady-state explosions are recorded, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,800 m. asl.,then drifting 20 km westerly and southwesterly, and with shock waves and sounds.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finac Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Incandescences impulses are visible in the crater that rose to about 200-300 meters high, generating avalanches around the crater, impacting the vegetation towards the Seca and Taniluya barrancas, and feeding a 1000 meter long flow, then reaches 1,200 meters in the Ceniza gorge.The effusive activity then continued until the evening, weakening very slightly. As of the 5th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that activity of Fuego increased, with 10 to 15 hourly explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 4,700 meters asl. dispersing 15 km in a westerly and southwesterly direction. Nighttime glow is observed to 200-300 meters above the crater; the explosions generate weak to moderate avalanches, and lava flows 600 meters long towards the Tanilyua and Ceniza barrancas.The ash falls concern Panimaché, El, Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde and San Pedro Yepocapa.t INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 20 October hot lahars descended Fuego's Las Lajas (SE) and Mineral drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter along with branches and tree trunks. The lahars were 20-30 m wide and 2 m deep. During 20-23 October there were 8-15 weak explosions recorded per hour, producing gray ash plumes that rose 750-850 m above the crater rim and drifted 12 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimaché (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Lava fountains rose 100-200 m high. Avalanches of blocks descended the El Jute (SE), Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, with material reaching vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-16 October explosions (8-18 per hour) produced ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 8-12 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, and Panimache I and II (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-200 m high, causing avalanches of material within the crater, though some of the avalanches traveled long distances, reaching vegetated areas. The lava flow on the W flank was still visible but by 14 October no longer active. On 13 October a steaming lahar descended the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reported that from 3.50 am on October 12, a new phase of the eruption began, effusive: fountains of 400 meters above the crater generated a lava flow that reaches 600 meters long towards the west drainages of the volcano. A possibility of pyroclastic flows is considered towards the seca, Las Lajas and Cenizas barrancas. On the evening of October 12, pyroclastic flows are reported in the Barranca Seca, where the lava flow reaches a length of 1,500 meters. Its advance causes a lifting of materials and some avalanches. A pyroclastic flow is also observed in the Barranca Santa Teresa. The eruptive dynamics is maintained with moderate explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 5,000 meters asl, dispersing to the SW, O and SE over 15-20 km. ; incandescent impulses are observed 200-300 meters above the crater. The fallout of ashes concerns Panimache I, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde..INSIVUMEH reported that on October 11, a slight increase in the explosive activity of the Fuego was reported characterized by 10 to 14 hourly explosions, weak to moderate, accompanied by plumes of ash rising to 4,600 meters asl. traveling 15 km to the west and southwest. Incandescent impulses are observed 100-200 meters above the crater, generating the fall of volcanic materials and avalanches towards the Santa Teresa and Las Lajas barrancas. This activity is accompanied by moderate fallout, shock waves and constant outgassing noise.INSIVUMEH reported that on September 29 in the evening an increase of the explosive activity occurred ; tremor and degassing pulses lasting up to 3-4 hours were accompanied by aircraft turbine sounds and block avalanches on the southwestern flank. About Five to nine hourly explosions were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,400 - 4,700 meters.In the evening, 10 to 15 hourly explosions were recorded, weak to moderate, and accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500 meters asl. moving 10 km to the west and southwest, and fallout of volcanic materials that generate small avalanches.Ash falls are reported on San Pedro Yepocapa, Finca Palo Verde, Morelia, and Panimache.The summit is marked by a constant incandescence during the night.INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 and 24-25 September explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted 12 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimache (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). On 25 September hot, steaming lahars descended the El Jute (SE) and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reporterd that on 7 September at 7:31 local time, an avalanche occurred on one of the flanks of Fuego due to a fissure in the upper part of the Barranca Las Lajas, the destabilization of materials accumulated during the eruption of June 3, and preceded by a small ash emission from a vent located lower down the slope.During the last 24 hours about 5 to 12 low to moderate hourly explosions occurred , accompanied by ashes and gas reaching 4,700 meters above sea level, before moving west-southwest 15 km INSIVUMEH reported that heavy rain generated lahars during 29 August-1 September that descended Fuego's El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), Cenizas (SSW), Taniluya (SW), Seca (W), Mineral, Honda, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. The lahars were hot, had a sulfur odor, and carried tree branches and blocks (2-3 m in diameter). On 1 September lahars disrupted roads between San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW) and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and from Finca Palo Verde and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). During 2-4 September explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Avalanches of incandescent material were confined to the crater. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH reported that during 18-21 August explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 850 m above the crater and drifted 12 km NW, W, and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area and down drainages on the flanks. According to CONRED, as of 22 August, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 169, and 256 remained missing. On 17th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that volcanic activity remains moderate with 6 explosions, accompanied by ash plumes at a height of 4,100-4,200 meters asl, drifting to the northwest and west; low avalanches are reported towards the Cenizas barranca.The heavy rains remobilized the ashes and caused a lahar in the barranca Honda. INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 August heavy rain triggered lahars that traveled down the Seca drainage on Fuego's W flank and the Mineral drainage, carrying tree trunks and blocks as large a 2 m in diameter. During 12-14 August weak-to-moderate explosions generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m high, and avalanches of blocks descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Santa Teresa (W) SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), and finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH rported that a strong explosion, accompanied by avalanches around the crater, fallout and shockwaves, occurred on August 8 at 21:20 local. Incandescent materials were ejected at 4,800 m Asl., Evening about 1,100 meters above the summit; the ash plume moved 12 km to the west. This is the first strong explosion recorded in the last six weeks.INSIVUMEH reported that during 29-30 July avalanches of material descended the Cenizas drainage on Fuego's SSW flank. Hot lahars generated by heavy rains on 30 July descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), El Jute (SE), and Cenizas drainages, carrying blocks 2-3 m in diameter and smelling of sulfur. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported relatively quiet conditions at Fuego during 4-9 July characterized mainly by gas emissions and block avalanches on the flanks. During 7-8 July there was about one explosion detected every two hours, producing diffuse ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Cenizas (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, while lahars were present in the El Jute (SE), Las Lajas, Cenizas, Taniluya (SW), Seca, Mineral, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. Seismicity increased on 10 July. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km and drifted 12 km SE, causing ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimaché (8 km SW). According to CONRED, as of 4 July, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 332 remained missing. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that 2-7 weak explosions per hour at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 650 m above the crater rim and drifted W and SW during 27-29 June and 1-3 July. Ashfall was reported on 27 June in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo and Yepocapa. Avalanches of material descended the S, SW, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, El Jute, and Cenizas drainages). INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 20-26 June multiple lahars at Fuego were often hot, steaming, and had a sulfur odor, and were generated from heavy rains and the recent accumulation of pyroclastic-flow deposits from the 3 June events. Lahars remained a significant hazard, and descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Santa Teresa (W), and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. They were 25-45 m wide, as deep as 3 m, and often carried blocks up to 3 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. The agencies warned that because the Las Lajas drainage is full of deposits, lahars can continue to descend that drainage or create new channels in San Miguel Los Lotes (one of the hardest-hit areas). Explosions continued, producingash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde on 22 June. Avalanches of material descended the SE, S, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages). According to CONRED, as of 26 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 remained evacuated. During 16-19 June as many as seven explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km W, SW, and S. Some explosions were heard in areas within a 10-km radius. Avalanches of material descended the Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages during 17-18 June, producing ash plumes, and ashfall in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde. According to CONRED, as of 19 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows remained at 110, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 people had been evacuated. As of the 15th of June, INSIVUMEH reported that following heavy rains hot lahar traveled down in Santa Teresa Barranca and Rio Mineral, a tributary of Rio Pantaleon. Large of 20 to 25 meters and 2 meters high, and carrying fine and pasty materials, blocks of 3 meters in diameter and trunks. At 17:40, a lahar descended the river Ceniza. Other lahars were reported in Taniluya and Las Lajas barrancas, about 30 to 45 meters wide and 3 meters high As of the 13th of June INSIVUMEH reported that a lahar was observed traveling down in the Ceniza gorge; about 25 meters wide and 2 meters high, it carries fine and pasty materials, blocks one to three meters in diameter and tree trunks. Another lahar has taken the Las Lajas barranca, 30-40 meters wide and 3 meters high, characterized by the transport of similar materials.As of the 12th of June INSIVUMEH reported that at 7 am local an increasing of the explosive activity occurred, characterized by columns of ashes between 4,500 and 5,000 meters height asl., dispersed on 15 to 25 km to the northeast . Ashfall is likely to occur in Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja and San Miguel Duena. At 7:35 local time, the observatory reported a pyroclastic flow in the Seca barranca, producing a curtain of ashes that reached 6,000 meters asl before dispersing to the north and north-east. The explosive activity causes avalanches that produce thick columns of ash, which disperse along the same axis.These episodes are likely to impact the main drainages in next hours or days.In addition of the danger created by the pyroclastic flows, there are lahars due to the remobilization of the ashes following the heavy rains. On 11th of June at the end of the afternoon, hot lahars descended the barrancas Las Lajas and El Jute, made of fine and pasty materials, blocks of large diameter up to 3 meters, and trunks and branches; his measurements were 35 to 55 meters wide and 5 meters high. Other lahars have been reported in the Seca and Mineral barrancas, with the risk of overflowing rivers.As of the 8th of June,INSIVUMEH reported lahars in Santa Teresa, Mineral, Taniluyá and Ceniza barrancas, tributaries of the Pantaleón and Achiguate rios; these lahars are hot, emit fumes, and carry fine materials, and rocks 2-3 m in diameter, as well as tree trunks. In parallel, pyroclastic flows are reported in El Jute and Las Lajas drainages, accompanied by co-pyroclastic plumes up to 6,000 meters asl.The latest assessment given to 8 June / 8:30 by the Conred, is 109 dead, 197 missing, and 1,713,617 people affected by the climax and its aftermath. As of the 7th of June, at the beginning of the evening, new pyroclastic flows descended the Las Lajas and El jute drainages, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic cloud rising to 6,000 meters asl.CONRED reported that by 0630 on 6 June a total of 12,089 people had been evacuated, with 3,319 people dispersed in 13 shelters. One bridge and two power networks had been destroyed. According to news sources on 6 June, Guatemala's National Institute of Forensic Sciences stated that 75 people were confirmed to have died and 192 were still missing. Many, possibly thousands, received burns and other injuries. Weather conditions, continuing activity at Fuego, poor air quality, hot pyroclastic flow deposits, and rain made rescue efforts difficult. On Tuesday, an explosion forced relief to stop the research. The disaster has affected, to varying degrees, a total of 1.7 million Guatemalans.Details about volcanic event : the strong eruptive phase occurred at the volcano on Sunday 3rd of June). Lasting for about 16-17 hours until the evening, it generated ash clouds reaching up to 10 km, which drifted into westerly directions for more than 40 km, lava flows descending on the flanks, heavy ash fall in nearby areas and secondary mud flows triggered by strong rainfall. Massive pyroclastic flows - fast-moving turbulent avalanches of gas and hot rock material have claimed lives as well. Information from official side at least 69 victims have been confirmed. All fatalities occurred as result of being engulfed in pyroclastic surges, it seems mainly on the eastern flank.The eruption has abruptly decreased after 18:45 local time and returned to small to moderate intermittent explosions and minor rockfalls. Incandescence is visible at the crater, where fresh lava flows begin to cool. Civil protection has declared the highest alert level RED for the areas of Escuintla, Alotenango, Sacatepéquez, Yepocapa and Chimaltenango, while Escuintla is kept at the second highest, ORANGE. More than 3000 people are reported to have been evacuated and ash fall from the eruption has been affecting an area with a population of more than 1.5 million, roughly 10% of the country's population total. Previously, local news reported that a violent eruption occurred on the evening of Sunday, June 3 (local time), leaving at least 25 people dead and injured several other people after pyroclastic flow entered into Rodeo village. Volcanic ash has reportedly covered nearby villages, including San Pedro Yepocapa and Sangre de Cristo, ashfall has also been reported in Guatemala City. Some 100 people have been evacuated from affected areas. Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales has declared that a national emergency response has been mobilized. La Aurora International airport was closed on Sunday due to ashfall. Further eruptions, evacuations, and transportation disruptions are expected in the coming hours and days. INSIVUMEH reported that beginning at 1400 on 17 May a lahar descended the Seca (Santa Teresa) drainage on Fuego's W flank. The lahar was 25 m wide, 1 m deep, and carried trees and blocks 1.5 m in diameter. During 19-21 May explosions occurred at a rate of 5-8 per hour, and generated ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Some explosions were accompanied by rumbling audible more than 30 km away, and shock waves that vibrated structures in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimache (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material within the Seca, Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages that reached vegetated areas. Ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia, Panimache I and II, and Finca Palo Verde. A lava flow 700-800 m long was active in the Ceniza drainage. Small ash explosions at Fuego on 11 and 12 May rose to 5 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. or approximately 1 km (3,280 ft) above the summit. The ash dispersed quickly to the southwest and was visible on webcams. Activity increased on 14 April and remained elevated through 17 April. Moderate-to-strong explosions were detected at a rate of 6-9 per hour, and sometimes produced shock waves that vibrated houses in Morelia and Panimache. Dense ash plumes rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20 km W and S, though winds also carried the ash to higher altitudes to the SE. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in Santa Sofía, Morelia, Panimache I and II, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde. The rate of explosions increased to 7-10 per hour on 16 April; explosions sometimes caused structures in Panimache, Morelia, La Reina, and Alotenango (8 km ENE) to vibrate. A lava flow traveled 1.3 km down the Seca drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-10 April explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 10-15 km SW and S. Sometimes the explosions were accompanied by weak shock waves. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 200 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the Seca (Santa Teresa, W), Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Trinidad (S) ravines. During 9-10 April ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). (INSIVUMEH) - Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

October 9th, 2019

INSIVUMEH reported that each day during 2-8 October there were as many as five explosions per hour detected at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Ash plumes rose 700-900 m above the complex and drifted SW. Avalanches of material descended the SE and S flanks. Ash fell in Monte Claro (S) on 2 October. As of the 5th of October, INSIVUMEH reported that a white degassing that rises to a height of 3,000 meters above sea level was dispersed to the southwest. Fifteen low explosions in 24 hours were recorded, generating ash columns at 3,300 meters above sea level, dispersing to the southwest, and weak avalanches on the south-east and south flanks. Light falls of ash are reported in the perimeter of the volcano. Previously, as of the 12th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that a white degassing overcomes the cone and disperses to the southwest; 2 to 4 weak to moderate explosions are recorded per hour, accompanied by ash plumes at 3,200 meters asl. These volcanic ash and outgassing columns are dispersed to the southwest and are also characterized by a low ash drop on the volcanic perimeter, generating low and moderate avalanches along the eastern flank that cause the displacement of materials. on his way.INSIVUMEH reported that following heavy rains in the region, moderate to strong lahar was recorded by the STG8 seismic station of Santiaguito in Rio San Isidro on 7 July at about 23:00; its measurements are a height of 2 meters, width of 20-25 m, it carries blocks with a diameter of 2 to 3 meters, branches and tree trunks and sediments.As of the 3rd of July, INSIVUMEH issued a special bulletin concerning the Santiaguito, Guatemala, which shows since June 28, 2019 changes in its seismic activity: the number and energy of explosions has increased from 10-15 daily explosions to 35 - 40 low to moderate explosions per day, accompanied by ash plumes up to 3,500-3,800 meters asl. The ashes are scattered to the south and southwest, with spillover effects to Horizontes, Las Larias, Loma Linda, and San Marcos Palajuno e.a.Due to a magmatic extrusion into blocks that pile up chaotically, the domed cupola has instability, generating avalanches on the south-east and southwest flanks, currently raising only ash particles.Due to the explosive behavior and recorded avalanches, the activity of Santiaguito could generate a collapse of the dome become unstable, and pyroclastic flows on a southern sector. INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-18 June explosions at Caliente cone generated ash plumes that rose 400-800 m and drifted SW and E. Avalanches of material descended the E and SE flanks of the cone, and during 17-18 June reached the base of the cone. Minor ashfall was reported in San Marcos (10 km SW), Loma Linda (6 km WSW), and Palajunoj (18 km SSW) during 17-18 June. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 12 June lahars descended Santa Maria's Cabello de Ángel (a tributary of Nima I) and San Isidro (tributary of El Tambor) drainages. The lahar in San Isidro was 15-17 m wide and 1.5 m deep, and carried shrubs, tree trunks, and blocks up to 2 m in diameter. On 16 June lahars again descended the San Isidro drainage. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 29-30 May lahars descended Santa Maria's San Isidro drainage (tributary of El Tambor), carrying blocks 1-3 m in diameter and tree trunks. The lahars were 20 m wide and 1.5 m deep; CONRED noted that the 29 May lahar was hot and had a sulfur odor. Explosions recorded during 30 May-4 June generated ash plumes that rose as high as 800 m above the crater and drifted E and SE. Avalanches of material descended the E and SE flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that during 16-17 May there were two explosions per hour detected at Santa María's Santiaguitolava-dome complex. Ash plumes rose 700 m above the complex and drifted SW. Eight weak explosions were recorded during 19-20 May, generating ash plumes that rose 700 m and drifted SW. Avalanches of material descended the E and SE flanks of thelava dome.INSIVUMEH reported that the Santiaguito presented on April 15th a large white degassing at a height of 3,000 meters asl. Thirteen weak explosions were recorded during the last 24 hours, accompanied by gray plume at 3,100 meters asl, then moving westward. INSIVUMEH reported that during 28 March-1 April explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 700 m and drifted E and SW, causing ashfall on the flanks. Avalanches of material descended the E, SE, and S flanks of the lava dome. INSIVUMEH reported that during 1-5 March as many as four explosions per hour at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated white plumes with ash that rose 500-700 m above the domes and drifted SE and SW. Avalanches of material descended the E and SE flanks of the lava dome. An explosion at 2155 on 4 March was heard in areas as far away as 10 km W, SW, S, and SE. The event ejected incandescent material 100 m high, produced ashfall around the volcano, and generated avalanches that traveled down the E and SE dome flanks reaching the base. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-12 February explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 500-700 m and drifted E and SW, causing ashfall on the flanks. Avalanches of material descended the NE, E, and SE flanks of the lava dome. INSIVUMEH reported that on January 14 showed a white degassing, dissipating southwestward, and weak to moderate avalanches on the eastern flank of the Caliente dome reaching its base and raising ash particles in a westerly direction. scientific blog about Santiaguito). The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

September 24th, 2019

special report from INSIVUMEH noted that seismic activity at Pacaya continued to increase, with RSAM values reaching 8,000 units by 18 September, coincident with an intensification of explosive activity at Mackenney Crater. Explosions from a growing cone in the crater ejected material as high as 100 m above the cone. Lava effusion increased; several lava flows (300-500 m long) advanced on the N and NW flank towards Cerro Chino and produced avalanches of blocks up to 1 m in diameter from the flow fronts. Strombolian explosions during 19-24 September ejected material 5-25 m above the cone, though on 21 September material was ejected as high has 100 m. Two lava flows traveled SW on 21 September.
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pecial report from INSIVUMEH noted that seismic activity at Pacaya had increased on 8 September, with RSAM values reaching 7,000 units by 13 September, coincident with increased explosive activity at Mackenney Crater. Explosions from a growing cone in the crater ejected material as high as 75 m above the cone. Lava effusion increased; lava flows advancing on the N and NW flank towards Cerro Chino were about 500 m long. Avalanches of blocks up to 1 m in diameter were produced by the flow front. Similar activity was observed during 15-16 September. INSIVUMEH reported that on July 25 the volcano presented a degassing of moderate height, 150 meters above the crater, dispersing towards the south. Lava flows move on the north flank, and generate small avalanches of blocks at the front of flows. INSIVUMEH reported that during 17-23 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim. As many as four lava flows traveled down the NW and N flanks; two of the flows were 300 m long. Minor avalanches of material from the lava flow fronts descended the flanks.INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-18 June Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 30 m above the crater rim. A lava flow divided into two branches and traveled 300 m down the NW and W flanks, advancing towards Cerro Chino. Minor avalanches of material from lava flow fronts descended the flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that during 28 March-1 April Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 75 m above the crater rim. A lava flow traveled down the N flank, producing minor avalanches of material from the lava-flow front. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-12 February Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim. Multiple lava flows traveled 10-250 m down the NW flank, advancing towards Cerro Chino, and on the E flank. Minor avalanches of material from lava-flow fronts descended the flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that a white, 300 meter high degassing plume rose above the volcano on January 31, with a westward dispersion.Seismicity was characterized by a tremor associated with rising magma and gases to the surface. Strombolian explosions, between 5 and 30 meters, still occurs the Mackenney crater; during the night, incandescence was observed, as well as two lava flows in a northwesterly direction, measuring about 70 and 75 meters. In a special notice posted on 13 December 2018 INSIVUMEH reported that rumbling at Pacaya was heard within a radius of 8 km, and weak Strombolian explosions at Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 50 m above the crater rim. Active lava flows were 200-300 m in length and traveled down the NW flank, generating avalanches of blocks that were as large as 1 m in diameter. The report also noted that the cone in the crater continued to grow, filling the crater, and was 75 m above the crater rim. During 15-16 December lava continued to flow NW and Strombolian explosions ejected material 5-25 m high. NSIVUMEH reported that strombolian activity is characterized by explosions with ejections 25-50 meters above the crater falling around the Mackenney cone, which feed a lava flow towards Cerro Chino, which reaches about 200 meters Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone. New Webcam

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COSTA RICA - Arenal volcano

September 16th, 2013

No recent notable events since 2013 - OVSICORI-UNA conducted an overflight of Arenal on 14 September 2013 to measure gas emissions, and found low concentrations of carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen sulfide. An infrared camera detected a ring of thermal anomalies along the rim of Crater C.OVSICORI-UNA reported that plumes composed mainly of water vapor rose from the NE and SE edges of Arenal's Crater C on 8 and 9 September. Tremors indicative of hydrothermal and magmatic activity were detected on 8 September. The report noted that seismic and fumarolic activity had been very low in the past three years; however steam plumes associated with heavy rains had been frequent. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank. New webcam

COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

October 1st, 2019

OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new explosive event occurred on 30th of September at 5:40 AM. it produced a black cypressoid plume that rose above the edge of the crater, immediately accompanied by a plume of gas ... the eruptive column filled the crater before rising to 2,000 meters above it ( 4.708 m asl) then disperse to the southwest. Ovsicori reported an activity duration of 5 minutes.Thick, acidic ash has settled down, accompanied by an odor of sulfur, according to testimonies from inhabitants of Trojas de Sarchi. Since the eruption, the weak degassing concerns three vents, and especially the main mouth; some bubbles are observed at vent C. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a phreatic eruption occurred September 27, with activity level slightly down. A plume rich in water vapor, gas and aerosols is observed 1,000 meters above the crater. The NASA Satellite AURA detects a plume of sulfur dioxide between 16 and 26 September dispersing to the northwest northwest. A sulphurous smell is perceptible by the inhabitants of Alajuela, Heredia, San José, and Cartago. Fog and rain, hyperacids, saline and viscous, generate a rapid and extreme corrosion at the top of Poás (see article of 25.09). The hyperacid rains were measured at the home of PNVP staff (pH = 3.31) on Monday, September 23rd. The water of Laguna Botos is also very acidic, pH = 3.60.OVSICORI-UNA reported that an hydrothermal eruption of Poas volcano was recorded on 22 September at 20h59 local time. It lasted 25 minutes, accompanied by a plume rising to 2,000 meters above the summit, before dispersing to the northeast.The event was captured by the thermal camera located on the southern edge of the active crater. Activity continued until 4 pm on September 23, and a collapse was generated on the southern edge of mouth A with a widening of the fumarole fieldOn September 20, Poas maintained a vigorous degassing, characterized by a plume of gas and white vapor rising more than 1,000 meters above the crater. The decrease of the wind and the atmospheric conditions made it possible to see this plume of the Central Valley. On Sunday, September 15th, more than five phreatic eruptions were observed between 16:55 and 22:40:00. The bubling was also constant during this week. At the seismic level, a continuous bottom tremor remained, and increased slightly by magnitude on September 17. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruptive event from vent A (Boca Roja) at Poas generated a 1-km-high plume of steam, gas, and fine particulates at 0650 on 17 August. The event was preceded by an increase in tremor amplitude starting at 0500 that same day. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that during the week of July 9-16, the lake in the main crater continued to recharge. Positive variations in the level of water brought by the rainy season are followed by decreases due to evaporation, following a dynamic in a final positive balance. Gases continue to come out of mouths B and A, the latter almost completely covered by water.The seismic activity remains weak, characterized by LP earthquakes. RSN weekly reports noted that a small phreatic eruption took place on 18 June. Water accumulation continues in the main crater due to rainfall; however, in the past few days, the level is falling by evaporation. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 12 June small geyser-like eruptions at Poas ejected material less than 50 m high at a rate of about once per hour. At 0604 on 18 June an eruption that lasted about six minutes produced a plume of unknown height due to weather conditions. Residents reportedly heard several loud noises during 0610-0615 and observed an eruption plume rising from the crater. Ash fell in Cajon (12 km SW), San Luis de Grecia (11 km SW), Los Ángeles, San Miguel, San Isidro (28 km SE), and San Roque (23 km SSE). Whitish ash deposits surrounding the crater, especially on the W and S sectors, were visible in webcam images. OVSICORI-UNA reported that multiple phreatic eruptions at Poas recorded during 29 May-1 June produced plumes that rose as high as 500 m above the vent. OVSICORI-UNA repored that a small phreatic eruption occurred on May 29 around 8:13 local time, followed by steam emission; a white plume rose 400 meters above the crater. The activity lasted 5 minutes. Two other episodes occurred respectively at 15:24 and 19:30 local. OVSICORI-UNA reported a period of continuous emissions from Poás during 30 April-1 May with plumes rising 300 m above the crater rim and drifting SW. Ash emissions were visible for a few hours on 30 April, and incandescence was visible at night. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 24 April a very diffuse ash emission rose from Poás. Incandescence from vent A (Boca Roja) was sometimes visible during 24 and 27-28 April. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. Web camera from OVSICORI-UNA.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

July 30th, 2019

OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruptive event at Turrialba was detected at 1441 on 28 July, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. Ashfall was reported in La Picada (N) and El Retiro farms. As of the 17th of July, OVSICORI-UNA reported that weak and stable activity remained, with a plume of steam and gas, dispersed towards a west and south-west sector.The crater glow recorded by webcams remained low, compared to that of previous months.Two small lakes are always mentioned at the summit; a third forms temporarily after a few hours of rain, then disappears. Some LP earthquakes were recorded during the past week. On 19 May OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive, short-duration emissions with small amounts of ash had been sporadically occurring at Turrialba over the previous week. Prolonged and intermittent periods of emissions with minor amounts of ash were visible during 19-20 May.OVSICORI-UNA reported that in the past week activity remained low and stable. The LP earthquake record was maintained however.On 27 April at 7:22, a short eruption occurred , accompanied by a small plume of brown ash that rose 100 meters above the summit. OVSICORI-UNA reported that minor ash emissions rose from Turrialba on 8 April. OVSICORI-UNA reported that gas emissions at Turrialba significantly decreased on 30 March. An eruption recorded at 0735 on 31 March was followed by passive emissions with a low concentration of magmatic gases at least through 1 April. Seismicity continued to be dominated by low-frequency events. OVSICORI-UNA reported a period of continuous emissions from Turrialba during 20-22 March. The emissions were characterized as white water vapor plumes with periodic pulses of diffuse ash rising 300 m above the vent rim and drifting W and SW. A sulfur odor was noted in Tierra Blanca de Cartago on 22 March. Only water vapor plumes with a low concentration of magmatic gases were visible during 23-26 March. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 9-12 March plumes of gas sometimes containing small amounts of ash rose as high as 1 km above Turrialba's crater rim. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at 0444 on 1 March produced a plume that rose 200 m and drifted NE. A period of continuous emissions rising 200-300 m was recorded during 2-4 March; the plumes contained minor amounts of ash at least during 2-3 March. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption occurred on February 28 from 10:50 local which lasted about 4 minutes and was accompanied by an ash plume 500 meters above the crater.The seismic activity remains in the norms of the previous days. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Turrialba on 21 February generated a plume that rose 300 m and drifted NW. Frequent ash pulses were recorded that day. Ash emissions were frequent during 22-24 February, though of variable intensity and duration. Plumes rose as high as 300 m and drifted NW and SW. On 22 February ashfall was reported in Santa Cruz (31 km WSW) and Santa Ana, and a sulfur odor was evident in Moravia (31 km WSW). Cloudy weather conditions prevented visual observations of the vent during 25-26 February. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during the morning of 18 February a plume with low ash content rose from the vent. An event at 1310 generated a plume that rose 500 m and drifted W. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an explosive episode occurred at 8:34 local accompanied by a plume 300 meters above the crater, and another at 13:30 local, a plume at 1,000 meters above the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 13-15 February a period of almost continuous gas emissions with minor ash content rose 200-300 m above the rim of Turrialba's active vent. The plumes drifted NW, W, and SW. An event at 1330 on 15 February produced a plume that rose 1 km and drifted W. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a period of sporadic ash emissions from Turrialba began at 0540 on 8 February and lasted more than one hour. The activity produced ash plumes that rose no more than 200 m above the vent rim. A very small ash emission was visible on 11 February. RSN reported that on 1st of February at 6:46 a small eruption occurred; it produced a plume of gray ash that rose 400-500 meters above the crater before drifting to the NNE. The eruption lasted 15 minutes. OVSICORI -UNA reported that an eruption occurred on January 8, accompanied by a white plume 500 meters above the crater; passive emissions of discontinuous ash were more sustained than the previous days, and ash falls are reported on Heredia OVSICORI-UNA reported that prolonged and sporadic passive ash emissions, forming small plumes, are observed at Turrialba on 1 and 2 January 2019. Incandescence is visible at the western crater during the night. Seismicity is characterized by small volcanic earthquakes and tremor.Images from the Aura - IMO satellite indicate a substantial reduction in sulfur dioxide flux during the last half of 2018.A few falls of ashes are reported in the Central Valley. News 2018 - OVSICORI-UNA reported semi-continuous activity at Turrialba during 11-16 December. Ash emissions rose as high as 500 m above the vent rim and drifted NW and SW during 11-12 December. Ashfall was reported in Guadalupe (32 km WSW) on 13 December. Pulsing ash emissions were visible on 13 December and caused ashfall in areas of Valle Central. During 14-16 December emissions had diffuse amounts of ash and drifted W and SW. OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing activity at Turrialba during 5-11 December. A minor emission from the vent was visible on 5 December, and an ash emission drifted S the next day. An event at 0749 on 8 December produced an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted NW. Emissions of ash, steam, and gas rose as high as 1 km on 9 December and caused ashfall in areas of Valle Central. On 10 December diffuse emissions were periodically observed during periods of clear viewing. That same day ash fell in Moravia (31 km WSW) and Santa Ana, and residents of Heredia (38 km W) noted a sulfur odor. OVSICORI-UNA reported intermittent pulses of ash and some periods of continuous ash emissions from Turrialba during 28 November-3 December. Ash plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim and drifted N, NW, and SW. Ashfall was reported in Santo Domingo (36 km WSW) on 2 DecemberOVSICORI reported that an eruption, energetic but of low amplitude, occurred on December 3 from 12:05 in Turrialba, accompanied by a plume of ash that rose 500 meters above the crater.OVSICORI reported that during 26-27 November passive emissions with small quantities of ash were visible. Minor ashfall was reported in San Jose (Cascajal de Coronado and Dulce Nombre), San Pedro Montes de Oca, and neighborhoods of Heredia. OVSICORI reported that strombolian eruptions occurred in the night of November 23-24, with ejection of gas and ash, and bombs falling in an eastern sector in the vicinity of the crater. Central Valley was marked this week by intense seismic activity, in four locations: Coronado, Cartago, south of Cartago and Escazú.OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0710 on 22 November an event at Turrialba generated an ash plume that rose 100 m above the crater rim and drifted W. The next day there were frequent pulses of ash.OVSICORI-UNA reported that periodic, passive ash emissions at Turrialba continued to be visible in webcam images or during cloudy conditions inferred from the seismic data during 13-19 November. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 6-11 November low-level ash-and-gas emissions at Turrialba were continuous, though occasionally punctuated by energetic explosions which elevated the plumes as high as 500 m above the crater rim. The emission drifted towards the Valle Central. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Cascajal de Coronado, Desamparados (35 km WSW), San Antonio, Guadalupe (32 km WSW), Sabanilla, San Pedro Montes de Oca, Moravia (31 km WSW), Heredia (38 km W), and Coronado (San José, 35 km WSW). Emissions likely continued on 12 November, though inclement weather did not allow for visual confirmation. Passive ash emissions were visible during 1-6 November. A 70-minute-long event began at 0530 and generated plumes that rose 500 m and drifted SW. Several short-duration (2-3 minutes) events were recorded at 1523 and 1703 on 2 November and at 0109 on 3 November; they generated ash plumes that rose 500 m. Ashfall was reported in Coronado. Seismic activity remained high, with moderate-to-high amplitude banded tremor. At 0620 on 5 November a plume rose 600 m and drifted NW. OVSICORI-UNA reported that when weather conditions allowed for observations gas and periodic ash emissions rising from Turrialba were recorded by the webcam during 25-30 October. An event at 0134 on 26 October produced an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted NE, causing ashfall in the neighborhoods of Coronado (San José, 35 km WSW) and San Isidro de Heredia (Heredia, 38 km W). Events at 0231 on 29 October and 1406 on 30 October produced plumes that rose 500 m and drifted NW and W respectively. OVSICORI-UNA reported that most days during 10-16 October intermittent, passive gas-and-ash emissions at Turrialba rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim. The emissions drifted W, SW, S, and NE. There were also some explosive events; an energetic explosion was recorded at 1712 on 14 October, though cloudy weather prevented estimates of a plume height. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption occurred on October 10 from 6:40 local, accompanied by a plume of ash that rose 200 meters above the active crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that intense crater incandescence was visible at Turrialba the night of 3 October. At 0800 on 8 October an event produced an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted N. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption began in Turrialba on September 30 at around 10 pm and continued on October 1, with the emission of a plume of ash of variable shape between 300 and 500 meters above the active crater. These ashes drifted toward the northeast of the volcano.OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive gas-and-ash emissions from Turrialba were continuous in September through the 13th. Events during 17-18 September produced plumes that rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW and NW.OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption, lasting 8 minutes, marked the Turrialba on 11 September at 6:39 local time; the ash column rose about 300 meters above the active crater before dispersing to the WNW. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an explosive activity occurred on September 10 at 12:10; it was accompanied by a column at 300 meters above the crater emitted passively and containing some ashes.The activity continued during the day with emissions of vapors and gases, and in the evening and night, by incandescence due to high temperature gas emissions. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1340 on 30 August an event at Turrialba produced an ash plume that passively rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Gas-and-ash emissions became continuous during 31 August-1 September, with plumes rising 200 m and drifting SW and W. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 27-28 August emissions from Turrialba rose continuously to 200 m above the crater rim, and drifted SW. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

COSTA RICA - Rincon de la Vieja volcano

September 18th, 2019

OVSICORI -UNA reported that on September 12 at 08h18, tremor began, becoming spasmodic, before a phreatic eruption at 8:32; it lasted 5 minutes, but could not be observed due to bad weather conditions. Another small phreatic eruption occurred on September 16 at 12:51, lasting 2 minutes, barely visible on the webcam. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a 10-minute-long eruption at Rincon de la Vieja began at 0343 on 11 June. Emissions were not visible due to weather conditions. OVSICORI-UNA reported that phreatic eruptions at Rincón de la Vieja were recorded at 1703 on 14 May and 0357 on 17 May, though dense fog prevented visual confirmation of both events with webcams. On 15 May a local observer noted a diffuse plume of steam, gas, and particulates rising from the crater and photographed milky-gray deposits on the N part of the crater rim, ejected from the event the day before.OVSICORI-UNA reported that on May 11, a phreatic eruption began at 7:19, and lasted 7 minutes, expelling acid lake sediments and ashes; a plume of steam and magmatic gas rose to about 600 meters.On 14 April OVSICORI-UNA noted that aerial photographs taken during an overflight showed a milky-gray acid lake at a relatively low water level with convection cells of several tens meters of diameter in the center and Eastern parts of the lake. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new eruption probably phreatic occurred on April 12th at 6:43 am; it was accompanied by a whitish plume that rose 500 meters above the crater, and lasted a minute. Another phreatic event was detected at 0700 on 13 April, although poor weather conditions prevented visual observations. OVSICORI-UNA reported a new phreatic eruption on April 10th at 6:17 local lasting 2 minutes and accompanied by a column of steam and gas rising to 1,000 meters above the main crater , and observed from the northern sector of the volcano and Curubandé. In the past 24 hours, seismographs have recorded a considerable number of low-amplitude and short-lived volcanic earthquakes; a seismic signal is associated with the phreatic episode, and follows that of the phreatic episode of April 9 at 20:34. OVSICORI-UNA reported that two phreatic eruptions occurred at Rincon de La Vieja, respectively, these 1st and 3rd of April. A whitish coloration of the northern flank of the volcano is observed, due to the expulsion of sediments from the crater lake on March 29 at 20:43.On April 1, a phreatic episode occurred at 8:02, accompanied by a white plume of gas and water vapor. On April 3, at 2:35 pm, another phreatic episode is responsible for the emission of a slightly larger plume of steam and gas.OVSICORI-UNA reported that a two-minute-long phreatic eruption at Rincon de la Vieja was recorded at 0802 on 1 April and produced a plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. The report noted that a previous event had occurred at 2043 on 29 March. Intermittent tremor was recorded in between the two events. OVSICORI-UNA reported possible events at Rincon de la Vieja at 1906 and 1950 on 5 February and at 0120 on 6 February. An event at 0000 on 6 February was also recorded; the report noted that poor weather conditions prevented visual observations of the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a phreatic explosion , occurred on January 26 at 16:00 local time in Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica, lasting one minute.The height reached by the column is unknown due to bas weather conditions of the site. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption occurred on January 20 at 1:26 local time, lasting 5 minutes. The height of the plume could not be known given poor visibility conditions. Previous eruptions occurredon January 1 at 5:56, January 11 at 2:25 and 9:11, and January 14 at 1:17 and January 17, 2019 at 1:29 pm. Both of which resulted in the expulsion of solids and liquids from the bottom. They were transported from the active crater by rivers and rain, in particular by the rivers Pénjamo, Azul, Quebrada Azufrada, Gavilán and Pizote to the lower parts of the northern sector of Rincon.OVSICORI-UNA reported a one-minute-long eruption at Rincón de la Vieja began at 1054 on 3 December. Weather conditions prevented webcam views and estimates of plume heights.OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0237 on 27 November a hydrothermal explosion at Rincon de la Vieja produced a plume of water vapor and gas that rose 600 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. OVSICORI-UNA reported a two-minute-long eruption at Rincon de la Vieja began at 1703 on 9 November. Weather conditions prevented webcam views and estimates of plume heights. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a short phreatic eruption was recorded at Rincon de La Vieja on November 5th at 15:11 local time; it was accompanied by a column of gas and vapor of 100 meters above the crater, dispersing to the west. Rincon de la Vieja, a composite stratovolcano in Northwestern Costa Rica forms a NW-trending ridge consisting of several eruptive centers that have coalesced through time. Elevations of the individual cones range from 1670 to 1920 meters and nine craters are readily identified by their topographic expression. Numerous phreatic eruptions have occurred since 1851 (as recently as November, 1995), all from the Active Crater. The last major eruption involving juvenile magma occurred at ~3,500 ybp, producing the Rio Blanco tephra deposit. Ash, pumice, and lithics ejected during this eruption were deposited in a highly asymmetrical dispersal pattern WSW of the Active Crater, indicating strong easterly prevailing tradewinds at the time of the eruption. Historical descriptions of the summit crater morphology suggest that conditions there have changed little over the past century.
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NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

October 17th, 2019

According to local news, ashes ejection occurred on October 15th, 2019. Samples were collected and recorded in the municipality of Ticuantepe, which, as a result of the change in wind direction, received the ash particles from the volcano. If The winds continued to blow from south-east to north-west the city of Managua could be affected by gases or falls of pyroclastic material. Previous notable news 2017 - The Washington VAAC reported that on 13 May a west-drifting ash emission from Masaya was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot.
Previously, based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 21 January a possible emission from Masaya with minor ash content drifted almost 25 km NW.Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 5 January a gas, steam, and ash plume from Masaya drifted W. Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that a steam-and-gas plume from Masaya possibly contained some ash on 3 November. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 28 August a gas plume with possible ash rose from Masaya to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 15 August a possible ash plume from Masaya rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Elevated seismicity and a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images indicated increased activity. In a report posted later that day the Washington VAAC noted that the webcam recorded minor ash emissions. Previously, INETER reported that during 18-19 May RSAM values at Masaya fluctuated between 300 and 700 units which are low-to-moderate values. The lava lake in Santiago Crater continued to strongly circulate and the vent widened through 24 May. INETER reported that between 1700 and 2400 on 3 May volcanic tremor at Masaya increased; RSAM values spiked at 1,000 units and then dropped to 250. Gas emissions at Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels, and the lava lake continued to strongly circulate. On 5 May RSAM values fluctuated between 250 and 500 units which are low-to-moderate values. INETER reported that during 27 April-3 May gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels. Seismic tremor decreased though continued to fluctuate between low to moderate levels. The lava lake continued to strongly circulate. INETER reported that during 20-23 April gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels and RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 22 April the level of the lava lake decreased, though strong lake circulation was reported on 23 April. INETER reported that during 6-12 April the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. (Time-lapse video). Previously on 30 March INETER reported that the lava lake rose in Masaya's Santiago crater and several landslide deposits from the precious few days were visible in the NE crater. RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that tremor continued and the widening of the vent in the SE part of the crater persisted. According to a SINAPRED report on 28 March INETER noted that lava-lake activity at Masaya's Santiago crater was intense and the craters continued to gradually widen. Emissions were at low levels. INETER reported that on 3 March the lava lake on the SW floor of Masaya's Santiago crater was very active. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. Previously, INETER reported that the lava lakes in three vents on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater were active during 20 February-1 March. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. On 23 February small explosions ejected spatter onto the crater floor. During fieldwork volcanologists observed active lava lakes in all three vents on the crater floor, and noted that the inner walls of the crater were being eroded due to the lava lake. A new vent was forming on the SE part of the crater floor. During a second visit on 24 February INETER staff noted that the vents had become larger due to landslides on the crater walls. Small streams of lava sporadically originated from the NE vent. By 1 March the two vents in the SW part of the crater had almost merged. On 17 February INETER reported that the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. During 10-11 February sulfur dioxide emissions at Masaya rose to high levels (1,500 tons per day), and RSAM values were at moderately-high levels due to higher levels of volcanic tremor. This activity coincided with an increase in the size of the lava lake. Gas emissions were at moderate and low levels on 12 and 16 February, respectively. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindiri­ and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage.
(GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Telica volcano

August 18th, 2018

SINAPRED reported that on 15 August an explosion at Telica generated an ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim. INETER reported that a moderate explosion took place in June 21, 2018 at 7:08 local time. A plume of gas, ash, and some rocks rose 500 meters above the crater, before drifting east, south and southwest. Rockfall occurred near the crater, while the finer and sandy material was found more than one kilometer. Ash falls are reported on Los Manglares, Las Marias, Pozo Viejo, El Porvenir and Monte de Los Olivos.The explosion was followed by gas emissions; new explosions are likely during the day. INETER reported that a small gas explosion was heard by local residents on 10 September 2017. INETER warned the public to stay at least 2 km away from the crater. Previously in 2016 based on information from INETER, SINAPRED reported that 30 explosion at Telica occurred during 7-8 May, producing gas-and-ash plumes that rose 600 m and drifted S and SW. The explosions originated from a new vent in the N part of the crater; lava emissions were also observed. INETER reported high micro-seismicity and low outgassing during 11-16 May. Incandescence from vents on the crater floor was visible during 11-12 May; sounds from jetting gasses were noted on 11 May. RSAM values were 180-190 units during 11-12 May, dropping to 80 units during 12-14 May. INETER reported that during 6-11 April micro-seismicity at Telica remained high and lava in a vent on the crater floor was observed. Gas emissions were at low to moderate levels and RSAM values were low. On 30 March INETER reported that micro-seismicity at Telica remained high and was characterized by small, high-energy earthquakes. Incandescence emanated from the crater floor. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that seismicity continued at a high level and warned the public to stay away from the crater. In a 28 March report, SINAPRED noted that incandescence from Telica's crater continued to be observed, and reminded people to stay away from the crater. Previously, INETER reported high micro-seismicity at Telica during 20 February-1 March. Incandescence from the vent on the crater floor increased; lava in the vent was first observed on 25 February and persisted through 1 March. Five gas-and-ash explosions were recorded during 19 February-1 March, generating plumes that rose 300 above the crater and drifted W and SW. The strongest event started at 0819 and produced gas-and-ash emissions for 14 minutes. INETER reported that high micro-seismicity at Telica was associated with gas explosions during 16-17 February. On 18 February SINAPRED stated that a small amount of lava was visible in a vent. Based on satellite data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 13 February a gas plume possibly containing ash rose from Telica to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. On 16 February INETER reported that high micro-seismicity was associated with gas explosions. Previously INETER reported that four 5-minute-long explosions at Telica were detected at 0602, 0818, 0934, and 1124 on 25 November, and generated ash-and-ash emissions. On 26 November multiple gas-and-ash explosions were detected; the strongest explosion occurred at 0941 and produced an ash plume that rose more than 800 m above the crater. During 26-27 November a total of 29 explosions were detected, with 16 of those producing ash plumes. Based on wind and satellite data, pilot observations, and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 November an ash plume from Telica rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 100 km W. According to news articles, (at least) two explosions, at 0847 and 0848, generated ash plumes that rose 2 km and ejected tephra at least 900 m away. An unstated number of people living within a 900-m-radius evacuated, and residents in Agua Fría (also 900 m away) noted it was the first time variously-sized lapilli and blocks had reached their community. Ash fell in at least 70 communities in the municipalities of Quezalguaque (13 km SW), Posoltega (16 km WSW), Chichigalpa (20 km WSW), and Chinandega (30 km W). Previously, INETER reported that a 30-minute period of moderate-intensity explosions at Telica began at 0800 on 23 September. Abundant gas-and-ash emissions initially rose 400 m above the crater and drifted WNW, but then decreased to 50 m. Ashfall was reported in the community of Guanacastal. Explosions occurred at 1645 and 1648. Scientists conducting fieldwork observed deposits on the crater floor from an inner-wall landslide that had occurred on 17 July, and new fumaroles on the crater floor. Five explosions were detected on 24 September. Based on wind and satellite data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 September ash plumes rose as high as 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and N. During 28-29 September INETER noted that voluminous gas plumes rose from two vents on the crater floor. Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of 1061-m-high Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately SE of Telica, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.(GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Momotombo

April 15th, 2016

2016 eruption reports - INETER reported that three explosions at Momotombo during 5-6 April ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater. During 6-7 April there were 27 small explosions for a total of 438 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. The explosions ejected some incandescent material, and generated ash plumes that rose 200 m and drifted SW. RSAM values were low during 5-12 April. SINAPRED reported that on 2 April explosions at Momotombo produced gas-and-ash plumes and ejected incandescent tephra. On 28 March SINAPRED reported that 38 explosions were detected at Momotombo over a period of 24 hours, which ejected gas-and-ash plumes and incandescent tephra. The strongest event occurred at 1140 on 27 March and generated a plume that rose 1 km. During 2-3 March INETER reported that 53 small explosions at Momotombo generated low-energy gas plumes that rose 300 m above the crater. On 3 March some of the explosions produced ash plumes that drifted W and SW. RSAM values were at low to moderate levels. SINAPRED reported that during 5-6 March there were 78 explosions for a total of 279 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. One of the most significant explosions occurred on 6 March. The next day gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater. INETER reported that during 19 February-1 March explosions at Momotombo were detected daily; 88 explosions were detected during 1 December 2015-1 March 2016. Explosions produced ash plumes, and ejected incandescent material onto the N, NE, E, and SE flanks. Ash plumes rose 1.7-2.3 km above the crater and drifted SW during 21-22 February; gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.8 km on 24 February; an ash plume rose 1 km on 25 February; and a small gas-and-ash plume rose 300 m on 26 February. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the N and NW flanks during 23-24 February. Explosions on 27 February ejected tephra 300 m above the crater. At 0646 on 1 March explosions ejected gas and incandescent tephra; an ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted W and SW. The gas-and-ash emissions lasted 16 minutes, causing the plume to widen and darken the sky. INETER reported that during 16-17 February two explosions at Momotombo were accompanied by tremor, and produced ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The first and largest explosion (recorded at 0344) ejected incandescent tephra 800 m above the crater. RSAM values were at low-to-moderate levels. Based on webcam views and satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 February ash emissions rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and WSW. The next day ash emissions drifted SW. On 21 February ash plumes drifted about 80 km W and 25 km E. INETER reported moderate levels of gas emissions at Momotombo on 10 February; volcanic tremor and gas emissions increased to moderate-to-high levels the next day. An explosion on 12 February produced small ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the N and SE flanks. An explosion at 1305 on 15 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and ejected incandescent tephra onto the N and NE flanks. INETER reported that during 4-5 and 7-8 February both RSAM values at Momotombo were low to moderate and emissions were at moderate levels. INETER reported that during 26-29 January RSAM values at Momotombo were at low to moderate levels, and gas emissions were at moderate levels. Crater incandescence from high-temperature gas emissions was observed at night during 26-27 January. A Strombolian explosion at 0344 on 30 January ejected tephra onto the E, NE, N, and NW flanks, and produced gas emissions. At 0529 on 31 January another explosion also ejected gas, ash, and incandescent material. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas including the communities of Boqueron, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), and La Sabaneta. Moderate levels of gas emissions drifted SW towards Puerto Momotombo.INETER reported that during 20-21 January both RSAM values and emissions at Momotombo were low. Volcanic tremor increased at 0900 on 22 January, causing RSAM values to rise to high levels. There were no changes to emissions. INETER recommended to the public to stay at least 6 km away from the volcano. INETER reported that at 1209 on 12 January a large explosion at Momotombo ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and generated an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater. Tephra was deposited on the E, NE, N, and NW flanks. Ash plumes drifted downwind and caused ashfall in the communities of Flor de Piedra, La Concha (40 SSE), Amatistan, Guacucal (40 km N), La Palma, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), La Sabaneta, Mira Lago, Asentamiento Miramar, Pancasan, Rene Linarte, Raul Cabezas, and Betania. At around 0500 on 15 January strong volcanic tremor was accompanied by small explosions in the crater; ejected ash and incandescent tephra were deposited on the W flank. Seismicity decreased during 16-17 January. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, three gas-and-ash explosions on 2 January, at 1333, 1426, and 1434, excavated the remaining parts of the lava dome which was emplaced about a month ago. An ash plume rose 500 m above the crater, drifted S and SW, and caused ashfall in Puerto Momotombo (9 km WSW). Possible ash plumes from an explosion at 2129 were hidden by darkness. At 0420 on 3 January an explosion ejected lava bombs 2 km away and caused ashfall in La Paz Centro (18 km SW). Lava flows had advanced as far as 2 km down the NE flank. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, activity at Momotombo continued through 10 December. Fieldwork revealed a small, incandescent, circular crater halfway up Momotombo's E flank that was fuming during the morning on 6 December. An explosion on 7 December destroyed part of the crater. On 10 December SINAPRED reported that material had been accumulating in the crater since the beginning of the eruption on 1 December. Seismicity during 9-14 December was low and stable. Based on satellite and webcam observations, and seismic data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Momotombo rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-225 km NW and WNW. INETER reported that series of at least 4 small explosions occurred at the volcano on the morning, at 07:49, 08:17, 08:42, and 08:55 local time on 1st of December. The eruptions, in particular the last and largest one, produced steam and ash plumes that rose up to approx. 1 km from the summit. Light ash fall was observed in the community of El Papalonal and near the Momotombo geothermal plant to the SW of the volcano. Later, during the day, It seems that the volcano continues to erupt and have been intensifying its activity with near-continuous strombolian explosions accompanied with hot incandescent material and a small et slowly lava flows went down from the summit crater on the Northeast flank.Ashfall was reported in nearby communities to the W and SW, including La Concha, Los Arcos, Flor de la Piedra, La Paz Centro, and Leon. Some families in La Paz Centro self-evacuated. This is the first eruptive activity of the volcano in 110 years, the last confirmed eruption of Momotombo occurred in 1905 . Momotombo is a young, 1297-m-high stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows from Momotombo have flowed down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms a 391-m-high island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional larger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after an April 10, 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the southern flank of the volcano. INETER

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

March 5th, 2019

INETER reported that a low-energy explosion at San Cristobal was detected by the seismic network at 1550 on 4 March 2019. The event produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Previous news 2018 - INETER reported that at 1320 on 22 April a small explosion at San Cristobal generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in the La Bolsa region and Hacienda Las Rojas. Previously, INETER reported that a series of 14 explosions at San Cristobal began at 2134 on 7 November 2017. The first explosion was the strongest, causing an increase in RSAM to 150 units; RSAM dropped to 50 after the last explosion. Ash fell in areas to the W and NE, including in the communities of Los Farallones, San Agustin, La Mora, El Naranjo, and Chinandega. Based on seismic data INETER reported that a period of tremor recorded at San Cristobal during 1939-2005 on 9 September ended with an explosion signal. INETER and Sinapred reported that an ash eruption began this 18 August around 6:30 am local time at the San Cristobal volcano, the highest volcano in Nicaragua, and continued during the day. No rumblings or explosions were reported. The likely hydrothermal or phreatic episode began with a large degassing. Many communities have been impacted by ash falls, which have mainly affected the communities of La Grecia, Las Hamacas, Ranchería, La Joya and Mocorón. Based on analysis of satellite images and information from INETER, the Washington VAAC reported that a small ash puff from the volcano rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NW. Later that day a gas emission possibly containing ash rose 300 m and drifted W. An ash plume identified in satellite images extended as far as 265 km W. Seismicity was elevated. Steam-and-gas emissions continued through the rest of the day. Previously, INETER and SINAPRED reported that at 1020 on 22 April 2016 an explosion at San Cristobal produced an ash-and-gas plume that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted SW. The seismic network recorded 10 additional explosions by 1200. Ashfall was reported in local areas including Las Brisas (10 km S), San José (8 km SSE), Santa Narcisa, Pellizco Central (12 km SSE), Los Albanos, Los Lirios (18 km WSW), Santa Cruz (35 km SE), Las Grietas (14 km E), El Liberal, and San Lucas (13 km E). The INETER report noted that the last explosive activity occurred on 6 June 2015, though explosions that day were of lesser magnitudes. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP

NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

October 20th, 2019

According to news reports, ash was emitted from Masaya on 15 October, causing very minor ashfall in Colonia 4 de Mayo, 6 km NW. Previously, Ineter, reported that an explosion occurred on Sunday, July 21, in the afternoon in the crater Santiago of Masaya. According to official reports, the ashes released did not cause injuries to people who were near the crater and did not pose a problem for neighboring populations, but the authorities did not rule out any additional activities. The Masaya Park has been temporarily closed.Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage. GVN/GVP)

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El SALVADOR - San Miguel volcano

June 5th, 2018

SNET reported a significant increase in the number of low- and high-frequency earthquakes beneath San Miguel's crater beginning on 22 May. RSAM values fluctuated between 142 and 176 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 30 May-1 June. Webcam images on 30 May showed a small gray gas emission. On 2 March SNET reported that gas plumes rose as high as 400 m above San Miguel's crater rim during the previous week. Ash was in the emissions on 24, 26, and 28 February, and 1 March. RSAM values fluctuated between 70 and 179 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 1-2 March. At 2200 on 5 March seismic amplitude began to increase, with RSAM values rising to 318 units by 0600 on 6 March. A webcam recorded minor gas emission during 5-6 March. SNET reported that during 0800-1100 on 19 February gas-and-ash emissions from San Miguel rose 350 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Ash fell on the upper flanks of the volcano, and a sulfur odor was reported in La Piedra farm. On 2 February SNET reported that seismicity at San Miguel was decreasing, along with a decrease in emissions. RSAM values fluctuating between 63 and 114 units; normal values are between 50 and 150. Small pulses of gas near the crater rim were visible. SNET reported that during 25-26 January seismic activity at San Miguel was slightly higher than normal, with RSAM values fluctuating between 75 and 179 units. Small pulses of gas near the crater rim were visible. SNET reported that during 14-17 January there were four gas-and-ash emissions from San Miguel that rose no higher than 300 m above the crater rim. The report noted that prior to each emission seismicity decreased and then suddenly increased. SNET reported that at 1653 on 14 January and 1615 on 15 January gas-and-ash plumes from San Miguel rose no more than 300 m above the crater rim and dispersed SW. The report noted that prior to both emissions seismicity decreased and then suddenly increased. Previously - On 19 May 2017 SNET reported that during the previous 24 hours RSAM values at San Miguel continued to decrease, fluctuating between 69 and 80 units (typical background levels average 50 units). Sulfur dioxide flux was also lower, though changing winds may have affected readings. SNET reported that during 28 April-5 May RSAM values at San Miguel had decreased and fluctuated between 50 and 173 units (typical background levels average 50 units). Sulfur dioxide flux was also lower, though changing winds may have affected readings. SNET reported that during 27-28 April RSAM values at San Miguel fluctuated between 106 and 176 units (typical background levels average 50 units). At 1532 on 27 April a strong gas plume rose 1.2 km above the crater rim. In a special report from 17 April 2017, SNET reported an increase in seismicity and gas emissions from San Miguel in recent days. Earlier that day during 0620-0630 RSAM values spiked to 356, an increase over normal values around 50. During 18-21 and 23-24 April RSAM values fluctuated between 80 and over 300. The symmetrical cone of San Miguel volcano, one of the most active in El Salvador, rises from near sea level to form one of the country's most prominent landmarks. A broad, deep crater that has been frequently modified by historical eruptions (recorded since the early 16th century) caps the truncated summit of the towering volcano, which is also known locally as Chaparrastique. Radial fissures on the flanks of the basaltic volcano have fed a series of fresh lava flows, including several erupted during the 17th-19th centuries that reached beyond the base of the volcano on the N, W, and SE sides. The SE-flank lava flows are the largest and form broad sparsely vegetated lava fields. GVN - (SNET)

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COLOMBIA - Galeras volcano

April 22nd, 2013

INGEOMINAS reported that during 15-21 May seismicity at Galeras was at a low level; during 19-20 May earthquakes with magnitudes 2.6 or less were concentrated in an area 3 km SW at depths near 4 km. Gas plumes rose 500 m above the crater and contained small amounts of ash during 15-16 and 20-21 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). INGEOMINAS reported that during 10-16 April 2913 earthquakes at Galeras were located in various areas as far as 13 km from the crater, at depths no greater than 14 km and with maximum magnitudes of 2. Moderate levels of sulfur dioxide were detected; plumes drifted NW. Cameras recorded ash emissions all week, especially on 9, 11, 12, and 14 April, when pulsating activity produced plumes that drifted W. Plumes rose no more than 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").INGEOMINAS reported that during 30 October-6 November 2012 seismicity at Galeras fluctuated but was slightly lower compared to the previous week. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low. Cameras around Galeras recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising from the crater on 30 October and 1 November. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. Webcam image

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Ruiz

October 6th, 2019

Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 24 September-1 October seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz increased in both frequency and magnitude compared to the previous week. Steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the summit and drifted mainly NW. A tremor pulse recorded at 2353 on 29 September was associated with an ash plume that drifted NW and was observed by Parque Nacional Natural los Nevados (PNNN) officials, SGC staff in the field, and residents of Manizales (25 km NW). Seismicity continued to indicate gas-and-ash emissions during 1-4 October. Beginning at 0138 on 4 October seismicity increased; several ash emissions were visible during the morning in webcam images and by SGC staff in the field. The emissions rose as high has 800 m and drifted mainly NW, causing ashfall locally and in Manizales. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 23-30 July small plumes of gas and ash rose from Nevado del Ruiz based on webcam images. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).As of the 20th of April, Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) reported that during past week various episodes of explosive ash emissions occurred, with plumes of variable height, between 230 and 1,300 meters; these emissions were concomitant with pulsatile tremor and LP low energy earthquakes.Most of the ash has been dispersed to the north-west and south-east of the volcano, and further falls of ash are expected.The level of activity is maintained at 3-yellow / behavioral changes of volcanic activity.Previous news 2018 - Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 24-30 October 2018 seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest. Seismicity increased during 26-27 October, with signals concentrated in an area 4.6 km WSW of Arenas Crater at depths of 4-6 km. Plumes of water vapor, ash, and gas continued to rise from the volcano, and on 26 October a plume rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Previously, Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 8-14 August 2017seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest; seismicity decreased as compared to the previous week. Plumes of water vapor and gas continued to be emitted from the volcano. A gas-and-steam plume rose 450 m above the crater rim on 8 August and drifted NW. A thermal anomaly was identified on 14 August. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale)..Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption. (GVN/GVP)

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PERU - Ubinas volcano

October 15th, 2019

IGP reported that during the period from 7th to 13th of October, the eruptive activity remained light, and characterized by magmatic gas emissions and steam at less than 1,000 meters above the summit. At the seismicity level, 3533 earthquakes were recorded in relation to the eruptive process, with a predominance of VT earthquakes of M <2.1. No significant signs at the deformation level, and three small thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova. During the period from 16 to 22 September, the IGP recorded and analyzed a total of 4.356 seismic events, with a predominant volcano-tectonic (VT) type seismicity with an average value of 567 events per day, all of a magnitude less than M2.5. Seismic signals that would be related to the rise of the magma (hybrid type) were also recorded, at the rate of 119 events per day.During 10-15 September the number of seismic events at Ubinas totaled 4,093, with volcano-tectonic (VT) signals being the most numerous, averaging 572 events per day, and all having magnitudes under M 2.5. Hybrid events averaged 299 events per day. Continuous emissions of blueish gas and water vapor were recorded by the webcam rising to heights less than 1.5 km above the summit. Two thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. An explosion at 0725 on 12 September produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 1.5 km and affected several districts S and SE in the Moquegua region. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. IGP reported that during 3-9 September three volcanic explosions were detected at Ubinas, all producing eruption plumes that rose to heights less than 2.5 km above the crater rim. The largest, and first, was recorded at 1358 on 3 September and produced significant amounts of ash and gas, affecting areas to the S and SE. After the explosions gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 1 km. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. IG reported that the volcano experienced an explosion on September 3 at 13:58 local, accompanied by an ash plume of 5,500 meters above the crater, then dispersed to the south and southeast in the district of Ubinas. IG reported that during the past week the seismic activity was slightly increased with an average of 118 to 225 episodes per day, with a weekly total of 2828 earthquakes. No explosions were recorded; only a moderate emission of ash is reported on September 1 at 9:45 pm, associated with a tremor signal; On the other hand, the emissions of gas and steam are continuous and reach 1,000 meters above the summit. Three thermal anomalies were reported by Mirova attesting to the proximity of the magma to the surface. Following a few weeks of calm, new ash emissions occurred on August 26 at 10:30, and few later a phreatic activity occurred generating a plume that reached 1,600 meters above the crater, then dispersed to a north and northwest sector (San Juan de Tarucani district). Continuous ash emissions on 27 August were recorded by satellite and webcam images drifting S and SW. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 15-km radius. As of the 23rd of August, IGP reported that the eruptive process continued. A decrease in seismic activity related to the rise of magma was recorded, but the satellite images indicate the presence of a hot magmatic body close to the surface, and emissions of bluish gas (magmatic gas) and steam vapor. water were observed. IGP reported that during 13-19 August blue-colored gas plumes from Ubinas rose to heights of less than 1.5 km above the base of the crater. Seven thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. The number of seismic events was 1,716 (all under M 2.4), a decrease in the total number recorded during the previous week. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 15-km radius. As of the 14th of August the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) reported that the Ubinas volcano continued its eruptive process. Bluish gas (magmatic gas) and water vapor emissions observed by surveillance cameras continue to be recorded. Satellites detected thermal anomalies which indicate the proximity of the magma to the surface of the crater. As of the 28th of July satellite images by visible infrared radiometers (VIIRS), thermal anomalies observed on the edges of the Ubinas volcano crater corresponding to the presence of a body of lava / lava plug about 180 m. diameter at the base of the crater, which would prevent the emission of gas and ash. At the seismicity level, during the 7-day period, 2,295 earthquakes with a magnitude of less than 2 were recorded, including a percentage related to the rise and movements of fluids. IGP reported a total of 1,522 seismic events between July 20th and 24th, all of a magnitude below 2.2. During the analyzed period, an increase in seismic signals in relation to the rise of the magma (LP & hybrids) causes fear of explosive activity in terms of hours or days; it should be noted that more than 35 hours have passed since the last explosion. Thermic anomalies remain moderate to low, between 11 and 6 MW. Updated information on Ubinas' activity on July 23rd at 8pm. Peruvian autorities and INGEMMET reported that anomalies in the various geophysical parameters are associated with the rise of magma and the increase of seismic energy, LP and hybride, similar to the scenario that preceded the 22 July explosion at 23:25.Due to rainfall in the volcano area, lahars are possible. Ingemmet recommends to the populations of the villages of Querapi, Ubinas, Escacha, Huatahua, Tonohaya, Sacohaya, and San Miguel, to evacuate immediately, before a possible increase of the volcanic activity. IGP reported that new ash emissions occurred between 500 and 1.500 m., during the day of July 22, scattered to the southeast.An explosion on July 22 around 11:25 pm projected incandescent materials. The ashes spread over more than 10 km. to the villages of Ubinas, Lloque and Chojata districts.IGP reported that ash emissions continued to Ubinas on July 21, reaching about 500 meters above the crater, with scattering in a southeast and east sector of the volcano.The I.G.Peru does not notice deformation and probably a continuation of the eruptive process at moderate level. The orange alert level is maintained, moderate explosions can occur, accompanied by consequent emissions of ashes. IGP reported that explosive activity continued on July 20, with smaller ash plumes, rising to an estimated height of 7,300 meters (flight altitude 240). The Peruvian authorities ordered on Friday the evacuation of hundreds of people living near the Ubinas volcano in southern Peru, after two explosions and a rain of ashes and gas. The evacuation was decided after the announcement by the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) of raising the level of volcanic alert from yellow to orange. About 15,000 people are exposed to ashes within a radius of 30 km.The Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) reported that since 2 h 35 July 19th, 2019 an intense explosive activity on the volcano Ubinas. Three volcanic explosions generated energy equivalent to earthquakes of magnitude 5.8, M5.3 and M4.1. as well as typical tremors of intense ash and gas emissions.The deformation of the volcanic structure does not show any anomalies, and TROPOMI (SO2) and MIROVA data do not show any significant changes.The column of ash has exceeded 7 km height above the crater level / 12.2 km asl. According to VAAC Buenos Aires, the cloud spreads towards Bolivia. Ash falls have been recorded in the cities of Ubinas, Escacha, Anascapa, Matalaque, San Miguel, Huarina, Tonohaya, for which an ash dispersal alert has also been launched so that the authorities and take steps to prevent harm to health. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismic activity at Ubinas remained elevated during 1-15 July; volcano-tectonic events averaged 279 per day and long-period events (indicating fluid movement) averaged 116 events per day. Minor bluish emissions rose from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (on a 4-level scale). Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and INGEMMET reported that seismic activity at Ubinas remained elevated during 24-30 June; volcano-tectonic events averaged 200 per day and signals indicating fluid movement averaged 38 events per day. Emissions of gas, water vapor, andash rose from the crater and drifted N and NE based on webcam views and corroborated with satellite data. According to a news article an eruption plume rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted 10 km NE. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (on a 4-level scale) on 27 June. The Instituto Geofisico del Perú informs that the volcano Ubinas has begun a new eruptive process. Eighty earthquakes related to the movements of volcanic fluids (water vapor, gas and magma), and 150 earthquakes / day, associated with the rupture of rocks were recorded between June 21st and 24th, 2019.On June 24, ash and gas emissions were observed, dispersing to the north and northeast of the crater.No significant deformation is noticed, nor thermal anomalies; SO2 levels show no change. The IGP recommends that the authorities move from the alert level from green to yellow. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

PERU - Sabancaya volcano

November 5th, 2019

Instituto Geofosico del Peru (IGP) reported that an average of 28 low-to-medium intensity explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 28 October-3 November. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the summit and drifted W, SW, and S. There were nine thermal anomalies identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius. As of the 29 th of October at 9:43, a notice of ash dispersion was issued for Sabancaya by IG Peru; it concerns a radius of more than 20 km around the volcano, and particularly the western and southwestern sectors. Ingemmet (OVI), noted the same day the presence of a large lava dome in the crater of volcano. The dome filled much of the northern sector of the crater, with an area of ​​approximately 50,000 m². According to the latest estimates, the lava dome has about 4.6 million cubic meters. At the same time, volcanic explosions emitting mainly gases and ashes were recorded.The recording was carried out by the overflight of the drone over the massive crater on October 26, 2019. As of the 15th of October IGP reported a moderate eruptive activity at Sabancaya, characterized by an average of 36 medium-to-low explosions per day and ash and gas plumes up to 3,500 meters above the summit. .Fifteen thermal anomalies, between 1 and 5 MW, were recorded between 7 and 13 October. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that an average of 15 low-to-medium intensity explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 23-29 September. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.7 km above the summit and drifted NW, W, and SW. There were 11 thermal anomalies identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius. The I.G.Peru issued on 24 September at 12:18 local a notice of ash dispersion following the explosions at Sabancaya. The recommendations for ash fall concern the districts of Huambo and Lluta, west-southwest direction.IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano has remained at moderate levels, characterized by continuous explosions and the subsequent emission of ashes.The analysis of records obtained from the seismic network of the Sabancaya volcano for the period from 16 to 22 September 2019 has identified the presence of about 2,282 earthquakes of volcanic origin, the highest percentage of which is associated with the movement of magmatic fluids inside the volcano. During this week, they recorded an average of 24 medium to low intensity daily explosions. The plumes of gas and ash rise up to 2,500 meters above the summit, dispersed towards a south and surd-east sector. IGP reported that on September 20, the Sabancaya continuously emitted ash; they dispersed in a radius of 10 km towards Huanca y Lluta and its surroundings.The VAAC Buenos Aires mentions ashes at the altitude of flight 240, ie 7,300 meters. IGP reported that eruptive activity has remained at moderate levels between 9 and 15 September, with moderate and continuous explosions accompanied by ash emissions. At the seismology level, 2561 earthquakes of volcanic origin have been recorded, most of them associated with the movement of magmatic fluids (LP) and some signals associated with the breaking of rocks inside the volcano. The seismic signals associated with the rock rupture (VT) were located 14 km east of the Sabancaya volcano crater and 10 km deep, with magnitudes less than M3.5. During the last week, 32 average daily explosions were recorded, ranging from medium to low magnitude. Visual surveillance, using surveillance cameras, made it possible to visualize the occurrence of columns of gas and ashes until 2.5 km high above the top of the volcano, which were later dispersed to E and SE areas of Sabancaya. I.G. Peru reported that during the past week (26tth of August - 1st of September), Sabancaya had moderate eruptive activity, with an average of 26 explosions per day, accompanied by ash plumes up to 2,000 meters above the summit. During the week, 3312 volcanic earthquakes were recorded, including a major percentage associated with magmatic fluid movements. Eleven thermal anomalies, between 3 and 62 MW, have been identified, associated with the presence of a hot magma body close to the surface and explosions. IGP reported that activity remained at a moderate level during the week of August 19-25, with an average of 18 explosions per day, accompanied by ash plumes reaching max. 2,400 meters above the top of the volcano, and dispersed to a sector South and East. Thirteen thermal anomalies, ranging from 3 to 30 MW, associated with the presence of a hot magmatic body near the surface and explosions, were recorded. At the seismicity level, 2,187 volcanic earthquakes are recorded during the week, most of them associated with magmatic fluid movements. IGP reported that an average of 25 low-to-medium intensity explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 12-18 August. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted SE, S, and SW. There were eight thermal anomalies identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius. Sabancaya, located on the saddle between 6288-m-high Ampato and 6025-m-high Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three volcanoes, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. Both Nevado Ampato and Nevado Sabancaya are only slightly affected by glacial erosion and consist of a series of lava domes aligned along a NW-SW trend. The name of 5967-m-high Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua Indian language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750. (GVN/GVP)

PERU - Misti volcano

June 5th, 2014

No new data since 2014 - Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) reported that, during the last 12 months, seismicity at El Misti was dominated by volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. Two seismic swarms (more than 100 events per day) occurred during the last three months, on 19 May and 3 June. An increase in tremor was noted in April, although the total duration did not exceed 10 minutes and was generally low-amplitude. Long-period seismicity was not significant. In the last 15 days, seismicity increased slightly and tremor was recorded daily. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismicity at El Misti increased during January, and a seismic swarm consisting of 119 volcano-tectonic events was detected during 14-15 January. Despite the increase, activity remained at a low level. El Misti, Peru's most well-known volcano, is a symmetrical andesitic stratovolcano with nested summit craters that towers above the city of Arequipa. The modern symmetrical cone, constructed within a small 1.5 x 2 km wide summit caldera that formed between about 13,700 and 11,300 years ago, caps older Pleistocene volcanoes that underwent caldera collapse about 50,000 years ago. A large scoria cone has grown with the 830-m-wide outer summit crater of El Misti. At least 20 tephra-fall deposits and numerous pyroclastic-flow deposits have been documented during the past 50,000 years, including a pyroclastic flow that traveled 12 km to the south about 2000 years ago. El Misti's most recent activity has been dominantly pyroclastic, and strong winds have formed a parabolic dune field of volcanic ash extending up to 20 km downwind. An eruption in the 15th century affected Inca inhabitants living near the volcano. Some reports of historical eruptions may represent in creased fumarolic activity. Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and (GVN/GVP)

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CHILE-ARGENTINA - Copahue volcano

October 20th, 2019

VAAC Buenos Aires reported on October 19th an explosion accompanied by a plume of ashes at Copahue, on the border between Chile and Argentina, at 3,000 meters altitude (flight altitude 100) moving southwards 35 km away.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported that during 2-7 October a webcam at Copahue recorded white and gray emissions rising as high as 300 m above the El Agrio Crater rim and drifting ENE, SE, and SSE. By 7 October the number and intensity of seismic events detected at Copahue had decreased to low levels. The volcano Alert Level was lowered to Yellow (second lowest level on a four-color scale). ONEMI maintained the Yellow Alert (the middle level on a three-color scale) for residents, and stated that the public should stay at least 1 km away from El Agrio Crater. SERNAGEOMIN/ OVDAS raised the alert level to orange, following the recording on webcams on 1st of October from 9:45 local a gray plume formed of fine particles, associated with minor explosions at the crater, and also detected by infrasonic equipment. On the other hand, the earthquakes VT, in relation with the movements of fluids, with epicentres to 6 km of the crater El Agrio, continue. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that since mid-September, LP earthquakes of low energy, in relation with a superficial volcanic activity in the crater, has been observed.This activity was characterized by a continuous degassing, more intensely observed according to the atmospheric conditions, and sometimes charged with ashes, which darken the snow-covered slopes.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that a long-period (LP) earthquake recorded at 1657 on 11 September correlated with an infrasound signal from an explosion; a gas-and-ash emission rose to low heights. A larger explosion, recorded at 2245 along with an LP earthquake, produced a plume that rose 250 m above the crater rim. Incandescent deposits around the vent were visible at night, and a 3-km-long ash deposit, covering an area of 3.4 square kilometers, was visible on the ESE flank. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (second lowest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 500 m of the crater. ONEMI maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobio. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity at Copahue increased at 1250 on 9 September, characterized by increased amplitude of continuous tremor. Anomalies in the seismic signals suggested elevated surface activity, though cloudy weather prevented visual observations. According to the Buenos Aires VAAC diffuse steam emissions recorded by the webcam on 10 September rose to 3.5 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and possibly contained minor amounts of ash. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (second lowest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 500 m of the crater.ONEMI maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobío.SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Copahue stations in Chile recorded a volcano-tectonic earthquake associated with rock fracturing of local magnitude 3.4 and a depth of 3.4 km on July 7 at 03:03 local time, followed by five aftershocks of lower magnitude.Volcanic technical alert level remains at Yellow Previously, on 5 April OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity at Copahue increased during 1-31 March, characterized by abundant volcano-tectonic earthquakes and increases in long-period and very-long-period earthquakes. In addition, the level of the lake water in El Agrio crater had dropped compared to previous months. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 500 m of the crater. ONEMI raised the Alert Level to Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobio. On 6 February OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level for Copahue to Green, the lowest level on a four-color scale, noting the return of the crater lake and infrequent surficial activity. In addition, data from the geodetic monitoring network showed only slight deformation during the previous three months. ONEMI lowered the Alert Level to Green (the lowest level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobio. Previously, Sernageomin / OVDAS rereported that from 3:20pm a seismic swarm occurred on 6th of December :200 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, associated with rock fracturing occurred 6.2 km at the ENE crater El Agrio.The strongest earthquake, from ML 3.1, is recorded at 15:56 at a depth of 4,600 meters.The superficial activity of the volcano is still characterized by a plume of gas and fine particles which rose to about 800 meters high. Volcan Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Rio Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Copahue since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Lascar

April 10th, 2018

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that, although seismicity at Lascar during March was low, characteristics of the signals were similar to patterns observed prior to previous minor phreatic explosions, particularly before events in 2013 and 2015. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 5 km of the crater. ONEMI declared an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for San Pedro de Atacama. Lascar is the most active volcano of the northern Chilean Andes. The andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano contains six overlapping summit craters. Prominent lava flows descend its NW flanks. An older, higher stratovolcano 5 km E, Volcán Aguas Calientes, displays a well-developed summit crater and a probable Holocene lava flow near its summit (de Silva and Francis, 1991). Lascar consists of two major edifices;
activity began at the eastern volcano and then shifted to the western cone. The largest eruption took place about 26,500 years ago, and following the eruption of the Tumbres scoria flow about 9000 years ago, activity shifted back to the eastern edifice, where three overlapping craters were formed. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the mid-19th century, along with periodic larger eruptions that produced ashfall hundreds of kilometers away. The largest historical eruption took place in 1993, producing pyroclastic flows to 8.5 km NW of the summit and ashfall in Buenos Aires.
(SERNAGEOMIN)

CHILE- ARGENTINA border - Planchon-Peteroa volcano

March 8th, 2019

As of the 8th of March, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the cameras always show a constant degassing of gray color, marked by a plume at a height of less than 2,000 meters, indicating the presence of particles, moving mainly towards the southwest.The seismicity of the last days was characterized by VT earthquakes, associated with the fracturing of rocks, and a large number of LP earthquakes, in relation with the dynamics of the internal fluids.The superficial activity of Peteroa suggests that we are dealing with an open system. Alert level remains at Amarillo / change in behavior of volcanic activity. SERNAGEOMIN surface activity has continued since the beginning of February. The gray plumes, with a maximum height around 2,000 meters above the crater are still observed this 23 February. The alert level remain Yellow. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the superficial activity of Peteroa has continued since the beginning of February. The gray plumes, with a maximum height around 2,000 meters above the crater shows with the presence of ash a volcanic system open in the superficial part of the volcano. On February 22, plumes, more or less laden with ashes, were observed throughout the day. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 6th of February, the intense eruptive activity was still continuing, marked by a change of wind direction, which blows the ash plume to the northeast and the Vergara international pass, between Chile and Argentina. On the morning of February 3, Sernageomin recorded a continuous increase in the column of gas and particles at about 1,600 meters above the crater, dispersing to an eastern secto. An episode at 10:33 local, was associated with tremor and a low displacement. The energy of the seismic signal has been rising since February 1st. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 1st February from 5 pm local time, the cameras recorded a steady and continuous increase in particulate matter emissions, with a column of 2,000 meters and a dispersion towards the east. This episode was accompanied by VLP earthquakes between 17 and 19h local, in connection with the injection of magma from a greater depth, and tremor.The increase in ash emissions and seismicity suggest an open system, and possible new minor eruptive episodes affecting the area of ​​active craters. The alert is maintained in yellow level. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on January 15 at 9h56 PM local an explosion accompanied by a greyish ash plume at about 600 meters, moving mainly northwest.In a previous bulletin, the Sernageomin specified that according to the observations and the recorded measurements, a new eruptive cycle of phreatomatic characteristics develops, following the possible contact of a magmatic body with a part of the hydrothermal system. which would facilitate the fragmentation of a minor volume of magma and the expansion of steam and the emission of ashes.The alert level remains in Amarilla. Previously, Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS)-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported increased activity at Planchon-Peteroa beginning in the morning of 16 December. Low-intensity pulses of tremor were detected by the seismic network and associated with pulsating grayish gas emissions which rose no higher than 800 m above the vent rim. Webcams recorded crater incandescence during the night of 15-16 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the volcano, and ONEMI maintained Alert Level Yellow for the communities of Molina (66 WNW), Curica (68 km NW), Romeral (75 km NW), and Teno (68 km NW). The OVDAS / Sernageomin reports an explosive emission of ashes and gas this December 14 at 9:57 local to the complex Planchón Peteroa located on the border Chilio-Argentina, associated with a seismic signal LP and tremor, which remained after the emission .The gray plume rose to 800 meters before dispersing to the east. The alert level remains in Amarillo. Planchón-Peteroa is an elongated complex volcano along the Chile-Argentina border with several overlapping calderas. Activity began in the Pleistocene with construction of the basaltic-andesite to dacitic Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of basaltic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the north. About 11,500 years ago, much of Azufre and part of Planchón collapsed, forming the massive Río Teno debris avalanche, which traveled 95 km to reach Chile's Central Valley. Subsequently, Volcán Planchón II was formed. The youngest volcano, andesitic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Peteroa, consists of scattered vents between Azufre and Planchón. Peteroa has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake. Historical eruptions from the complex have been dominantly explosive, although lava flows were erupted in 1837 and 1937. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Nevado de Chillan

November 2nd, 2019

SERNAGEOMIN reported that the seismicity of the past 24 hours was characterized by volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the most energetic located 3.4 km northwest of the active crater and 3.2 km deep, LP and VLP earthquakes, and tremor. Emissions of gases and particles have been episodic; during the night, the explosions projected glowing materials around the crater. SERNAGEOMIN recorded some explosions during the day of October 31, 2019. They were not very energetic and were accompanied by plume at about 1,000 meters, loaded with ashes.The Naranja alert level remains maintained. SERNAGEOMIN reported that iffuse white plumes rose from the crater on 25 and 29 October; cloudy weather obscured views in between those dates. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabia¡n, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank. As of the 24th of October, SERNAGEOMIN reported high energy explosions, associated with a seismic signal LP and emissions of gas and pyroclasts, respectively at 0h33 local,  6:43 local, 9:44 local , and 17:06 local. The dispersion of emissions is predominantly eastward. Since October 16th, a new lava flow has been observed on the NE flank; its progress remains slow. ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 2-8 October white-to-gray gas plumes from Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater rose as high as 1 km above the rim and drifted ESE, S, and SE. Explosions on 2 and 6 October ejected incandescent material onto the flank. The lava flow on the NNE flank ceased advancing around 6 October, and small pyroclastic flows were recorded during 6-8 October. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabian, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank. ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 24 September-1 October white-to-gray gas plumes from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater rose as high as 1.3 km above the rim and drifted NE, E, and SE. Explosions sometimes ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. A lava flow on the NNE flank continued to advance at a low rate. Ashfall was reported 15 km WNW in Las Trancas on 24 September. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank. ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 10-17 September white-to-gray gas plumes from Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater rose 400-800 m above the rim and drifted NE, E, and SE. Explosions sometimes ejected incandescent material onto the E and SE flanks. A lava flow on the NNE flank was 100 m wide, 5 m thick, and had advanced 600 m by 14 September. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabian, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank. SERNAGEOMIN reported that Since Thursday, September 12, the extrusion of a block lava flow occurred from the crater Nicanor on the NNE side of the Nuevo volcano; it extends over 600 meters, and 100 meters wide, for an average thickness of 5 meters. The surface temperature of the lava, measured by the thermal camera is around 800 ° C in the active crater, and is greater than 100 ° C in the front of the lava flow.This new dynamic is still accompanied by ballistic emissions and projections, in some cases visible from the valley to Trancas and Shangri-lá; ash causes deposits 0.5 cm thick 2 km southwest of the active crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that four explosive episodes occurred on September 3, respectively at 1:40, 3:57, 3:13 pm, and 7:03 pm local, all associated with LP earthquakes in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids.Sernageomin observed various explosive episodes on September 01, respectively at 8:54, 8:58, 9:16, 12:03, 12:51 and 18:32 local. Each time, these explosions were accompanied by LP The alert level remains Naranja.SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 21 and 22 August, explosions were observed respectively at 15:34 local and 14:58 local, each time accompanied by LP earthquake in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids.The technical alert remains orange. SERNAGEOMIN/OVDAS reported multiple explosions at Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater during 14-20 August, each associated with long-period earthquakes. Two explosions on 14 August, at 0000 and 0029, produced gas emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. An explosion at 1200 on 16 August produced a grayish ash plume that rose 110 m. Another explosion was detected at 1625 on 17 August. A grayish gas plume from an explosion at 1343 on 18 August rose 400 m, and an explosion at 1938 on 20 August ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabian, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank. The technical alert level remains orange and a map of potential risks has been updated by the Onemi. SERNAGEOMIN / OVDAS reported several explosions on August 13, respectively at 4:27 local time, 10:58 and 11:16 LT, associated with LP earthquakes, in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids; Incandescence associated with the gases and pyroclastic materials emitted in the vicinity of the crater was observed. On August 14, two explosions were reported at 0h local time and 2h29 local time, associated with LP earthquakes. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the control stations recorded an explosion, associated with a long period earthquake (LP) in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids, this August 10 at 22h23 local / 11 August at 02h23 UTC. The depth of the earthquake was 300 meters, and the displacement reduced by 210 cm². Incandescence, related to the emission of gases and pyroclastic materials of high temperature, was observed; deposits in the area of ​​the active crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that a new explosion occurred on August. 8th at 4:38 pm, associated with an LP earthquake, in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids, at 1.6 km depth. Incandescence associated with gas and material emissions was observed, as well as deposition around the active crater. The alert level remains orange. On 6 August ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater increased in the previous few days, characterized by an increase in the size and occurrence of explosions. Specifically, there were 129 explosive events recorded since 3 August. Dense gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and ejected material onto the flanks. Crater incandescence was visible at night. A lahar traveled 1.5 km NNE. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabia¡n. As of the 4th of August, SERNAGEOMIN reportes that volcano-tectonic and wide-period earthquakes continued, as well as the tremor. LP earthquakes and the tremor are related to the frequent, weak to moderate, explosions associated with the growth-destruction cycle of the dome in the Nicanor crater. Winter conditions and the appearance of snow on landforms increase the risk of lahars, which should be small volumes. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the "contructive-destructive activity" of the Nicanor crater dome of the Nevados de Chillan complex continues cyclically, marked by LP earthquakes and tremor episodes. On the morning July 25, 2019 from 5:33, the webcam showed incandescence at the top and gas emissions. The volcanic alert remains orange. ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosive event at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater recorded at 0657 on 14 July was associated with a long-period earthquake signal. The explosion ejected incandescent material onto areas near the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.SERNAGEOMIN reported that on Tuesday, July 9 at 05:50 local time (09:50 UT on 9 July), the control stations located near the Nevados Volcanic Complex in Chillan recorded an explosive event, associated with the occurrence of a long-lasting earthquake (LP), linked to the dynamics fluids inside the volcanic system.The explosion was associated with the recording of a seismic signal with a reduced displacement value (measured seismic energy) of 587cm2, considered high. Similarly, an incandescent associated with gas emission and high-temperature pyroclastic material was observed, which deposited in the area near the active crater. As of the 8th of July SERNAGEOMIN reported that the minor eruption continued; in the past 24 hours, seismicity has been characterized by VT earthquakes, one of which is of high energy, located at 1 km SSE from Nicanor crater and 3.1 km deep, large period earthquakes and tremor episodes. Nighttime glow is observed, associated with the emission of gases and particulate matter deposited around the active crater.SERNAGEOMIN reported on June 3rd at 9:23 local / 1:23 pm UTC an explosion at Nevados de Chillan, associated with an LP earthquake, in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids at a depth of 2 km. The explosion is linked to a partial destruction of the lava dome of Nicanor crater, and remains as part of a continuous minor eruption. SERNAGEOMIN reported an explosion on May 12 at 20:03 local, associated with an LP earthquake in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids, which partially destroyed the summit dome. An incandescence related to the emission of gases and pyroclastic materials of high temperature, and deposits in the vicinity of the crater are observed.The activity remains at the alert level orange. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater continued a cycle of slow growth and partial destruction from explosions during 23-30 April. The pulsating, generally white, emissions were sometimes gray and rose no higher than 900 m above the crater rim and drifted NW, S, and SE. Nighttime webcam data showed incandescent ejecta around the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km.ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.SERNAGEOMIN reported that on April 9th at 4:57 local, the monitoring stations of Nevados de Chillan recorded a new explosion accompanied by incandescence and ejection of high temperature pyroclastic materials deposited around the crater Nicanor, and an LP seismic signal in relation to the dynamics of the internal fluids. This episode is probably related to the partial destruction of the intracraterl dome. SERNAGEOMIN recorded at 4:03 AM ( local time on Monday, April 8 an explosion at the main crater, accompanied by a local earthquake LP 3.4 at a depth of 1.360 meters generating falls of incandescent materials on the flanks. An LP earthquake was recorded at 8:45 AM (local time) at a depth of 900 m., Associated with an explosion that generated a plume of gas at 2,700 meters above the crater level. Particulate material was found in the vicinity of the active crater and on the northern sector of the volcano.The technical alert remained orange.SERNAGEOMIN reported that an eruptive episode occurred during evening 22nd of March at 22:23, characterized by a plume of ashes and gases, and emission on its flanks of incandescent materials.SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 8 March local 8:45 a LP earthquake, in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids, and associated with an explosion that generated a plume of gas 2,700 meters above the active crater of Nevados de Chillan. Particles are found in the vicinity of the crater and in a northern sector. The dacite dome keeps a low growth ratio; in these conditions, the explosions should remain moderate, with an impact within a radius of 1 km around the crater. The alert remains in Orange.The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, 3212-m-high Cerro Blanco (Volcan Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group, and 3089-m-high Volcan Viejo (Volcan Chillan), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcan Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcan Viejo in altitude. The Volcan Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcan Nuevo between 1973 and 1986, eventually exceeding its height by 20 m. (GVN/GVP)

Chile - Villarica

September 20th, 2019

ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN noted that the activity was consistent with the elevated seismicity detected by the seismic network during the previous few days. Seismicity and explosive activity in the crater both began decreasing on 12 September and continued a downward trend at least through 16 September. Discrete tremor signals disappeared during 15-16 September,
with moderate levels of continuous tremor dominating the signal. No explosions were detected. SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucon (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and changed the exclusion zone for the public to a radius of 1 km around the crater. ONEMI and POVI reported that the seismic network at Villarrica recorded significant variations in seismicity beginning at 0030 on 8 September, characterized by an increase in the number of long-period (LP) events from 20 to 50 per hour. LP events ceased to be detected around 1030 and short periods of high-energy tremor began. Weather clouds prevented views of the summit crater, though the characteristics of the seismicity indicated fluctuating lava-lake activity. The increased seismicity persisted on 9 September, prompting SERNAGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level to Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI has maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) since 6 August for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), and Curarrehue, along with the commune of Panguipulli and stated that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater. On 10 September seismicity remained high; infrasound signals were recorded at a rate of 50 events per hour. POVI reported on August 12 a collapse of a segment of the eastern edge of the crater of Villarica under the weight of snow, based on zenith images of Sentinel / Copernicus, and images from the ground. POVI reported that during 24-25 July multiple Strombolian explosions in Villarrica’s summit crater were detected in seismic data and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. An overflight of Villarica on July 25 confirmed the presence of a lava lake at the summit, at a depth less than that of previous days. As of the 23rd of July, Sernageomin / OVDAS reported some changes in the behavior of volcanic activity in Villarica. At the seismicity level, the LP earthquakes ceased, with an evolution towards a discrete tremor, at the rate of 2 episodes per hour. The webcams record a major incandescence, evidence of a more intense surface activity attributed to the presence of the lava lake closer to the surface and whose dynamics is fluctuating, which generates small Strombolian explosions reaching a diameter of 200 meters, accompanied by ballistic projections around the crater and on the upper flanks. The level of the volcanic technical alert remains green.
POVI reported that webcam images captured deposits of incandescent material on the flank 300 m from Villarrica’s summit crater in the morning of 15 July. Incandescent material from lava fountaining ejected above the crater rim was periodically visible on 16 July.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported that during 1-31 May gas plumes rose as high as 170 m above Villarrica's crater rim. Incandescence from the crater was periodically visible. POVI reported that on 17 June lava spattering above the crater rim was recorded by a newly-installed infrared webcam. POVI reported that sporadic Strombolian lava fountains continued in the past five months.On May 14, the fountains are particularly spectacular, more than 20-40 meters wide and over 70 meters high above the edge of the crater. POVI noted it was one of the largest lava explosions since 2015. The temperature of the lava is estimated to be above 1,000 ° C (explanations by Werner Keller / POVI). POVI reported that a complete sequence of lava fountains at Villarica could be captured on April 15 thanks to a technical innovation / POVI 2.0, set up in last December. Half an hour before, a significant ejection of pyroclasts reached a height of 70 meters above the edge of the crater, the highest documented since February 2017. The inner walls of the crater have been partially covered with pyroclasts (ash and lapilli) and scoriae bombs of 15-20 cm in diameter are emerging on the edges of the crater. Seismic energy, however, has been maintained since December 2018 with a downward trend. As of the 8th of April, POVI reported that the frequency of Strombolian explosions and the height of ballistic ejections were increasing; some reached 50 meters above the edges of the crater. The observation of a change of inclination of the upper part of the chimney would justify a trajectory of the spatters of lava to the east. The geomorphology and the area of ​​the "hot" zone at the bottom of the crater has been stable for 5 months.The seismic energy oscillated between a low level and a medium level.An overflight carried out on 27 March of Villarica by a drone allowed the observation of a crust of pyroclastic materials and a spatter cone on the lake of active lava; the cone is slowly degassing, and there is little motrphological variation since the February 18th visit. POVI reported a sporadic Strombolian explosion on March 17th,.2019 at 0:12 am with expulsion of incandescent material 25 meters above the crater rim.POVI reported that on February 7, ballistic projections were observed on the webcam at 29 meters above the crater rim; On February 8th at 4:57 am, incandescent bombs were reported on the north-east upper flank. The dynamics of the lava lake remain fluctuating, and the POVI reports similar episodes on January 3 and 24. POVI reported that following three weeks of calm, activity of lava fountains and strombolian explosions renewed, with deposits of ash, lapilli and bombs of diameter up to 15 cm, measurements made during a reconnaissance in the land at mid-day. The height of the fountain of 24 January at 3:10 was about 35 meters. The sulphurous gas plume extended in the afternoon of January 23 over 40 km to the northeast, before decreasing vigorously and the beginning of Strombolian activity. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks. (GVN/GVP)

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Japan - Suwanojesima volcano

September 30th, 2019

JMA reported that during 20-27 September white plumes rose 800 m above the rim of Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater and crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that at 0704 on 16 September a very small eruptive event at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater generated a plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 30 August-6 September white plumes rose 1.2 km above the rim of Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater and crater incandescence was visible at night. According to the Tokyo VAAC anash plume rose 2.4 km (8,000 ft)a.s.l. and drifted W on 10 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 26 August a plume from Suwanosejima was visible in satellite images rising to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that volcanic earthquakes began to be detected at Suwanosejima on 4 August and volcanic tremors were occasionally recorded during 4-9 August. Four eruptive events occurred at Ontake Crater on 5 August and one on 6 August. Large blocks were ejected as far as 400 m and ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). Ash falls are expected in a northeastern sector.Alert level is 2. JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was occasionally visible at night during 24-31 May. An eruption at 1629 on 30 May generated a plume that rose 1.1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 3-10 May. A very small eruption on 5 May generated a plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 15-22 March. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 600 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible at night during 8-15 March. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 400 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible at night during 1-8 March. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 600 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible at night during 22 February-1 March. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 persons live

JAPAN - Kirishimayama volcano group - Shinmoedake Peak - (Kyushu)

March 20th, 2019

The number of volcanic earthquakes below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased on 25 February 2019 prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The number of daily volcanic earthquakes decreased during 3-4 March, and each day through 18 March only a few were recorded. Previously in 2018, A punctual emission of gas and ashes occurred from the volcano on 27th of June at 15:34 local; the plume has reached an altitude of 2,200 meters.The alert level remains at 3 out of 5, and it is recommended not to approach the volcano.A new explosive eruption occured from the crater of the Shinmoedake on June 22 at 9:09 local. It was accompanied by an ash plume rising to 2,600 meters; the ash emission lasted about 5 minutes according to the images provided by the JMA webcam. A shock wave spread from the crater over 1,100 meters.That is the 49th explosion at Shinmoedake since April 5, 2018.The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 May ash plumes from Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, were identified in satellite images drifting S at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. JMA noted that white plumes rose 100 m above the crater rim during 18-21 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that a short eruption occurred on 14th of May at 2:.44 am. An ash plume rose to about 4500 m high above the summit crater and drifted toward Southwest. This activity continued until 4:10 am. It's the first activity since the 6th of April. A pyroclastic flow travelled 2 km down the flank. Volcanic earthquake rates under the crater increased after the eruption. Shallow, low-frequency earthquakes and tremor were also reported. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). As of the 5th of April, JMA reported that a new explosive eruption marked the Shinmoedake this April 5 in the early hours. Two larger explosions were observed at 3:31 and 3:47, accompanied by high ash emissions and a plume rising up to 5,000 meters, traversed by volcanic lightning generated by friction of ash particles..Based on observations during overflights on 28 March and 2 April, JMA reported that the crack on the W flank of Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued to widen. White emissions rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. Several high-temperature regions around the margins of the lava in the crater, and from the flow on the NW flank, were detected on 28 March. The lava flow on the NW flank advanced 85 m from 9-29 March. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 300 tons/day on 30 March. The number of volcanic earthquakes began to decline after 26 March; though from 0014 to 1430 on 3 April the number increased to 239. Many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that the eruption at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued during 19-27 March. Lava effusion possibly stopped on 9 March, though the lava flow on the NW flank continued to advance. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Short-duration volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. During a field survey on 22 March scientists measured 600 tons/day of sulfur dioxide gas, and noted that the crack on the W flank had grown slightly larger. On 25 March an explosion at 0735 was followed by an ash plume that rose 3.2 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 800 m. An event at 0845 generated an ash plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater rim, and a very small pyroclastic flow that traveled 800 m W. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 300 tons/day on 24 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that the eruption at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued during 13-19 March. Lava effusion possibly stopped on 9 March, though the lava flow on the NW flank continued to advance. An explosion at 1413 on 15 March generated a gray-white plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater and ejected material 1 km from the crater. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). According to news articles, ash plumes from Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, caused the cancelation of about 80 flights in and out of Kagoshima airport on 6 March. JMA reported that daily explosions during 6-13 March generated ash plumes that generally rose 3 km above the crater rim, though an ash plume on 10 March rose as high as 4.5 km. Explosions also ejected tephra that fell 700-1,800 m from the vent. Ashfall was reported in a wide area including in the prefectures of Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima. An explosion at 1558 on 9 March rattled structures in the Kagoshima and Miyazaki prefectures. Satellite images showed an increase in the crater diameter from 550 m on 7 March to 650 m on 9 March. During overflights on 9 March observers noted white plumes rising from the margins of the lava covering the crater floor, from lava flows on the S flank, and from newly forming lava flows on the NW flank. The volume of erupted lava was an estimated 14 million cubic meters. The NW lava flow had advanced 226 m by 13 March. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Volcanic tremor was continuous from 1 March until 1536 on 8 March; afterwards the signals had small amplitudes and were intermittent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that volcanic earthquakes at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased during 24-25 February. Volcanic tremor began to be recorded at 0815 on 1 March and intensified within a few hours. Residents in Takahara-machi, 12 km E (Miyazaki prefecture), reported ashfall at 1100; poor weather conditions prevented visual observations of the volcano. Later that day a small eruption was confirmed. Ashfall was reported in the Takahara-cho neighborhood, 12 km E (Miyazaki prefecture), around 1615. The eruption was observed at 1707 during an overflight. The sulfur dioxide flux was 5,500 tons/day, but then decreased to 2,200 tons/day on 2 March. During 2-3 March gray ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater, and ash fell in Takahara-cho on 3 March. Ash plumes rose 400 m on 4 March. Explosive events on 6 March generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km. During an overflight observers noted new lava on the E side of the crater, and plumes rising from both the center of the crater and an area on the N side. Ashfall was confirmed over a wide area from Kirishima prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture to the S, to Miyakonojo city (Miyazaki prefecture) to the E. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). Kirishimayama is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene dominantly andesitic group consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1700-m-high Karakunidake being the highest. Onamiike and Miike, the two largest maars, are located SW of Karakunidake and at its far eastern end, respectively. Holocene eruptions have been concentrated along an E-W line of vents from Miike to Ohachi, and at Shinmoedake to the NE. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 8th century. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Aso volcano (Kyushu)

October 17th, 2019

JMA reported that during 7-15 October ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above Asosan's summit crater rim, causing ashfall in areas downwind including periodically at the Kumamoto Regional Meteorological Observatory. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was very high at 4,000 tons per day on 11 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that during 2-7 October ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above Asosan's summit crater rim and drifted NE and NW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Aso City. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,800 tons per day on 7 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that during 25-30 September ash plumes rose as high as 1.6 km above Asosan’s summit crater rim and drifted NE and NW, causing ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,600 tons per day on 26 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that ash emissions continued to be observed at Asosan, rising to 1.6, 1.1, and 0.9 km above the crater rim during 14-17, 18-20, and 21-24 September, respectively. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 3,600 tons per day on 17 September and 2,700 tons per day on 19 September. Ashfall was reported in downwind areas to the SW, including at the Kumamoto Regional Meteorological Observatory. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that during 2-9 September ash plumes rose from Asosan and drifted N and NW. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 800, 2,500, and 2,000 tons per day on 2, 6, and 9 September, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that an eruption was recorded during 1130-1945 on 25 August generated ash plumes that drifted E. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,800 tons per day on 21 August and remained high on 25 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that increased eruptive activity at Asosan that began on 28 July paused at 1110 on 16 August. An eruptive event was recorded at 1627 on 18 August; elevated eruptive activity continued at least through 19 August. The Tokyo VAAC reported that the eruptive event on 18 August produced an ash plume that rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes rose to 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW during 19-20 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that increased eruptive activity at Asosan that began on 28 July continued at least through 13 August. Ash plumes drifted N and NW, and crater incandescence was visible at night. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were very high at 2,000-5,000 tons per day. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that on 5 August. Volcanologists confirmed that high-temperature, gray-white plumes rose from the center of Nakadake Crater during fieldwork conducted on 31 July. Grayish white plumes rose 1.3 km and 1.5 km above the crater rim on 1 and 5 August, respectively. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that at 0757 on 26 July a small eruption at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater generated grayish-white ash plumes that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim and drifted NW. Webcam images showed incandescent material in the vent. Minor ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Minamioguni-cho (Kumamoto Prefecture, N) and Kuze-cho (Oita Prefecture, NE). Plumes continued to be emitted during 0900-1300, rising to 400 m. Activity increased at 0442 on 28 July and remained elevated at least through 1500 on 29 July. Grayish-white plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted NE and N. Sulfur dioxide emissions were very high on 29 July, at 4,300 tons per day. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. (GVP/GVN)

JAPAN - Asama volcan (Honshu)

August 26th, 2019

JMA a minor eruption occurred on 25 August at 1928, accompanied by a plume rising 600 meters above the crater.Its last activity dates back to August 7th. The alert level was 3 until August 19, when it was lowered to 2. Despite the risk of small eruptions (possibly accompanied by pyroclastic flows and bomb ejections), the level remains at 2 according to the JMA. The plume then turned white and continuous emissions rose 200 m during 25-26 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that White plumes rose as high as 700 m above the crater rim during 8-13 August, and the amount of sulfur dioxide released was 90-200 tons per day. JMA reported that un eruption occurred at at 10:08 p.m. Wednesday 7th of August sending ashplume to an altitude of about 1,800 meters. Volcanic ash is reported in small quantities north of the crater on Naganohara, Tsumagoi, Karuizawa, and Miyota.In addition, to the northeast of the crater over a distance of about 2 km, there is a risk that ash will be blown away.There were no reports of injuries nor property damage as of Thursday morning. The small eruption prompted the volcanic alert level to be raised from 1 to 3, on a scale of 5. Asamayama, Honshu's most active volcano, overlooks the resort town of Karuizawa, 140 km NW of Tokyo. The volcano is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan volcanic arcs. The modern Maekake cone forms the summit and is situated east of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofuyama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic shield volcano was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the east flank. Maekake, capped by the Kamayama pyroclastic cone that forms the present summit, is probably only a few thousand years old and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century CE. Maekake has had several major plinian eruptions, the last two of which occurred in 1108 (Asamayama's largest Holocene eruption) and 1783 CE. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Kuchinoerebujima ( Ryu-Kyu islands)

October 28th , 2019

JMA raised the alert level of the Kuchinoerabujima to 3 / do not approach the crater on October 28, 2019 at 00:15 local. This adjustment of the alert follows a massive earthquake on October 27 at 21:33, with a hypocentre located near the crater Shindake. A possible eruption, likely to cause pyroclastic flows, can impact area from the crater  to the coast.JMA reported that Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater has not erupted since 3 February, and the number of shallow earthquakes located near the crater had been decreasing since then. Deeper volcanic earthquakes had not been recorded since 16 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained elevated. JMA lowered the Alert Level to 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-5) on 12 June. JMA reported that during 30 January-1 February and 3-5 February white plumes rose as high as 600 m. An event that lasted during 1141-1300 on 2 February generated a plume that rose 600 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA and VAAC Tokyo reported a new eruption on January 29, 2019 around 5pm local time. The Shindake plume rose to 2,800 meters asl at 5:14 pm to 5:16 pm, accompanied by a pyroclastic flow to the southwest for 600 meters. JMA reported that an explosive eruption occurred at about 9:19 am on January 17th, 2019. This explosive activity was accompanied by a plume of ash to a height of 6.000 meters, ejection of pyroclasts up to 1,000 meters from the crater, but also pyroclastic flows encompassing the southwest flank of the volcano on 1,500 meters. These flows have fortunately not reached the inhabited areas.Following this eruption, a powerful white plume of gas and vapor was observed.The JMA maintains the alert level at 3 / do not approach the volcano within a radius of 2 km.JMA reported that following small, regular eruptions lasting a few weeks, followed by a complete break the volcano showed a strong explosive eruption accompanied by a shock wave perceived at the port of Honmura 2 km from the crater, this December 18 at 16:37; the ash plume reached 2,000 meters before entering the cloud layer, and a pyroclastic flow ran a distance of 1,000 meters on the west flank. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km west of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. The youngest cone, centrally-located Shintake, formed after the NW side of Furutake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shintake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furutake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shintake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions. (GVN/GVP) - NHK webcam

JAPAN - Azumayama volcano (Honshu)

June 19th, 2019

On 17 June JMA lowered the Alert Level for Azumayama to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale), noting that deformation and elevated seismicity recorded in May had stabilized and decreased, respectively. JMA reported that yhe number of volcanic earthquakes at Azumayama increased on 5 May and data from a tiltmeter about 1 km SE of Ohana Crater showed inflation on 9 May, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Field observations on 7 and 10 May indicated no changes in the fumarolic and thermal areas around Ohana. Seismicity began to decrease on 10 May, though continued to fluctuate through 20 May. Deformation continued but at a slower rate. The Azumayama volcanic group consists of a cluster of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones. The andesitic and basaltic complex was constructed in two E-W rows above a relatively high basement of Tertiary sedimentary rocks and granodiorites west of Fukushima city. Volcanic activity has migrated to the east, with the Higashi-Azuma volcano group being the youngest. The symmetrical Azuma-Kofuji crater and a nearby fumarolic area on the flank of Issaikyo volcano are popular tourist destinations. The Azumayama complex contains several crater lakes, including Goshikinuma and Okenuma. Historical eruptions, mostly small phreatic explosions, have been restricted to Issaikyo volcano at the northern end of the Higashiyama group.(GVN/GVP)
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JAPAN - Hakoneyama volcano (Honshu)

October 9th, 2019

On 7 October JMA lowered the Alert Level for Hakoneyama to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale), noting that the number of volcanic earthquakes had decreased to background levels after a spike in seismicity was recorded in May. Inflation had been detected but had become almost stagnant after late August. Fumaroles in the Owakudani hot springs area continued to be
active, with gas-and-steam plumes rising 100-400 m above their vents. JMA reported that the number of earthquakes at Hakoneyama increased on 18 May and remained elevated through 27 May. The epicenters were centered around the W bank of Lake Ashinoko and around Komagatake. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data continued to indicate a trend of inflation. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that the number of earthquakes at Hakoneyama increased during 18-19 May, with epicenters centered around the W bank of Lake Ashinoko and around Komagatake. Fumaroles in the Owakudani hot springs area continued to be active. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data showed changes in deformation beginning in mid-March. On 19 May JMA raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Elevated seismicity continued to be recorded through 21 May. Hakoneyama volcano is truncated by two overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 10 x 11 km wide. The calderas were formed as a result of two major explosive eruptions about 180,000 and 49,000-60,000 years ago. Scenic Lake Ashi lies between the SW caldera wall and a half dozen post-caldera lava domes that were constructed along a NW-SE trend cutting through the center of the calderas. Dome growth occurred progressively to the NW, and the largest and youngest of these, Kamiyama, forms the high point. The calderas are breached to the east by the Hayakawa canyon. A phreatic explosion about 3000 years ago was followed by collapse of the NW side of Kamiyama, damming the Hayakawa valley and creating Lake Ashi. The latest magmatic eruptive activity about 2900 years ago produced a pyroclastic flow and a lava dome in the explosion crater, although phreatic eruptions took place as recently as the 12-13th centuries CE. Seismic swarms have occurred during the 20th century. Lake Ashi, along with the thermal areas in the caldera, is a popular resort destination SW of Tokyo.(GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano (Kyushu)

November 9th, 2019

JMA reported that a strong explosion took place yesterday, November 8th at 5:24 pm. The ash plume was 5,500 meters above the Minamidake crater, with lightning at the beginning of the eruptive episode.JMA reported that on November 8: at 9 am, an ash plume is observed at 1,300 meters above the volcano, at 16:12, a plume of similar height is reported. The ashes dissipate in a southeasterly direction.The JMA reports volcano inflation and a significant sulfur dioxide flux. JMA reported that an ash plume rose above the volcano on October 5 at 4,000 meters altitude, dispersed to the southeast (VAAC Tokyo).The JMA recorded a total of 31 eruptions and 18 explosions at the Minamidake crater for the period from 1 to 5 November 2019. JMA reported that several explosions occurred accompanied by plumes between 1,500 and 1,800 meters above the crater on November 2; the JMA noted the episodes of 1:45 pm / plume 1,500 m., 17:51 / plume 1,800 m., 17:51 / plume 1,500 m., and 20:34 / plume 1.500 m. The dispersion of the ashes was towards NNE-NE. JMA reported two explosive plumes: at 15:27 on October 30, with a plume at 2,800 meters above the crater. The volcanic ash was carried by the crater eastwards (direction Kokuya City Teruhita), and in the cities of Kagoshima (Sakurajima) and Tarumi at 21:00 on the 30th. Another explosion, at 22:03, was accompanied by a plume at 1,400 meters above the summit and ashes were drifted toward the east. JMA reported that two eruptive events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) recorded during 25-28 October generated plumes that rose 1.2 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that an explosive activity occurred at Sakurajima (Mount Minamidake summit crater) at 1827 on 24th of October and the ash plume rose to 2500 m above the edge of the crater. Volcanic ash is released from the crater southeast to Tarumizu and Kanoya and reaches Kagoshima City (Sakurajima) in just over an hour. ashfalls are expected in the city of Tarumi, in Kagoshima Prefecture. JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible at night during 15-21 October. There were 14 explosions and seven non-explosive eruptive events detected by the seismic network. Eruption plumes rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.3 km away. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, at 2,800 tons/day, on 15 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible at night during 7-15 October. There were 13 explosions detected by the seismic network and nine non-explosive eruptive events. Eruption plumes rose 2.3-2.7 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 1.7 km away. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, at 2,100 tons/day, on 11 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible at night during 30 September-7 October. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, at 2,000 tons/day, measured during fieldwork on 1 October. An explosion was recorded at 0055 on 4 October but weather clouds prevented visual confirmation. Two explosions during 6-7 October generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 1.1 km away. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible at night during 24-30 September. Very small eruptive events were recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible at night during 17-24 September. There were 30 eruptive events, 11 of which were explosive. Plumes rose as high as 2.6 km above the crater rim, and material was ejected as far as 1.7 km from the crater. On 20 September one of the explosions produced an ash plume that rose 3.4 km above the crater rim before merging into weather clouds. Large blocks were ejected 500-700 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that explosive activity continued with many episodes. Two episodes, however, have to be noted: on 17 September at 17:27, which was accompanied by a plume of ash 1,000 meters above the Minamidake and caused fires. On 18 September at 18:27 local time, the explosion was accompanied by a plume of ash 2,000 meters above the crater, dispersed to the south. JMA reported that a strong eruption occurred on16 September from 7:46; this explosive activity was accompanied by a gray plume at 2,800 meters above the crater Minamidake (3.900 m asl.). The plume moved southwest, with ashfalls on Kagoshima and Minamikyushu, which can disrupt traffic. JMA reported that at 1549 on 3 September an explosion at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) generated an ash plume that rose 1.9 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 900 m from the vent. Very small eruptive events were detected during 6-9 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).The Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

Japan - Satsuma-Iojima ( Ryukyu islands)

November 3rd, 2019

The Japan Meteorological Agency has raised the alert level of Satsuma-Iojima to 2 (/ do not approach the crater) on November 2nd of November at 17:50 JST, following an eruption that occurred at 17:35 local, accompanied by a plume of ash which has desegregated the 1,000 meters above the crater. The ashes dispersed in a northwesterly direction, with little impact on the village of Mishima..A grayish-white plume rose 1 km above the Iodake crater rim. The report noted that the number of volcanic earthquakes has been low, with no variations before or after the event. The next day during an overflight conducted by the Coast Guard and the Japan Meteorological Agency Mobile Survey Team (JMA-MOT) observers noted no changes to the geothermal field and no new deposits from the event the day before. Views of the crater were obscured by white plumes rising 300 m above the crater rim. Previous news last year - JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes at Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai's NW caldera rim, was low during 20-26 April. White plumes rose as high as 700 m above the Iwo-dake lava dome; incandescence from the crater had not been visible since 12 April. During field surveys on 25 and 26 April observers noted a slight expansion of a thermally anomalous area compared to 24-25 March observations, and a decrease in sulfur dioxide flux from 600 tons/day on 24 March to 300 tons/day. The Alert Level was reduced to 1 (on a 5-level scale) on 27 April. JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes at Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai's NW caldera rim, was low during 27 March-2 April after an increase recorded during 22-23 March. White plumes rose as high as 1.8 km above the Iwo-dake lava dome. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night during 27-28 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). The JMA reported that volcanic earthquakes continud after a slight decline on March 20 and 21; on March 22, 48 volcanic earthquakes were recorded between 0 and 15:00 local time, and this activity continued. Since March 23, plumes of white gas and vapor have been observed above the crater, signs of  tensioning of the hydrothermal system. The JMA has raised the level of volcanic alert of the Satsuma-Iojima, to 2 do not approach the crater , on March 19 at 11:45 JST. due to an increasong seismicity since mid-February, reaching 12 volcanic earthquakes on March 15, and 51 on March 19 (at 11:30 am) On March 16th, the JMA confirms a type of tremor associated with underground magmatic activity.An area of ​​1 km around the crater could be affected by bombs in case of eruption. Satsuma-Iojima forms part of the edge of the largely submerged Kikai caldera, 19 km wide, and located at the northern end of the Ryuku volcanic arc, south of Kyushu Island / Japan. Two post-caldera structures contributed to its current morphology: Mt.Iwodake, a rhyolitic lava dome, and the small Inamuradake scoria cone.The historical eruptions of the 20th century have mainly concerned Iwodake, which is marked by a fumarolic activity of high temperature (up to 900 ° C).The summit zone, of 400 over 140 meters, includes several craters, result of the explosive activity following the installation of the dome. The small crater Kintsuba is located southwest of the central crater Oana, a place of mining sulfur . Small ash eruptions were observed in 1999, 2001, 2002-2204, and 2013. (GVN/GVP)

Japan - Ioto (Iwo-Jima) - Izu Island

September 20th, 2018

During an overflight of Ioto (Iwo-jima) on 12 September the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force observed seawater jetting 5-10 m above the sea surface on the S coast, suggestive of a submarine eruption. Ioto (changed from Iwo-jima in 2007) in the central Volcano Islands portion of the Izu-Marianas arc lies within a 9-km-wide submarine caldera. Ioto, Iwo-jima, and Iojima are among many transliterations of the name. The volcano is also known as Ogasawara-Iojima to distinguish it from several other "Sulfur Island" volcanoes in Japan. The triangular, low-elevation, 8-km-long island narrows toward its SW tip and has produced trachyandesitic and trachytic rocks that are more alkalic than those of other Izu-Marianas arc volcanoes. The island has undergone dramatic uplift for at least the past 700 years accompanying resurgent doming of the caldera. A shoreline landed upon by Captain Cook's surveying crew in 1779 is now 40 m above sea level. The Motoyama plateau on the NE half of the island consists of submarine tuffs overlain by coral deposits and forms the island's high point. Many fumaroles are oriented along a NE-SW zone cutting through Motoyama. Numerous historical phreatic eruptions, many from vents on the west and NW sides of the island, have accompanied the remarkable uplift.

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USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

October 24th, 2019

HVO reported that the crater lake of Halema'uma'u continues to grow; its level is measured on October 19 at 608 meters under the observation site. The steam that sweeps its surface testifies to the high temperature of the water, and the winds at the bottom of the crater. The refill is marked by areas of bluish color on a general tint of the surface of greenish yellow color. HVO reported that a recent flyover of the Pu'u O'o 'crater in the eastern rift zone of Kilauea allowed a good visualization of the bottom of the crater, drained after 35 years of eruptions. The rubble from the collapse of the crater walls filled much of its deepest part, the bottom being now about 250 meters (820 feet) below the eastern ledge. As of the 2nd of August HVO reported that the seismicity and strain ratios remained stable; low emissions of sulfur dioxide since September 2018. Insight from July 25, 2019, a green pond marks the floor of Halema'uma'u, at about 540 meters above sea level. HVO scientists flew over the summit of Kilauea in the morning of 1 August and confirm the presence of water at the bottom of Halima'uma'u crater. Observers saw reflections from the green pond. The pond has clearly expanded since the oldest photos made on July 25th. Previous news - As of the 22nd of May, HVO reported that no significant change occurred over the past week in Kilauea volcanic activity, in normal volcanic alert / green aviation code.Since the beginning of March, tiltmeters have recorded a modest inflationary trend at the top, confirmed by GPS and InSAR measurements; it is interpreted as a magmatic accumulation in the shallow portion of the summit magmatic system, 1-2 km deep.Other measurements show the filling of the magma reservoir of the deep East Rift Zone in a large area between Pu'u O'o and Highway 130, since the end of the 2018 eruption. The HVO continues to monitor Kilauea's seismicity, deformation and gas emissions closely, to detect an increase in its activity. As of the 20th of March, HVO reported that over the past week, volcanic activity has not changed significantly.Low levels seismicity persisted on the volcano, with earthquakes occurring mainly in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and inclinometers continue to display movements consistent with deep magma reservoir filling in the East Rift Zone. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Pu'u'u'ō remain low. These rates have been stable for several weeks. HVO reported that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with earthquakes occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and tiltmeters continue to show motions consistent with refilling of the deep East Rift Zone. These rates have been steady over the past several weeks. At Kilauea's summit, tiltmeters are showing deflationary tilt consistent with the beginning of a Deflation-Inflation event (D-I event); these types of events have been commonly observed at the summit for several years. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. As of the 15th of January 2019, HVO reportede that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past weeks. Deformation signals are consistent with slow magmatic recharge within the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ).Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with events occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. Slow inflationary tilt continues in the middle ERZ. Sulfur dioxide emission rates have been below detection limits in the LERZ since early September, though minor amounts of volcanic gas are still present. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. Previously,HVO reported that no more active lava observations since September 4th, 2018 on the basis of the criterias of GVN program, the phase of the eruption on the Lower East Rift Zone can be considered to be over .Kilauea remains an active volcano, and geophysical data continues to show movements in the magmatic system, including a recharge of the East Rift Zone. As of the 30th of October, HVO reported that Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Deformation signals are consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone.HVO monitoring during the past week shows low rates of seismicity at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ). Earthquakes continue to occur primarily at Kīlauea's summit area and south flank (magnitude-3.8 was the largest) with continued small aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 quake on May 4, 2018. Seismicity remains low in the lower ERZ. In the ERZ, tiltmeters near Puʻu ʻŌʻō and farther east continue to record an inflationary trend, consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone. At the summit, tiltmeters have recorded a slight inflationary trend. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions at the summit averaged 50 tonnes/day as reported on October 24, and 75 tonnes/day at Puʻu ʻŌʻō on October 23. There was no sulfur dioxide detected by our instruments in the lower ERZ. Previously, HVO bulletin ( 3rd of october) reported that On Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (ERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming from the cone was visible during the past day. Webcam images of the fissure 8 cone show that a portion of the crater wall near the northern spillway area has slowly shifted during the past 2 weeks, indicating some instability of the cone in this area. As of the 2nd of October, HVO reported that no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming has been visible during the day. On the middle ERZ, a rockfall at Puʻu ʻŌʻō produced a small ash plume around noon yesterday, October 1. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Rates of tilting throughout both the summit and the ERZ are much lower than those observed during the recent period of major eruptive activity. As of the 25th of September HVO reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming is visible during the day. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. HVO reported minor incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 12-15 September, and that small amounts of fuming rose from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the Fissure 8 cone during 12-18 September. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (less than 1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. Small collapses at Pu'u 'O'o Crater during 12-14 September generated visible dust plumes. The Volcano Alert level l remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin (11th of September) reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), minor amounts of incandescence were observed overnight from a collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone, though the amount was reduced over observations from the previous night. Very minor fuming is visible from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the cone. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none have extended outside the walls of the cone. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Aftershocks from the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May are still being generated on faults located on Kīlauea's South Flank. Small collapses continued to occur yesterday at Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater, but are much less frequent than they were over the previous two days. As of the 7th of September, HVO reported that lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible at fissure 8 from helicopter overflight or UAS (drone) views this morning. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none extend outside the walls of the cone. There is no change in overall activity from observations over the past several days. As of the 5th of September, HVO reported that seismicity remains low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. A magnitude-3.1 earthquake that occurred at 5:31AM HST this morning was located below Kīlauea's South Flank and is likely an aftershock of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake from early May. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible on the fissure 8 spillway overnight. Images from the UAS (drone) crew showed that weak lava activity continues in the fissure 8 cone as of yesterday afternoon, with no lava extending outside the walls of the cone and no flows heading down the spillway. HVO reported that on 2nd of September, seismicity remained low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. Earthquakes, probably aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May, continue on South Flank faults. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), incandescence was observed in the fissure 8 cone yesterday afternoon (09/01) with reports of activity extending into early evening. In addition to a persistent spot of spattering, lava slowly covered the 65-by-15 m (210-by-45 ft) crater floor by evening. Webcam views showed weak incandescence occasionally reflected on the eastern spillway wall from the crater overnight suggesting that the lava in the crater remained active. This morning, ground crews have no view of the crater inside the fissure 8 cone, but report the fissure 8 cone is quiet when viewed from a safe distance with no visible fume. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at the summit, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate (< 1,000 t/d) is lower than at any time since late 2007. Friday (08/31), LERZ emission rates were still too low to measure. HVO reported that during an overflight on 25 August a small lava pond was visible deep within the vent at Kilauea's Fissure 8 cone; the pond was no longer visible on 27 August. Lava continued to ooze into the ocean and produce minimal laze plumes, but by 27 August only a small single breakout from the Kapoho Bay lobe was active. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin ( 24th of August - 20:30 UTC) reported that seismicity and ground deformation are negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), only a few ocean entries were oozing lava and laze plumes were minimal from overflights early this week. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007. On Tuesday, the SO2 emissions from the LERZ were too low to measure although SO2 smells were noticed. HVO bulletin (19th of August - 22:39 UTC) reported that the lull in activity at Kīlauea Volcano continues. At the summit, seismicity and deformation are negligible. On the lower East Rift Zone, the only incandescence is at the coast near Ahalanui where a few ocean entries are oozing lava. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007 HVO reported that during 8-14 August activity at Kilauea was characterized by a slowly-circulating lava pond deep within the Fissure 8 vent (though the pond was crusted over by 14 August) and a billowing gas plume, and a few scattered ocean entries. The summit area was quiet except for occasional rockfalls into the crater. Fresh black sand from fragmented lava was transported SW by the ocean current, and accumulated in the Pohoiki harbor, creating a sandbar. The westernmost ocean entry was about 1 km NE of the harbor. Earthquake and deformation data indicated no magma movement or pressurization in the system. HVO bulletin ( 9th of August - 19h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from Fissure 8 remains low and there have been no signs of reactivation or new intrusion. Up-rift of Fissure 8, Fissures 9, 10, and 24, and down-rift Fissures 13, 23, 3, 21 and 7, continue to steam. Ground crews and overflights continue to monitor these for signs of new activity. This morning's overflight crew observed a crusted lava pond deep inside the steaming cone at a level significantly lower than when viewed Tuesday morning. HVO bulletin (7th of August - 23h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from fissure 8 remains low. The morning overflight crew observed a small active lava lake within the fissure 8 cone, a weak gas plume, and a drained upper lava channel. The surface of the lava lake was about 5-10 m below the spillway entrance. There were a diminishing number of small active ooze outs near the coast on the Kapoho Bay and Ahalanui lobes and the laze plume was greatly diminished. Active lava remains close to the Pohoiki boat ramp but has not advanced significantly toward it. As of the 3rd of August, HVO reported tha fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the channel leading northeastward from the vent. Multiple overflows developed late yesterday afternoon and evening, one of which headed north toward Noni Farms Road, starting a small fire. Field crews determined the advancing overflow had ceased by 21:00 HST but that fires were still burning. Further downstream overflows were concentrated in the wide lava field west and south-southwest of Kapoho cone, also igniting small fires in adjacent vegetation. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 18-24 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that continued to spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and entered the ocean at Ahalanui. Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred about every other day (38.5 and 53.5 hours in between a few of the events). Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low. Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele's hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater; lava occasionally overflowed the channel, and on 28 July ignited nearby vegetation. Small plumes of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles) were generated at several points along a broad 2-km-wide flow front at Ahalanui. The westernmost edge was less than 175 m NE of the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park (by 30 July). HVO bulletin ( 16th of July - 19:31 UTC) reported that Fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. The channel is full but not quite up to the rim; there were no significant overflows this morning. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. Explosions were reported from the main ocean entry this morning with at least one being quite strong. Fissure 22 did not appear active this morning but sounds were heard from it last night. No other fissures are active this morning. HVO bulletin (July 15th - 21:21 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Lava levels in the upper channel increased briefly following this morning's summit collapse-explosion event at 3:26 a.m. Another short-lived overflow of the channel at the vent spread east-southeast this morning, but did not advance beyond the existing flow field. The channelized ʻaʻā flow west of Kapoho Crater continues to be the main ocean entry at the southern edge of the flow front. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. No other fissures are active on the morning. At 3:26 a.m. HST July 15, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath the summit of Kīlauea with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.2 earthquake. Seismic activity at the summit decreased immediately following the event, but is beginning to increase at this time. Earthquakes in the summit area have resumed following 12th of july collapse/explosion event at 2:42 PM HST, which had an energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. (updated map 12th of July). HVO bulletin ( July 10th - 19:57 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava steadily into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Disruptions to the mid-channel occurred yesterday afternoon producing localized overflows along the margins of the flowfield, mostly atop earlier lavas. A significant overflow north of the cinder quarry advancing yesterday and last night towards Cinder Rd. has stalled. An overflow lobe moving around the west side of Kapoho Cone remains active this morning and small brushfires are reported along the margins. Downstream, lava appears to be reoccupying the channel leading to the ocean entry were multiple fingers of lava are active. The southern margin of the ocean entry shows little sign of movement. Yesterday's channel disruption and overflows were caused by blockages that developed along the channel. Additional blockages and resulting overflows are likely to occur as long as the activity continues. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin ( July 10 - 3:05 UTC) Early on afternoon observers reported multiple overflows occurring along both sides of the main lava channel, in an area extending from near the "Y" intersection at Pohoiki Road eastwards to an area just west of Kapoho Crater. Overflows on the upper part of the channel did not extend beyond areas previously covered in lava. Overflows further down the channel have reached beyond the flow field, including one flow lobe that is moving northeast from the main channel towards Cinder Rd. Residents are urged to heed warnings and notices from Hawaii County Civil Defense. Based on information from ground observers and morning and afternoon overflights, the lower part of the main lava channel has undergone significant reorganization. In particular, the channel that had been open near Four Corners is now mostly crusted over, and plumes from ocean entry are significantly reduced. It is likely this is due to a blockage that formed in the early morning in the main channel upstream of Kapoho Crater. Flow volumes coming out of Fissure 8 remain significant, and it is possible that changes in flow channels will continue to occur in the coming days. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. At 9:20 AM HST on July 9, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath Kilauea caldera with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. The number of earthquake dropped from 25-40/hr to less than 10/hr. We expect the earthquakes to increase over the next day until the next collapse/explosion tomorrow. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halemaʻumaʻu continues in response to the ongoing subsidence at the summit. HVO bulletin ( 4th of July - 18: 53 UTC ) Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. ( video vortex ) At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing pasty lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Ag and Beach Lots. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the flow front. As shown by the July 02 thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is oozing from the flow's molten interior into the ocean along most of its broad front. Temporary channel blockages of the Fissure 8 channel causing minor overflows were observed just north of Kapoho Crater by USGS and Civil Air Patrol overflights. Fissure 22 is spattering about 50-80 m above a conical spatter cone and feeding a short lava flow that is moving slowly to the northeast along the edge of earlier flows. (updated map - 30th of June) . HVO bulletin ( 29th of June - 8:28 pm ) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. These overflows rarely extend beyond the existing flow field. No active overflows were observed during this morning's helicopter overflight.The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots and a few burning areas were observed on the south side of the flow and west of highway 137. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the entry area. As shown by yesterday's thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is moving beneath the crust and into still-molten interior of earlier flows before it enters the sea. HVO bulletin ( 27th of June - 8:07 pm) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. Small overflows on both sides of the upslope portion of the channel occurred shortly after midnight, June 27. None of these overflows extended past the existing flow field. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The morning overflight revealed that the northern margin of the flow field at the coast is oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots. HVO bulletin (June 26th of June - 7:13 pm) reported that funtains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern portion of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 0.6 mi wide area with multiple laze plumes from smaller oozing lobes. Fissure 22 showed weak spattering and tiny flows around the base of the cone. This morning's overflight crew also observed minor incandescence at Fissure 16/18. HVO bulletin ( June 25th - 10:59 pm) reported that the eruption in the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) continues with no significant change during the past 24 hours. Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area marked by billowing laze plumes. Fissure 22 is weakly active and Fissure 16/18 was not observed on the morning.At 4:12 p.m. HST on June 24, after approximately 17 hours of elevated seismicity, a collapse explosion occurred at the summit producing an ash-poor steam plume that went undetected by the weather radar. Visual observations suggested the plume rose less than 2000 ft above the caldera before drifting downwind to the southwest. The energy released by the event was equivalent to a magnitude 5.3 earthquake. HVO bulletin 23rd of June - 18:40 UTC) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. During an overflight early this morning, geologists observed incandescence from Fissure 22, but no associated spattering or flow. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The entry areas are marked by billowing laze plumes. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 13-19 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was occasionally noted, and spattering was visible at Fissure 6 on 16 June. Hawai‘i County Civil Defense reported that by 17 June a total of 533 homes had been destroyed due to lava flows. HVO bulletin (June 17th - 8:15 UTC) reported that the Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption in Leilani Estates continued with little change. Fountains from the Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to feed lava into the well-established channel that flows to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava and mild spattering from Fissure 15 was observed late in the day. The flow field is relatively stable with little change to its size and shape for the past few days. HVO bulletin (16th - 2:59 UTC) reported that lava fountains from Fissure 8 reached heights between 100 and 130 ft with bursts up to 180 ft while the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 170 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. The early afternoon overflight found the Fissure 8 vent, channel, and entry stable with a small amount of expansion at the southern boundary of the flow near the coast and south of Vacationland. Fissure 24 (southeast of Fissure 8) seemed to be steamier and emitting more fume. Fissure 9 (southeast of Fissure 24) appeared hotter and will be checked on the ground this afternoon. HVO bulletin (June 15th - 8:27 UTC) reported that fssure 8 lava fountains reached heights of 200 ft in the afternoon, and the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 160 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (14th of June - 8:21 UTC) reported that lava fountains reaching heights of 53 m (174 ft) were observed at Fissure 8 in the late afternoon. Lava from Fissure 8 continues to flow through the well-established channel to the ocean at Kapoho, with rare, small overflows of the channel levees. A laze plume at the ocean entry was blown onshore this afternoon, and areas of upwelling offshore were present throughout the day. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (13th of june- 2:12 UTC) reported that line of closely spaced vents at Fissure 8 are continuing to erupt producing fountains encircled by a 115-ft spatter cone. This activity continues to feed the fast moving channelized flow that is entering the ocean at Kapoho. Weak lava activity continues at Fissures 16/18 as has been noted for the last several days. Incandescence was noted at Fissures 15 and 22. Lava was entering the ocean over a broader length this morning with several minor incandescent points and small plumes and two larger entries and corresponding plumes. The upwelling areas were also more dispersed than yesterday. (updated map 13th of June) . HVO bulletin (12th - 2:09 UTC) reported that three closely spaced lava fountains at fissure 8 are erupting with fluctuating heights from below the 115 ft high spatter cone around it up to 180 feet. Lava continues to be fed into the channelized flow trending north and then east to a single ocean entry at Kapoho. Weak lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was observed last night. This morning's overflight confirms that fountaining continues at Fissure 8 and that its channel is nearly full with no spillovers. Minor steam explosions were observed at the ocean entry. HVO bulletin reported that Fissure 8 now consists of three closely-spaced lava fountains, the tallest of which reached heights of 130-180 feet, feeding a strong channel to the northeast and then east to the ocean entry. During the day, minor spillovers have dribbled over the Fissure 8 channel levees but have generally stalled before reaching ground not covered by previous lava flows. Yesterday's measurements show that gas emissions from the fissure system have nearly doubled, possibly indicating an increase in eruption rate from Fissure 8. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 continued. HVO bulletin (June 9th - 8:49 UTC) reported thatLava continues to erupt from Fissure 8, with vigorous fountains reaching heights of about 200-220 feet. Observers on the late afternoon overflight reported no significant changes in the Fissure 8 flow field, which continues to supply lava to the ocean entry at Kapoho. Two vigorous steam plumes are rising from the ocean flow front and being blown inland. Strong thermal upwelling was noted in the ocean extending up to 1000 yards out to sea from the visible lava front. Heavy gas and steam emissions were noted at fissures 9 & 10, but lava emission is occurring only at Fissure 8. Low level ash emissions continue at the summit with slowly increasing seismicity, indicating that another small explosion is likely in the next several hours. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continues in response to ongoing subsidence at the summit. The number of houses destroyed since the beginning of this eruption has reached 600 including the areas of Leilani, Kapoho and Vacationland; This isthe most destructive eruption for Hawaii, listed in modern times, according to the mayor of the County. HVO bulletin ( June 8th - 8:24 UTC) reported that lava fountaining at Fissure 8 fluctuated with heights varying between 190 and 215 feet. This activity is feeding a lava channel flowing east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. The noon overflight found that the delta is about 1.2 mi wide in the Vacationland/Waopae area and observed the flow was expanding northward through Kapoho Beachlots. A large area of upwelling offshore suggests the presence of lava flowing on the ocean floor in that area. HVO bulletin ( June 7th - 00:34 UTC) reported that on the morning, lava fountaining at Fissure 8 continued to reach heights of 150-180 feet, feeding a stable channel to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Lava is entering the ocean in the Vacationland subdivision. Vacationland has been completely covered by lava, and overnight the flow expanded north by 100 m within Kapoho Beach Lots. The lava delta that formed at Kapoho Bay extended slightly overnight. The northern lobe of the Fissure 8 flow shows no signs of activity this morning, and there is only wispy smoke at the flow front. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin (June 6th - 8:28 UTC) reported that persistent lava fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching heights of 150-180 feet. This eruptive activity continues to feed a channel transporting lava to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Minor breakouts along the channelized flow have been very small and stagnated before travelling any significant distance. HVO's late afternoon overflight showed that the Fissure 8 flow is continuing to form a lava delta with limited continuing advances into the surviving parts of the Kaphoho Beach Lots and Vacationlands neighborhoods. The northernmost lobe of the Fissure 8 flow is advancing very slowly to the northeast. No other fissure vents are active. HVO bulletin (June 5th - 5:30 UTC) reported that fountaining at Fissure 8 continued feeding a robust lava channel to northeast along Highway 132 to the ocean entry in Kapoho bay. As of late afternoon the lava entry had built a delta extending approximately 700 yards into the bay. A laze plume is blowing inland from the ocean entry but dissipating quickly. The lava flow front is about 600 yds wide. A lava breakout was also occurring upslope of the Kapoho cone cinder pit but stalled about 300 yards southeast of the intersection of Railroad Avenue and Cinder Road. Sluggish lava flows are present in the vicinity of Fissure 18; all other fissures are inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 4th - 5:07 UTC) reported that fissure 8 fountaining persisted throughout the day to heights up to 220 feet, and the channelized flow continued to deliver lava northeast along Highway 132 to the Kapoho area. Lava is advancing along a 0.5-mile-wide front towards the ocean at Kapoho Bay between Kapoho Beach Road and Kapoho Kai Drive. As of 5:45 PM HST, the lava flow was about 245 yards from the ocean at its closest approach point. Other branches of the Fissure 8 lava flow were inactive. All other fissures are inactive, although observers on the late afternoon overflight noted abundant gas emission from Fissures 9 & 10 and incandescence without fountaining at fissures 16 & 18. HVO bulletin (June 2nd - 8:29 UTC) treported that fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching 180 - 220 feet in height and continues to feed a channelized lava flow to the northeast along Highway 132 and down into the Four Corners region (at the intersection of Highways 132 and 137). Small overflows from the channel are occurring along its length, including in a few places near the intersection of Highway 132 and Pohoiki road. As of 9:50 PM HST the flow front was approximately 0.28 miles from the intersection. The more western branches of the Fissure 8 flow either stalled or advanced only short distances. Fissure 18 appears to be crusted over or inactive. The flows that had been moving toward Highway 137 are either inactive or moving very slowly. Fissure 22 appears to be inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 1st - 4:41 UTC) reported that the fissure 8 continued to produce persistent fountains that reached heights up to 260 feet. A small spatter cone is forming on the downwind side of the fountain and is approximately 100 feet high. The fountains are feeding flow activity to the northeast, and minor overflows from the Fissure 8 channel are occurring along its length. One overflow covered the remaining northern part of Makamae Street in Leilani Estates. This overflow crossed Kahukai street, filling in a low area between Makamae and Luana streets. The front of the Fissure 8 flow near Noni Farms road advanced at rates up to 100 yards/hour. At 12:30 PM HST, the flow front was 1.9 miles from the Four Corners area. High eruption rates from Fissure 8 have led to the formation of a leveed channel along the western edge of the lava flow. Failure of flow levees could result in rapid advance of flows. Flow margins are extremely hazardous and should not be approached. Fissure 18 feeds the upper part of a lava flow that extends to 1.5 mi from Highway 137; the lower portion of the fissure 18 lava flow stalled about 0.5 mi from the highway. Fissure 2 is weakly active and is pooling lava around the vent. HVO bulletin (May 31st - 5:24 UTC) reported that fissure 8 maintained high fountains through Wednesday with sustained heights exceeding 200 feet and the presence of multiple secondary fountains that reached to 60 feet. This fountaining continued to feed a lava flow that moved downslope along Highway 132. Advance rates were less than 100 yards/hour for the three lobes of the flow. The flow moved north of Highway 132 in the vicinity of Noni Farms and Halekamahina roads, from which the two easternmost lobes advanced in a more east northeasterly direction while the westernmost lobe advanced in a northeasterly direction. The Fissure 18 flow also remained active, moving downslope toward Highway 137 at rates of much less than 100 yards per hour. During the day, sporadic bursts of activity were also observed from Fissures 22, 6, and 13. HVO bulletin (May 30th - 2:51 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissure 8 remained very active today fountaining to heights of 200 feet at times and feeding a lava flow that advanced atop the Fissure 8 ʻaʻā flow that was active Sunday night/Monday morning. The first lobe of this flow crossed highway 132 just before 2 pm HST Tuesday. Lava continues to advance toward the northeast. Visual observations early Tuesday afternoon also confirmed continued weak activity at Fissures 18 and 19. Fissure 18 has produced channelized flows which have advanced 1.6 mi toward the coast. HVO bulletin (May 29th - 2:35 UTC) reported that the lava flow from Fissure 8 reached Pohoiki Rd. this morning and stalled as the Fissure's activity abruptly diminished. A few fissures reactivated briefly during the day. As of the 1 pm overflight, Fissure 8, 18, 20, 22, 6/13, and 7/21 reactivated with Fissure 7/21 having the highest fountains. The reactivated fissures have not yet erupted enough lava to reach the coast so the two ocean entry sites were relatively inactive. Only a minor ooze of residual lava was entering the ocean from the Eastern channel. (map) HVO bulletin (May 28th - 4:20 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissures 22 and 13 continue to feed lava flows extending south to the lava ocean entry. Signals recorded on stations in the LERZ indicate that the lava ocean entry remained active overnight. This morning, lava activity at both vents has diminished and the ocean entries are weaker than yesterday. Fissure 6 is no longer active. Fissure 21 has been intermittently active. Fissure 7 activity is very active, producing a large spatter rampart over 100 feet tall from fountains reaching 150-200 feet. The fountains fed two perched channels--the north channel fed a lava flow that advanced toward pad E of the PGV property and the south channel a flow that was advancing to the southeast along the west border of the fissure 22 flow.Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the Overlook crater, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the Kīlauea summit, the largest occurred around noon producing an ash column to nearly 10,000 ft. The Fissure 7 north channel fed a flow that advanced into PGV property and approached pad E before it stalled this morning; however, the flow was refreshed by lava from the vent and, about noon, started to advance again covering a portion of pad E and also producing a narrow flow to the north of pad E. These flows continue to be active as of this posting. HVO bulletin (May 26th - 2:56 UTC reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that also reaches the coast, making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a lava flow that has advanced northeastward crossing Kahukai St. at about 3:30 pm this afternoon and continuing to the northeast at a slow pace. Fissure 17 is barely active.At the summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 4:17 pm sending ash as high as 12,000 feet above sea level. HVO bulletin (May 25th - 3:12 UTC) reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fairly tall fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that reached the coast yesterday making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a pahoehoe flow that has advanced eastward covering most of the area bounded by Leilani Blvd, Mohala St., and and the fissure line. Fissure 17 continues weak spattering, Fissure 19 and 23 are no longer active. At the summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after the recent explosive eruptions, are again slowly increasing. At this time, based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. HVO bulletin (May 24th - 2:47 UTC) reported that fissure 6 through 22 continue erupting lava fountains. The fountains from Fissure 22 feed a single lava channel that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. The actual point of entry has continued shifting to the west. Fountains erupted from Fissures 5, 6, 13, and 19 continued to feed a lava flow advancing to the south along the west side of the Fissure 22 flows and may reach the ocean this afternoon or evening. Fissure 17 continue weak spattering, Fissure 8 reactivated briefly this morning to erupt two small pahoehoe flows over the initial `a`a flow. At the Kilauea summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 10:30 this morning. Additional explosions are possible at any time. HVO bulletin (May 23rd - 8:22 UTC) reported that eruption of lava and ground cracking continues in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision. Over the course of the day, the most active eruptive activity in the Lower East Rift Zone shifted to the middle portion of the system of fissures. The most active fissures were 22,19, 6, 5, and 23. Fissure 17, at the northeastern end of the fissure system is only weakly active now. Fissure 6 is feeding a flow to the south, roughly parallel to the western flow from fissure 22. Fountaining of fissures 5 and 23 fed flows in the eastern part of Leilani Estates. Small ash emissions from the Overlook crater have been occurring frequently today. Moderate trade winds were blowing to the southwest and noticeable ashfall may happen in downwind locations. HVO bulletin ( May 22nd - 2:11 UTC) reported that fissure 22 is erupting a short line of low lava fountains that feed a channelized flow that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. Spattering continues from a reactivated Fissures 6 that intermittently feeds a short lava flow. Fissures 17 and 19 continue weak spattering.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents. ( video -Photos ) . At the summit One explosive eruption of ash occurred at about 1 am this morning. Several smaller ash emissions have also taken place and produced abundant ash. HVO bulletin ( May 21st - 0:15 UTC) reported that spattering continues from Fissures 6 and 17 with significant lava flows being erupted from Fissures 20. Two of these lava flows from Fissure 20 reached the ocean along the southeast Puna coast overnight; however, a crack opened under the east lava channel early this morning diverting the lava from the channel into underground voids. This may cause changes downslope in the channel system and the ocean entry.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents.At the Kilauea summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after explosive eruptions on Saturday afternoon and Sunday noon, are again slowly increasing. Based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is still billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. . HVO buletin (May 19th - 5:53 UTC) that the eruption of lava and ground cracking in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision continues. Late on afternoon, a fast-moving pahoehoe lava flow emerged from fissure 20 and traveled southeast where it crossed Pohoiki Road. Estimates from Hawaii County Fire Department aerial video at 6:30 pm indicate advance rate of 300-400 yards per hour; this rate may change with time and USGS crews are in the area to try and monitor flow advance. Other fissures remain weakly active and volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind. Smoke from burning vegetation as lava flows advance is also contributing to poor air quality. . HVO bulletin (May 18th, 2:54 UTC) reported that after the summit explosive eruption early morning seismic levels have been gradually increasing, but as of this report no additional explosions have occurred. No earthquakes greater than magnitude 3.5 have occurred in the past day.Volcanic gas emissions at the summit remain high. At the Lower East rift zone tThis afternoon, fissure 17 is still actively spattering but the flow is nearly stalled. In addition, fissures 18, 19, and 20 have reactivated and a new fissure (21) has opened between fissures 7 and 3. An area 50-100 yards wide, parallel to and north of the line of fissures between Highway 130 and Lanipuna Gardens, has dropped slightly. This long depression is currently being filled by pahoehoe lava flows from fissures 20 and 21. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. HVO bulletin (May 17th - 2:47 UTC) reported that ash emission from the Overlook crater within Halema`uma`u has generally decreased since yesterday. Although varying in intensity, at times the plume contains enough ash to be gray in color. The cloud is rising an estimated 3 to 4,000 feet above the ground, but altitudes are varying with pulses of emission. The ash cloud is drifting slowly northward from the Kilauea summit and ashfall may occur in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Volcano Village. Communities downwind may receive ashfall and should take necessary precautions. Several magnitude 3 or stronger earthquakes occurred beneath the summit today. The earthquakes were at shallow depth and resulted in cracks in Highway 11 near the entrance to Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. Some facilities within the National Park were damaged as well. The explosive eruption of 1924 at the Kilauea summit was also marked by hundreds of felt earthquakes as magma drained from the caldera. This afternoon, eruptive activity remained concentrated at fissure 17 but the spattering was decreasing in vigor. The advance of the flow has slowed significantly since yesterday afternoon; the flow remains nearly 2.5 km (1.5 mi) in length. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. Magma continues to be supplied to the lower East Rift Zone as indicated by the continued northwest displacement of a GPS monitoring station. Elevated earthquake activity continues, but earthquake locations have not moved farther downrift in the past couple of days. HVO bultetin (15th of May 23:27 UTC) reported that as of early this morning, eruption of ash from the Overlook vent within Halemaumau crater at Kilauea Volcano's summit has generally increased in intensity. Ash has been rising nearly continuously from the vent and drifting downwind to the southwest. Ashfall and vog (volcanic air pollution) has been reported in Pahala, about 18 miles downwind. NWS radar and pilot reports indicate the top of the ash cloud is as high as 10,000 to 12,000 feet above sea level, but this may be expected to vary depending on the vigor of activity and wind conditions. Ash emission from the Kilauea summit vent will likely be variable with periods of increased and decreased intensity depending on the occurrence of rockfalls into the vent and other changes within the vent. HVO bulletin (14th of May 18:36 UTC) reported that on the morning, activity is dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter more than 100 feet into the air, and an advancing lava flow from fissure 17 at the northeast end of the fissure system. As of 630 am the fissure 17 flow had traveled just under a mile roughly east-southeast parallel to the rift zone. It is turning slightly south and at this time is about one half mile south of Highway 132. Fissure 18 that became active late yesterday is weakly active. A fissure 19 has been spotted very near fissure 15 as of about 8 am just northeast of Pohoiki Road and north of Hinalo Street at the east end of Lanipuna Gardens. It is producing a sluggish lava flow. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the vents. Yesterday with the onset of activity at fissure 17, powerful steam jets have occurred intermittently near the west end of the fissure. These jets may be responsible for some of the loud sounds reported by residents and emergency workers. HVO reported that as of late today (May13rd), activity was dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter bombs hundreds of feet into the air, and several advancing lava flow lobes moving generally northeast from fissure 17 at the downrift (northeast) end of the new fissure system. As of about 7 pm, one lobe was 2 yards thick and advancing roughly parallel to Highway 132. The flow front was just over a half mile southeast of the intersection of Highway 132 and Noni Farms Road. Based on overflight images late this afternoon, additional lava from fissure 17 was also moving slowly southeast. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated. At the Kilauea summit Deflationary tilt continues. A robust plume of steam and volcanic gas, occasionally mixed with ash, has risen from the Overlook crater within Halemaumau. HVO bulletin (May12th, 2:39 UTC) reported that Volcanic unrest in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. While no lava has been emitted from any of the 15 fissure vents since May 9, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Communities downslope of these fissures could be at risk from lava inundationHVO bulletin (May 11th 4:51 UTC) reported that High levels of unrest related to the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continue. While no lava was noted erupting today from any of the 15 fissure vents formed thus far, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Earthquake activity was high in the area today. Continuing ground deformation and located earthquakes were mostly in the area around and northeast of Fissure 15 at Pohoiki Road indicating that the intrusion is migrating further to the northeast. Steaming ground cracks in the vicinity of Highway 130 continue. HVO bulletin (May 10th, 2:55 UTC) reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Visible activity this early afternoon was again focused on the northeast portion of the fissure area. Fissure 15 broke ground across Poihiki Road, generating a pahoehoe flow about 20 m (66 ft) long. During an overflight of the area about 3 p.m. HST, geologists observed a new steaming area uprift (west) of Highway 130. During a second overflight at 4:30 p.m., the area was still steaming. Rates of motion increased late this morning on a GPS station 1.5 km (1 mile) southeast of Nanawale Estates. The direction of motion is consistent with renewed movement of magma in the downrift direction (to the northeast). Rates of seismicity changed little throughout the day; located earthquakes were mostly uprift (west) of Highway 130. Gas emissions remain elevated in the vicinity of fissures. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past week and the lava lake level continues to drop. At about 8:32 a.m. HST, a large rockfall from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake triggered an explosion that generated an ash column above the crater; the ash was blown toward the south-southwest. Rockfalls and explosions that produce ash columns are expected to continue. HVO bulletin (May 8th, 18:15 UTC ) reported that of 7:00 am, the eruption along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision has paused. Strong emission of gas continues from the fissure system that is now about 2.5 miles long. This pause is likely temporary and resumption of lava emission or additional fissure outbreaks are possible at any time. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from Friday's magnitude-6.9 earthquake continue and more are expected. Rockfalls into the Overlook vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater are producing intermittent ash emissions. Seismicity at Kīlauea's summit remains elevated. USGS/HVO continues to monitor the situation 24/7 in coordination with Hawaii County Civil Defense and other authorities. Field crews are onsite this morning examining the fissure vents, lava flow of yesterday, and searching for any signs of new or resumed activity. As of the 8th of May (3:59 UTC), HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. The location of activity today was focused on the southwest portion of the area. This morning, two new fissure segments broke ground. The first (fissure 11) opened in a forested southwest of Leilani Estates about 9:30 am and was active for only 3 hours. The second (fissure 12) opened about 12:20 between older fissures 10 and 11. By 3:15 pm, both new fissures were in active but the west end of fissure 10 was steaming heavily. Cracks on Highway 130 widened from 7 cm to 8 cm over the course of the day and additional cracks were found just west of the highway on trend with the eruptive fissures. As of the 7th of May (6:59 UTC) HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Fissure 8 erupted lava fountains until about 4 p.m. HST, and the aa' flow advanced slowly northward through the afternoon, even after the lava fountains shut down. Geologists reported this early evening that the flow crossed Ho'okopu Road, a distance from fissure 8 of about about 1.1 km (0.6 miles). They also reported new ground cracks in the vicinity of fissures 8 and 9 that were emitting thick steam and gases, but no lava spattering was observed by the time of this status report. Rates of seismicity and deformation decreased in the past day. The absence of additional deformation in the past day suggests a pause in magma acculumation in the distal part of the intrusion. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past several days. Corresponding to this deflationary trend, the summit lava lake level in Overlook crater dropped about 2 m (6.5 ft) per hour during the day. The lake level has dropped an estimated 220 m (722 ft) since the collapse of Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater on April 30. Rockfalls from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake continue to produce ashy plumes above Halema'uma'u crater. Rockfalls and ashy plumes are expected to continue as the lake level drops. Earthquake activity in the summit remains at elevated levels. In the past 24 hours, about 31 magnitude-2 earthquakes occurred at depths less than 5 km (3 miles) beneath the summit area (compared to the 24-hour period when 152 magnitude-2 and magnitude-3 earthquakes. These earthquakes are related to the ongoing subsidence of the summit area and earthquakes beneath the south flank of the volcano. HVO bulletin ( Saturday, May 5, 2018, 21:54 UTC) reported that active eruption of lava and gas continues along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision. Additional fissure vents producing spatter and small lava flows developed early this morning, and additional outbreaks in the area are likely. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from yesterday's M6.9 earthquake continue and more should be expected, with larger aftershocks potentially producing rockfalls and associated ash clouds above Puʻu ʻŌʻō and Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Residents of the Puna District should remain alert, review individual, family, and business emergency plans, and watch for further information about the status of the volcano. Video. According to latest HVO bulletin (Saturday, May 5, 2018, 02:04 UTC) eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Several additional eruptive fissures or vents - each several hundred yards long - have opened over the past day. No significant lava flows have yet formed. Spatter and lava are accumulating primarily within a few tens of yards of the vent. The sixth and most recent fissure is on the eastern edge of the subdivision. Not all fissure vents remain active and no far-traveled lava flows have formed. For maps showing the locations of these features : https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_maps.html .HVO geologists will be in the area overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity using various monitoring data streams. Seismicity and deformation are consistent with continued accumulation of magma within the rift zone. Additional outbreaks of lava are expected. According to report from HVO (Friday, May 4, 2018, 08:13 UTC) the eruption in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano that began in late afternoon temporary ended by about 6:30 p.m. HST. Lava spatter and gas bursts erupted from the fissure for about two hours, and lava spread a short distance from the fissure, less than about 10 m (33 ft). At this time, the fissure is not erupting lava and no other fissures have erupted. HVO geologists are working near the fissure overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity. Geologists reported this evening that the presence of sulfur gas is quite noticeable around the fissure, typical of active and recently active fissures. The concentration of sulfur dioxide gas is high within tens of meters (yards) of the fissure. Lava flows did not advance more than about 10 m (33 ft) from the fissure. The flows are no longer active. At this time, no other fissures have erupted from along the rift zone. Tiltmeters at Kīlauea's summit continue to record deflationary tilt and the lava lake level has dropped about 37 m (121 ft) in the past 24 hours. Seismic activity has not changed significantly during the day or since the brief fissure eruption. Previously, HVO reported that the intrusion of molten rock into the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano reached the surface in the late afternoon on May 3 in a part of Leilani Estates. A fissure about 150 m (492 ft) long erupted mostly spatter and intermittent bubble bursts for about 2 hours.Lava did not travel more than a few m (yards) from the fissure.Hawaii County Civil Defence is coordinating needed response including evacuation of a portion of the Leilani subdivision. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory deployed geologists to the eruption site overnight, and other scientists are monitoring various data streams telemetered to the observatory 24/7.As of the 30th of April, in a special report HVO reported that following weeks of inflation, the floor of the crater of Pu'u O'o collapsed on April 30, 2018, between 14h and 16h30 in two episodes visibles on a thermal camera located on the edge of the crater. Bad weather conditions prevented the observatory teams to fly over the crater and cannot observe this activity.The collapse caused the release of a large amount of reddish ash around the Pu'u O'o for several kilometers on the 61 g lava flow. Following this collapse, seismometers and tiltmeters recorded an increase in seismic activity and deformation from the summit area of ​​Kilauea to an area between 10 and 16 km east of Pu'u O'o; during the night, this activity continued to spread along the rift zone to the east and the highway 130 to 30 km ... marking an area potentially at risk of eruption.The strongest earthquake of the sequence was of magnitude 4, south of Pu'u O'o 'on April 27 at 2:39. A new ladder crack, of 1 km long, has opened to the west of Pu'u O'o, characterized by heavy outgassing. its released a small amount of lava, according to the presence of small areas of spatters; it is no longer active. The level of the upper lava lake, located in the Halema'uma'u crater, has dropped 15 meters, suggesting an intrusion from the summit area during the weekend into the Pu'u O'o magmatic system towards the East; summit deflation supports this mechanism.The volcanic alert level remains at Watch and the aviation code is orange. Residents of Puna must remain alert and monitor information on the status of the volcano.During 18-24 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, and by late on 21 April had overflowed the S crater rim. As of midday on 23 April the new flows has covered about 16 ha of the floor, or about 30%. Overflows of the crater rim continued through 24 April, flowing as far as 375 m onto the N, SW, and S parts of the crater floor. HVO noted that the overflows were the first significant ones since May 2015. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 18 April geologists observed the pit crater on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, noting that overflows had built up the crater rim to several meters above the crater floor and 7 m higher compared to late March. During 11-17 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, with spattering visible from HVO and Jaggar Museum; by 16 April the lake level was 10 m below the rim of the Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 11 April a moderate swarm of over 200 earthquakes occurred at depths of 7-9 km below the summit. The largest event was a M 2.4. Seismicity returned to background levels at 0230. Three minor ledge collapses were detected on 12 April, one at 1157 and two just after 1830. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali; on 13 April most scattered breakouts were within 2.2 km from Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and one was about 5 km away. During 4-10 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand through 6 April. A rockfall at 1028 on 6 April triggered an explosion in the lava lake, damaging the webcam power system on the crater rim. During 28 March-3 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island. The Webcam images, which are updated every five minutes, can be accessed at : http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/cams/NCcam/ . From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

USA - Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaian islands)

September 20th, 2019

As of the 20th of September HVO reported that during the past week, about 90 low-magnitude earthquakes (all below M2.5) have been detected beneath the Mauna Loa peaks, nearly double the number recorded the previous week. Most earthquakes occurred at shallow to intermediate depths less than 10 km below ground level.Global Positioning System (GPS) and Synthetic Interferometric Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements show continued peak inflation, consistent with the magma feed of the volcano's shallow storage system.The latest HVO activity report of Mauna Loa of 25 July / 20h14 UTC confirmed for the past week high deformation and seismicity ratios. The Mauna Loa is not erupting, but the Volcano is Advisory and the Yellow Aviation Code.At the seismicity level, 75 earthquakes, mostly of magnitude less than 2.0, occurred during the week under the summit zone and the upper southwest rift zone, at a depth of less than 5 km. No change in Sulfur degassing cone over the southwest rift zone was measured. HVO raised the alert code to yellow (advisory) and the aviation code for Mauna Loa on 2nd of July to Yellow due to increased rates of inflation and seismicity under the summit and Soutwhest Rift zone.Deformation Data since the end of the Kilauea eruption shows a steady increase in inflation. For the past several months, earthquake and ground deformation rates at Mauna Loa Volcano have exceeded long term background levels. An eruption is not imminent and current rates are not cause for alarm. However, they do indicate changes in the shallow magma storage system at Mauna Loa. Following a significant earthquake swarm in October 2018, HVO seismic stations have recorded an average of at least 50 shallow, small-magnitude earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa's summit, upper Southwest Rift Zone, and upper west flank. This compares to a rate of fewer than 20 per week in the first half of 2018. Shallow earthquakes are occurring in locations similar to those that preceded Mauna Loa's most recent eruptions in 1975 and 1984. During this same time period, GPS instrumentation and satellite radar have measured ground deformation consistent with renewed recharge of the volcano's shallow magma storage system. The current rate and pattern of ground deformation is similar to that measured during inflation of Mauna Loa in 2005 and again from 2014 - 2018. Together, these observations indicate the volcano is no longer at a background level of activity. Accordingly, HVO is elevating the Mauna Loa alert level to ADVISORY and the aviation color code to YELLOW. Massive Mauna Loa shield volcano rises almost 9 km above the sea floor to form the world's largest active volcano. Flank eruptions are predominately from the lengthy NE and SW rift zones, and the summit is cut by the Mokuaweoweo caldera, which sits within an older and larger 6 x 8 km caldera. Two of the youngest large debris avalanches documented in Hawaii traveled nearly 100 km from Mauna Loa; the second of the Alika avalanches was emplaced about 105,000 years ago (Moore et al. 1989). Almost 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is covered by lavas less than 4000 years old (Lockwood and Lipman, 1987). During a 750-year eruptive period beginning about 1500 years ago, a series of voluminous overflows from a summit lava lake covered about one fourth of the volcano's surface. The ensuing 750-year period, from shortly after the formation of Mokuaweoweo caldera until the present, saw an additional quarter of the volcano covered with lava flows predominately from summit and NW rift zone vents. (GVN/GVP)

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U.S.A. - Bogoslof volcano island (Aleutian islands)

February 20th, 2018

End eruption report - The AVO has put online a 3D multispectral image of Bogoslof, resting since August 30, 2017, end of the eruption 2016-17. The approximately 60 explosive episodes characterizing this period have significantly modeled the Bogoslof's morphology. The island has grown by a factor of three, reaching 1.6 km², but new pyroclastic materials and surge deposits are not consolidated; erosion modifies the contours of Bogoslof permanently, and in December, the lagoon of the vent opened on the ocean on the north coast, marking a gradual return to more modest dimensions ... general problem of news or remodeled volcanic islands: construction and destruction. Previous news - On 6 December AVO decreased the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Bogoslof to Unassigned, noting that no significant activity had been observed in seismic, infrasound, satellite, or lightning data during the past three months. The last detected explosive activity occurred on 30 August 2017. On 27 September AVO reported that the last explosion at Bogoslof was detected on 30 August, and no new volcanic activity was observed in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since then. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that during 20-26 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 22-23 September, indicating ongoing unrest. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 13-19 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 13-14 and 16-17 September, indicating ongoing unrest. On 17 September discolored ocean water was visible in satellite data, possibly representing outflow from the crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 6-12 September nothing significant was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. The 8 September report noted that the crater lake had been bisected by a narrow isthmus of land. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in one satellite image during 10-11 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at 0405 on 30 August and continued intermittently until 0555; the event produced a low-level ash plume that rose to around 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. Later that day seismic and infrasound data showed quiet conditions, and a low-level plume (likely steam) drifted almost 65 km SSE. Satellite, infrasound, and seismic data showed nothing notable during 31 August-5 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Three short-duration eruptive events occurred during 27-28 August. The first, a two-minute-long explosion at 1508 on 27 August, produced a volcanic cloud that rose 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The second event started at 0323 on 28 August and lasted 25 minutes. The resulting small cloud drifted ESE and quickly dissipated. The third event was detected at 1117 on 28 August and generated a small volcanic cloud that rose 7.6-9.1 (25,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were observed in a few satellite images during 28-29 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a satellite image of Bogoslof acquired at 0628 on 24 August showed elevated surface temperatures and a small plume that was most likely steam drifting 17 km S. During 24-25 August a robust steam plume drifting 70 km SE and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data. A four-minute-long explosion that began at 1629 on 26 August generated an eruption cloud that rose 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The event was also observed in seismic and infrasound data, and one lightning stroke was detected. . AVO reported that photographs of Bogoslof taken during an overflight on 15 August showed that the vent area (which had dried out during the 7 August eruption) had refilled with water. Seismicity decreased on 16 August and remained low at least through 18 August. Weakly elevated surface temperatures consistent with a warm lake were identified in satellite data during 19-20 August. Satellite data acquired on 21 August showed an approximately 125-m-diameter lava dome within the intra-island lake, just W of the 1992 lava dome. A cold volcanic plume, likely from the lava dome, drifted about 55 km S of the island. Some minor explosions were detected in infrasound data at about 0410 on 22 August. The lava dome had grown to 160 m in diameter. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that on 9 August seismic and infrasound data suggested low-level eruptive activity at Bogoslof; weakly elevated surface temperatures and a minor steam emission were identified in satellite images. No significant activity was observed in cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data during 10-13 August. Two short pulses of tremor were detected (at 0853, lasting five minutes, and at 0913, lasting three minutes) in seismic data; seismicity returned to baseline levels afterwards. A sequence of seismic events began at 0000 on 15 August; no activity was observed in infrasound, lightning, or satellite data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and theVolcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that during 2-6 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. An explosive eruption began at 1000 on 7 August, following more than an hour of increased seismicity. A pilot reported that an ash cloud rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l., prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. The eruption lasted about three hours, and was longer lived than most of the events in the eruptive sequence that started in December 2016. At 1341 AVO noted that the ash plume had formed a continuous cloud which stayed attached to the volcano and drifted S. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 8 August. Satellite images acquired on 8 August showed a significant expansion of the island towards the N with thick tephra deposits around the vent area forming a new crater lake. AVO reported that during 26 July-1 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in partly cloudy to clear satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 19-25 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 12-18 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images; weakly elevated surface temperatures were noted on 12 and 16 July. In addition no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code Aremained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Avo reported that two new explosions occurred at the Bogoslof on 10 and 11 July. The first one consists of a series of explosions that began on July 10 at 7:47 UTC and ended on 10.07 at 10:35 UTC, the AVO has passed the alerts to RED / Warning. A small cloud of ashes associated with the first episode reached 6,000 meters, and quickly dissipated in a southeasterly direction. A rapid decline in seismicity around 11:00 UTC lowered alert levels to ORANGE / Watch. - The second period of activity began around 6 pm UTC: seismicity and infrasound were increased for 8 minutes. No significant emissions were detected by satellite.On July 11, at 01:06 UTC, the seismic network recorded an eruption that lasted about 15 minutes. No volcanic clouds, lightning or infrasound were detected. Alert levels remain unchanged until data is evaluated. AVO reported that an explosion at Bogoslof was detected at 0124 on 30 June and lasted about 20 minutes. A small cloud from the event drifted about 16 km N and by 1815 had dissipated. Seismicity declined afterwards but continued intermittently at low levels. Beginning at 1248 on 2 July a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data. The event lasted about 16 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Following the eruption seismicity declined and no signs of volcanic unrest were detected in seismic, infrasound, on satellite data on 3 July; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. The ACC and VAL were again raised to Red and Warning, respectively, following an explosive event that began at 1651 on 4 July and lasted 13 minutes. An eruption cloud rose as high as 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. An 11-minute-long eruption began at 1907 on 4 July, producing a small cloud that rose 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. AVO reported that a new significant explosive eruption occurred at 20:48 UTC July 2 (12:48 AKDT July 2). AVO is raising the Aviation Color Code to RED and Alert level to WARNING for Bogoslof volcano. Satellite data and pilot reports shows a volcanic cloud with an estimated altitude of 36,000 ft asl moving towards the east. Seismic and infrasound data suggest that the ash emissions are no longer continuing. AVO reported that slightly elevated surface temperatures at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images on 23 June, and steam emissions were occasionally observed the previous week. Beginning at 1649 on 23 June a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data that lasted about 10 minutes. It produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 400-490 km E. The event prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Four additional explosions were detected, during 1918-1924, 2013-2021, 2104-2112, and 2152-2155, though any resulting ash plumes were not detected above the cloud deck at 8.5-9.1 km (28,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. On 25 June the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. At 1645 on 26 June an eruption which lasted about 14 minutes produced an ash plume that rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic and lighting data indicated that a significant explosion began at 0317 on 27 June, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. The event lasted 14 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Following a significant explosive eruption this 24 June at 0h49 UTC / 23 June 16h49 AKDT, the Bogoslof  has changed to a red aviation code. It produced a plume rising to about 36,000 ft, and was accompanied by a strong seismicity, flashes and infra-sons. The eruption lasted 10 minutes. The satellites located the volcanic cloud at 1:30 UTC, at 36,000 ft, moving northeast.AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures and a small steam emission at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were detected on 16 June, and a 13-km-long steam plume was visible on 18 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a new lava dome at Bogoslof breached the surface of the ocean on or around 6 June, and was the first observation of lava at the surface since the start of the eruption that began in mid-December 2016. The dome was an estimated 110 m in diameter on 7 June, and then grew to 160 m in diameter by 9 June. An explosive eruption began at 0318 on 10 June with a series of short infrasound signals which then, starting at about 0416, transitioned into several minutes-long continuous seismic and infrasound tremor signals. The events generated an ash-rich cloud that rose to an estimated altitude of 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. The eruption ended at 0528. Satellite data indicated that at least part of the volcanic cloud was more ash-rich than most in the current eruption period. On 11 June AVO noted no detectable activity in seismic or infrasound data after the event the day before. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Satellite image acquired on 10 June and a photograph from an observer aboard a jet aircraft on 11 June suggested that the lava dome was no longer above the surface of the water, and was destroyed during the 10 June event. A series of explosive events, each lasting 10-30 minutes, began at 1747 on 12 June and ended around 2035. Ash plumes rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. At 0817 on 13 June a six-minute-long explosion was detected in seismic and infrasound data. A plume was not observed, likely because it was too small or below detection limits. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that a short-duration (less than 10 minute) explosion at Bogoslof began at 1842 on 31 May based on seismic and infrasound data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted WNW, and dissipated over the Bering Sea. The explosion was preceded by a several hour-long swarm of very small earthquakes. Seismicity decreased in the hours prior to the explosion and remained below the detection threshold. A sulfur dioxide plume from an explosion on 28 May was visible in satellite data drifting over the Hudson Bay region of Canada on 2 June. A short-duration explosive event at 0750 on 5 June produced a small volcanic cloud observed by a pilot. Low-amplitude tremor was detected in seismic data beginning at about 1229 on 5 June but then decreased to background levels. A vessel in the area reported vigorous steaming and a white plume rising several thousand feet above sea level. A brief explosive event was detected at 0600 on 6 June. The event likely produced a low-level (less than 3 km or 10,000 ft a.s.l.) emission; a possible plume at 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. was identified in a satellite image following the detection of the activity in seismic and infrasound data, but quickly dissipated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. On 29 May the ash cloud continued to drift NE. No detectable activity was observed in data from seismic or infrasound stations located on nearby Islands, and no new activity has been observed in satellite data. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that the eruption at Bogoslof which began at 2232 on 16 May lasted about 73 minutes. Trace amounts of ash fell in the community of Nikolski on Umnak Island. Later that day the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch; no further ash emissions were detected and seismicity was low. Satellite data showed that the event altered the N coastline of the island. The crater lake was breached with a 550-m-wide gap along the N shore, and the NE shore had been extended 300 m from new tephra deposits. AVO reported that an increase in seismic and infrasound activity from Bogoslof was detected from stations on nearby islands starting at 2232 on 16 May, suggesting the beginning of an explosive eruption. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Watch. A pilot reported an ash plume rising as high as 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l., and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network detected lightning associated with the cloud. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. The eruption lasted about 73 minutes. On 19 April AVO noted that no new volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since a short-lived increase in seismicity on 15 April; AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and theVolcano Alert LevelIncreased seismicity at Bogoslof was recorded by stations on nearby islands starting around 1501 on 15 April, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The seismic activity subsided a few hours later; there was no evidence of renewed eruptive activity from infrasound, lightning, or satellite data during 15-18 April. On 5 April AVO reported that the Aviation Color Code for Bogoslof was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory based on the absence of detected activity at the volcano for the past three weeks; the last large explosion occurred on 8 March. No significant volcanic activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data during 6-11 April. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 29 March-4 April, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 28-29 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 22-28 March, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 15-21 March, and satellite views were either obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 20-21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 2236 on 7 March, indicated in seismic, lightning, and infrasound data, and lasted about three hours. Though ash was not immediately visible in satellite data, AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Later, satellite images showed a large ash cloud rising to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E. This event was the first detected eruptive activity since 19 February, and more than 1,000 lightning strokes related to the volcanic eruption cloud were detected during this event, by far the highest number observed to date. In addition the seismic levels were among the highest detected since the beginning of the eruption. Satellite images from 8 March showed that the W part of the island had grown significantly. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 9 March. Two earthquakes swarms were detected during 9-11 March; the first began at 1750 on 9 March and ended at 1400 on 10 March, and the second was detected from 1900 on 10 March to 0500 on 11 March. Mildly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 10-11 March. A third swarm began at 0500 on 12 March. A short-duration event, from 1131 to 1143 on 13 March, produced a small ash cloud that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. AVO noted that after the event, the level of seismic activity declined and the repeating earthquakes, detected for much of the previous several days, stopped. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images from 13 March. A photograph taken by a pilot showed a low-level, billowy steam plume rising from the general area of the intra-island lake. AVO reported that a new explosive eruption began on March 8 at 7:36 UTC / 7 March at 22:36 AKST at Bogoslof, characterized by about three hours of significant ash emissions. Activity was observed via seismic, infrasonic and lightning detection networks. A large ash cloud was seen by the satellites, moving east to an altitude of 10,700 meters asl. The volcano remains at a high level of instability, and its current aviation alert level is red. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in seismic, infrasound, or mostly cloudy satellite data during 22-28 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.AVO reported that during 15-16 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0955 on 17 February seismic data indicated the beginning of an explosive event, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Individual pulses of seismicity was recorded until 1140, and then afterwards seismicity was low. Satellite images and pilot observations indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. The event was also verified by infrasound and lightning data. Another short-lived explosive event began at 1546, detected in infrasound and seismic data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion at 0450 on 18 February was detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The seismic data suggested that ash emissions lasted several minutes, and then seismicity decreased. A preliminary evaluation of satellite data indicated that a cloud rose at least as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.; the cloud drifted SW. On 19 February the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Later that day seismic and infrasound data recorded a series of short-lived explosive pulses during 1708-1745. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. A plume identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 160 km SE over Unalaska Island. AVO geologists on the island described the cloud has having a white upper portion and a slightly darker lower portion. Storms in the region impacted data communications at AVO's facility in Dutch Harbor on 20 February, limiting AVO's ability to forecast and detect eruptions at Bogoslof. AVO reported that during 8-12 and 14 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0724 on 13 February seismicity significantly increased, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Satellite images acquired through 0930 showed no ash emissions above the 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. cloud deck, and no lightning was detected. AVO concluded that, despite the intensity of seismic activity, a significant ash emission was not produced during this event; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0520 on 31 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. A burst of tremor lasting nine minutes was detected starting at 0457 on 3 February. A second burst, starting at 0533 and lasting 20 minutes, was also detected by infrasound instruments, indicating an explosion. No ash cloud was detected above the meteorological cloud deck in satellite data. An event that began at 1642 produced a small volcanic plume that drifted about 40 km N below an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic tremor significantly decreased later that evening. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images acquired on 5 February, possibly related to hot deposits from explosive activity the day before. On February 3, at 13:57 and 14:33 UTC, two episodes of tremor were detected; The second, accompanied by an infrasonic signal, indicates an explosion, without cloud of ash observed by satellite.Several short bursts of seismic activity were detected at 0520 and 0608 on 30 January. An infrasound signal accompanied the first event indicating an explosion; an eruption cloud was identified in satellite data at 0530, rising to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. later that day AVO noted that bursts of explosive activity continued and intensified; more than 10 short-duration explosions were detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. Ash plumes rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 125 km SE. Trace amounts of ashfall and a sulfur odor were reported in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor (98 km E). By the next day the explosions had subsided or ended. Satellite images acquired on 31 January showed significant changes to the island. AVO stated that freshly erupted volcanic rock and ash had formed a barrier that separated the vent from the sea, suggesting that the change had resulted in the more ash-rich emissions occurring during 30-31 January. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0453 on 24 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. An hour-long seismic increase began at 0134 on 25 January though no evidence of eruptive activity was evident. Based on lightning and seismic data an explosive event began at 0650 on 26 January, and another burst of seismicity was recorded at 0706. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. An ice-rich cloud, first identified in satellite data at 0700, likely contained ash, and rose as high as 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE at lower altitudes, and NE at altitudes above about 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Lightning and seismic data again indicated an explosive event at 0824 on 27 January, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. An ice-rich cloud that likely contained ash rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E; seismicity related to ash emissions remained elevated for 48 minutes. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 1320 on 18 January, generating an ash plume that rose at least to an altitude of 9.4 km (31,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The dark (ash-rich) plume was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot, and produced lightning strikes and infrasound signals detected by sensors in Sand Point and Dillingham. Analysis of a satellite image suggested the presence of very hot material (lava) at the surface immediately surrounding the vent, which was the first such observation since the beginning of the eruption. AVO raised theAviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert level (VAL) to Warning. A second lower-altitude cloud was visible in satellite images around 1400, likely corresponding with an increase in seismic tremor that occurred from 1340-1355. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch the next day. Another explosion was detected at 1317 on 20 January, following an approximately 30-minute-long increase in seismic activity, based on seismic data and lightning detected from the World Wide Lightning Location Network. Pilots observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. Satellite images indicated an ice-rich plume and lava present at the vent. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, but were again lowered one level to Orange and Watch, respectively, the next day. Several lightning strikes north of Bogoslof indicated that an explosive event began at 1409 on 22 January. An ash plume identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, and again lowered one level the next day. Following a period of increasing seismicity, an explosive event began at 0453 on 24 January, as indicated in seismic data and lightning detection, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. Seven minutes later an ice-rich plume which likely contained ash rose too altitudes of 7.6-10.7 km (25,000-35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO reported that photos taken by a pilot on 10 January showed Bogoslof covered with dark gray ash, and a roughly 300-m-diameter submarine explosion crater on the E side of the island. Unrest continued during 11-17 January. Two short-lived explosions (five to six minutes long) were seismically detected at 1123 and 1230 on 12 January and observed by pilots. The estimated altitudes of the first and second plumes were 5.5 and 4.4 km (18,000 and 14,500 ft) a.s.l., respectively. Seismicity again increased at 2126 on 14 January and remained elevated. Six explosive events were detected between 2216 on 14 January and 0350 on 15 January. No volcanic clouds were identified in satellite data, although one lightning strike was recorded at 2232 on 14 January. Increased seismicity on 17 January indicated minor explosive activity; steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose no higher than 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.The last eruption of this volcano took place from July 6 to 24, 1992. It had Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 3 and produced a new dome.Bogoslof is the emergent summit of a submarine volcano that lies 40 km north of the main Aleutian arc. It rises 1500 m above the Bering Sea floor. Repeated construction and destruction of lava domes at different locations during historical time has greatly modified the appearance of this "Jack-in-the-Box" volcano and has introduced a confusing nomenclature applied during frequent visits of exploring expeditions.The present triangular-shaped, 0.75 x 2 km island consists of remnants of lava domes emplaced from 1796 to 1992. Castle Rock (Old Bogoslof) is a steep-sided pinnacle that is a remnant of a spine from the 1796 eruption. Fire Island (New Bogoslof), a small island located about 600 m NW of Bogoslof Island, is a remnant of a lava dome that was formed in 1883. (USGS-AVO)

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U.S.A. - Shishaldin volcano (Alaska)

November 12th, 2019

AVO reported an increase of the activity with fountaining was observed on overnight webcam. Small to moderate ash emissions were observed, drifting north.Since November 10th, high surface temperatures have been reported at the summit and on the flanks. Thermal anomalies were measured by Mirova on November 11, between 446 and 1,652 MW.Seismicity has increased over the past few days to find lower levels today. AVO reported that eruptive continued; the lava overflows the crater and feeds a flow on the north-west flank in elongation. This one developed in two branches on November 3rd each of them extending on approximately 1.000 meters. Debris flows / lahars also extended, extending up to 2 km on the north and south flanks; Sporadic glow was observable at night on webcams, and satellites showed hot spatter deposits on the summit cone in relation to explosive activity and / or fountaining. Small explosions were observed on the seismic and infrasonic networks. The volcanic alert remains at Watch and the aviation code at orange A pilot observed a lava flow in the morning of 2 November. Sporadic incandescence recorded by the webcam overnight during 2-3 November suggested minor explosive activity and/or lava fountaining. On 3 November lava overflowed the summit crater and traveled at least 400 m down the NW flank and 300 m down the SE flank. By 4 November the flow on the NW flank had branched and lengthened to 1 km. Lahars were as long as 2 km on the N and S flanks. Spatter deposits from explosions or fountaining were visible on the summit cone. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that Low-level eruptive activity continued during 26-29 October. Seismicity remained elevated, with periods of high-amplitude tremor. Small explosions were recorded during 27-28 October. A satellite image from 28 October showed a 850-m-long SWIR anomaly on the NW flank from a lava flow. A central spatter cone was visible. Spatter deposits on the snow at the upper flanks was evident, and tephra deposits extended about 2.5 km N. The lahar on the NW flank branched extensively at lower elevations and was at least 5 km long. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that satellite data from October 23 showed that the lava now fills the summit crater and begins to sink on the edge of the north crater at two locations.On October 24th, a 200 m (600 ft) long lava flow melted the snow and produced a large 2.9 km (1.8 mile) lahar which spreads on the north flank, reaching about 1230 m. m (~ 4000 ft) altitude. A small lava flow produced a lahar about 1 km long on the northeast flank. On 17 October AVO raised the Aviation Color Code for Shishaldin to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch noting that new lava effusion in the summit crater had begun on 13 October. Weather clouds had mostly prevented views of the crater during 12-18 October; elevated surface temperatures were detected during 13 and 17-20 October. A steam plume was visible in webcam images on 19 October. On 26 September AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin had decreased during the previous few weeks to levels slightly above background. Satellite images indicated decreased surface temperatures at the summit over the same period and showed collapse and slumping of the floor of the summit crater, suggesting a withdrawal of magma. Tiltmeter data suggested that the collapse may have occurred on 19 September. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that during 18-24 September low-level tremor at Shishaldin continued to be recorded, along with elevated surface temperatures at the summit crater visible in satellite images when views were not obscured by clouds. The data suggested ongoing, slight growth of the scoria cone and lava flows within the summit crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO ereported that low-level lava fountaining and minor explosive activity within Shishaldin's summit crater continued during 11-17 September; continuous tremor was recorded by the seismic network and elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. The webcam possibly recorded a steam emission on 16 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported Low-level lava fountaining and minor explosive activity within Shishaldin’s summit crater was last observed on 17 August and likely continued during 4-10 September; continuous tremor was recorded by the seismic network and moderately-elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. Elevated surface temperatures on the upper SE flank suggested that minor amounts of lava spatter may have extended beyond the summit crater; clear webcam images showed no evidence of hot deposits on the upper flank the next day. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 21-28 August continuous, low-level tremor at Shishaldin was recorded by the seismic network and elevated surface temperatures were often visible in satellite images. The spatter cone in the crater had grown and partially filled the summit crater.NOOA scientists took video of the eruption during an overflight on 17 August and noted repetitive minor explosive activity within the summit crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 14-20 August continuous, low-level tremor at Shishaldin was recorded by the seismic network and elevated surface temperatures were visible in infrared satellite images. The spatter cone in the crater had grown and partially filled the summit crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 7-13 August continuous, low-level tremor at Shishaldin was recorded by the seismic network and elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that satellite images of Shishaldin acquired on 28 July showed a small spatter cone with lava flows in the summit crater. During 31 July-6 August continuous weak tremor was recorded by the seismic network and elevated surface temperatures were sometimes visible in satellite images. A small steam plume was observed in a few satellite and web camera images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. As of the 27th of July, satellite observations throughout the week confirmed elevated surface temperatures from the summit crater. Low tremors continued to be recorded at relatively stable levels throughout the week. At this point, the eruption is confined to the summit crater, but lava levels can increase, resulting in small lava flows or small ash emissions with minimal warning.AVO raised the color of the air alert to Orange and the level of volcanic alert at Watch at Shishaldin. Scientists reported the deep presence of an active lava lake and spattering within the summit crater observed during a helicopter flight. This activity corroborates the seismic activity and the high surface temperatures measured by satellite (thermal anomalies of VRP 4 and 5 MW on July 23 and 24). Activity remains limited inside the crater. The 2857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." A steady steam plume rises from its small summit crater. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, it is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the west and NE sides at 1500-1800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century. . (GVN/GVP)

USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

November 9th, 2019

AVO reported that the aviation color code was raised to ORANGE and the WATCH volcano alert level by AVO in the day of November 8, 2019, regarding images from satellite that the slow lava spilling into the summit crater had probably begun. High surface temperatures have been observed throughout the week and their intensity has increased significantly over the past day. Mirova recorded thermal anomalies on November 8 of 6 and 2 MW.This activity is interpreted as being due to the recovery of the lava effusion. Vigorous steam has been observed in the webcam data over the last few days, which also corroborates the interpretation that the lava has been erupted. The presence of a lava dome in the summit crater can be used to pressurize the system, which could lead to a small explosive event and associated minor ash emissions. Previously, AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 20-24 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Satellite data showed continued subsidence of the lava dome with no evidence of new lava. On 25 February the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 13-19 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that analysis of recent satellite data suggested that the lava dome in Cleveland’s summit crater first observed on 12 January may have stopped growing on 16 January, and since then the center of the dome slowly subsided. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were evident in satellite data during 28 January-4 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the volcano alert level remained at Watch.During the past week, the latest satellite observations showed of high surface temperatures date from January 19-20, before the views of the volcano were obscured by clouds. No explosion was recorded by the seismic station and the infrasonic system.The aviation code remains orange, the possible explosions of the dome may present a danger for aviation. AVO has raised the alert level to Watch, and its aviation code to Orange on January 17, 2019. Satellite data show the existence and growth of a new lava dome since January 12, and its presence could be linked to explosive activity, commonly noticed without warning. AVO reported that a brief explosion was detected this December 29, 2018 at 3:17 UTC / December 28 at 18:17 AKST in Cleveland; a cloud of ash was spotted by a pilot at an altitude of 17,000 ft asl .Typical explosions of this volcano, small clouds of ash dissipate within hours of their emission. The aviation code is orange. AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite data on 15 December. A new small explosion which occurred at 0737 on 16 December generated a minor ash cloud that drifted NE. AVO reported that a small explosion was detected by the local seismic network in Cleveland, in Aleutian Islands, on 12 December at 11:53 am AKST / 20:53 UTC, justifying a watch / orange warning adjustment. The weather conditions did not allow the observation of n ash cloud. Previously, Low-level unrest at Cleveland continued, though on 22 August AVO noted a pause in activity and lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. Another small explosion at Cleveland was recorded by the seismic network at 1155 on 8 December. The report noted that elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images the previous day, suggestive of hot gas emissions from the summit crater vents. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 15-20 August, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Steaming from the crater was sometimes visible in clear webcam views, and elevated surface temperatures were occasionally identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. .The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

USA - Great Sitkin volcano - Andreanof Island (Alaska-Aleutian Islands )

June 18th, 2019

On 15 July AVOreported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased to background levels during the past few weeks with no evidence of eruptive activity in geophysical or satellite data. TheAviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alet level was lowered to Normal.AVO reported that a small steam explosion at Great Sitkin was detected in seismic data at 1318 on 7 June. The Aviation Color Code remains at yellow and the Volcano Alert at advisory. AVO reported that a small steam explosion was detected at Great Sitkin, in the Aleutian arc on June 2 at 5:40 UTC; This volcano is monitored by a seismic system in real time, which motivated the AVO to change the volcanic alert to Advisory and the aviation code to Yellow. On 25 February 2019 AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased to background levels during the past month and there was no evidence of explosive activity. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal. PREVIOUS NEWS 2018 - AVO reported that a small phreatic explosion at Great Sitkin was recorded by the seismic network at 1105 on 11 August. The event was preceded by small local earthquakes. Cloudy satellite images prevented views of the volcano during 12-14 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. AVO reported continuing low-level unrest at Great Sitkin during 20-26 June; seismic activity remained at or near background levels. A recently analyzed satellite image acquired on 11 June, one day after short-duration explosive event was recorded, showed a minor ash deposit on the snow extending 2 km from a vent in the summit crater. AVO reported that satellite images captured after the short-lived steam explosion at Great Sitkin on 10 June indicated minor changes in the summit crater, characterized by possible new fumaroles in the N part of the main crater and slightly more vigorous steaming at pre-existing fumaroles. Seismicity declined to background levels during 15-16 June. AVO changed the aviation code from green to yellow on June 10th at 13:26 AKDT.A signal, following an increase in seismic activity, could correspond this 10 June at 11:49 AKDT / 19:39 UTC to a short phreatic explosion, justifying the level of alert to Advisory.On 18 January AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had declined over the past two months to near background levels. In addition, no significant activity was observed in satellite data during this time period and no steam plumes were noted. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level to Green/Normal. AVO reported that during 28 November-5 December low-level unrest continued at Great Sitkin. Nothing noteworthy was identified in seismic data nor in partly cloudy to cloudy satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Recent observations of a robust steam plume and a period of gradually increasing seismicity over several months at Great Sitkin prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 22 November. On 19 November local observers photographed a light-colored vapor plume rising about 300 m above the vent and drifting 15-20 km S. A satellite image acquired on 21 November showed steam continuously jetting from a small fumarole on the W side of the 1974 lava flow within the summit crater, and at least one area where snow and ice had been melted. Seismicity had fluctuated but increased overall since July 2016, most notably in June 2017. The seismic activity was characterized by earthquakes less than M 1, and occurred either just below the summit or just offshore the NW cost of the island, 30 km below sea level. Possible explosion signals were recorded in seismic data on 10 January and 21 July 2017, but there were no confirmed emissions. The 1740-m-high Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The 1740-m-high summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 meters. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Great Sitkin since the late-19th century. (GVN/GVP)

U.S.A - Pavlof volcano (Alaska)

October 22nd, 2019

AVO reported that a small eruption occurred at Pavlof on October 19, detected by infrasound and seismic networks. Cloud cover does not indicate whether ashes have been emitted, but if so, they should only concern the summit area. Due to higher than normal settings, the alert level was changed to Advisory and the aviation code to Yellow. On 12 June AVO reported that elevated levels of seismicity at Pavlof, recorded since mid-May, had declined to background levels. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal. The report noted that vapor plumes were occasionally visible in webcam views and elevated surface temperatures in the summit crater were sometimes identified in satellite images; both are common occurrences at Pavlof. AVO reported that low-frequency tremor was detected at Pavlof during 14-15 May and a vigorous steam plume rising from the summit was visible in webcam images on 15 May. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow and the Volcano Alert level was raised to Advisory primarily because of increased seismicity. Steam plumes recorded by the webcam, low levels of seismic tremor, and warm surface temperatures identified in satellite data continued during 16-19 May; AVO noted that steam emissions and warm surface temperatures are common at Pavlof.The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavlof, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing Strombolian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode, when a fissure opened on the N flank, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.(GVN/GVP)

U.S.A. - Veniaminof volcano (Alaska)

August 14th, 2019

AVO reported that seismic unrest at Veniaminof continued during 7-13 August with low-frequency earthquakes being common. Satellite and webcam views showed nothing unusual. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. Low-level tremor at Veniaminof coincided with a pilot observation of a steam plume at 1230 on 1 August, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. On 2 August AVO noted that tremor had subsided, though low-level seismicity persisted at least through 6 August. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. A small steam plume was also visible on 3 August. On 30 April AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code for Veniaminof to Green and the Volcano Alert level to Normal, noting that signs of unrest had continued to decline over the previous four months since the eruption ended in early January. Low-level tremor, slightly elevated surface temperatures, and minor steam emissions continued and considered typical activity for a post-eruptive period. Previous news 2018 - AVO reported that a strong thermal anomaly was visible in satellite and webcam data during 14-15 December, and together with an eruption plume, was consistent with lava fountaining at the summit vent. By 16 December a lava flow was erupting from the vent. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that on December 10th, the lava emission by the intracaldeira cone from Veniaminof, in the Alaskan Peninsula, stopped, although explosive activity still occurs. Until December 13, there is no evidence of eruptive activity observed on the webcam and satellite images. On Thursday, December 13th, the tremor reappeared intermittently, gradually becoming continuous. Since then, a plume has been observed and more vigorous activity has resumed, given the high temperatures recorded by the webcam and satellites, consistent with fountaining. AVO reportred that the eruption of lava continued during 4-5 December. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures. Steam plumes with possible diffuse ash were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images. On 6 December seismicity changed from nearly continuous, low-level volcanic tremor to intermittent, small, low-frequency events and short bursts of tremor, possibly indicating that lava effusion had slowed or stopped. Variable seismicity continued through 12 December, though there was no visual confirmation of lava effusion. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that the eruption of lava rom the cone in Veniaminof’s ice-filled summit caldera continued during 27 November-3 December. Satellite and webcam data showed eevated surface temperatures. Steam and diffuse ash plumes were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images. During 27-28 November acoustic waves were recorded by regional infrasound sensors. Continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded until the network went offline following a M7 tectonic earthquake near Anchorage on 30 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). Ash emissions from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera significantly increased overnight during 20-21 November, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning (the highest levels on four-level scales). Ash emissions rose to below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 240 km SE. On 21 November observers and webcam views in Perryville (35 km SE) indicated continuous ash emissions through most of the day; ash plumes drifted SE, extending as far as 400 km by around 1445. A short eruptive pulse was recorded during 1526-1726, and then afterwards ash plumes rose to below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Low-altitude ash emissions on 22 November drifted 100 km S. Minor ashfall was reported in Perryville. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level to Orange and Watch, respectively, because of decreased ash emissions. Elevated thermal anomalies were identified in satellite data overnight, and incandescence was visible from a Perryville webcam, suggesting continuing lava effusion which had been obscured by the increased period of ash emissions. Lava effusion was persistent through 27 November. AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera, continued at low levels during 14-20 November. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and lava effusion. Relatively continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded. Steam and diffuse ash plumes were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images; plumes rose as high as 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. on 16 November. Recent satellite data showed that the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera, continued at low levels during 7-13 November. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and lava effusion. Continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded. Steam and diffuse ash plumes periodically identified in webcam and satellite images rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and W. Recent satellite data showed that the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera, continued during 31 October-6 November. Satellite data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and flows. Low-amplitude continuous tremor was recorded. The webcam in Perryville, 35 km SE, periodically recorded diffuse ash emissions and incandescence from the cone. Based on a pilot observation and satellite data, a diffuse ash plume rose to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 5 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). As of the 30th of October, AVO reported that the eruption continues characterized by minor spattering and effusion of lava from the intracratal cone, confirmed by satellite temperature measurements.Diffuse ash emissions have been observed on the webcam during previous days; ashfalls occurs sometimes on the surrounding communities depending on the wind conditions. Based on satellite data acquired on 25 October the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent, and the area of the flow field had doubled in the past month. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that on October 18, the emissions were particularly strong, with a plume dominated by steam, with the presence of sulfur dioxide and a small amount of ash, and extending for 30 km to the northeast. The effusion of lava continues, as indicated by a relatively continuous tremor.Constant steam emissions can be seen on the Perryville webcam. AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 10-16 October, as evidenced by elevated surface temperatures in satellite data, and low-level continuous tremor. Satellite data indicated that the E part of the S-flank flow field remained active. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface. (GVN/GVP)

U.S.A. - Semisopochnoi volcano ( Alaska)

September 20th, 2019

AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level for Semisopochnoi to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow on 18 September noting a decrease in seismic activity over the past few weeks and an absence of tremor since 15 September. Low-levels sulfur dioxide emissions persisted, and the crater lake continued to fill with water. AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi possibly continued during 4-10 September. Seismic activity was relatively minor and characterized by intermittent low-frequency earthquakes. Satellite images were mostly cloudy, though a low-altitude steam plume drifting 50 km S was visible on 8 September. The Volcano Alert level remained at Watch and theAviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that during 17-23 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes; seismic data went offline starting sometime on 17 August, though was available by around 22 August. Ground-coupled airwaves, indicative of explosive activity, were sometimes recorded in seismic data; an infrasound signal was recorded during 23-24 August. Cloudy weather often prevented satellite views of the volcano, though a steam plume was visible on 18 August and sulfur dioxide emissions were detected during 21-22 August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that during 14-17 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes; seismic data became unavailable starting sometime on 17 August. Cloudy weather often prevented satellite views of the volcano, however some recent clear views indicated that the N cone crater had a smooth featureless area, indicating water or tephra at an elevation several meters below the previous floor. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that during 7-13 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes. No unusual activity was observed in satellite images, though views were often cloudy. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that during 31 July-6 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of weak, continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes. Satellite images were mostly cloudy, though a possible steam plume was visible during 5-6 August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. On 24 July AVO reported that satellite data from the previous week indicated that the 100-m-wide crater lake in the N cone of Semisopochnoi’s Cerberus three-cone cluster was gone, and a new shallow inner crater about 80 m in diameter had formed on the crater floor. The lake had persisted since January 2019. Seismicity during 25-30 July was characterized by periods of continuous tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, and small explosion signals. Small steam plumes were visible in periodic, cloud-free satellite images, along with minor sulfur dioxide emissions. The Alaska Volcano Observatory raised the level of the Semisopochnoi to Watch / Orange Aviation Code on July 18 around 10:38. An increase in seismic activity began during the night. A strong tremor signal, and an infrasonic signal are reported east of Adak Island at 23:39 AKDT: this event probably resulted in ash emissions and, at the current level of persistent disturbances, similar events could occur without Warning. The weather cloud is located approximately 10,000 ft (3,000 m) above Semisopochnoi and no ash signal has been detected above this height. A small plume extending 18 km from the Cerberus vent was visible in yesterday's satellite data but did not contain an ash signal.An increase in seismicity above background levels on 4 July at Semisopochnoi prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). Elevated seismicity continued through at least 9 July. No eruptive activity was detected in regional infrasound data, and cloudy conditions obscured satellite views of the volcano..Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is 1221-m-high Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island's northern part. The three-peaked 774-m-high Mount Cerberus volcano was constructed during the Holocene within the caldera. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the northern flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the southern side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical 855-m-high Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented historical eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone within the caldera could have been active during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

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ITALY - Etna volcano ( Sicily)

October 22nd, 2019

INGV and Etna Guides reported that the activity of the summit craters was still relevant during the past week. The NEC / Northeast crater is home to Strombolian activity and regular ash emissions - The NSEC / new southeastern crater continued degassing. - The central crater continued an explosive activity from five vents that eject bombs and scories that exceed the edge of the crater; the explosions were still violent and accompanied by strong detonations. INGV reported that the volcano continued to emit ash from the summit craters, particularly the northeast crater and Voragine, on 16 October from 05:30 UTC; the fine ashes are scattered to the east. The aviation color code is orange. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor is maintained at average values, without significant variations. INGV reported that on themorning of October 5th a gradual increase in ash emissions occurred to the northeast crater of Etna; the ash clouds have spread to the east. The intensity of the tremor has no significant variation. An overflight on the same day of the summit craters allowed to observe continuous emissions of brown ash by the NEC, as well as an explosion with a small plume of ash by the Voragine. INGV reported that a pulsating ash emission was observed at craters Northeast and Voragine on October 1st, 2019. It has intensified since 8:50 GMT on webcams images. The INGV also reported that the amplitude of the tremor does not show significant variations from the previous days. As of the 27th of September, INGV reported that from 5:00 GMT an emission of ash was observable at the crater northeast of Etna. The ashes dispersed to a south sector.This activity follows the last week which was characterized by explosive strombolian and effusive intracrateric activity at the crater of Voragine, coupled with sporadic ash emissions at the NEC; the other craters continued the normal degassing.ESA's Sentinel satellites analyzed sulfur dioxide emissions and thermal anomalies over the same period. INGV reported that Strombolian activity from vents at the bottom of Etna's Voragine Crater (VOR) continued during 16-22 September. On 18 September guides observed intensified explosive activity at VOR characterized by the ejection of scoria and ash from several vents to heights of tens of meters. A lava flow from the cone had descended the W flank of the cone to its base, and then flowed several hundred meters S and branched into the Bocca Nuova Crater. Similar activity was observed on 19 September, though by 22 September the lava flows were cooling and Strombolian activity from VOR vents had become less frequent. Gas emissions rose from Northeast Crater (NEC); an ash emission was noted on 22 September. .INGV reported that regarding the location of the source of volcanic tremor that, on Saturday, September 14, was mainly below the crater Voragine, it is located since the beginning of September 15 essentially under the crater Northeast. The volcanic tremor source is currently at an altitude of 2700-2900 m above sea level, with a tendency to deepen. During the weekend, infrasound activity showed a slight increase in the frequency of events. The sources of the events are mainly Voragine and, to a lesser extent, Bocca Nuova and the Northeast crater. INGV reported that on September 13, ash emissions were observed at the NEC, scattered in the summit area. Strombolian activity, with emission of coarse materials, animates the Voragine; it continued in the evening of 14 September, with some explosions, visible from Tremestieri Etneo. The flux of SO2 measured by the FLAME network of Etna on the 13th at 15:30 UTC showed a daily average value of about 2000 t / day, which is below the attention threshold of 5000 t / day. As of the 12th of September, INGV reported that as of 10:00 UTC the eruptive activity at Voragine Crater has intensified further, going from occasional ejections of ash to strombolian activity almost continuous, which does not produce significant ash emissions. Strombolian activity is accompanied by strong detonations in Zafferana Etnea, Aci S. Antonio, Pedara and surrounding areas. The SO2 stream measured over the FLAME Etna network at 12:00 UTC recorded an average daily value of about 4800 t/g, at the limit with the attention threshold of 5000 t/g. SO2's intraday data indicated maximum flow values between 6000 and 8000 t/g. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor remains at high values, the location of the source of the tremor is confined to the area of Voragine Crater, at altitudes ranging between 2800 and 3000 meters on the sea. As of approximately 09:00 UTC, infrasonic activity has increased in the rate of occurrence, which is located at voragine Crater. Soil deformation monitoring networks found no particular anomaly.The emission of ash from the northeast crater ended on 25 August 2019 at 8:38 am local time, according to the monitoring networks of INGV. The average magnitude of the volcanic tremor shows average and low values, comparable to those of last week. Even the infrasound signal does not show any significant changes. The clinometric and GPS (HF) networks show no significant changes and show a trend similar to that which existed before the ash activity of the Northeast crater. INGV reported that since last August 6, there has been ash emissions from the Northeastern crater (NEC) of Etna. Sometimes these emissions are more dense and abundant, forming a plume which is dispersed by the wind mainly near the eruptive vent toward the south and east of the volcano. Due to these events, much of the NEC's inner north wall collapsed. INGV and Etna Observatory, reports that monitoring and surveillance systems have detected a sudden increase in the average magnitude of the volcanic tremor on the 27th in the morning from 05.30 h. UTC. This increase continued with steady growth until 08.15 h. UTC, the surveillance cameras showed intense branching gas emissions at the base of the south side of the new crater of the Southeast. From 09:20 h. UTC, a further increase in the average magnitude of the volcanic tremor was observed, accompanied by explosive activity located on the new crater of the Southeastand signaling the opening of an eruptive mouth. Explosive activity resulted in the formation of a dense ash-rich gas plume that dispersed, drifted by the wind, on the eastern part of the volcano, at a maximum altitude estimated at about 4500 meters at sea level. At 11:10 UTC, INGV field team staff reported that explosive activity affected the entire extent of the eruptive fissure, which extends from the NSEC summit to its southern base. The explosions succeeded each other without a break in continuity and generated dense emissions of volcanic ash. From the southern part of the eruptive crack emerged a lava flow that extended to the southwest and to the south. At 11.35 UTC, the most advanced front reached and passed the northern base of the Barbagallo Mountains, at about 2.850 m at sea level, with a spread towards the bottom of an area between the Frumento Supino mounts and pyroclastic cones from 2002-2003.With regard to the deformation, one records at the same time as the increase of the tremor, slight variations of inclination at the top stations of the crater of Piano (about 2 MRAD) and Pizzi Deneri (some tenth of microradiants). GPS stations show no significant variation. At 12:21 UTC (1421 local time), a sequence of powerful explosions occurred at the NSEC, producing a cloud of ash rising 7.5 km above sea level. At the same time, eruptive activity continued without notable variations in the area adjacent to the "saddle cone" (active in January-April 2017) and on the southern flank of the NSEC. Around 2 pm UTC, the INGV personnel present in the summit area informs that the lava flow is well fed and is developing rapidly, with a front advancing rapidly towards the valley, after having passed the pyroclastic cones of 2002-2003. A helicopter flight by Joseph Nasi / Butterfly helicopters, around 16:30, reveals the activity spread between the "saddle cone" of the new southeastern crater and the two fractures to the south and southwest. The explosive activity continued in the evening from the two vents immediately under known as the "Cone of saddle" (active between January and April 2017), and activity of "Spattering" and emission of lava of two fracture on the south and southwest sides of the new south-east crater. This activity is similar to some of the eruptive episodes of the March-April 2017 period, but the most advanced lava flow has developed much more rapidly between the 2002-2003 cone (monte Barbagallo) and the old cone of monte Frumento Supino. As of the 21st of July INGV reported that since 20th inthe afternoon of July , eruptive activity ceased from the new Southeast crater. Lava is no longer being emitted from the vent on the north flank of the NSEC and the lava flow emplaced during the past few days does not show any movement and is cooling. Sporadic emissions of brownish ash continue from the Bocca Nuova crater. INGV, Observatoire Etnéen, reported that the intense Strombolian activity at the new crater South-East (NSEC) of Etna, which had resumed the afternoon of July 19, suffered a drop brutal between 20:10 h and 20:15 h. UTC, to stop at 20:30 h. During the night, the rate of lava emission from the effusive vent on the north side of the NSEC, and the lava fronts that were at about 2200 m stopped and are being cooled. However, although at a very low rate, the effusive activity continued, and at 21:30 h 21:30 UTC started a very large emission of ash from the Northeast crater (NEC) duration up to at 02:25 UTC this 20th of July. During the night, there were also some small explosions at the NSEC. As of 03:30 am UTC, the visual and thermal surveillance cameras recorded a further increase in explosive activity at the NSEC. Since then, this activity has continued with fluctuations between Strombolian explosions and ash emissions; the emission of lava from the effusive vent on the north side of the NSEC continues. Currently, the active flows are in the upper part of the Leone Valley, around an altitude of 2600 m. Emissions of ash from the new vent and the SEC are also observed.The analysis of MODIS images shows an increase in heat flux over the last 24 hours: thermal anomalies went from 1,746 MW on July 19 at 9:25 am to 4,878 MW the same day at 8:30 pm; They drop to 1,632 MW on July 20 at 0:45, and to 337 MW at 21:15 (source Mirova).This activity disrupted the operation of Catania International Airport on Saturday. Osservatorio Etneo, of INGV, announced that moderate eruptive activity, which began on 14 July at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC), is continuing and has shown a gradual intensification. On July 17, there was frequent ash emissions, which produced only minor anomalies in the images recorded by the thermal surveillance cameras. Since the beginning of the morning, however, the activity consists of Strombolian explosions, which occur every 1 to 2 minutes, but every 20 to 30 seconds, at the end of the morning. The explosions projected glowing pyroclastics a few tens of meters above the vent located in the eastern part of the NSEC. The ejectas frequently fell on the upper flanks of the cone. With respect to the volcanic tremor, a gradual increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor has been recorded since 2030 UTC, from low to medium. This was accompanied by migration and superficialization of the volcanic tremor source to the NSEC region, as well as an increase in the frequency of infrasonic events.This activity continued in the day of 18 July, and remained stable, without emitting ash or lava flow until around 23h. On July 19, a vent was opened around 01:07 at the NSEC's west base, in the same way as at the beginning of the May 30 eruption. A small lava flow is visible at first light of dawn.In addition, at 05:48 UTC, an ash emission occurred in the northeastern crater, causing a plume to form that quickly dissipated into the atmosphere. The first issue was followed by other smaller issues that continued during the production of this report [but ceased thereafter]. In contrast to the NSEC activity, ash emissions from the northeast crater produced no abnormal signals in the images recorded by the thermal surveillance cameras. INGV reported that since the morning of July 14, 2019, a weak explosive activity was in progress at the new crater of the Southeast Etna / NSEC. At first, it was brown ash emissions, but during the day, this activity became Strombolian. This activity continued on July 15th and 16th in the morning. INGV and Etnéan Observatory, reports that at 10.33 UTC hours on 6 July, there is a sudden increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor. INGV staff observed a Strombolian activity in the field at the new crater southeast of Etna, with products falling down the sides of the crater.INGV reported that an explosive pulse, accompanied by ash emission, was observed at the northeast crater of Mount Etna on June 2 at 10:06 UTC (local-2). The ash emitted quickly dispersed into the summit area.A low-frequency seismic signal and a transient infrasonic signal were recorded. INGV reported that an explosive activity occurred with ash emission began at Voragine crater of Etna in the afternoon of June 13, with a frequency and intensity very variable and discontinuous over time. The phenomenon is located on the crater bottom of the Voragine, where a new mouth has opened, which produces ashes that disperse quickly in the summit area. Associated with the ash, we also have material fallout on the terrace of the crater. A visit of the INGV teams on the morning of June 15 confirms the emission of ash, spaced between 1 and 10 minutes; the explosions are for the most part silent, sporadically accompanied by noise and emission of materials which concerns in part the outside of the crater rim. Regarding the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, no significant variation was recorded. However, in recent hours, while remaining confined to low values, there appears a slight and gradual upward trend. Infrasonic signals attest to a low level of activity.On the 13th and 14th of June, plumes of ashes, then emissions of water vapor, gas, and a little ashes were noticed at the Etna's crater of Voragina; they come from a new vent located on the northwest wall of the crater, distinct from the collapse pits opened in August 2016 and between January and April 2019. INGV reported that the eruptive activity that lasted from May 30th until the night of June 5-6, 2019 changed the shape of the new southeast crater cone of Etna.The thermal image shows, at the base of the cone, an eruptive vent. In addition, the southeast flank of the cone is cut by a "dry" fracture (which did not emit lava), and ends up in a rather warm zone, affected by intense fumarolic activity and sulfur deposits. INGV reported that the northern lava flow stopped, while the southern one stopped on June 6. The eruption was finally declared finished by INGV at 11.01 am local time.INGV reported that the analysis of the surveillance camera's images and the observations made by the INGV staff during the morning of May 5, 2019 have revealed that the explosive activity of the segment of the eruptive fissure at 2850 m altitude has ceased (for the moment). Only a slight outgassing persists.The emission of lava by the mouth, at an altitude of 2850 m, is in sharp decrease and remains confined near the mouth itself. The lava field is generally cooling.During the last 24 hours, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor did not show any significant changes, showing small fluctuations between the low and average values. INGV reported that from the analysis of the webcams images and field visits carried out on3 of June in the evening and the 4th of June in the morning showed that eruptive activity was continuing from the eruptive fissure at the altitude 2,850 meters .The explosive activity has decreased, and the spattering reaches about ten meters high. The active lava fronts are located between 2,500 and 2,300 meters approximately.The amplitude of the tremor seems to have stabilized after a decline on May 30 in the morning, and a small rise on June 4. INGV reported that a small explosive and effusive activity continued on June 3 at the open vent opened May 30 at the southeastern base of the new southeastern crater. As of the 2nd of June in the evening, INGV reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing . On 1st of June INGV reported that the sustained Strombolian and effusive activity was still continuing at the two fissures that opened in the north-east and south-east sectors of the New Southeast Crater (Nuovo Cratere di Sud Est). The northern lava flow extends toward the northern wall of the Valle del Bove and subsequently turns eastward, reaching a maximum distance of about 2 kilometers on the morning of May 31, at an estimated altitude of about 2050 meters. The second, southern lava flow is apparently more vigorously fed than the earlier, and emerges from a ground crack near the upper portion of the eruptive fissures that fed the eruption of December 2018. This flow expands towards the southeast along the western internal wall of the Valle del Bove, partially covering the lava flows of 2018. After skirting Serra Giannicola Piccola, in the early hours of 31 May the flow reached the bottom of the valley, with advancing lava fronts at about 1700 meters above sea level. Its estimated total length is about 3 kilometers.INGV reported that the eruption which began in the early hours of 30 May 2019 from new fissure vents on both the NE and SE sides of the New Southeast Crater continued with little change. Two lava lava flows, well fed, are moving into the Valle del Bove accompanied by loud strombolian activity at the vents. INGV reported that in the early morning (aroud 5:40 AM) on May 30, a new subterminal eruption (almost summit) started at Etna. Two eruptive fractures were opened: one on the northeast flank of the new southeastern crater, the other at the south-south-east base of the NSEC, where a modest Strombolian activity and the emission of small lava flows. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor began to increase towards the end of the evening on May 29th. INGV reported that gas emissions of variable intensity were observed rising from Etna’s summit craters during 14 and 17-19 May; weather conditions prevented views on the other days during 13-19 May. Ash emissions periodically rose from vents in the S and E parts of New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Several Strombolian explosions at NSEC ejected incandescent pyroclastic material a few dozen meters above the crater rim during 17-18 May. INGV reported that during 22-28 April ash emissions rose from Etna’s Bocca Nuova Crater, Northeast Crater (NEC), and from the E vent in New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Pulsating incandescence from NSEC’s E vent was recorded at night by webcams. A new vent on the inner wall of Voragine Crater was noted on 30 April. Strombolian activity from the BN-1 crater deep within the Bocca Nuova Crater was visible on 28 April and continued through 5 May; field inspections on 30 April revealed that two vents in BN-1 were active and producing explosions at a rate of one every 2-3 seconds. Bombs and lapilli were ejected above the crater rim but deposits remained mostly within the confines of the crater or near the rim. Strombolian activity was visible at NSEC during 29 April-5 May. On 2 May, beginning at 0131, discontinuous explosions at the E vent produced emissions of fine tephra that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and quickly dissipated. During 5-6 May the frequency of explosions increased for brief periods in conjunction with a slight increases in volcanic tremor amplitude. INGV reported that an explosion occurred at the north-eastern crater of Etna on April 26 at 18:39, accompanied by an ash emission towards Linguaglossa. Small falls of ash were reported.The NE crater did not show much since the collapse of its southwestern edge on February 22nd. INGV reported that during 8-14 April gas emissions of variable intensity rose from Etna’s summit craters. During each night webcams recorded pulsating flashes from the E vent in New Southeast Crater (NSEC) which became more intense towards the end of the week. A minor ash emission from Bocca Nuova Crater was visible at 0520 on 8 April. On 19 February INGV summarized Etna's fissure eruption that occurred high on the SE flank during 24-27 December 2018, noting that 3-4 million cubic meters of lava erupted and covered an area of 1 square kilometer. After the event seismicity gradually decreased. The last significant event was a ML 4.1 recorded on 8 January 2019; afterwards seismicity was characterized as frequent events with modest magnitudes. Since the beginning of January ash emissions intermittently rose mainly from Northeast Crater (NEC) and more sporadically from Bocca Nuova. News sources noted that the Catania Airport (Aeroporto di Catania di Sicilia) was closed during 26-27 January. Preliminary assessments of some of the ash deposits showed they contained no juvenile material. During 11-17 February ash emissions of variable intensity rose from NEC and were notable on 14 and 18 February. Volcanic tremor amplitude did not significantly vary compared to the previous week, having average values overall. The Catania Airport announced the partial closure of airspace and flight delays during 17-18 February due to ash emissions. INGV reported that during 6-10 February webcams at Etna recorded gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and Voragine Crater, and occasional ash clouds from Northeast Crater INGV reported that strong strombolian explosions were observed at the northeast crater from 8:40 am on February 8, accompanied by a dense ash plume pushed by the wind blowing from the north to an east and south-east sector.INGV reported that ash emissions from the northeast crater and Bocca Nuova continue; a few falls of ashes are reported on Pisano and Zafferana Etnea. The fallout of ash on the top of the volcano reveals a two-color landscape well sliced, black and white !INGV reported that ash emissions were still ontinuing on January 22nd from two summit craters, the Northeast crater and the Bocca Nuova. According to an local information an opening of a new vent occurred in the central crater; it is about 40 meters northwest another opened in August 2016. INVG reported that on January 11, and last night, Etna experienced different explosions on Voragine and / or the northeast crater, accompanied by large ash plumes.Details about eruptive phase provided by the INGV : The eruptive fissure extended from the southeastern base of the new southeast crater to the west wall of the Valle del Bove, reaching a minimum altitude of about 2,400 meters above sea level. A second small eruptive fissure opened a little further north, at about 3,000 meters above sea level, between the new southeastern crater and the northeastern crater, and produced almost exclusively low Strombolian activity. for a few tens of minutes.During its propagation, the open eruption fissure in the Valle del Bove fed lava flows that completely crossed the west wall of the valley, reaching its bottom and settling at 17:00 UTC on December 24, at varying altitudes of 1650 and 1800 meters.In the early hours of December 25, the eruption is still in progress. A lava flow continues to flow into the Valle del Bove, fed by the eruptive fracture whose lower mouth is located at about 2400 m altitude, along the western wall of the valley.Summit craters, particularly New Bocca craters and Northeast craters, produce continuous Strombolian activity that feeds a gaseous plume rich in volcanic ash. The seismic swarm that accompanies the eruption continues; since yesterday morning, in about twenty-four hours, more than 900 seismic shocks have been recorded by the seismic network of the INGV Osservatorio Etneo.During the night, from midnight, seven earthquakes were recorded, including one of M 3.3 at 01:09, with its epicenter 4 km north of Aci Sant'Antonio; an earthquake of M 4.8 at 3:18, with its epicenter 2 km north of Viagrande, was felt by the population and caused damage to Santa Venerina, Fleri and Lavinaio. Previous INGV report noted that the new eruptive phase, started yesterday December 24 , is the first flank eruption of Mount Etna for more than ten years on this site. the new fissure opened in the morning at about 3,000 meters above sea level at the base of the new south-east crater on the western flank of Valle del Bove, feeding a lava flow.The entire summit area is deformed, and strombolian activity also concerns the northeast crater and the Bocca Nuova. The present activity poses no danger for the inhabitants; only ashes and lapilli issued to a southeastern sector forced the partial closure of the Catania airport at 13:00 UTC, diverting incoming flights to other locations. Ashes falls and lapilli were reported on Zafferana, Santa Venerina and the south-east sector.Previously, INGV reported that on 24th of December, from 8:50 am local time, an intense seismic swarm is observed on Etna. During the first three hours, more than 130 earthquakes occurred, the largest of which were of magnitude Ml = 4.0 (at 13:08), located in the area of ​​Piano Pernicana, on the northwestern side of the volcano, 2 km deep and 6 km west. from Zafferana Etnea) and Ml 3.9 (located in the area of ​​Monte Palestra on the NW side of the volcano). The seismic activity was accompanied by a gradual increase in degassing from the summit crater area, initially with sporadic ash emissions from the Bocca Nuova and the Northeast crater, which ended around 12.00 pm to a dense and continuous plume of black ashes.After about five minutes, intense Strombolian activity began at the south base of the new south-east crater, probably triggered by an eruptive fissure, and with the opening of several mouths towards Serra Giannicola (flank eruption). At the same time, Strombolian activity is also increased at Bocca Nuova and Crater Nord-Est. At 12:01 local time, the Etneo Observatory Office (OE-INGV) issued a Red VONA for the issuance of ashes to the aeronautical authorities.Geodetic networks, GPS and inclinometers, show obvious deformations of the area of ​​the summit. As of the 19th of December, strombolian and effusive activity continues in the growing cone of the "Puttusiddu" of the NSEC / New southeast crater of Etna.The Bocca Nuova has night glow, and a thermal anomaly always marks three craters: the NSEC, the Bocca Nuova and the northeast. INGV reported that during 3-9 December activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian explosions at the cone in NSEC became more frequent on 4 December. In addition, lava effusion became continuous with small overlapping flows traveling about 500 m down the E flank of the cone. Incandescent blocks generated by the lava flows rolled to the base of the cone, and occasional small collapses produced minor ash plumes. Strombolian activity and occasional ash emissions were characteristic of vents in the W part of Bocca Nuova’s (BN-1) crater floor. Gas emissions at Voragine Crater continued from a vent on the E rim of the crater, and Strombolian explosions were evident at NEC. As of the 6th of December, Sentinel data reported that three craters were still active , the Northeast, the Bocca Nuova and the new crater Southeast and its lava flow, marked by thermal anomalies reported by Mirova between 16 and 162 MW they days. INGV reported that three craters were still active this November 22 at the top of Mount Etna: a Strombolian activity occured at the Bocca Nuova, and the "puttusiddu" of the new crater southeast. The crater northeast was also continuing its activity.INGV reported that a seismic swarm hit the western part of Etna between 05:55 and 15:21 (local time) today, 20 November 2018. The monitoring networks of the INGV-Osservatorio Etneo have recorded more than 40 seismic events. with a magnitude of Ml between 1.6 and 3.5.The earthquake of greater magnitude (Ml = 3.5) occurred at 6:06 am and was located about 5 km northeast of the municipality of Adrano, at a depth of about 22 km. Meanwhile on 20th of November INGV reported that weak trombolian activity continues at the craters at the top Bocca Nuova, Crater Northeast and Nuovo Crater Southeast, which continued for several weeks. In particular, the small scoria cone present in the eastern vent of the New Southeast Crater (NCSE) also emits, on the evening of November 20, a small lava flow that remained however confined in the eastern vent of the same place. NCSE.INGV reported that during 29 October-4 November activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), SE Crater (SEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian explosions at NSEC occurred from a few minutes to a few hours. The explosions sometimes produced ash emissions that quickly dispersed; ashfall was deposited around the crater and in the Valle del Bove. Strombolian activity and gas emissions were characteristic of the N vent in the W part of Bocca Nuova's (BN-1) crater floor. Spattering from the southernmost vent was also visible, as well as gas emissions. Gas emissions at Voragine Crater from a vent on the E rim of the crater were less intense compared to previous months. NEC activity was characterized by Strombolian explosions sometimes accompanied by minor ash emissions. .According to local news several explosions on October 30 at the end of the day at the New Crater Southeast. INGV reported that during 15-21 October activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), Southeast Crater (SEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian activity at the N vent in the W part of Bocca Nuova's (BN-1) crater floor ejected incandescent material higher that the crater rim. Spattering from the southernmost vent was also visible. Gas emissions increased at Voragine Crater from a vent that formed on 7 August 2016 on the E rim of the crater, and the crater continued to gradually widen and deepen. NEC activity was characterized by gas emissions and explosive activity of variable frequency and intensity. Fumarolic plumes rose from the rim and crater walls of NSEC and SEC. The E vent in NSEC produced Strombolian explosions and ash emissions which rapidly dispersed. INGV reported that during 24-30 September activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian activity at the N vent in Bocca Nuova (BN-1) ejected incandescent material almost as high as the W crater rim. No eruptive activity was observed at BN-2, though it produced explosions deep in the crater. A new high-temperature vent producing gas emissions was noted on 1 October in the same place a fumarole had been observed the previous week. Ash emissions from NSEC were sometimes accompanied by ejected incandescent material. Gas emissions increased at Voragine Crater from a vent that formed on 7 August 2016 on the E rim of the crater. NEC produced frequent brown-gray ash emissions, and ejected blocks and bombs, from a vent located in the W part of the crater floor. Activity at New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was characterized by modest and occasional explosions and Strombolian activity. Beginning at 1700 on 23 August Strombolian activity from the cone in the saddle between the Southeast Crater (SEC) and NSEC cone complex rapidly intensified; explosions ejected tephra 100-150 m above the vent rim. At 1730 Strombolian activity occurred at NSEC's E vent, and a lava flow from the same vent traveled a few hundred meters towards the Valle del Bove. Just after 1730 lava overflowed the vent in the saddle cone and flowed N; Strombolian activity at that vent continued through the night and then stopped no later than 0620 on 24 August. At 0622 Strombolian activity from a vent on the S flank of NSEC produced a small lava flow that traveled a few dozen meters. During 25-26 August the activity at the saddle cone gradually decreased, and ash emissions were weak and occasional. INGV reported that during 6-12 August activity at Etna was similar to the previous week, characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, Strombolian activity, and ash emissions. Strombolian explosions continued from vents in Bocca Nuova, and were particularly visible at night. Activity at Northeast Crater (NEC) consisted of frequent ash emissions and Strombolian explosions. Explosions at the E crater on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) generated gray-brown ash plumes that sometimes rose several hundred meters above Etna’s summit and quickly dissipated. Based on two field inspections and webcam data, INGV reported that during 30 July-5 August activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters and Strombolian activity. Three vents at the bottom of the Bocca Nuova crater were active, with gas emissions rising from two vents and sporadic Strombolian activity occurring at a third. Three vents were also active at the bottom of Northeast Crater (NEC); one produced ash emissions, one steam emissions, and Strombolian explosions at the third ejected incandescent material as high as the crater rim. After several months of quiet conditions, explosive activity resumed at the E crater on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). The activity began at 0608 on 1 August with a brownish-gray ash emission that rose several hundred meters above the summit. The event was followed by more ash emissions and then Strombolian activity in the evening. INGV reported that during 9-15 July gas emissions continued to rise from Etna’s summit craters. Visibility of the fairly continuous, low-energy, Strombolian activity deep within the Northeast Crater (NEC) and Bocca Nuova was sometimes hindered by gas emissions. Ejected incandescent material fell back into the crater. Strong and prolonged roars (up to several tens of seconds) from NEC were sometimes accompanied by gray-brown and reddish ash emissions. Collapses of the crater’s inner walls widened the crater. Gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) were weak and sometimes pulsating.Following the latest INGV report about four new degassing vents in the northeast crater of Mount Etna, a Strombolian activity can be heard at Bocca Nuova, whose crater is filled with swirling gas on July 12th.Thermal anomalies were reported on July 12th and 13th, respectively by 2-6 MW and 24 MW, by Mirova.That is the first manifestation of the volcano since the eruption at the new crater southeast / NSEC. Previous news - On Etna, the "puttusiddu" vent has continued to emit small ash emissions since February 16, at an accelerated frequency of 1 to 2 episodes per hour; these emissions also include the ejection of incandescent fragments. Previously, INGV reported that activity at Etna during 22-28 January was relatively unchanged compared to the previous weeks and was mainly characterized by variable-intensity gas emissions from the summit craters. Weak and sporadic ash emissions rose from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). On 22 January ash fell in areas on the S flank and also in Catania, though the crater which produced the ash emission was unknown due to poor visibility. 2017 news - INGV reported that on December 8th 2017, a strong gas emission occurred at the Bocca Nuova and a small puff of gas and some ashes at the "puttusiddu" of the new crater southeast. INGV reported that, although weather conditions often prevented views of Etna during 27 November-3 December, gas emissions from the summit craters were visible along with ash emissions from a series of explosions from the vent in the saddle between the Southeast Crater (SEC) - New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone complex. Previously, INGV reported that around 6 pm on April 26 a new effusion of lava was resumed at the vent located on the southern slope of the southeast cone. Activity increased during the night, becoming strombolian.A lava flow on the N side of the cone began at 0220 on 27 April and traveled NE towards the Valle del Leone. Ash emissions were visible at 0320. Strombolian activity began to diminish around 1230 and eventually ceased. The lava flows advanced until around 1600; phreato-magmatic explosions occurred in areas where the NE flow interacted with snow. The activity thus concerns four events, at least, and generates two lava flows3. Previously, INGV reported that the effusive eruption from a vent in the saddle between Etna's Southeast Crater (SEC) - New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone complex ended during 8-9 April. During 10-11 April lava effused from a vent located at the S base of the SEC. The lava flow traveled SE and flowed several hundred meters down the W wall of the Valle del Bove. In the evening of 13 April short-lived explosive activity occurred at a vent at the S flank of the SEC cone at about 3,200 m elevation. That vent and another at 3,150 m elevation produced lava flows for a few hours. Lava also effused from the vent at the S base of SEC, 3,010 m elevation, during 13-14 April, traveling SE and down the W wall of the Valle del Bove on top of the flows from 10-11 April. On 21 March a new lava flow expanded SSW, but then stopped in the last days of March at an elevation of 2,300 m. A few more lava flows had followed a similar path in early April and then also stopped at the same elevation. Around 28 March a new pit crater had formed on the S part of the pyroclastic cone which had formed around the SEC-NSEC saddle vent. Strong glow form the pit crater was observed at night. According to INGV explosive activity ceased at the southeast crater on 19 March, with the exception of small puffs of ash emitted by the "puttusiddu". However, a short-lived explosion occurred around 8:12 pm at the SEC's central vent. Effusive activity continues. The tremor, which experienced a decline in the night of 19 to 30 March, has since held at a stable low level.The strombolian activity returned in the middle of the day of the 20th, and the effusion, whose flow had diminished, resumed. The incandescence at the Voragine seems to have increased, and was observed all night. On the morning, March 21, the level of the tremor remains low and the craters are degassing. As of the 18th of March INGV reported that activity was marked in Etna by a few striking episodes: The explosive activity ceased at around 11 am at the central vent of the southeast cone, while the effusion of lava continued to feed the flow towards the Valle del Bove. The trajectory of the tremor stabilized from this hour.Twice during the afternoon, between 15:40 and 16:15 local, and between 18:40 and 19:10, the interaction between lava and snow caused the formation of pyroclastic avalanches / lahars on the steep slopes of the Valle Del Bove. The phenomenon was accompanied by the development of a cloud of ash and water vapor. Catania airport was closed several hours. INGV reported that since the entrance of the lava into the Valle del Bove at the end of the night on 16 March, Etna's activity remained stable on 17 March, with a level of tremor stable. It is characterized by a strong strombolian activity at the central vent of the Southeast Cone, with fountaining, intersected by significant emissions of ash.As of the 17 th of March INGV reported that after the phreatomagmatic episode, the volcanic risk of Etna was revised: alert level: yellow; operational phase: alarm; Access: free up to 2500 meters, with a guide up to 2600 meters and absolute prohibition of access to a higher altitude. Around 11:30 on March 16, a violent explosion took place near Torre del Filosofo, on Etna. It results from the contact between the snow in thick layer and the front of incandescent lava ... the snow vaporizes, creating a pocket of steam that explodes violently, dispersing lava and hot rocks all around. Tourists, a BBC team and INGV volcanologists, including our friend Boris Behncke, was in recognition of the location of the eruption. Some people were injured Emissions of ash remained strong throughout the afternoon of March 16, and then the lava fountain returned late in the night. In the early hours of 15 March, Etna's strombolian activity gradually intensified and a small lava flow began to ooze on the southern flank of the southeast complex. After 7 h UTC (local time -1), the eruption intensified, marked by an increase of the volcanic tremor. At 9 am UTC, strombolian explosions became constant, with small ash emissions. The lava flow reached the base of the central cone SE and spread on a gentle slope to the south, covering the pouring of the previous eruption.At the late afternoon, the lava flow progressed. The intensity of activity peaked around 17:40 UTC, before gradually decreasing in the evening. Shortly before 11 pm UTC, following a rapid decrease in venting activity at the top of the cone, a new small lava flow was emitted from a vent on the south side of the cone, and progressed to the East. Previously, INGV reported that after its first eruptive phase in 2017, the Etna's tremor declined sharply, but did not regain its basal level. On 3 March, only sporadic emissions of ash accompanied by some incandescent pyroclastic material were observed. INGV reported that on 1 March, the strombolian activity was maintained at Etna, with a rapid growth of the pyroclastic cone, both in height and in width; Its base is began to fill the depression of the new southeast crater / NSEC. The lava front stabilized at 1,500 meters from the active vent, and an altitude of 2,700 meters. At the end of the evening, activity weakened, the amplitude of the tremor decreased rapidly and activity stopped around 11:30 pm local time. INGV reported that the strombolian activity of 27 February at the vent in the saddle between the two south-east craters, around which a cone developed, created an overflow fed by lava fountains and a lava flow which quickly reached the base of the cone, in the direction of Monte Frumento Supino. The NSEC crater is the site of sporadic brown ash emissions. The lava front was at 13:00 on February 28 at altitude 2,850 meters.The ash accompagning the strombolian activity dispersed in an eastern sector, and is reported on Zafferana and Linguaglossa in small quantities. The volcanic tremor stabilized at high values ​​from 19 hours, with a maximum between 22 and 24 hours yesterday. It remains high on 28 February, with slight fluctuations. The deformation of the soil does not show any significant changes associated with the intensification of eruptive activity. Previously, INGV reported the the small strombolian activity that marked the southeastern crater of Mount Etna for several weeks suddenly increased on February 27 at around 6 pm UTC. The explosions of the vent in the saddle between the old and the new southeast cone became stronger and closer; they fed a lava flow that descends the south-eastern flank of a new small cone. As of the 8th of February, INGV reported that after a few days of strombolian activity animating the saddle between the two southeastern cones, this one evolved towards emissions of ashes, frequent on the morning of February 8th. During this active period, the trajectory of the tremor did not vary significantly. Previously, during the early morning of 20 January the saddle vent was again active, with small black ash puffs and thermal anomalies identified by the surveillance camera. People on the SEC observed ejected incandescent material along with ash and blocks. Cloudy weather prevented visual observations for a few days; the evening of 23 January was cloud free and mild Strombolian activity was observed, accompanied by frequent emissions of small, black ash puffs. The activity gradually intensified through the night, with some explosions launching incandescent material as far as the base of the SEC cone. Fluctuating incandescence was also visible at the 7 August 2016 vent of the Voragine (VOR) crater. The frequency of explosions and ash emissions increased on 24 January but then slightly decreased the next morning. INGV reported that on the morning of 15 December 2016 minor emissions of brownish ash rose from the vent in the saddle between the newer cone and the old cone of Etna's Southeast Crater (SEC). That evening some of the emissions were more energetic, ejecting incandescent material out of the crater which landed on the steep S flank of the SEC cone. Analysis of samples of the ejected rock revealed no new material, only older material from the conduit walls. During the following five weeks weak ash emissions from the vent were observed, without being accompanied by incandescence. . Previously on 10 October 2016 INGV reported that during the past few weeks high-temperature degassing had continued from a vent that had opened on 7 August in the E portion of Etna's Voragine crater. In addition minor and infrequent ash emissions from old pulverized rock rose from a vent located on the upper E flank of the New Southeast Crater cone. In the early afternoon of 10 October an explosion occurred at the Bocca Nuova crater, in an area between the crater and the nearby Voragine crater. The explosion was recorded at 1526, and produced a distinct thermal anomaly and an ash puff that rose a few hundred meters. During the next few hours similar seismic events were detected although weather cloud cover prevented visual observations. Previously, INGV reported that during mid-July weak ash emissions rose from a vent located high on the E flank of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. The emissions continued periodically until early August. Pulsating glow from mild, intra-crater explosions in the Voragine (VOR) crater was recorded during 7-9 August.Previously, On 22 May a vent on the upper E flank of New Southeast Crater cone produced a series of ash emissions which rose several hundred meters above the summit and dispersed. Some of the emissions had a thermal signature, indicating the presence of hot material. That evening Strombolian activity resumed at NEC; the rate and intensity of the activity fluctuated through the night. The strongest explosions ejected incandescent bombs up to a few hundred meters above the crater rim and onto the flanks. On 23 May sporadic ash emissions continued from the vent on the upper E flank of the New Southeast Crater cone. New powerful paroxysm at Voragine Crater of Mount Etna Volcano, Sicily. In the night, lava fountains and explosions from the Voragine Crater, in a astonishing scenario, with the fresh snow fallen on 20th of May on the Volcano. The tremor is increased again during the day of 20 May, and strombolian activity has taken place. The peak of the 3 peak in 72 hours was reached in the early morning of May 21, unfortunately obscured by clouds and ash obscuring webcams. sources. thermal camera also recorded activity from a vent in the S portion of Northeast Crater (NEC). Observers noted that a fracture had formed on the SE flank of the central cone. In addition, an effusive vent in the saddle between the cone and the old cone of the Southeast Crater produced a small lava flow that traveled towards the Valle del Leone. Activity decreased around 0500 and was over at about 0600. During the afternoon of 18 May 2016, the lava fountaining activity from Etna's Voragine crater passed into a modest Strombolian activity, which continued to feed the lava overflow toward west until the late evening. A second lava flow, which was emitted from an effusive vent located near the lower of the two conelets formed during the subterminal activity of July-August 2014, at the eastern base of the Northeast Crater (NEC), expanded into the northern portion of the Valle del Bove in the direction of Monte Simone. This lava flow remained active until the early morning hours of 19 May 2016; its most advanced front seemed to be stagnating after midnight. Shortly before midnight, there was a new increase in the volcanic tremor amplitude, and the clinometer installed at Punta Lucia, about 1 km northwest of the NEC, recorded renewed inflation of the summit area of the volcano.In the morning, the volcanic tremor amplitude showed a sharp increase, and contemporaneously loud and virtually continuous bangs were heard in populated areas to the east and south of the volcano. A dense eruption cloud was blown by the strong wind toward east at an altitude of little more than 1 km above the summit of Etna. Ash and lapilli fell onto the east flank of the volcano, in an narrow sector immediately adjacent to the north to area affected by the tephra fall on the previous day. Observation of the activity was difficult due to rather poor weather conditions; instrumental data - mainly the location of the volcanic tremor source and the origin of the infrasonic signals - indicate that a new paroxysmal episode was underway at the VOR. This was confirmed a few hours later when the images transmitted by the termal monitoring camera EBT (Bronte) revealed a new lava overflow toward west, feeding a lava flow that descended on top of the lava of the previous evening. Eruptive activity was continuing at 09:00 local time, though the volcanic tremor amplitude was diminishing. At the time this update goes online, the inclement weather conditions are preventing observation of the activity going on at Etna's summit. Previously, Based on INGV webcam views, and VONA and SIGMET notices, the Toulouse VAAC reported a small eruption at Etna on 31 March which ended the next day. Previously INGV reported that during January eruptive activity at Etna was at low levels. During the last week of January and on 6 February ash emissions rose from a vent located high on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. At 0422 on 23 February an explosion at Northeast Crater (NEC) ejected incandescent tephra several tens of meters above the crater rim, and produced a dark ash plume that drifted NE. A camera recorded lightning flashes in the plume. Weak ash emission rose from the crater during the rest of the morning. INGV reported that after intense activity at Etna's Voragine Crater, Bocca Nuova, and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) during the first 10 days of December, activity shifted to the Northeast Crater (NEC). During 9-10 December Strombolian activity was detected at NEC, with a few ejected incandescence bombs falling onto the outer flank and abundant ash emissions. Activity gradually diminished over a few days. On 13 December ash emissions rose from NSEC and on 18 December the Voragine Crater produced two brief ash emissions. Ash emissions began at 1100 on 28 December from a vent located high on the E flank of the NSEC cone. The emissions ceased in the afternoon; very minor and sporadic explosions continued from the same vent during the following days. INGV reported that grayish-brown ash plumes rose from Etna's Northeast Crater on 9 December and drifted SE. Seismicity had significantly decreased. During the evening of 5 December activity at Voragine Crater progressively diminished. Between 0300 and 0400 on 6 December surveillance cameras recorded the onset of vigorous Strombolian activity from the vent on the E flank of the NSEC cone. Repeated collapses of both old and new material from the cone's flank generated hot avalanches that traveled a few hundred meters E towards the Valle del Bove. Ongoing effusive activity through the day produced two lava flows; one advanced NE for less than 1 km and the other advanced E. Strombolian activity continued through the evening. On 7 December a second vent on the E part of NSEC was also active, and the main lava flow had advanced 4 km. During the early morning hours of 8 December Strombolian activity progressively diminished and then ended. Later that afternoon weak Strombolian activity and ash emission were observed at the Northeast Crater. INGV reported that after a progressive intensification of activity during the evening of 2 December, an eruption at Etna's Voragine Crater peaked between 0330 and 0410 on 3 December. During the peak period sustained lava fountains rose over 1 km above the crater with some jets of hot material rising 3 km high. An ash plume rose several kilometers high and drifted NE, causing ashfall in Linguaglossa, Francavilla di Sicilia, Milazzo, Messina, and Reggio Calabria. Activity had almost ceased by dawn. This event was among the largest in the last 20 years, similar to large events occurring at the same crater on 22 July 1998 and 4 September 1999. At about 1000 on 4 December renewed activity at Voragine Crater was characterized by tall lava fountains and an ash plume that rose 7-8 km high. The ash plume had a mushrooming top and produced deposits of coarse-grained pyroclastic material on the upper SW flank above 2 km elevation. Ashfall was reported in Giarre-Zafferana Etnea on the E flank. The activity was accompanied by frequent ash emissions from a new pit crater that had recently opened on the upper E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. Two more events occurred at Voragine Crater during 4-5 December, between 2130 and 2215 on 4 December and 1555 and 1635 on 5 December, again producing tall lava fountains and many-kilometer-high ash plumes. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank. (webcam). . www.ct.ingv.it . Live cam Etna - Etna monitoring page - New Etna Southwest crater webcam

ITALY - Stromboli volcano (Eolian Islands)

September 25th, 2019

As of the 24th of September, INGV reported that normal Strombolian explosive activity and degassing continued. In the northern crater zone, 5-6 explosions per hour, with a peak at 9 episodes, between 80 and 150 meters high, produced coarse materials, lapilli and bombs, which rolled into the Sciara del Fuoco.Activity in the south-central zone was characterized by an average explosive of 11 episodes per hour, with peaks at 15 episodes, and an expulsion at heights of up to 200 meters of fine to coarse material. Seismology and deformation do not show significant changes and the sulfur dioxide flux remains at an average level. INGV reported that the typical strombolian activity continued and affected the north and south-central of the crater terrace.Drone surveys, conducted from 11 to 13 September, identify at least seven active mouths in the northern zone and eight in the central-south zone. The number of VLP earthquakes was 31 episodes / hour on average. There was no significant variation in soil deformation. Degassing was characterized by a characteristic low-average level. INGV reported that, during the flight over August 30 by the INGV staff and through camera image analysis, it was observed that the south-central lava flow had ceased. It started around 01:50 UTC on August 30th. As a result, the lava field gradually calms down. The flow of SO2 detected by the FLAME network from 09:00 UTC showed a moderate decrease placing the degassing regime at a medium-high level. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor over the past few hours has shown a gradual decrease, reaching values ​​comparable to those observed before the explosive sequence described in update release number 32. Currently, the amplitude shows fluctuations around mid-high values. On 29 August 2019 at 20:43:41 UTC, the geophysical monitoring network recorded a new powerful explosive event at Stromboli , associated with geophysical parameters (seismic, ground deformation and sound pressure) that are higher than the ordinary explosive activity .The seismic event (speed of 4.0 x 10-4 m / s and displacement of 4.5 x 10-5 m) exceeds the values ​​of ordinary activity The infrasonic network indicates that the explosion generated pressures of about 250 Pa, at a distance of 450 m, and located the explosive event in the area in relation to the Central / SW crater. This event was accompanied by a strong signal of soil deformation (1.17 μrad in the OHO inclinometer of Rina Grande), preceded by about 2 minutes of a net swelling of the soil. Following the explosion, there is an increase in seismic tremor to very high values ​​and an increase in the lava flow from the crater NE crater of Sciara del Fuoco. As of the 28th of August a second paroxysmal explosions occurred at Stromboli. . Similar to that of July 3, 2019, although less strong. INGV noted that Stromboli has already experienced such explosions separated by several years, or decades, but never in a lapse of so short time. This strong explosion occurred at 10:17 UTC without any particular changes in the monitored parameter levels before and after the episode, which remained high to very high. Only an increase in SO2 flux (264 t / d) is reported from high to very high values ​​that preceded the paroxysmal event of a few hours. A strong deformation of the ground was observed ( inflation) has been recorded onlyl five minutes before the explosion. The MODIS image at around 10.15am (UTC) measured a very high thermal anomaly of 3.799 MW, equivalent to effusive flows of about 15 m3 / s, an order of magnitude higher than the effusive flows recorded from the July 3, 2019 (0.3-3 m3 / s). The paroxysm generated an eruptive column of 2,000 meters in height and the ejection of large ballistic material up to 200-300 meters from the coast; a pyroclastic flow occurred in the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco and spread over several hundred meters on the surface of the sea, creating a small tsunami; according to the images of the webcams and the weather, its approximate speed was 180 km / h. Then, INGV reported that strombolian activity on the crater terrace was slightly down. An aerial observation from an helicopter of the coastguards of Catania on August 23, showed the opening of many igneous vents in this area. INGV reported that from 18 August at 0h35 UTC, the thermal camera of Punta Dei Corvi / on Stromboli, showed the resumption of effusive activity from a probably ephemeral vent at altitude 550-600 meters, above the area of ​​the central crater . The products issued run along the Sciara del Fuoco. A Modis image at 1:50 UTC records a thermal anomaly of 125 MW to 148 MW, compatible with this activity.The explosive activity continues without significant modification. INGV reported that Stromboli's crater terrace activity was analyzed during 5-11 August through webcam views, and field inspections during 7-8 August. At least nine vents in Area N (north crater area, NCA) were active on 7 August, three of which had well-formed spatter cones, with Strombolian activity ejecting material 150 m high. A large scoria cone in Area C-S (South Central crater area) jetted material 200 m high. Lava from Area C-S vents continued to travel down the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, reaching 500-600 m elevation. INGV and LGS reported that the explosive activity of Stromboli has increased since the beginning of August at the level of the central craters / south-west and the cones of the NE sector, with explosions rich in ash and scoria at 200 meters height above the terrace; these materials accumulate in the crater zone and on the Sciara del Fuoco, where they produce frequent rock slide events. The effusive activity in the SW sector shows an increase in the supply rate which has now reached values ​​of about 1.2 m³ / s, and corresponds to an increase in SO2 levels. All measured parameters suggest a new phase of feed rate increase and the arrival at the surface of a gas-rich magma coinciding with phases of sharp increases in both peak explosive activity and ratios. effusion. INGV and LGS reported that the volcano is still showing a high explosive activity, mainly in central / southwest and northeast craters, with ash-rich explosions and ejection of centimeter sized projectiles. An active overflow of lava marks the upper area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco, visible on July 30 at 12:49 local / 10:49 UTC on the thermal camera on the northern edge of the Sciara at 400 m. altitude, and from the ROC camera at 11:52.The parameters are consistent with the explosive and effusive activity: oscillations of the tremor at high values, an average of 28 VLP earthquakes / hour, thermal anomalies between 202 MW and 49 MW, tendency of the flow of sulfur dioxide to the increase. Thermal data from satellites and cameras recorded during the last 12 hours on July 17 indicate an increase in the effusive activity of the south-west crater of Stromboli. MODIS images acquired over the last 12 hours, in favorable meteorological and satellite conditions, show elevated thermal anomalies up to 744 MW (01:50 UTC) which correspond to an increase in effusive activity, with effusive velocities (TADR) estimated at about 2 m3 / s (+/- 0.6 m3 / s).The increase in thermal luminance measured by MODIS is confirmed by the SENTINEL image acquired at 10:00 UTC on 17/07/2019, which shows a clear increase in the lava front surface. From the images, it is possible to estimate a maximum stream length of about 600 m and a maximum width of 80 m. The lava front is installed at an altitude of about 300 m. In line with the increase in effusion activity, there is a further increase in the SO2 flux measured by the UV Roccette camera which attests to a very high level. This increase is visible on the images of the Ginostra thermal camera, showing a well-fed and organized flow in several branches.The LGS reported for July 14th and 15th an increasing in thermal activity which corresponds to an increase in effusive activity: from 276 MW at 21:05 UTC on the 14th, it has risen to 347 MW at 1:20 UTCINGV reported that a powerful explosive and effusive activity continues in Stromboli. This magmatic feed continues at a very shallow level and fills the crater terrace which is now much wider than the geometry preceding the explosion of July 3, 2019. Due to the absence of parts of the edges of the crater terrace, the Magma escapes in recent days through a series of overflows both in the western portion (Ginostra side) and in the central area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco (eastern crater side).Since 6 am UTC on July 15, there has been characterized by an increasing of the release of gas from the NE portion of the crater terrace, with SO2 flux reaching very high values ​​(254 t / d, at 9:45 UTC)On the evening of July 12, the northern crater area was more active, with a series of overflows in the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco, while the emission of a modest lava flow continued from the center-south crater zone. According to the INGV's surveillance cameras and field observations, strombolian this activity continued from the north and south-central zones of the terrace. Lava flows are emitted from the central-south zone and reach the mid-slope in the Sciara del Fuoco. The July 12 Sentinel 2 image shows hot spots on the terrace and in the Sciara del Fuoco. LGS inspection carried out in Punta dei Corvi at 15:30 on 10 July with the help of the thermal camera has allowed to observe several active lava overflows at the summit, from which two flows start along the central and south part of Sciara del Fuoco.The southern front rises to about 600 m., while the front of the central part of the Sciara reaches about 400 m. altitude. These flows bring hot materials to the bottom of the slope where they accumulate as small deltas. INGV reported that from 8 pm local time on July 8, 2019, an overflow of lava from the south-west crater of Stromboli generated a lava flow of up to 500 m along the Sciara del Fuoco. The overflow is also confirmed by the analysis of the images of the thermal camera of Punta Dei Corvi, restored after the paroxysmal explosion of July 3th, 2019.A thermal anomaly of 125 MW recorded at 20:50 UTC on 08.07, and 211 MW at 01h UTC, by Mirova This heat flux value is in agreement with the current lava overflow, indicating an effusion rate of about 0.5 mc /s (LGS - 08.07.2019). INGV reported that a paroxysmal eruption occurred on 3 July 2019 – at 16:46 Local Time (UTC+2). The eruptive column, at least 2-km-high, produced severe ash and lapilli fall-out on the volcano flanks, affecting especially the village of Ginostra located in the eastern part of the island. In particular, two main explosive events were distinguished at 14:46:10 H and 14:46:40 H UTC, respectively. The sequence was preceded at 14:44 h UTC by lava overflows of all the active vents of the crater terrace towards the Sciara del Fuoco. One person died during hiking on the trail “Punta del Corvo” downward to Ginostra and several other persons would be injured. The fall-out has also triggered several fires in various sectors of the upper/intermediate volcano flank .After the paroxysm of 14:46 UTC, no other high intensity explosive event was observed. The seismic route returned to the levels preceding the explosive sequence and, thanks to the surveillance cameras, it was possible to observe normal strombolian activity and cooling of the relapsed material deposited along the Sciara del Fuoco, which produces continuous rolling towards the coast. INGV reported that a major eruption occurred on 25th of June at about 11 PM involving the central Southern area of the terrace.Pyroclastics material has fallen onto the Sciara del Fuoco and inside the crater terrace. The seismic signal associated at this event lasted 4 mn. After this strong eruption, no further explosive event occurred. INGV reported that during 3 and 6-9 June activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian explosions and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace. Explosions from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N (north crater area, NCA) occurred at a rate of 1-4 per hour, ejecting material 80 m high and producing ash plumes. Explosions from two vents (S1 and S2) in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 3-8 per hour, ejecting material 80-150 m high. Gas plumes rose from vent INGV reported that during 15-21 April activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace, though activity intensified on 19 April. Explosions originated at a rate of 3-16 per hour mainly from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N (north crater area, NCA) and at least four vents (including C, S1, and S2) in Area C-S (South Central crater area). Explosions from the N1 vent ejected lapilli and bombs mixed with ash no more than 150 m high. Low-intensity explosions at the N2 vent ejected tephra to heights under 80 m. Vent C produced gas emissions. Incandescent material from S1 jetted as high as 150 m above the crater. Explosions from two vents at S2 ejected tephra more than 150 m high. Previously on 21st of January, the Italian Experimental Geophysical Laboratory / LGS reports strong Strombolian activity at the northeastern vent of Stromboli, and strong explosions at the other six vents on the platform.The new cinder cone that has recently been built around the northeastern vent shows spattering and a strong nocturnal incandescence, and explosions with projections at about 150 meters, sometimes up to 250-300 meters, every 10- 20 minutes. INGV reporterd that since December 24, 2018, Stromboli has recorded seismic signals of frequency and waveform compatible with a phenomenon of fracturing in the summit zone spattering has been on the rise since December 26, at the crater terrace, where seven vents are active. The Civil Protection issued an advise of "early warning" on January 4, defining a "high level of activity", motivating the ban on access to the volcano above 400 meters above sea level, except in the context of operations monitoring.The level of activity increased further in the evening of January 5, 2019, especially in the northeastern vents, where a new cinder cone grew and produced explosions and spattering. Previously, a new " strong explosion" was recorded on August 18 on Stromboli by the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV). Particulary, at 17:08 (local time), an intense explosion involved the vent of the south-central zone located on the crater terrace. The explosion produced a small cloud of ash, which dispersed rapidly, and the ejection of pyroclastic material, which fell mainly on the crater terrace and on top of the Sciara del Fuoco. The seismic signal associated with the event lasted a little over 4 minutes. Subsequently, the volcano returned to its normal Strombolian activity.INGV reported that activity at Stromboli during 9-15 July was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents. Explosions mainly from two vents in Area N (north crater area) and three vents in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 14-19 per hour, except four per hour were recorded on 15 July. Low-intensity explosions from the N1 vent (NCA) ejected lapilli and bombs as high as 80 m. Explosions at the N2 vent (NCA) ejected tephra 120 m high. Vent C (Area C-S) produced gas emissions and sporadic spattering. Low-intensity explosions at S2 (Area C-S) ejected tephra less than 80 m high. INGV reported typical activity at Stromboli from 7 to 13 May, with 2-4 hourly low-intensity explosions to heights of less than 80 m (300 ft) above the crater, in the North crater area. Fine ash as well as lapilli and bombs were ejected. The South Central crater area vents produced between 5-12 hourly, low-intensity explosions, also to heights of less than 80 m above the crater. Continuous degassing was also observed from these vents. On 13 May there was an increased frequency of explosions, with 16 events/hour. No significant variations were reported in seismological, deformation, or geochemical parameters. INGV reported that on the morning of April 24, an intense explosive sequence occurred on the Stromboli volcano that involved the vents of the south-central zone located on the crater terrace.A first explosion occurred at 11:05 local / 09:05 GMT, emitting abundant ash mixed with incandescent material and large blocks of lava fallen in the summit area and along the Sciara del Fuoco. The delivered products have exceeded a height of 250 m above the crater terrace, as evidenced by the video surveillance cameras Observatory Etneo INGV-OE.This explosion was followed by a second explosive event on 11.06, characterized by a modest fountain.At 11:10, the closing event of the sequence with an ejection of pyroclastic materials of lower intensity, compared to the first explosion.Overall, this explosive sequence produced a cloud of ash that quickly dispersed into the southeast quadrants of the island. The ejection of coarse pyroclastic materials was radial with fallout on the crater terrace and along the Sciara del Fuoco. This highly explosive sequence has been associated with geophysical parameters, seismicity, soil deformation and sound pressure, which can be classified as major explosions, more violent than those developed during ordinary Strombolian activity.INGV reported that a high-energy explosive sequence began at vent C at 2027 on 19 March and lasted about 40 seconds. The first explosion ejected ash and incandescent material that fell in a radial distribution around the crater. Two subsequent explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 80 m. Tephra fell along the Sciara del Fuoco, towards the NE parts of the island. At 2028 an explosion at N2 ejected lapilli 100-120 m high. INGV reported that on the evening of 18 March 2018 , a violent explosive sequence involved the eruptive vents of the crater terrace of Stromboli. A first explosion at 19:27 from the vent of the south-central zone was accompanied by the emission of ashes, incandescent materials and large lava blocks, more than 350 meters above the terrace that fell on the summit area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco.A second explosion, 40 seconds later, occurred from the vent in the northern zone, with ash and material emitting at about 100 meters high; the ashes dispersed to the east.This episode was accompanied by a strong signal of ground deformation, preceded by about 2 minutes of soil inflation. Similar violent explosions, more violent than those of a typical Strombolian activity, occurred several times in 2017: March 7th, July 26th, October 23rd, November 1st and December 1st. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean."Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout historical time. The small, 926-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a horseshoe-shaped scarp formed as a result of slope failure that extends to below sea level and funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli since Roman times.www.ct.ingv.it - Live webcam

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Iceland - Oraefajokull volcano

July 15th, 2018

The IMO changed the status of Öraefajökull on 13 July. This volcano shows clear signs of instability, coupled with a phase of inflation for a year and a half, reflected by an increase in seismic activity and deformation, which are persistent. The probable cause of this inflation is one injection of new magma, with an estimated volume of about 10 million m³, a volume comparable to the intrusion under the Eyjafjalajökull before the eruption of 2010.Despite a drop in geothermal activity since the end of December, new resistivity measurements indicate the presence of altered rocks at superficial levels within the caldera due to high temperatures. IMO reported a seismic swarm is in progress at Öraefajökull; it began on June 26, 2018 with a magnitude 3.1 earthquake and continues with earthquakes of lesser magnitude.A magnitude 2.1 earthquake occurred outside the volcano, while appearing connected to it. Previous news 2017 - On 22 December 2017 IMO reported that activity had been fairly stable during the previous weeks, though still above background levels; the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. In December the largest earthquake detected was a M2.5, but most events were smaller than M1. Earthquakes were located close to the caldera 2 and 10 km. The Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that that on 17 November the Aviation Color Code for Oraefajokull was raised to Yellow because satellite images and photos showed that a new ice cauldron had formed within the caldera the previous week. The new cauldron was about 1 km in diameter and 15-20 m deep, and signified a recent increase in geothermal activity. Scientists conducted an overflight on 18 November; in addition, while on the ground, they took water samples, measurements of electrical conductivity, and gas levels at the Kvojokull outlet-glacier, a valley glacier on the SE flank of Oraefajokull . There was no obvious sign of flooding in the Kvoro river. A sulfur odor, which had been reported for about a week, was also noted. An increase in the seismic activity was recorded for the last few months (the largest earthquake, an M 3.4, occurred on the 3 October), but was low for the past few days. IMO noted that there were no signs of an imminent volcanic eruption, though there was considerable uncertainty about how the situation will evolve. Oraefajokull Iceland's highest peak, is a broad glacier-clad central volcano at the SE end of the Vatnajokull icecap. A 4 x 5 km subglacial caldera truncates the summit of the dominantly basaltic and rhyolitic volcano. The extensive summit icecap is drained through deep glacial valleys dissecting the SW-to-SE flanks. The largest-volume volcano in Iceland, 2119-m-high Oraefajokull was mostly constructed during Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods. Holocene activity has been dominated by explosive summit eruptions, although flank lava effusions have also occurred. A major silicic eruption in 1362 CE was Iceland's largest historical explosive eruption. It and another eruption during 1727-28 were accompanied by major jokulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) that caused
property damage and fatalities. (GVN/GVP)

ICELAND - Bardarbunga volcano

April 28th, 2015

On 26 April the Icelandic Met Office (IMO) lowered the Aviation Color Code for Bardarbunga to Green (the lowest on a four-color scale). No further signs of unrest had been noted since the end of the eruption on 27 February; seismicity within the caldera and the associated dyke intrusion continued to decline.Previously, the Icelandic Met Office reported that the eruption at Bárdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, which began on 31 August 2014, had ended on 27 February; the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow. During an overflight scientists did not see any incandescence from the vents, although gas emissions persisted. Radar measurements showed that no increase in the extent of the lava field had been detected since mid-February.During 17-19 February, Icelandic Met Office reported continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, though the overall intensity of the eruption continued to decrease. Only one active vent was present in the crater, and the lava level in that crater continued to sink. The eruption plume rose no more than 1 km above the ground and drifted NE, and the lava channel was crusted over beyond the uppermost 200-300 m. The lava tube continued to feed the N and NE parts of Holuhraun, inflating the lava field. The reduced effusion rate was no longer able to sustain active breakouts in an area 17-18 km ENE from the vent. A 24 February report noted that the rate of subsidence was less than 2 cm per day and lava flows decreased substantially. Seismic activity continued to decrease although it was still considered to be strong. During 11-17 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; the overall activity was persistent, but lower compared to recent weeks and months. Seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 85 square kilometers on 14 February; measurements from 4 and 12 February showed almost no changes in the extent of the field. During 4-10 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A 6 February statement noted that although there was a visible reduction in activity during the previous two weeks, seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS easurements showed that subsidence continued.During 27 January-3 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, with a lava-flow rate of about 100 cubic meters per second. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. On 27 January the plume rose an estimated 1.3 km. A map made on 21 January showed that the lava field was thickening and not expanding significantly; the erupted volume was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers (15% uncertainty). During 21-27 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Ba¡rdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded along the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Very high values of sulfur dioxide, about 84,000 mµg/m3, were recorded at the eruption site on 21 January; this value was the highest recorded at ground level since the eruption started. Total subsidence of the Bárdarbunga surface since mid-August was 61 m, and the volume of erupted lava was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers. The lava field covered 84.7 square kilometers on 22 January. A report issued on 27 January stated that the average rate of lava emission during the previous three weeks was just less than 100 cubic meters per second, herefore the intensity of the eruption was slowly decreasing.During 14-20 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.3 square kilometers on 15 January. During 7-13 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.1 square kilometers on 10 January. During 31 December-6 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Subsidence continued at a rate of 25 cm/day. The lava field covered 83.4 square kilometers on 6 January. Preliminary analysis of radar measurements taken during an overflight on 30 December showed that the lava is on average 10 m thick in the E part, 12 m thick at the center, and about 14 m in the W part. The maximum thickness, near the craters, was about 40 m at the E margin of the lava lake. A preliminary estimate for the volume of the lava was 1.1 cubic kilometers. Total subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga surface since mid-August was 59 m. During 24-30 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. The lava field covered 82.8 square kilometers as of 29 December.During 10-16 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A decreased rate of subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field covered just over 78.6 square kilometers on 15 December.During 3-9 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection reviewed data from the beginning of the eruption on 31 August to 3 December and found a decreased rate of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera from up to 80 cm/day to 25 cm/day, with most of the subsidence concentrated at the center of the caldera. Data also showed a decline in the intensity of the eruption at Holuhraun, although seismic activity remained strong. After 100 eruptive days the lava field covered just over 76 square kilometers on 9 December, making it the largest lava field in Iceland since the Laki eruption (1783-1784). Additionally, the gas emissions have had an impact all over Iceland for the first time in 150 years.During 26 November-2 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Based on a field report from 25 or 26 November the activity was characterized as pulsating; lava surged from the vent for 2-3 minutes, every 5-10 minutes, causing bulges in the upper parts of the lava channel. Measurements obtained during an overflight on 26 November indicated that the total amount of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera was about 50 m, with an estimated volume of 1.4 cubic kilometers. The rate of subsidence in the center of the caldera had decreased slowly compared to the first month of the eruption. Observers in Dyngjusandur, NE of the vent, photographed the plume at 1441 on 27 November and indicated that the top of the plume was 3.1 km above Dyngjusandur, and the base of the aerosol-laden lower part of the plume was about 1.4 km above the sand plain. A thermal image from 1 December showed several changes to the lava field: in just over 24 hours a new lava extrusion at the NE margin traveled 450 m; a new flow traveled N, just W of the lava lake; and a new flow was forming S of the lava lake, and then to the E of that flow. The lava field covered just over 75 square kilometers on 1 December. During 18-25 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; FLIR thermal images of the craters on 18 November showed that the most intense area of thermal convection was at the northern part of the eruption site, called Heimasjta. Lava flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. On 20 November observers characterized the eruption as pulsating explosions in the crater every 10-15 minutes, followed by a gush of lava down the main channel with splashing on either side During 12-18 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; lava from the lava lake in the main vent, Baugur Crater, flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Seismicity remained strong, although a report on 14 November noted that the number of earthquakes over M 5 seemed to be decreasing. The lava field covered 71.9 square kilometers on 14 November.During 5-11 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued, and seismicity remained strong. The lava field was 60 square kilometers on 9 November. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted.During 29 October-4 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued; by 31 October the depression was about 42 m. The lava field was 65.7 square kilometers on 31 October. As of the 28th of october, effusive activity is still continuing. Lava is still issuing and is covering about 0.79km2/day. caldera subsidence continued at a rate 50cm per day. During 15-21 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued at a rate of 30-40 cm per day, concentrated in the NE part of the caldera, and on 15 October was an estimated 0.75 cubic kilometers. On 18 October a M 5.4 earthquake was detected at 0940 in N Bardarbunga making it one of the biggest earthquakes since the start of the eruption. The lava field continued to grow and the lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 60.7 square kilometers on 19 October. From 15th to 16th of October seismic activity increased. About 130 earthquakes were recorded. Lava flows are still running to the North ans to the East. During 8-14 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field continued to grow, with lava production unchanged. Seismic activity was low in the N part of the dyke and around the eruption site.During 1-7 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued. Seismic activity at the N part of the dyke and around the vents declined, although the lava field continued to grow and lava production continued at the same output. Lava field measured more than 50 km2. On 5 October a new lava front at the S edge of the main lava flow advanced E. During 23-30 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga caldera continued and had reached 27-28 m by 24 September. On 29 September the subsidence rate slowed slightly and was about 40 cm per 24 hours. Lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 46 square kilometers on 30 September. During 17-23 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Chemical analysis and geophysical modeling indicated that the source of the magma was at a depth of more than 10 km. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera and crustal movements signified that the volume of magma in the dyke slightly increased. On 21 September the lava field measured 37 square kilometers. Field scientists estimated that about 90% of the sulfur dioxide gas from the eruption originated at the active craters and the rest rose from the lava field. Dead birds were also found around the eruption site. A report on 22 September noted that the total volume of the erupted lava was 0.4-0.6 cubic kilometers and the flow rate was 250-350 cubic meters per second. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bárdarbunga caldera; the volume of the depression was an estimated 0.6 cubic kilometers on 23 September During 10-16 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Lava flows continued to advance at a consistent rate toward the E and W, and by 13 September, the lava field measured 24.5 km2. The main flow had entered the river bed of Jokkuls Follum and continued to follow its course; steam rose from the river where the lava was in contact but no explosive activity occurred. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera; approximately 23 m of total subsidence was measured during a survey on 14 September. Seismicity persisted mainly around the caldera and the Dyngjujokull glacier. The largest earthquakes, M 5.5, M 5.3, and M 5.0, were detected on 10, 11, and 15 September respectively. IMO reported continued elevated SO2 emissions during 10-16 September and issued warnings to the public in the municipality of Fjarjarbyggen on 13 September. As of the 4th of September in the afternoon IMO reported that eruptive activity was continuing. Lava fountaining slightly increased during previous hours et lava emissions continued. (total covered surface is now about 10.8 km2. Lava tongue strench about 4km distance to the Northeast. During the past hour a graben formed below the Dynjujokull icecap. The seismicity remained at a high level. As of the 3rd of September, IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing and characterized by small lava fountaining above the central part of the fissure and lava flows emissions around. In the morning the lava rate emisssions was 150 m3/s. The surface covered from the beginning of the eruptive phase is 6,5 km2 and the total volume between 30-40 millions/m3 (about 1/10 of the estimated dyke volume). Seismic activity remained important and a strong eartquakes mag 5.5. occurred in the morning located close the caldera. During 27 August-2 September the Icelandic Met Office reported ongoing seismic activity at Bárdarbunga volcano. On 27 August an overflight showed a 4-6-km-long row of cauldrons 10-15 m in diameter S of Bárdarbunga. The Aviation Color Code remains at Orange. As of the 1st of September in the morning , IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing, characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emission along the fissure. As of the 31st of August IMO reported that a new eruptive phase (second one) started probably on Sunday early morning. At 5:49 AM webcam showed an eruptive activity at the same place of the previous activity along the fissure. Eruptive activity was characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emissions. Seismic activity remained important, mainly concentrated along a - 15 km line strenching from from Dynjujokull icecap to the area of the 29th of August eruption. As of the 30th of August, IMO reported that the first fissural eruptive phase ended. The new bulletin reported that the eruptive activity culminated between 00:40 AM - 1:00 AM, then dropped. At about 4:00 AM the short lava flows were not longer supplied. Alert level lowered from red to orange. Previously, as of the 29th of August, IMO reported that an 100 m -long eruptive fissure opened at midnight at about 10 km North Vatnajokull. Webcam images showed red glowing and small lava fountaining above the basaltic fissure. Later bulletin reported that the fissure strenched 400 m to 1 km long. The activity dropped at 2:40 AM . On the morning webcam showed only a small gas plume issued from the fissure. On 26 August the location of the seismicity was located primarily along the 10 km long tip of the dike that extended 5 km beyond the glacier margin. During 22-26 August several earthquakes in the 4.7-5.7 magnitude range had been detected at or near the volcano. On 23 August seismic tremor indicated a small lava-eruption 150-400 m beneath the Dyngjuj0kull glacier, prompting a change in the Aviation Color Code to Red. On 24 August observations from an overflight indicated there was no eruption and the Aviation Color Code was changed to Orange. However the seismic activity remains important with 700 eathquakes from Sunday 00 AM to 2:30 pm (two with more than 5 in magnitude). As of the 23rd of August, RUV reported that a possible mall sub-glacial volcanic eruption has started near Bardarbunga volcano, under the icecap of Dyngjujökull glacier in the northern part of Vatnajökull Glacier, according to the Icelandic Met Office. All air traffic is now prohibited in a large radius around the volcano. The National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police has raised the alert phase to emergency phase accordingly. Furthermore, the Met Office has raised the aviation color code from orange to red resulting in the air space above the eruption site being closed. The eruption is considered a minor event at this point. Because of a pressure from the glacier cap it is uncertain whether the eruption will stay sub-glacial or not. The Coast Guards aircraft, TF-Sif, is currently monitoring the area and there are no visible signs of a plume at this moment. Nothing indicates floods because of the eruption. At this stage measurements taken are based on a small event. The Jökulsárgljúfur canyon has been closed and evacuation of tourists in that area and around Dettifoss waterfall has started. The situation at this stage does not call for evacuation of habitants in Kelduhverfi, Öxarfjördur and Núpasveit. People in those areas are encouraged to watch news closely and have their mobiles switched on at all times.This story, by the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV), was updated on 23 August 2014, at 15.13 GMT - Previously, during 13-19 August the Icelandic Met Office reported increased seismic activity at Bardarbunga volcano. On 16 August more than 200 earthquakes were reported under the NW Vatnajokull ice cap, and GPS stations have shown an increasing signal upward and away from the volcano since early June 2014. On 16 August the Aviation Color code was increased to Yellow. On 18 August the Icelandic Met Office reported an earthquake swarm to the E and another to the N of Bardarbunga. A M4 earthquake was recorded that was the strongest in the region since 1996. By 18 August there had been 2,600 earthquakes detected at the volcano; earthquake locations from N and E swarms had been migrating NE, but in the evening activity of the N swarm had decreased significantly. That same day the Aviation Color code was raised to Orange. The large central volcano of Bárdarbunga lies beneath the NW part of the Vatnajokull icecap, NW of Grimsvotn volcano, and contains a subglacial 700-m-deep caldera. Related fissure systems include the Veidivotn and Trollagigar fissures, which extend about 100 km SW to near Torfajokull volcano and 50 km NE to near Askja volcano, respectively. Voluminous fissure eruptions, including one at Thjorsarhraun, which produced the largest known Holocene lava flow on Earth with a volume of more than 21 cu km, have occurred throughout the Holocene into historical time from the Veidivotn fissure system. The last major eruption of Veidivotn, in 1477, also produced a large tephra deposit. The subglacial Loki-Fogrufjoll volcanic system located SW of Bárdarbunga volcano is also part of the Bárdarbunga volcanic system and contains two subglacial ridges extending from the largely subglacial Hamarinn central volcano; the Loki ridge trends to the NE and the Fogrufjoll ridge to the SW. Jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods) from eruptions at Bardarbunga potentially affect drainages in all directions. ( Icelandic Met Office) - Webcam and seismic recording

ICELAND - Katla volcano

August 4th, 2017

On 29 July the Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that a glacial outburst flood (jokulhlaup) in the Malakvas river, SE of Katla, had begun, and a M 3 earthquake along with a few smaller earthquakes were located in the N part of the caldera. Nearby seismic stations detected tremor possibly linked to the flood, though a subglacial volcanic component was not ruled out. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, the second highest level on a four-color scale. The public was advised to stay away from the river; it was dark colored and had a sulfur odor. By 31 July the jokulhlaup had subsided with conductivity measurements and tremor slowly reaching normal levels. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. Katla volcano, located near the southern end of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, is hidden beneath the Myrdalsjokull icecap. The subglacial basaltic-to-rhyolitic volcano is one of Iceland's most active and is a frequent oproducer of damaging jokulhlaups, or glacier-outburst floods. A large 10 x 14 km subglacial caldera with a long axis in a NW-SE direction is up to 750 m deep. Its high point reaches 1380 m, and three major outlet glaciers have breached its rim. Although most historical eruptions have taken place from fissures inside the caldera, the Eldgja fissure system, which extends about 60 km to the NE from the current ice margin towards Grimsvotnn volcano, has been the source of major Holocene eruptions. An eruption from the Eldja fissure system about 934 CE produced a voluminous lava flow of about 18 cu km, one of the world's largest known Holocene lava flows. Katla has been the source of frequent subglacial basaltic explosive eruptions that have been among the largest tephra-producers in Iceland during historical time and has also produced numerous dacitic explosive eruptions during the Holocene. (GVN/GVP) - Icelandic volcanoes data base


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CAPE VERDE - Brava volcano island

August 11th, 2016

According to the Universidade de Cabo Verde in a report posted on 4 August, Instituto Nacional da Meteorologia e Geofisica (INMG) recorded increased seismicity at Brava beginning at dawn on 2 August. In response authorities evacuated 300 people, based on a news report. Earthquakes were felt by residents during 3-4 August. Scientists and technicians from the
Universidade de Cabo Verde (UniCV), Instituto Vulcanologico das Canarias (INVOLCAN), and Serviso Nacional da Protecion Civil (SNPC) began monitoring carbon dioxide emissions though found nothing unusual during 4-7 August. . Brava Island, 20 km west of Fogo, is the westernmost of the southern Cape Verde islands. The 10-km-wide island contains 15
morphologically youthful craters located along two or three lineaments intersecting along the crest of the island. The youthfulness of the craters and numerous minor earthquakes in recent years indicate that a significant volcanic hazard still exists (Wolff and Turbeville, 1985). Most of the younger eruptions originated from the interaction of phonolitic magmas with a large groundwater reservoir contained within an older volcanic series characterized by thick welded ignimbrites and block-and-ash flow deposits. Carbonatitic lavas are also found on Brava.

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FRANCE - Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion island)

October 28th, 2019

As of the 27th of October at 5PM OVPF reported that the eruptive activity started on October 25, 2019 at 2:40 pm local time stopped on October 27, 2019 at 16:30 local time, after a phase of activity in" gas piston "of about 1 hour however no assumption is discounted as to the evolution of the situation to come (final shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity further downstream), given the observables following: - 29 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded during the day yesterday,- "Piston gases" are always registered,- very little lava was emitted on the surface..Previously, the day before, OVPF reported the front of the lava flow was at 17:00 on October 26 about 250m from the national road 2. The front of the flow has increased by about 150m in 9h. The progression of the flows is now on average slopes of 19% (against 16% on the morning). The slow progression of the lava front of these last hours is explained by the decrease of surface flows and by the slopes which are lower than those traversed by the lava during the day of 25/10/2019. On the morning of October 27, the activity is generally located at a single fountain of lava from the eruptive cone; a third lava front, which had rounded Piton Tremblet on Saturday afternoon, stopped; and the lava front near the RN2 has frozen and no longer glows. Previously, OVPF reported that two eruptive fissures opened at around 14:40 on October 25 at an altitude of 1,400 meters near the southern rampart near the Piton Passage (1976), and least two lava flows were formed advancing very rapidly in the Grandes Pentes. The activity was intense, with lava fountains about thirty meters high, and the progression of the front of the main stream was of the order of 250 meters per hour. The location of the eruption is very close to the position of the previous eruption, and low in altitude. Around 17h local, the main flow was under the Piton Tremblet, evolving at the interface of the 2007 flows and the forest area; following overflows in the vegetation, fires broke out, quickly taken into account by firefighters. Three passages of the Dash 8 with retardant product release were made to limit the magnitude of the fires.The lava then flowed in the Grand Brûlé. Various parameters will influence its progression: the feed and the flow down slightly, the nature of the terrain less steep. On the morning of October 26 at 8 am local lava was located 400 meters from the lava road. The OVPF / IPGP teams are on site to perform the first lava sampling and temperature measurements. As 11am local time the eruptive activity time continued. After 3 hours of stability, the intensity of the tremor began a gradual decline that continues this morning. Since the beginning of the eruption, 37 summit surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded. No earthquakes were recorded in the eruption area. Yesterday, OVPF reported that since 4:15 local time on October 25, a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise.This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. An eruption is likely in the near future in the next minutes or hours.The prefecture has decided to go on alert 1 of the specific device ORSEC volcano from 07:00 this morning. Previous news - OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption of August 11-15, inflation was recorded again. CO2 fluxes in the soil also remain important.This shows that magma continues to accumulate in the superficial reservoir and that an eruption is possible in the medium term (days / weeks). OVPF reported that since the eruption stopped on 15/08/2019 at approximately 22:00 local time, 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded. These earthquakes are located under the summit zone. The deformations recorded by the OVPF measuring devices on the ground do not show any discernible signals since the end of the eruption.It should be noted that the deformation field associated with the eruption of 11-15 August 2019 did not extend outside the Enclos Fouqué (as of 15/08/2019 5:47 a.m., the date of the satellite acquisition. Previously OVPF reported that the eruption stopped again on August 15th, 2013 at approximately 22:00 local time, after a little more than 6 hours of activity of "gas piston" or "puffs of tremor". The eruptive activity on the surface is currently stopped, only persistent degassing at the level of eruptive fissures and glowing at the lava flows that are being cooled. Following the eruption stopped on 15/08/2019 at about 04:20 local time, the eruptive tremor resumed at 8:30 a.m. This was confirmed by on-site observations, the activity of lava fountains resumed within the same eruptive cone.OVPF reported that the eruption that began on 11/08/2019 at 16:20 local time stopped on 15/08/2019 at about 04:20 local time.The eruptive activity on the surface is stopped for the time being, only a degassing at the level of eruptive fissure and redness at the lava flows that are being cooled. Howeve ra residual tremor wasstill recorded on the NTR station, located on the Tremblet's Coupé Nose and the recording of deep earthquakes that indicate that deep magma movements are still present.Bulletin of the OVPF (13th of August - 11AM) reported that the eruption continues. After a decline in the late afternoon yesterday, the intensity of the eruptive tremor was relatively constant since 21:00 local time (17:00 UT). An aerial reconnaissance was carried on the morning with the help of the SAG and the PGHM. In total, two eruptive fissures, about 1400 m apart, opened on 11 August 2019 in the eastern, south-east sector of the upper Slopes at 1700 and 1500 m above sea level. On the morning at 09:30 (local time), only the lowest fissure at altitude was active which formed three separate cones by accumulation of lava fountain deposits. An area of fumarole not related to an eruptive crack or lava flow was observed between the two fissures at an altitude of about 1100 m. The three active flows from these cones joined in a single channel whose front was on the morning at 09:30 at 665 m altitude (near Piton Tremblet), about 2.1 km from the road . Estimated surface flows, based on satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), are in the range of 2 to 9 m3/s at the beginning of the eruption. Small fires were observed along the lower part of the flow as a result of its entry into a heavily vegetated area.An overflight of the eruptive site on August 12 at 9:15 found that only the lowest elevation crack (1500 m) was active and fed a flow whose front was at 665 m altitude, or 2.1 km from the road. As of the 12th of August the bulletin of the OVPF (4PM local time) reported that the eruption began on August 11, 2019 at around 4:20 p.m. local time and continues. The intensity of the eruptive tremor (witness to the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively constant since 08:00 local time (04:00 T.U). At 3 p.m. local time, the lava front was visible from the RN2 and had reached an altitude of about 1000 m (200 m, taking into account the uncertainties associated with remote observations). OVPF reported that after 9:30 of seismic crisis, the volcanic tremor, synonymous withspread deep from the southeastern edge of Dolomieu crater towards the east flank, southeast. At 4:00 pm local time), the spread continued in this direction.The source of this tremor is located on the eastern flank, southeast, inside the Enclos Fouqué, in the sector of the Great Slopes / les Grandes Pentes.No visual confirmation of a start of eruption could be made at 16:04 UTC on webcams due to poor weather conditions and OVPF could not not confirmated the arrival of lava on the surface. Nevertheless the presence of a tremor shows the emission of hot and incandescent gas on the surface, and the possibility of lava emission in the short term or already in progress. Previously OVPF reported that on Sunday 11th of August since 07:00 local time, a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis was accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. An eruption was likely in the near future. Previously,a fter a sustained activity during the night of the 20th-30th of July, the eruption has weakened and stopped this day, the 30/07/2019 at 04:30 local time (00:30 T.U), after a gradual decline of the volcanic tremor.The eruption started on July 29, 2019 continued during the day. The intensity of the eruptive tremor (witnessing the intensity of the eruption) has decreased by a factor of 2 since the beginning of the eruption.Three fissures, open in echelon, on the northern flank of the volcano (600 m from the Formica Léo) over a total length of about 450 m, poured lava on the remains of the July 2018 flow, and built by accumulation three small slag cones.The first observations, on site and by helicopter, of the OVPF teams always showed at 17h (local time) an activity on the three fissures with lava fountains of the order of 20-30m high maximum and flows of aa type lava extending for a short length (about 500 m) given the relatively flat topography.As of the 29th of July (12:15 local time) OVPF reported that following the seismic crisis started that day at 05: 13 local time, volcanic tremor synonym of arrival of magma near the surface is recorded since 12:00 hour local. Records of the OVPF, the source of the tremor is located on the northern flank.No visual confirmation of an eruption early could be carry out for the moment on the webcams of the fact of the bad weather conditions and we cannot confirm the arrival of the lava to the surface. However the presence of a tremor shows the show the possibility of emission of lava and gas hot and glowing surface, short term. Previously OVPF reported that since 5:13 am local time on 29.07.2019 , a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. According to OVPF an eruption is likely in the near future in the next minutes or hours. Previously : The eruption started on June 11, 2019 at 06h35 (local time) stopped on June 13, 2019 around 12:00 pm local time. Records only detected noise associated with bad weather on the volcano. SO2 levels in air at the OVPF stations, located on the perimeter of the Fouqué enclosure, have returned to background noise values. On June 12, the OVPF did not report any significant deformation or volcano-tectonic earthquake. A decrease in sulphur dioxide levels was observed, and CO2 emissions from the soil showed high and stable values in the distal zone (plains of the Cafres) and were again increasing in the proximal zone (Gîte du Volcan). The images of the OVPF's webcam located in Piton des Cascades allowed to locate the lava front this morning at around 1200-1300 m altitude. OVPF reported trhat the second eruption of the year is still continuing. The lava spreads at the foot of the summit cone on a shelf, fed from a vent at 2200-2250 meters; it will have to cross this zone before reaching the Great Slopes and be visible from the RN2. The OVPF reported for Tuesday, June 11 a total of 178 volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit cone, the strongest being of magnitude 1.38 and lasting 13.4 sec.As of the 11th of June, OVPF reported that after a restless month of May (359 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes between 0 and 2 km deep, 3 deep earthquakes with more than 2 km, and 229 collapses in the crater Dolimieu and the ramparts of Enclos), and a crisis Seismic recorded from 6:03 local June 11, the Piton de La Fournaise erupted at about 6:35. OVPF reported that following a reconnaissance this morning (around 09:30 local time), the eruptive site could be confirmed. At least four eruptive fissures opened on the south-south-east external slope of the Dolomieu crater. The cloud cover did not allow to see the presence of other vents especially at lower altitude, nor to locate the front of flows. Lava fountains less than 30m high and well-drained lava flows escaped from the three lowest cracks. The two highest cracks, near "Petit Plateau" were no longer active or in extinction when flying over. A rapid progression of the flows on the east flank was observed because of the steep slopes in this sector.  According to Aline Peltier, OVPF director " this second eruption of the year started exactly in the same place as that of February, but it takes a different direction, the last one has spread towards the North-East, this one goes towards the South. " A rapid progression of the flows on the east flank was observed because of the steep slopes in this sector. Previous eruption - OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption on March 10th, glowing areas were always observed on the surface, three days later on the image Sentinel 2 bands 12,11,4 ... the coatings remaines warm. As for geophysical and geochemical records, seismicity has dropped and CO2 emissions from the ground are decreasing in the proximal (Gite du Volcan) and increasing distal (Plaine des Cafres) on March 16th. The obsservatoire reports 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit cone and 10 landslides for the enclosure and the summit cone. OVPF reported that following the stop the surface eruptive activity on March 10 at 6:28 local time, a seismicity is still recorded under the summit area of ​​the volcano. About 26 superficial superficial earthquakes and 1 deep earthquake have been recorded since the end of the eruption on March 10 at 6:28 am local time and 19:30 local time. Because of this seismicity, no hypothesis is disregarded as to the evolution of the future situation (final shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity on another site). The sudden stop of this eruption was preceded by a very intense surface activity and lava fountains a hundred meters high were postponed to 23h on 9 March. The lava volumes emitted on the surface between February 18 and March 10 could be estimated at about 14.5 (+ or - 5) Mm3 from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) and MIROVA (University of Turin). OVPF reported that the front of lava progressed quickly this Friday night 8th of March and went from 1.000 meters of altitude this Friday morning with 700 meters of altitude towards 22h.OVPF also reported that the intensity of the eruptive tremor continues the rise started 48 hours ago. Over the last 36 hours, the surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 50 m3 / s (these measurements can be affected / reduced by cloud cover). It should be noted that most of the measurements remain however less than 30 m3 / s and that following the cloud cover these measures are no longer possible since 9:30 this morning. Previously, OVPF reported that the activity was intense during the night with a reverberation of the incandescence on the clouds, visible from the 4 webcams. The Mirova site lists a very high thermal anomaly on March 7th at 10:20 pm, of 3,281 MW. As of the 6th of March, following the opening of a new crack yesterday, new eruptive fissures opened this morning. 6 points of emission were visible this morning around the Piton Madoré. The OVPF will perform aerial reconnaissance as soon as weather conditions permit.As of the 6th of March, OVPF confirmed the opening of a new crack, upstream of the eruptive site, on the northwest flank of Piton Madoré.This new lava emission point was probably opened on March 5th between 9:00 am (local time, crack not present during the flight of an OVPF team) and before 7:00 pm (local time, time of day). acquisition of a satellite image on which an extremely weak signal can be detected at the level of the new crack (OI2 data, Clermont Auvergne University). On the morning, according to the photos and satellite images just provided, a small cone was already being formed and a new flow had begun to progress north of the main eruptive site. Due to the location of this new crack in the vicinity of the active vent since February 19 and associated low flow rates, its seismic signal coincides with that of the 19 February vent. As of the 5th of March, OVPF reported that the eruptive activity continued. Despite slight fluctuations in intensity and an upward trend in recent days, the intensity of the tremor has remained at a relatively constant level for 24 hours. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 7 m³ / s. Note that low values ​​(or zero values) are recorded when cloud cover does not allow acquisition.The cone closed laterally but still has an open vent at its summit On the morning around 8:30 local time, the cone had a base 100 m in diameter, a height of 25m and an eruptive vent at the top of 50m about diameter. As of the 4th of March OVPF reported that despite slight fluctuations in intensity and relative consistency since February 25, an upward trend seems to be emerging in recent days. Now, the crater in cone at the foot of Piton Madore is blocked and lava comes out through tunnels. The total SO2 emissions to the atmosphere recorded by the OVPF's NOVAC network since the beginning of the eruption are estimated at 2.5 kton, a value in the norm of the average of the Piton de la Fournaise eruptions.A cartography of the lava flow dated 01/03/2018 carried out by the OI2 platform (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne) from satellite data shows that a third pouring arm has been put in place to the north. between 28/02/2018 and 01/03/2018. During this time the other two arms already in place do not seem to have progressed.A new satellite acquisition on March 1st shows that this new arm split in two during the day of March 1st. As of the 1st of March OVPF reported that despite slight fluctuations in intensity since February 25, the eruptive tremor remained relatively constant for several days. Over the last 36 hours, 3 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 16 m3 / s. Note that low values ​​(or zero values) are recorded when cloud cover does not allow acquisition. A mapping of the lava flow dated 28/02/2018 carried out by the OI2 platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) using satellite data confirmed the slow progression of the lava flow (300 m in 5 days). The casting front is located 1200m above sea level and only the north arm is currently active. OVPF reported that on 27th of February, despite some fluctuations, the intensity of the eruptive tremor remained relatively constant, and the flows fluctuate in an area below 15 m³ / sec.Over the past 36 hours, 8 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded.After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals.The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high.The flow went down slowly towards the sea. As of the 26th of February, OVPF bulletin reported that the eruptive activity that began on February 19, 2019 continues. Despite some fluctuations, the intensity of the eruptive tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) remains relatively constant. Over the last 36 hours, 11 upper superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high.Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC-University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 13 m3 / s. According to Mirova, the radiative power remains high, with 1927 MW this 25 February. OVPF reported that over the past 36 hours, 10 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the volcano related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between 2.5 and 13 m3 / s. Observations from the OVPF webcam located in Piton des Cascades show that the casting front has not progressed or very little since 21 February. According to the observations carried out during an overflight on the 22nd of February in the morning of the eruption zone, by OVPF, showed that the contour of the flow has slightly changed even if its propagation remained is slow. The eruptive cone continued to grow and is now occupied by a lava lake from which ejecta escape during the explosion of bubbles arriving at the surface. A well-channeled flow escapes downstream of the cone. After 1 km (and 200 m of negative elevation) it is no longer one but two lava arms that are observable. The separation of the flows is at the level of Guyanin crater. The longest lava arm has traveled a distance of 1900 m from the eruptive vent and is still 4.3 km from the road and 5.3 km from the ocean. The different lava fronts are currently in the Grandes Pentes. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were between 2.5 and 15 m³ / s. The amount of lava emitted since the resumption of activity on 19/02/2019 is between 1 and 3 million cubic meters.Observations from the RN2 by an OVPF team, on February 20th, showed that the flows continued their progression in a discontinuous way (with periods of stagnation - stagnation of the lava front - and periods of faster progression) and that the main pouring front had crossed the "broken of the Great Slopes". A point was made this February 22 around 7:30 on the advance of the lava flow, following an overflight by a team of the OVPF. Over the last 24 hours, the lava front changed and was still located in the upper sector of the Grandes Pentes. On the other hand, the flow showed two visible arms on the s morning, one to the north and the other to the south of the Guyanin piton. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were between 2 and 8 m3 / s.The eruptive tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) is relatively stable since February 20 at 06h local time.OVPF reported that effusive activity continued on the 20th of February. The eruptive tremor remained relatively stable since 6am local / 2h UTC. Only one crack was active and the eruptive activity has built a cone rampart breached towards the lava flow. According to OVPF the lava is at 1,200 ° C, and the gases are measured up to a temperature of 1,000 ° C. In the evening, the incandescence could be observed on the Cascades webcam; Mirova noted a thermal anomaly of 1,357 Mw at 6:15 pm, a little stronger than that recorded at the beginning of the phase on 19.02 at 19:10, of 1.072MW. 5 volcano-tectonic earthquakes and inflation were recorded by OVPF, testifying to the pressurization of a superficial source and a distant source. As of the 20th of February, in the morning OVPF point reported that the crack opened yesterday at 1800 meters altitude on the east side of the Dolomieu, and an active fountain feeds two lava flows, whose front advances at a speed of about 1 km / h. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne), remain low and are between 3 and 7 m3 / s. The first flow cuts the crater Madoré and stops upstream of the crater Guyana,forming a small lava lake. The second lava arm descends the slopes to join the part of the Grand-Brûlé destroyed by the fire of January 2019. It spreads over 1,600 meters, and to continue towards the sea, depends on a sufficient supply upstream. As of the 19th of February, following the eruptive pause, OVPF reported renewed activity : at 3 pm local this February 19, a new seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is for the moment accompanied by no rapid deformation. Around 17h, tremor occurred and opening of a new crack began just above the Cassé des Grandes Pentes and the the lava flowed rapidly and descended the slopes .At 17:50, the first observations showed a gas plume by a team of the OVPF in the area of ​​"Signal de l'Enclos" (south-east flank). OVPF reported that the eruption stopped on 18/02/2019 at 22:00 local time. Some lava flows glowing remained nevertheless visible, but these will probably gradually cool down with the end of their feeding by the eruption. At this time, no assumptions are possible about the evolution of the future situation (definitive shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity further downstream), given the persistence of seismicity. As of the 18th in the afternoon OVPF reported that the eruption started on February 18, 2019 continued, with a slight drop in tremor intensity observed since 14:45 local time (10:45 UTC). This drop in tremor may be linked to a drop in activity on one or other of the two cracks. Surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were included at the beginning of eruption between 25 and 40 m3 / s, values ​​classically observed in beginning of eruption at Piton de la Fournaise. The flows were visible from the Route des Laves, and the webcam of Piton Cascades. As of the 18th of February 2019, OPVF reported that following the new seismic crisis started at 09:16 local time and always accompanied by rapid deformation. the volcanic tremor, synonymous with the arrival of magma near the surface, has been recorded since about 9:48 am local time and an eruptiion started.  But in the first time the fog prevented the exact counting of the fissures and their precise location. According to latest news at 10 AM from OVPF at least two eruptive fissures and a dozen lava fountains" are located on the eastern flank of the massif. Previous news 2018 - The cone of the last eruption, from September 15 to November 1, was named after the writer and storyteller Creole Daniel Honoré, who died on October 18, 2018 at the age of 79 years.As of the 1st of November, OVPF reported that on midnight UT, which is 4:00 local time, on 01 November 2018, no more signs of activity was recorded at Piton de La Fournaise. The eruption started on September 15, 2018 at 4:25 am local time seems stopped on November 01, 2018, at 04:00 local time. As of the 30th of october OVPF reported that eruptive activity is still slowly continuing. The volcanic tremor dropped since 24h ago. As of the 25 of October OVPF reported that the eruption started on September 15 continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor is stable since 24h ago. As of the 19th of October, OVPF reported that the effusive eruption is still continuing. The volcanic tremor dropped slowly since several days ago. Previous observations carried out on 8th of October from Bert Piton and from the air by OVPF teams located the lava front. Since September 30, the northern front has progressed of 1.8 km and was, on October 8 at 08:00 AM local time, 500m of the great slopes, the southern and central fronts did not move. On the morning the north lava front was less than 120 m from the southern wall of Enclos Fouqué.OVPF bulletin (4th of October) reported that the eruption is still continuing. The volcanic tremor increased since yesterday 10 pm ( local time) and then doubled. The surface activity remained weak. As of the 3rd of October (2 am - local time) OVPF reported that eruptive activity was still continuing. - Estimated lava flux on the surface from stallite data, via HOTVOLC (OPGC – Université Clermont Auvergne) was between1 m3/s et 3 m3/s during the past 24h. OVPF bulletin ( 2nd of October) reported that the the eruptive activity is still continuing. The intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained stable during th"e past 24h. OVPF reported that the eruption continues.An overflight of the eruptive site by a team of the OVPF, reported a falling surface activity with rare lava projections at the level of the eruptive vent, and resurgences of lava from the main lava tunnel of small extensions (<600 m). Apart from a slight increase in early afternoon on September 30, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity at the surface) has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) were less than 2 m3 / s over the last 24 hours. OVPF reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing on 28th of September. The tremor remained stable during past 24hthAs of the 27th of September, OVPF reported that the eruption continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours. Estimation of the lava effusion rate on the surface from satellite data , via HOTVOLC (OPGC – Université Clermont Auvergne) are still between 1 m3/s et 3 m3/sduring the past 24h.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded during the day of 25 September or during the current day.No significant deformation is noticeable.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne) are maintained and are always between 1m3 / s and 2m3 / s over the last 24 hours. The cone continue to growth; The lava flows are running by a tunnel and emerge by resurgences located about 150m downstream of the cone. As of the 26th of September, OVPF reported that the eruption started on September 15th is still continuing. Following a slight increase at the beginning of the day, the intensity of the volcanic tremor has returned to a relatively stable level with some minor fluctuations. The surface flows were estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne),between 0.5 and 5.3 m3 / s on September 24th..The cone continues to growth and main lava flow is still running toward the south then heading south-east. As of the 24th of September, OVPF reported the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity on the surface) has slightly increased since 8:00 am local time (04:00 UTC time) and thus doubled in intensity during the day.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded during the current day. No significant deformation are noticeable since the onset of the eruption. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) are maintained and are always between 1 m3 / s and 3 m3 / s over the last 24 hours.The decrease in SO2 flux by a factor of about 6 compared to the beginning of the eruption is maintained and is confirmed by the notable decrease in SO2 pollution at the summit of Piton de la Fournaise; the plume is now smaller and almost confined in the Enclos Fouqué and drifted to the south and west. The cone is still growing and a lava flow is still issuing to the south from an opening, then heading to the south-east. The eruption began September 15 at 4:25 local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues. The volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity on the surface) has undergone many fluctuations in the last 24 hours.A deep volcano-tectonic earthquake (about 2.6 km below sea level) was recorded under the east flank of the volcano during the day of 21 September. No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded during the current day.No significant deformation are noticeable since the onset of the eruption.Surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) are between 1 m3 / s and 3 m3 / s over the last 24 hours.OVPF reported that after several hours of increased seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise a seismic crisis began at 0145 on 15 September, accompanied by rapid deformation. Tremor began at 0425, contemporaneous with the opening of fissures on the S flank near Rivals Crater. Around 1000 an estimate of the lava flow rate, based on satellite data, was 30 cubic meters per second. During an overflight about an hour later observers noted five fissures. The central fissure was the most active, producing lava fountains 30 m high; two lava flows that merged downstream had already flowed more than 2 km towards the wall of the Enclos Fouqué. By the afternoon of 16 September the estimated flow rate was between 2.5 and 7 cubic meters per second. Only three vents were active and a cone had started to form. lava flows continued to advance during 16-18 September.Previous eruption : OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption on July 13 at 22:00, strong seismic activity is still recorded at Piton de La Fournaise. Since the end of the eruption and until 15:30 July 14th, 51 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (<2 km below the surface) have been recorded, an average of about 3 events per hour. The majority of these earthquakes are located under the northern edge of the crater Dolomieu. This shows that the feeding system of the deep volcano remains under pressure. No significant deformities were observed this day. The OVPF survey this morning made it possible to map all the lava flows emitted during the July 13 eruption (Figure 1) and to estimate its volume at around 0.3 million m3. These flows covered approximately 400 m of markers on the hiking trail leading to the summit. OVPF reported that the eruption started on July 13, 2018 between 03:30 (beginning of the tremor recorded on the OVPF seismic stations) and 04:30 (first light visible on the OVPF webcams) local time was decreasing on July 13 around 18 h , with only three zones of explosions and not very active flows; it stopped this July 13 at 22:00 local time, after a phase of continuous dercreasing of the tremor and about 3 hours of gas pistons. No more glow was visible on the OVPF webcams at the level of eruptive cracks, only a few glows remained perceptible at the level of uncooled lava front.Previously, OVPF reported that following the seismic crisis that began shortly before midnight on July 12, the volcanic tremor appeared very gradually on the seismic recordings at about 03:30. local time on July 13th. According to the OVPF recordings, the source of this tremor is located on the northern flank of the volcano.The first glowing of the eruptive activity appeared on the OVPF webcams at 4:30 local time. Four fissures opened over 1 km long in the Rosemont Chapel area. On the first photos they can see a fissures sections already surrounded by spatter walls, and the lava flows running on the ground.The Prefecture has the alert 2-2 "eruption ongoing in the enclosure". Access to Enclos Fouqué and the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose trail are prohibited. Previous eruption - Latest OVPF bulletin (June 1st - 15h local time) reported that the eruption started on April 27, 2018 at 23:50 local time, stopped today at 14:30, after more than 18:30 of piston gas phase. OVPF bulletin ( May 31st - 14h30 ) reported that the eruption is still continuing. The main cone reached about 22-25 m high. a strong degassing still occurs from the vent of the main cone. Measured temprature showed about 800-900°C. The lava flows are almost exclusively in tubes.OVPF bulletin (May 30th - 15h30 local time) reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing but the volcanic tremor continued to decrease slowly. previously, OVPF reported that field observations made of May 25th, confirmed a weak activity. The lava flows are almost exclusively in tubes and at nightfall, a single incandescent zone in the lava field near the vent could be observed. A strong, almost continuous degassing continues. The tremor has stabilized at a relatively low value, the inflation of the volcano has stopped and the surface flows estimated yesterday are very low, less than 0.03 m³ / s. OVPF bulletin (May 24th - 15h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing. Only the main cone emits a few surface lava ejection. No active flow could be observed on the surface, most of the activity taking place in lava tubes.Surface discharges could not be estimated from satellite data in the past 24 hours due to cloud cover on the volcano. OVPF bulletin ( May 21st - 16h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing but the volcanic tremor decreased slowly since 72 h ago. The effusive activity is still occurring mainly in lava tubes. OVPF bulletin (18th of May - 15h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing. the intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours.The effusive activity is still predominantly in the lava tunnel. The flow activity is still predominantly in lava tubes but the resurgences are more numerous these past two days, especially at the foot of the secondary cone. During the last two days, the morphology of the main cone (the most active) has evolved with the building of a small outgrowth at its summit and a narrowing at the vent. The lava projections have become rare. The SO2 flux (recorded on the OVPF NOVAC stations) continues to decrease, consistent with a decrease in surface lava flow. Nevertheless, CO2 concentrations in the top air and CO2 concentrations in soil in the Plains region remain high. OVPF bulletin (May 11th, 15h local time) reported that the eruption was still continuing without change. As of the 10th of May ( 18:30 h local time) OVPF reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing. The volcanic tremor remained at the same level during the past 24 h. Main activity is still occurs from the central cone and charactérized by lava ejection at about 10 - 20 m m high above the cone and a lava flow emission in the lava tube. According to aerial photo (stereophotogrammetry process) the main cone reach about 21 m high with a diameter at the base of 100 meters. As of the 7th of May (3:30 pm local time) HVO reported that the intensity of tremor continue to slighly decrease. Fieldwork carried out the day before, showed that the main eruptive activity was concentrated on the central cone vent characterized by ejection of lava at about 10 m high and emission of lava flow from a main lava tube.As of the 6th of May, OVPLF reported that the intensity of the volcanic tremor has decreased very slightly since 24 hours. An overflight of the eruptive site carried out on the morning indicated at 10:30 (local time) activity mainly in lava tubes. Only two lava arms were visible from the main tunnel of the central vent, which is now the only one to show regularly projection of lava.The lava front has not progressed in recent days.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded today were between 1 and 2.5 m3 / s. As of the 5th of May, OVPF reported that the tremor remained relatively stable. The field reconnaissance carried out yesterday showed an activity mainly focused on the central vent with a cone now completely closed from which lava projections escape. The activity in the lava tunnel is now well developed and frequent breakthroughs in the roof of these tunnels let escape many little flows. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin), recorded today were between 1 and 3.5 m3/ s. It should be noted that these measures are only partial as a result of the bad weather conditions on the Fournaise massif during the last 24 hours. A very slight deflation of the volcano is still recorded on the OVPF deformation sensors. As of the 4th of May, OVPLF reported that the eruptive activity was continuing. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity at the surface) is still relatively stable.As of the 2d of may, the surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded this day were in the order of 1 to 3 m3 / s. A very slight deflation of the volcano begins to be recorded on the OVPF deformation sensors. This parameter will be followed in the next few days.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded in the last 24 hours under the Piton de la Fournaise volcano. IRT- OVPF HD Webcam direct - During 29-30 April tremor levels were relatively stable, with a few fluctuations related to morphological changes at the eruptive site such as cone building. During an overflight around 1020 on 30 April scientists observed three active vents (S of Rival Crater). The third vent, in a 5-m-high cone, was mostly closed over, though it continued to produced lava flows. The middle and most active cone was about 30-40 m long and 10-15 m high, and had a vent with a lava lake. Large bubbles of lava rose from the lake and exploded into lava fountains. Lava fountains from the northernmost vent rose no more than 15 m high. Lava flows had traveled 150 m and 1.2 km; the longer lava flow had reached the S rampart and traveled an additional 400 m E along it. . Satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded today were between 2 and 6 m3 / s.On the morning, three eruptive vents were still active with lava flows emission toward the Southwest. The lava front has reached the base of the rampart.No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. Previously, as of the 27th of April OVPLF reported that following the seismic crisis started at 20:15 local time on Friday, April 27, 2018, the Piton de la Fournaise erupted at 11:50 pm According to the first observations of the Volcanological Observatory, the eruption started on the south flank of the volcano, in the Rivals crater area, and was characterized by a very active eruptive fissures with lava fontaining and lava flows emission .Three other eruptive fissures also opened with emission of lava flows. These differents arms joined and a large lava flow was running south towards the rampart which extends to about 200- 300 meters. Previously, as of the 4th of April the morning bulletin of the OVPLF reported that following a decreasing of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) at 1 o'clock (local time, 21h UTC), surface eruptive activity started on April 3, 2018 at 10:40 am local time stopped. day, April 4, 2018 at 4:00 am (local time, 00h GMT), after a gas piston phase. As of the 3rd of April a new afternoon bulletin of the OVPLF reported that following a reconnaissance made by a team of the OVPF at the ramparts of the Enclos, the eruptive activity has been located on the north flank of the volcano against the top of the broken slopes. A helicopter overflight of the eruptive site by a second team of the OVPF in the middle of the afternoon allowed to locate more precisely the eruption. A long crack about 1km long opened in 7 distinct segments, two with emissions of lava fountains. The last active segment is just at the foot of the rampart close the bottom of the Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose. At 16:00 local time, many landslides were recorded by the OVPF network in the rampart at the Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose area, and many fumaroles were observed on site at this level. This situation presents a real and imminent danger of collapse. As a result, the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose trail is currently closed to pedestrian traffic from Piton Partage. Previous news - OVPLF recorded since 5:50, Tuesday, April 3, 2018, an increase in the number of earthquakes of increasing intensity and persistent deformations at the top of the volcano. Just before 11:00, the monitoring system of the volcanological observatory recorded an eruptive tremor towards the rampart at the level of the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose. A strong seismic signal indicating that the lava was close to the surface recorded by the observatory or already at the surface. Previous news 2017 - OVPLF reported that since mid-October 2017 , a change is observed on the recordings of the volcanological observatory with: a renewed of inflation of the volcano: The GPS of the summit zone and in far field record an inflation, probably in relation with reactivation of the pressure of a superficial and a deep source. - low concentrations of SO2 (coupled with CO2) and H2S (coupled with H2O vapor) observed in the summit emissions of Piton de la Fournaise. - a slight seismicity under the summit craters. On 24th of October, 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VT) were recorded under the summit cone, including a magnitude of 0.27 with a duration of 3.72 sec. All these parameters will be followed and confirmed in the next days.Previously, The OVPF confirmed the end of the eruptive phase at Piton de La Fournaise on August 28, 2017 at 3:00 pm / 11 pm UTC on 27.08., following the disappearance of the tremor signal. However, since the end of this eruptive phase, a recovery of the activity, observed usually outside the eruptive phase, could be observed. No hypothesis are made about the future situation, taking into account the following observations: - Five volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded under the southeastern area of ​​the Enclos since the end of the eruptive phase. - No distortion is no longer noticeable. - CO2 concentrations in the soil at the site remain high.Despite the end of activity from the geo-physical data and the stopping of the feed (end of the tremor, vibration associated with the passage of magma and gas containing ), no hypothesis is excluded, a new eruptive activity could be occurs in the days and hours ahead. During the 45 days of the eruption, from July 14 to August 28, 2017, less than 10 million m³ of lava were released on the surface. After high lava flows (22-30 m³ / s) recorded on the first day of the eruption, the average flows estimated by satellite thermal imaging via the MIROVA (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) platforms, decreased gradually throughout the eruption, from 5 to <1 m³ / s. This gradual decline in lava flows was accompanied by a decrease in SO2 flows into the air. Previously mainly based on seismicity, OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 14 July continued during 16-22 August; weather clouds prevented visual and satellite observations most of the week. Volcanic tremor rapidly increased in the early evening on 15 August, concurrent with the presence of ephemeral lava fountains, at the cone and another area, visible in webcam images. The signal fluctuated at high levels until the evening of 19 August, when it began to stabilize at low levels. Satellite data from 19 August indicated a decreased lava-flow rateAs of the 18th of August OVPLF reported that the eruption continues, with variations in the tremor and surface activity. The slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano since the beginning of August (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption) seemed stopped . On the morning of August 18th, weather conditions are better and we can see, on the webcam of Piton de Bert, a degassing at the eruptive site and at various points of the lava flow. As of the 16th of August, OVPLF reported that the eruption that began on 14 July continues. The volcanic tremor increased rapidly in early night on August 15th. Then, since the beginning of the day (the 16.08 / 00h local), characterized by variation with a periodicity of approximately 4 minutes. The slight inflation of the terminal cone of the volcano observed so far (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption) appeared to be decreasing. Despite unfavorable weather conditions, the camera in place at Piton de Bert allowed to associate these changes in the level of the volcanic tremor with changes in surface activity: fountains of lava, ephemeral, could be observed both at the level of the eruptive cone than from the eastern end of the lava flow essentially at the beginning of the night. As of the 13th of August, OVPLF reported that after a month of eruption, the tremor was stabilized since 48 hours, following a phase of slight increasing. No volcano-tectonic earthquake was recorded under the summit craters during the day of 13 August. The slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano was always observed (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption). Despite the bad weather conditions of the weekend, some observations were carried out on the site on 13.08 afternoon by OVPF team. No more projections were observed even if gas puffs were heard and were visible in the form of flares. Further downstream, about 2 km from the eruptive mouth, about 400 m from the Crater Gros Bénard and 500 m from the lava pond, pahoehoe flows were observed. The presence of clouds, this WE and today, unfortunately did not make it possible to carry out the estimates on the flow by the use of satellites. As of the 11th of August, OVPLF reported that the tremor remained at a low level of intensity, and a slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano is observed, less than 1 cm from the beginning of the eruption, and far field, witness of the pressurization of a source in surface and in depth. OVPF reported that the eruption continued through 8 August, though tremor levels and surficial activity slowly declined. Satellite data indicated a minimum flow rate of 1-2 cubic meters per second. Some active lava flows were visible at a distance of 520 m from the cone, though most of the flow activity was confined to lava tubes. There were some breakouts from the lava tube; a substantial breakout on 5 August fed a lava flow that traveled hundreds of meters over several hours. During 7-8 August small amounts of material was ejected from a small vent on the N flank of the eruptive vent. As of the 3rd of August OVPLF reported that the eruption continued, but the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) continued to decline very gradually. The decline in the eruptive tremor is reflected on the ground by a decline in activity. During an overflight carried out on 2 August by the OVPF, no projection was visible at the level of the eruptive cone. The main vent, active these days, is now completely blocked. The second vent, of smaller size, showed an extremely low level of magma with strong degassing. At 10.30 am (local time), only a few lava arms were visible on the surface, the nearest being 520 meters from the eruptive cone, with the rest of the activity occurring in the lava tube.As of the 31st of July OVPLF reported that , the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) remains at a level equivalent to 50% of the value observed at the beginning of the eruption. No earthquakes have been recorded in the past 48 hours.The ground reconnaissance carried out on July 30, with the assistance of the Air Force Section and the PGHM, enabled the OVPF members to carry out various surveys on site. The eruptive cone continues its edification, it is now completely closed and presents a main vent characterired by intermittent projections. A second, smaller vent on the northern edge of the cone is significantly less active, only a few projections are rarely observed. Most of the activity occurs now in lava tunnels. Fractures within these tunnels allow escape arms of lava flows with a small lateral extension. This activity remains confined in the near part of the effusive cone. The flow front has not changed since the last survey and is still 2.8 km from the eruptive vent. Estimates carried out by satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) show a minimum flow rate of 1-2 m3 / s. The trend observed on deformation sensors, in particular GPS, seems to stabilize or reverse (to deflation). Previously, as of the 29th of July, OVPLF reported that the intensity of the tremor has increased in the last 48 hours. The intensity reached sixty percent of the value observed at the beginning of the eruption. A slight inflation continued, and the flows carried out by satellite methods are of minimum 2 m³ / s. OVPLF reported that the intensity of the tremor has risen slightly since the 25th at the beginning of the day, although it is necessary to take account of noise caused by bad weather conditions. A team observed yesterday in the field the continued growth of the cone; At 17:30 local, two mouths were visible, a main breached on south-east side, and a secondary one on the north wall of the cone. A main channel is clearly visible downstream of the cone and has overflows; The lava also flows through tunnels, with vertical growth of the lava field. A slight recovery in inflation is recorded both at the level of the summit zone and the far field, reflecting the pressurization respectively of a superficial and deep source. A volcano-tectonic earthquake is reported under the summit cratersBy 21 July several lava tubes had formed, and fractures within the tubes produced small lava flows. During an overflight on 22 July scientists noted that the lava flow was over 2.8 km long with a maximum width of 0.6 km; the front of the flow had not advanced in the past seven days. Three main vents were active within the main cone and a fourth was just sporadically active. As of the 21st of July, OVPLF reported that observations carried out on 21 July by the OVPF teams showed that the eruptive cone downstream of the eruptive fissure continued its edification Three main eruptive vents were visible on the inside. On the morning only the central eruptive vent remained active towards the east. No earthquakes were recorded this day. A slight deflation was always observed at the top of the terminal cone. Estimates carried out by satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) show flow rates between 1 and 3 m3 / s. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) has been increasing for 24 hours. This is to be related in particular to the closure of the cone which increases the pressure on its walls. Numerous lava tunnels have been formed downstream of the cone. Fractures within these tunnels allow many lateral extension arms to escape. As of the 19th of July, OVPLF reported that At after a sharp drop in its intensity during the night of 17 to 18 July, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of surface eruptive intensity) is relatively constant on July 18th, intensity equivalent to that observed on the second day of the eruption. This decrease of the volcanic tremor is to be related to a morphological change of the eruptive cone that is being formed. Compared to the observations of the previous day, a collapse has breached the cone to the east, leaving an easier opening and flowing of lava on the surface. Currently the activity focuses on 6 vents inside the cone.A slight deflation was observed at the top of the terminal cone. Since July 16, SO2 fluxes at the eruptive vent are decreasing and CO2 concentrations in the soil measured at the Volcano gîte at low level. Deflation of the summit zone as well as low CO2 concentrations in the soil mean that there is currently little or no deep feeding. HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin) estimations carried out by satellite methods indicate flow rates between 1 and 4 m3 / s. OVPLF reported that the eruption begun on July 14 at 00:50 local time continues. After an increase in intensity during the night from July 15th to 16th, the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) has been held on July 16 at a constant level since 8h local time (4h UTC). On July 17th, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) decreased between 7h and 13h local time (3h-9h UTC) before experiencing again phases of major fluctuations. These variations in the intensity of the tremor are conventionally recorded during the first days of eruption of the Piton de la Fournaise and correspond to the formation of the eruptive cone at a single point. This eruptive cone undergoes phases of construction and wall collapses which modify its morphology and the pressure at its center, explaining these variations of the tremor. An earthquake was recorded on yesterday's day near Piton Crac on the eastern flank of the volcano. A slight deflation (deflation) is observed at the top of the terminal cone. Estimations carried out using satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) report minimum flows similar to those of the previous day in the order of 1 to 3 m3 / s. OVPLF reported that seven lava fountains were visible at the beginning of the eruption, but only 3-4 remained active o 14th of July in the evening, located at the low point of the eruptive fissure. According to the MIROVA site, the thermal anomaly, which decreased in intensity (871 MW on 14.07 at 19:20 against 5,897 MW on 14.07 at 7:10 am), is reported about 4 km from the summit which suggests a lava flow length of about 3,000 meters. OVPLF reported that on July 13, at 10:10 pm, the seismicity increased markedly, and about 10:30 PM, a seismic crisis accompanied by a rapid deformation were recorded and the magma roses towards the surface. At 0:50 local on July 14, one (or some) eruptive fissures opened on the southern flank of Piton de La Fournaise. .At 0930, the eruptive fissure extended over 450 meters. Seven lava fountains with a maximum height of 30 meters were active. The fountain the most downstream began to build a cone from which escaped two arms of lava flow. The front of the flows could not be located because of the cloud cover on the east of the volcano. The prefecture raised the alert to level 2-2. Few later the eruptive fissure emitted two distinct lava flows. Since July 10, 2017, the seismic activity, on the verge of the summit area of ​​Piton de la Fournaise, has resumed significantly. Thus 155 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (<2 km deep) were recorded under the summit zone during the last 7 days. The majority of these earthquakes are located below the southern edge of the Dolomieu crater between 500 and 1000 m above sea level..The previous last activity bulletin of the OVPF dated on 24 May indicates that the volcano has resumed its inflatory process. Over the past 36 hours, three superficial volcanic tectonic earthquakes, less than 2 km deep, have been recorded below the summit. The recent measurements carried out by the observatory teams highlight two new areas of fumaroles, located along the path of the magmatic intrusion. It spread to the edge of the Enclosure and its degassing via dry fractures, generated the tremor recorded on May 17th. The alert level 1 / eruption probable or imminent, remains in effectDuring a field visit on 22 May scientists mapped the deformation associated with the 17 May event and measured displacements that did not exceed 35 cm. On 23 May OVPF reported that the 17-18 May activity resulted in two new zones of fumaroles that followed the trends seen in seismic and deformation data. According to the OVPLF the situation of the Piton de La Fournaise remains unpredictable, which can evolve towards an end of the intrusion as towards the propagation and opening of fissures more or less distant. The Observatory reports a high seismicity, with, since 18 May at 01h local time, 51 superficial VT earthquakes (0-2 km deep) and 26 deep VT earthquakes (> 2 km deep), located under the summit zone and the sector NE of the Enclos, notably at the foot of the Piton de Crac. Deformations slowed down, and carbon dioxide concentrations stopped rising at high levels. On 18 May, the appearance of H2S, SO2 and CO2 in the fumaroles of the summit zone testifies to the continuation of an injection from the summit zone.   Previously, after a lull since early March, inflation has picked up at Piton de La Fournaise, at a relatively low rate compared to 2015, 2016 and early 2017; The OVPF indicates an elongation between the top stations of 0.1-0.2 mm for 0.5-1 mm previously. The resumption of inflation is accompanied by a slight seismicity: 22 superficial volcanic-tectonic earthquakes were recorded from 1 to 17 April, between 0 and 2 km below the summit craters, 10 of them on the one day of 14.04. Two deep earthquakes were recorded under the eastern flank of the volcano at 2-3 km below sea level. In parallel, CO2 concentrations in the soil measured on the western flank of the volcano (at the volcano house and at the level of the Plaine des Caffres) show an upward trend.Previously, OVPLF reported that the inflation of the terminal cone, that was maintained during the eruption, continues.One week after the end of the eruption of 31 January - 27 February 2017, the Piton de la Fournaise volcanological observatory recorded two superficial volcanic tectonic earthquakes (0 to 2 km deep) in one week under the summit craters.OVPLF reported that the volcanic tremor stopped around 10:10 local time on February 27, 2017. At midday, the projections stopped to leave place to an active plume of light color. After nine hours of persistent residual degassing, the eruption stopped at 19:30. However, the terminal cone inflation continues at both the top and bottom levels (recharge of the superficial magma chamber), and carbon dioxide concentrations in the soil at the heel remain high.During this eruption, less than 10 million m3 of lava flows were emitted on the surface (between 3 and 8 Mm3 according to the estimation methods). The outlines and the volumes of the surface runoffs have changed little during the last two weeks of eruption due to extremely low surface flows in the second half of the eruption (<1 m3 / sec). The deformations associated with magma migration to the eruptive site (January 31st) focused on the southern and eastern part of the volcano and did not exceed 30 centimeters. During the eruption and since its eruption on 27 February, inflation (swelling) of the terminal cone continues continuously (about 1 cm of elongation of the summit in one month). At the same time, CO2 concentrations in the soil at the level of the volcano deposit remain high and the deep seismicity (ca -20 km below sea level) under the western flank of the volcano (Plaine des Palmistes) began to increase Since about 17 February. These parameters demonstrate depth pressurization and upwelling of fluid from the deep to the more superficial storage areas below the summit craters (ca. 2 km below the surface). Previously, as of the 26th of February, OVPLF reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing but the Tremor dropped since several days. No seismicity was recorded during the day. Since the night of last Friday, the volcanic tremor is slightly increasing; The inflation of the volcano in its summit area continues. A slight inflation at the base of the cone (bottom of the enclosure) is now perceptible. On the other hand, outside the enclosure, no deformation is currently observable. Visual observations from Piton de Bert during the night from Saturday to Sunday show a few projections at the active vent, a lava flow mainly in lava tube, and rare outlets for lava at level of the flow. Some skylights (opening in the roof of a lava tunnel) were also observable. As of the 20th of February, OVPLF reported that the downward trend of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of surface eruptive intensity) observed over the last few days is confirmed, as well as a resumption of inflation of the volcano in its summit zone. Given the weather, no observations could be made on the ground during the day by the observatory teams. OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise fluctuated during 14-20 February. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, and a few branches at end of tube were active. As of the 16th of February OVPLF reported following the decline that occurred the day before, the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) is constant again, at a level equivalent to that at the beginning of the eruption. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the summit of Piton de la Fournaise. No significant distortions have been observed over the last few days. Observations made on the ground this morning by the observatory teams indicate that the activity is continuing mainly in "lava tubes". Only a few flows of small extensions were visible a hundred meters downstream of the eruptive cone.OVPF reported that during 10-14 February volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise was high, with levels reaching those observed at the onset of the eruption on 31 January. The eruptive vent was perched on top of a cone that was 30-35 m high and 190 m wide (at the base). The lava level inside of the cone was low, or about half of cone's height, and incandescent material was ejected from the vent. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, though a few branches at end of tube were active. As of the 10th of February, the eruption continued at Piton de La Fournaise. The volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) remains at a high level of intensity. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the summit of Piton de la Fournaise. The inflation of the building continues, reflecting the pressurization of the surface reservoir and the maintenance of a rise of fluids. SO2 fluxes are relatively low. A well designed cone of 30-35 m. high and 190 m. wide, has been erected, capped by a single active mouth, from which escape projections contribute to its growth. He was unofficially named Piton Carlos by the local media. The level of the lava is approximately half the height of the cone (February 10, 8:50 am) and the thickness of the lava accumulation at the outlet of the vent is about 14 m. Most of the activity is done by lava tube, and surface flows are therefore low (estimates between <1 and 2.4 m3 / s according to the satellite data of the HOTVOLC platforms (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin). Only a few small arms are visible at the exit of some tubes. These observations are consistent with the low flux of SO2. Outlet temperatures at the vent are between 1200 and 1250 ° C. Larger shots identified the main channels and highlighted tubes areas.The flow front at the top of the "Grandes Pentes" is frozen and no longer progresses. As of the 8th of February, according to the OVPLF, the volcanic tremor (surface eruptive intensity indicator) remains at a high level of intensity comparable to that seen at the beginning of the eruption (note that the higher values ​​recorded over the last 24 hours may be Influenced by wind and rain which disrupt the signals). No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise. Concerning the long-term deformations, the tendency to a slight recovery of the inflation of the building seems to be clarified. This parameter will be followed and confirmed in the next few days.The storm prevented field observations, but the processing of the COSMO-SkyMed radar satellite images (carried out by the OI2 platform - OPGC Clermont Ferrand) made it possible to carry out a mapping of the lava flow as it was at 07 February . This technology and the applied treatment make it possible to identify the surfaces newly covered by the flows and to get rid of the presence of clouds. On the other hand, the resolution of the rendered contours is less than that of the treatments applied in aerial photographs. The length of the lava flows reached an extension of the order of 2,800 meters in eight days ... or at a relatively slow speed of about 15 meters per hour, and is located in the heights of the "Grandes Pentes". As of the 6th of February the eruption at Piton de La Fournaise was still continuing without a drop in activity. The volcanic tremor continues to increase gradually reaching a level higher than that observed at the beginning of the eruption. No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise. The distal stations of La Plaine des Cafres (site of the observatory and Piton Bleu) of measures of concentration of CO2 in the soil register a decrease since the beginning of the eruption. The bad weather conditions and the pre-alert cyclone did not allow any recognition by the members of the observatory. OVPLF reported that the eruption of the Piton de La Fournaise, begun on January 31, 2017 at 7:40 pm local time, continued as mentioned with the bulletin of the OVPF of 3 February at 16h local: The volcanic tremor (surface eruptive intensity indicator) was maintained at an average level of about 24 hours (about half that observed at the beginning of the eruption) before experiencing fluctuations again around 11 am local time ( 07h UTC) today. No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise building. Analysis of the previous day's data indicates the construction of an eruptive vent of 128 m in its longest length and about 35 m high in its highest part (02/02/2017). It should be noted that this morphology is subject to rapid variations; In fact the growth of a cone at the beginning of the eruption is always rapid and then subjected to sets of stabilization / destabilization.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data over the last 24h, via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin) platforms range from 5 m3 / s to 10.1 ± 2.5 m3 / s. As of the 2nd of February, according to OVPDLF the volcanic tremor remains at an average level (about half that observed at the beginning of the eruption), with less fluctuations in the last 8 hours compared to the first 24 hours - No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. - No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise building. - The CO2 concentrations in the soil at the Volcano Gîte remain at high values.The observations and observations made this morning 3rd of February by the observatory allowed: - Shooting of thermal images. Outlet temperatures at the vent are between 1200 and 1250 ° C . - Monitoring the edification of the eruptive cone. The eruptive cone continues its edification. A main fountain is at the origin of the construction of a southern wall more prominent than the north wall. A second lava fountain is always visible. Surface flows estimated from satellite data via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (Turin University) platforms range from 3 m3 / s to 7 m3 / s. First eruption 2017 of Piton de La Fournaise: Following signs of seismicity at the end of January, a seismic crisis was triggered on the 31st of January from 15:22, justifying the passage on alert 1 / probable or imminent eruption. The volcanic tremor, and the arrival on the surface of the magma, is recorded since 19:40. The Orsec-volcano plan goes on alert 2-2 / eruption in progress. Access to the Enclos Fouqué and the installation of a helicopter in the area of ​​the volcano are prohibited. The first images of the webcam of Piton de Bert suggest two active vents and the glow of a lava flow. In the morning, the images show an active zone downstream on the crack, characterized by several 20-30 meter lava fountains, located at 1,100 meters at the SSE of Château-Fort. The height of the eruptive vent is estimated at about ten meters. It lets escape a flow a'a which separates in several arms; At 7:40 local, the lava flow covered a distance of 600 to 750 m. with respect to the vent. Cracks open at the beginning of the eruption are no longer active, but remain marked by fumaroles. Previous last year activity : -as of the 18th of September, OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise stabilized during 14-17 September. Field observations on 15 September revealed that the two volcanic cones that had formed on the lower part of the fissures had begun to coalesce. Lava from the northernmost cone flowed N and NE, and by 0900, was active midway between Piton Partage and Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose. The height of the lava fountains grew in the afternoon, rising as high as 60 m, likely from activity ceasing at the southernmost cone and focusing at one main cone. On 16 September the main cone continued to build around a 50-m-high lava fountain; lava flows from this vent traveled NE. Tremor rose during the night on 17 September, and then fell sharply at 0418 on 18 September, indicating the end of surficial activity. During 11-18 September the erupted volume was an estimated 7 million m3. . As of the 11th of September a bulletin of the OVPLF reported that seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise was low in August, following an elevated number of volcano-tectonic events the second half of July. Gas emissions were low and dominated by water vapor; CO2 emissions had been elevated during 21-27 July. Inflation had stopped in early August and slight deflation was detected through 2 September. Seismicity increased on 10 September, and elevated levels of SO2 at fumaroles were detected. A seismic crisis began at 0735 on 11 September, characterized by several earthquakes per minute. Deformation suggested magma migrating to the surface. Volcanic tremor began at 0841, synonymous with the beginning of the eruption. Several fissures opened in the N part of the l'Enclos Fouqué caldera, between Puy Mi-côte and the July 2015 eruption site, and produced a dozen 15-30-m-high lava fountains distributed over several hundred meters. Tremor levels decreased by a factor of four, and by 2100 were stable. The eruption continued on 12 September. . - (OVPLF ) The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Reunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. (OVPF information) - Journal de l'île de la Réunion - ). Live webcam - IPGP

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TANZANIE - Lengai volcano

October 30th, 2012

News and recent photos taken in September 2012 at the summit crater. Previously, as of the 22nd of February 2010 GNN/GVP reported that periodic eruptions from a small fissure and steam emissions from an area of the crater rim next to a part that had collapsed were observed on 11 February, and three fresh black hornitos were noted on the W part of the crater floor, a cone-shaped grey hornito in the middle of the floor and a new black lava flow to the S were seen during 14-15 February. Previous Informations : June-August 2009: a few reports received during the summer, including ones documenting visits in August by Thomas Holden , in July by David Gregson , and in June by Tobias Fischer , indicate that Lengai continues to produce small effusive eruptions within the pit crater. Thomas Holden reported that on his climb in late August (exact date unknown) he saw active lava flows. Tobias Fischer witnessed flows and a small lava lake ~5m in diameter in June.  David Gregson did not see significant activity but heard sounds of activity at depth. Although the activity appears to have returned to the typical eruptions of fluid natrocarbonatite lava for which Lengai is so well known, no samples of the new flows have been obtained for analysis due to their inaccessability deep inside the pit crater.  It is not known how similar the new lava is in composition to the lavas produced prior to the 2007-2008 eruption. (From Fred Belton website) Previous information : qccording to Frederick Belton team which climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on 18 June 2009reported that the new active cone covered the former crater floor entirely except for an area N of the summit. The new cone's W, N, and E sides stood about 30 m above the rim of the former crater and enclosed a deep crater. The visitors saw a few small vents on the crater's floor. Frequent emissions of ash-poor plumes originated from the SW part of the crater's floor, producing light ashfall. They heard continuous loud rumbling noises, occasional gas-jetting sounds, and rockfalls. As of the 21st of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania erupted on 19th of February, according to an aviation report. Ash was observed to 38,000 ft. Pilots have been advised to avoid flying near the volcano. The activity at Lengai seems to be increasing. In the past two weeks, explosions have ejected ash plumes rising several kilometers. On 15 Feb., Dutch pilots observed and photographed an eruption plume rising to estimated 12 km (36,000 ft). The Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 15 February and rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 24th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a visitor to Ol Doinyo Lengai informed that it erupted on 14 January. According to this visitor "shower of stones" fell at their location about 50 m from the summit and a lava flow went another direction. Typical ash eruption from the new ash cone in the N crater. A small group from Volcano Discovery , local mountain guides and partners stayed near and on Lengai volcano during 17-21 January. During this period, Lengai continued to erupt ash to several 100 metres above the new ash cone during phases lasting several hours alternating with periods of quiet when only a weak plume of very fine gray ash and gas was issuing out of the new ash cone. Photos from an eruptive phase of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano consisting in near continuous ash emissions from its new crater and taken from the summit during a recent expedition in January 2008 have been posted at the Discovery: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcano-tours/photos/lengai/0108.html . These photos also document the impressive recent changes on the volcano and help to illustrate the significant hazards present when climbing Lengai or staying at its top. The Toulouse VAAC reported previously that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by visiting scientists on 20 December and rose to an unreported altitude. As of the 20th of October, John Seach has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes. As of the 7th of September, according to Matthieu Kervyn De Meerendre, University of Gent (Belgium) has reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai has re-erupted again. A large eruption (?) seems to be taking place at Lengai volcano, this time for real On 4 September 2007, reports started coming in that a large (natrocarbonatite) lava flow is descending the West flank. A considerable ash plume was visible on satellite data. Over 30 thermal anomalies have been detected by the MODIS team since August 23 - more than during the large eruption in March 2006. On 4 and 5 Sep, the thermal anomaly at the summit was extremely strong. From this and satellite imaginery, it seems that there was a short overflow to the East and a major overflow to the West starting on September 1st (it could be a bush fire on the volcano flank ignited by lava). New overflows on 5 Sep seem to be taking place on the W and NW flanks. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep craters walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

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CONGO - Nyamulagira volcano

August 2nd, 2019

The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that collapses of Nyamuragira's inner crater walls observed in May 2019 continued during 1-31 July. Lava fountaining from a small cone was visible. The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during early April Nyamuragira’s lava lake, which had returned in April 2018 after almost a year of quiet, continued to be active. Beginning on 12 April 2019 seismic and lava-lake activity both declined. MIROVA data showed that the thermal radiative power was at moderate levels the first half of the month then declined to low levels during the second half. Previously according recent news the activity in progress since 18 April 2018 has continued; the zone of activity in the caldera is located in a pit crater, almost full. A recent helicopter expedition took place in Februar and taken an aerial photo of the caldera and its activity. Slight thermal anomalies were detected by Mirova, when cloud cover permitted, between 3 and 21 MW on 23 February 2019. Previous news 2018 - As of the 22th of July 2018 the new eruptive phase occurred at the the volcano where  a small lava lake has formed, the magma is a few meters from the surface and seems to fill the whole surface of the crater; this activity is spectacular but without danger ". Previous news 2014 - On 29 June 2014 NASA reported that Nyamuragira vented steam and other volcanic gases and there was a glow from the lava lake. NOAA reported that an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite detected high SO2 concentrations above Nyamuragira. The University of Hawaii reported that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite data detected thermal anomalies and issued six MODVOLC alerts for the volcano's N side. Previously, according to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January 2014 showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyamuragira. Previous 2012 news about last eruption - As of the 28th of January, MODVOLC is still recording thermal anomaly on the volcano and probably the eruptive activity is still going on. (photos from M.Rietze).The initial scoria cone appeared inactive and second cone formed to the N of the first cone. Both cones were about 300 m high. The second cone was extremely active during the duration of the observations (about 15 hours) with fire fountains over twice the height of the cone; lava flowed N. The observers, about 1.5 km away, felt the heat from the eruption as well as lapilli fall. The VolcanoDiscovery Team observed the fissure eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November 2011 during 22-25 January 2012 from the newly formed cinder cones located about 10 km E of the summit crater. They reported three coalescent cones with the largest cone containing a small lava lake. The lake ejected spatter every few seconds as high as 200 m above the summit; individual bombs reached the base of the cone. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout about 2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow about 20 m wide. Burning forests were reported to the NNE. Satellite imagery acquired on 3 January from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed an active lava flow to the NE of the central vent over the fissure located 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater. A sulfur dioxide-rich plume was also detected.According to OMI data, SO2 plume is still rose above of the volcano suggesting tha the eruption is continued. As of the 8th of December, the eruptive activity is still continuing. Thermal anomaly and gas plume are still visible from satellite image. On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. An observer aboard an overflight a few days before noted that the lava did not appear to have moved any further N. A photo taken from the Rumangabo headquarters (7.5 km NE of the eruption site) on 16 November showed a tall cinder cone with lava fountains rising above the rim. The eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November, after two days of intense seismic activity, was located along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of the main crater, close to one of the 1989 eruption sites. Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. After a 3-hour hike, the team viewed the eruption from the S and noted roaring and lava fountains, as well as thunder and lightning. The observers also noted that the ground was covered by black pumice. On 11 November about 100 people, including staff, rangers, carpenters, porters, and volcanologists, traveled to a similar but safer location to set up a camp for visitors. The eruption site was described as a flat area with a 500-1,000-m-long fissure, oriented perpendicular to the Albertine (Western) rift. Lava fountains rose as high as 300 m above a cinder cone. Slow-moving lava traveled N. GORISK noted that radar images acquired on 11 November showed the largest deformation ever detected by the method (InSAR) since the early 1990's over Nyamuragira. A very preliminary analysis of the observed deformation suggested an affected area of more than 250 square kilometers. The ground rose more than 50 cm at the eruptive site where the spatter cone was developing. Another 15 cm of deformation was detected within the Nyamuragira caldera accompanied by deflation on the flanks. Satellite images acquired on 12 November showed that the lava flow had traveled approximately 11.5 km during the six days of the eruption. As of the 15th of November, The eruptive activity was still continuing characterized by lava fountain about 300 m high and lava which overflowed on the North flank of the volcano.(video) .As of the 7th of November, Rangers from the Virunga National Park reported that an eruption began last night on Nyamuragira in the Democratic Republic of Congo in central Africa. The eruption was observed from the park headquarters and it was reported that it appears to be a flank eruption. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira (Also spelled Nyamulagira) is a massive basaltic shield volcano N of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 sq km of the East African Rift. The 3058-m-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. About 40 historical eruptions have occurred since the mid-19th century within the summit caldera and from numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

CONGO - Nyiragongo

August 2nd, 2019

The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during 1-31 July the level Nyiragongo's lava lake had dropped, making it not visible in the daytime. Incandescence from the lake continued to be visible at night. Activity also declined at a small eruptive cone that formed in the crater in 2014. The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during 1-28 April Nyiragongo’s lava lake continued to be active, extending the episode of ongoing activity to almost 17 years. A secondary cone which had formed on 29 February 2016 was also active, as well as three other vents surrounding it. Sulfur dioxide emissions reached a high of at least 5,000 tonnes per day, greater than March highs of 2,900 tonnes per day, but still below the alert threshold. The Nyiragongo lava lake is still subject to sporadic overflows : on March 30 and 31st, 2019, an overflow was reported by local observation and confirmed by thermal camera images, indicating that the lava would recover the bottom of the crater, as well as the activity at the level of the small intracalderic cone.The thermal anomalies are considered by Mirova as "very high" since the end of March, with a VRP of 1919 MW on March 30, and 1145 MW on April 1st. Previous News 2017 - After the lateral eruption in 2002, the lava lake had re-formed and was contained in the pit crater, with rose and drop elevation.The lava lake was surrounded by spatters formed during its projections and overflows in 2010. At the end of February 2016, a new vent opened. Its activity quickly formed a spatter cone, leaning against the wall of the crater, and surrounded by lava flows. In 2017, the bottom of the Nyiragongo crater rose of 45 meters after the eruption of the little volcano in 2016, leaving the lava lake 85 meters below the second terrace.Previous news 2016 - On 12 April 2016 the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma reported that activity at Nyiragongo had declined since 6 April, and that the level of the lava lake had dropped. A report dated 17 April stated that some volcanic earthquakes had been located within 5 km E and 10-15 km N of the crater; continuous volcanic tremor was recorded during 0200-0400 on 17 April. In a photo dated 19 April an incandescent vent atop a spatter cone appears to be in the same location as a lava lake that had been first noted on 1 March. Since Monday, February 29, 2016 around 4 AM, we were alerted by the Virunga National park, the operators of the stations and the surrounding population Nyiragongo volcano rumbles heard every minute from the volcano. On urgent request from the provincial committee of security in North Kivu, the team of scientists from the Goma Volcano Observatory sits on the summit of Nyiragongo crater since  March 1st, 2016 until now for direct observations of the activity of the lake lava of the volcano. Preliminary results of these observations are: Appearance of a secondary lava lake on the East side of the crater of Nyiragongo. Weakening of the eastern part; collapses source platforms to the origin of the often heard by the surrounding population rumblings that volcano.   The manifestations of this new secondary active lava lake are in the extension of the fracture that connects the Nyiragongo to its Baruta adventive cone toward to the direction of   Kibumba  zone.   Nyiragongo volcano is in a phase of intense activity and require a particular  attention. This activity is concentrated within the central crater towards the East (towards the Kibumba area) where a new secondary  lava lake is observed. From : PRELIMINARY REPORT OF CURRENT ACTIVITY OF  Nyiragongo VOLCANO FROM  29 FEBRUARY TO 2 MARCH 2016. KASEREKA MAHINDA, SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR OF GVO. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. (From GVO) - Nyiragongo Photos gallery - January 2011 (German group)
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ETHIOPIA - Erta Ale volcano

August 18th, 2019

Sentinel-2 images showed that thermal anomalies in the far field have disappeared. On August 17, large lava flows are visible about 3.5 km southeast of the caldera, which has a larger hot spot at the lava lake. As of the 29th of April, Mirova and Sentinel 2 satellite images showed that the activity was divided into two parts: a degassing at the level of the old lava lake in the caldera, and some radiative spots in the far field, of VRP between 10 and 117 MW. As of the 23rd of March, the Mirova site reported a "high" thermal anomaly at 19:20, with a VRP of 117 MW. On the Sentinel 2 satellite image of March 20, there are three hot spots: - the first, weak, at the level of the southern pit crater of the caldera, masked by an important degassing; - the second, at the SSE of the caldera, caused either by an overflow of lava, or even visible thanks to a skylight, the distribution of lava being mainly in lava tunnels; - the third, on active flows, about 15 km from the summit, north of the distal lava delta. Previous news 2018 - As of the 12th of May 2018 information reported that the thermal anomaly, discribed in recent days by Mirova and the Sentinel 2 satellite SWIR, remained high and comes mainly from the distal lava field and the intracaldeira pit crater.A weak manifestation of breakout between the position of the "new" lava lake, which no longer radiates on these images, and the distal field. Previous news 2017 - The last Sentinel2 image dated December 12 illustrated a strong outgassing of the caldera pit crater and thermal activity at the lava zone on the flank and in the northeast lava field. According to recent news in December there are three active lava lakes more or less connected. A previous clear image of the Erta Ale massif in Ethiopia, taken on October 16 by Sentinel 2, showed the changes in the current lava flows.The northeastern lava field, which had enlarged at the beginning of October in the distal part, shows a front divided into several arms; two of them have reached the sedimentary plain, a rare phenomenon. If there is no significant difference in elevation, the lava field will probably slow down in the days to come. Skylights are visible between this lava field and the source, located on the rift zone. The southwest lava field is no longer visible, due to a weakening of supply for weeks. The lava lake, present in the pit crater of the caldera, is still active. According to recent information following the flooding of the lava lake in February - March 2017, a collapse occurred in April and the eruptive activity of the volcano shaped a new volcanic landscape. A second lava lake formed south of the caldera fed lava flows and lava fields to the northeast and southwest. In September 2017, the southwest lava field does not grow, but continues to thicken. In the northeast, the lava flow continued to feed the lava field, whose front is more than 16 km from the point of emission. Previous news - A photo taken on 17th of August by the satellite Sentinel showed a developping lava flow. The flow has increased by nearly 2,000 meters on the northeast side, the lava flows being essentially through tubes, with only some surface effusions. On the south-west side, the flows have not really progressed, but have widened. The lava originates from the new lava lake located off caldera. The new flank eruption continued to be active throughout the first half of 2017 and greatly intensified in early June when overflowing of the ca 200 m diameter lava lake created new pahoehoe lava flows both in northeasterly and southwesterly direction. Satellite images confirm that there has been a continuous outpour of lava from the new fissure eruption which seems to be building a new shield with different active vents from where pahoehoe lava flows, but not much fountaining or degassing occurs.ESA/Copernicus Sentinel 2 satellite images of the Erta Ale volcanic rangeshow that between 8 and 18 June 2017 the SE fissure lava field drastically increased, with the most active lava flow growing from a ca 950 m to about 3200 m length in the timespan of 10 days. Previously, Satellite images acquired and processed by Planet Labs showed the new lava flows and gas-and-steam emissions from several vents (about 1.5 km SE from the overflow area at the SE caldera rim) on 23 January, and more new lava flows on 27 January. Both images showed lava flows advancing WSW, about 2.5 km S, and about 3 km NE. According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 26 January showed two distinct infrared hotspots representing the SE lava flows. On 27 January Simon Carn stated that the eruption produced the largest SO2 emissions from Erta Ale ever measured from space. On the morning of the 18th, all the vicinity of the south pit crater was covered with lava. In the afternoon of the 18th and the 19th, the outbreaks were more sporadic, the level of the lake fluctuating and fountains of lava Have reached more than 50m high. During the evening of 20 January explosions of very large gas bubbles ejected spatter 30 m high. Crater rim collapses affected the N crater where a new oval-shaped pit crater (150 x 30 m and 20 m depth) formed during a 24-hour period. A large collapse also occurred in the S part of the crater. The activity was accompanied by ash emissions that rose as high as 800 m. The report noted that on 21 January new fissures opened SSE from the summit caldera, producing large amounts of lava. The thermal anomaly observed by Mirova shows a maximum recorded on January 21, with 13,434 MW, passing on January 22nd between 7368 MW and 5882 MW, then decreasing the 23.01 from 5.2013 MW to 1.900 MW. As of the 16th of January 2016, according to Volcano Discovery correspondents from Ethiopia, the lava lake of Erta Ale has overflown. The first lava over-spilled the rim of the containing crater at midnight of 15-16 Jan 2016.On January 16th, from 3pm on January 17th, the lava has overflowed 70% of the edge of the lake, feeding flows that quickly covered up to 1 km ² of the caldera. It seems that the situation is similar to the spectacular events in November-December 2015 when the lava lake last overflowed. More details will be posted as soon as possible. During Volcano Discovery expedition November-December , the level of the lake had already been occasionally as close as only 1 meter beneath the rim. for three continuous days (19-21 November 2015). Upon team arrival on the morning of the 19th, the lava lake was only about 2-3 m below us. Local guide explained that the lava lake had been very active in the past few weeks and risen so highly for the first time since its overflow in late 2010. Previous News 2012 - According to a member of Activ website, and following a recently 2012 fieldtrip a lava lake lies within the South pit-crater of the Erta Ale caldera. This lake was about 15 m depth with 50-60 m diameter. Important degassing occured from incandescent hornitos within the North pit-crater. News 2010 - As of the 5th of March 2010, according to Rafael Werndli reports an unusually hight lava level in the pit crater on Erta Ale in mid February 2010. The lake surface was approximately 20m below the pit's edge. The lava lake had a diameter of 100 to 110m. Occesional floodings of the uppermost terrace were observed. In addition a hornito was active in the north crater, ejecting scoriae and small lava flows. PREVIOUS INFORMATION AND REPORTS : As of the 20th of February 2008, the Stromboli-On-Line website has reported that upon their return to volcano Erta Ale, they found it to be in eruption on the 8th of February and have confirmed this information. Volcanologique de Geneve (SVG) trip on 8-9 February 2008 noted extensions of ropy lava in the N crater. The lake was little changed from the group's last visit in 2005. The group visited the N Crater, and, given its constant degassing, was able to take gas samples. They also measured the lake's surface temperature (700°C). The descent into this crater, seemingly easy, was made difficult by a mantle of very unstable lava scoria. An elevated level of the lava lake halted a subsequent descent.Previous information reported that on 7th of October 2005, according to Ethiopian newspaper an earthquake measuring 4.2 on the Richter scale, jolted northern Ethiopia (Teru area in Afar) on Tuesday triggering eruption of the Erta Ale. According to M; Manahlo Belachew, an expert in the seismology department of Addis Ababa University, the quake which strick the remote region afar is the 11th tremblor to rumble across the region since last month. As of 5th of October a hot spot was visible on the Erta Ale from the MODIS images which could confirmed an eruptive activty this day. Previous new report about recent activity of the Erta Ale : group of scientists assessed the visible changes at Erta Ale on 26 September after activity began around 24 September. In comparison to observations made in November 2004, they found that the southern main crater/pit had widened significantly, with portions of the previous crater walls having collapsed into the lava lake. A new cone-shaped construct had grown within the southern main crater where there had been a platform. A lava lake occupied the entire width of the inner crater/pit. In the northern crater/pit, there was a solidified lava bulge and abundant “smoking” along the crater walls. No incandescent lava was visible in the pit. Based on descriptions by local residents of seeing “red and glowing light shooting and rising into the air above the volcano,” the scientists believe that a Strombolian eruption probably occurred, emitting a significant volume of fresh magma within, and possibly out of, the pit. As of 4th of 0ctober, Personal source reported from Addis Ababa University that the recent earthquake that occured in Afar state has caused landslide and big fissure in Teru locality kebele 02 of the state near the active volcano Mount Erta Ale, a team of geologists who have just returned from the site disclosed. The earthquake observed from September 10 -24, 2005 is the culmination of volcanic activities in the area since millions of years ago, geologists Dr. Derge Ayalew and Dr. Gezahegn Yirgu told WIC. The geologists said the landslide and fissure are indicators that there would be a possible volcanic eruption in the future. The Physical Observatory of the Addis Ababa University recorded on Sunday earthquake that measured 5.5 on Richter scale following earthquake. In Erta Ale the volume of material inside the Crater is actually increasing i.e. rising up to the Crator rim. Due to all this recent geological activity the government is starting to evacuate the people residing around these areas. Previous Erta Ale visit : an international team led by SVE carried out a new visit at the Erta Ale from 22nd of January to 23rd of January 2005. During these two full days at the summit the eruptive activity showed no significant change since our previous observation carried out in November- Décembre 2004. Degassing activity was still occuring from 3 of the 4 coalescents hornitos located in the SW part of the South crater, but decreased slightly in comparison with our December observations. There were about 10 m high and represented the only portion of the lava crust covering the crater floor where gas emissions were in evidence. One of the hornitos contained glowing molten lava visible from a window located in the upper part. During the clear day of Sunday 23rd of January, members of the team abseiled down within the crater to collect recent lava poured out from the hornitos during partial collapse. Degassing activity (mainly SO2) from the North crater has also slightly decreased in comparison with early December 2004. From a small terrace located in the NW part of the crater it was possible to observe the degassing activity from several hornitos ( some of them were several meters high in the central part of the " lava bulge ") - Near the NW wall of the crater two small red glowing areas were visible at the summit of two other hornitos. Seismic activity of the volcano, together with infrasound signals were recorded by a portable system of the University of Hamburg. Preliminary results of this deployment will be reported soon at this place. Informations : Henry Gaudru, SVE Geneva ; Alexander Gerst , University of Hamburg, Germany ; Georges Kourounis, Derek Tessier, Brian Fletcher (Toronto - Canada) , Motomaro Shirao (Tokyo- Japan) . A previous visit of the SVE-SVG group (4th of December 2004) have permits to observe an important change in the activity of the volcano. The lava lake activity stopped within the South pit crater and a solidified lava crust has filled the whole part of the crater floor (about 15 m below the crater rim). Three (4) coalescent hornitos (about ten meters high) have built on the solidified lava crust in the SE part of the South crater. During the night between 4th of 5th of December, some incandescent degassing lava was visible at the summit of two hornitos. Moreover, we have also noted that a new activity has recently occured within the North crater. A solidified lava bulge uplifted and filled more than 4/5 of the crater floor (about 20-25 below the crater rim). Strong and noisy degassing activity was occcuring in the central part of the lava bulge from several small hornitos. From the smell and bluish color, these gases contained a high quantity of SO2. During the night , ten small incandescent vents were visible at the periphery of the lava bulge. In the morning, two plumes rose above the volcano. Information : Henry Gaudru (SVE) and Co (SVG) - Erta Ale report in case of problem with this link look directly at "articles page" Recent Erta Ale photos 2011

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INDIA - Barren Island volcano - Andaman islands

October 28th, 2019

A slight activity still occurs at the Barren Island since Sept. 25, 2018.Thermal anomalies were identified by Mirova on October 24 and 27, 2019, when cloud cover allowed, and a hot spot was visible on the Sentinel-2 images of October 24th. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 and 16 March ash plumes from Barren Island rose to altitudes of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) and 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l., respectively, and drifted W and SW. Based from Sentinel2 and Mirova data the volcano is still active in early March.The intensity is moderate, marked by a few small thermal anomalies at 5 and 10 Mw, respectively on March 5th and 6th. A Sentinel 2 image of March 7 shows a hot spot at the cinder cone's crater, located in a caldera covered with lava and pyroclasts. Based from Sentinel2 and Mirova data the volcano is still active in end of February. The satellite images of the last days show small plumes of ash, and a glow targeted on the crater. Mirova confirms a thermal anomaly of 22 MW on February 27th. A probable intermittent phase of Strombolian activity continued. Darwin reported intermittent ash emissions with a plume rising over 900 meters traveling westward.Low to moderate thermal anomalies are identified by Mirova on January 24 and 25, 2019.This activity is part of a new eruptive phase started around September 25, 2018. Previously, information reported that the effusive eruption continued on Barren island. An image of the Sentinel 2 satellite of 23 October 2018 showed the active lava flow to the north-west of the cone and significant degassing at the upper vent and lesser at the peripheral level, where the flow is likely to reach the ocean.Thermal anomalies were detected by Mirova, between 204 and 10 MW for 22, 23 and 24 October. According to the Mirova sites and the Sentinel 2 images, a new eruption started on September 25, 2018. A lava flow is visible on the north flank, associated with a strong thermal signal, on the satellite photo of September 28, taken by Sentinel 2; she probably reached the north-west coast. Previously, The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), part of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), reported that a new eruption at Barren Island began on 23 January 2017. Scientists aboard a research vessel were collecting sea floor samples when they observed a sudden ash emission. The team moved closer, about 1.6 km from the volcano, and noted small eruptive episodes lasting 5-10 minutes. Ash emissions were visible in the daytime, and lava fountains feeding lava flows on the flanks were visible at night. The team revisited the volcano on 26 January and observed similar activity during the four hours they stayed. They sampled sediments and water in the vicinity of the eruption and recovered volcanic ejecta. The eruptive' phase ended on May 2017. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the center of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.

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Mayotte - Submarine volcano

August 28th, 2019

Local journal reported that the latest scientific data reported no significant evolution during the last month, main seismic activity still concentrated at 5-15 km from Petite-Terre, at depths of 20-50 km. A lower seismicity in number and energy (low magnitude between 1 and 3) is also still recorded near Petite-Terre about 5 km to the east (at depths of 20-50 km), as well as the data. sea-bottom seismometers have shown this since February 2019. Previous information : operation Mayobs 2, from 11 to 17 June 2019, aimed at improving knowledge of the new underwater volcano off the island of Mayotte, has just given an initial assessment. In summary, three sources of volcanic origin are identified to date. 1) At 50km to the east, a volcano 800m high and 4km in diameter grew in 10 months. 2) To the south a lava flow 2km long and 75 meters high formed in one month.3) The earthquake swarm remains located about ten kilometers east of Petite Terre but deep, between 20 and 50km in the Earth's crust. Above the swarm zone, a probable plume of gas was detected, but without magma outpouring. This gas, which apparently emerges from faults, will be analysed through deep samples. It does not rise to the surface. Sources: Mayotte Prefecture press release, and Journal de Mayotte. Since May 2018, a succession of earthquakes has mobilized scientists, and missions including the installation of new measuring devices and an oceanographic campaign carried out by the ship Marion Dufresne, returning to Mayotte on May 15, 2019 in order to explain these events. Recent several French missions have highlighted a new underwater volcano 50 km from Petite-Terre; located at a depth of 3,500 meters, it has a base of 4-5 km in diameter and a height of about 800 meters. A 2 km plume of volcanic fluid sits over it, but does not reach the marine surface.Mayotte, also known as Mahore, Maore, or Ngazidja by the Comorians, was formed in four main stages: a) there are 8 Ma: The emersion of two shield volcanoes and the formation of phonolitic lava domes: Mount Choungui - b) Between 1.8 and 1.4 Ma: Combani and M'Tsapéré formation; c) - 500,000 years ago, an explosive volcanism formed the craters Kawéni and Kavani - d) - A very recent explosive volcanism, dated to 80,000 years, forms the small earth with the Dziani.

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Piton de la Fournaise - Eruptive fissure - 16th November 2002 - Photo Laï-Yu (JIR)

PHILLIPINES - Mayon volcano

July 3rd, 2019

PHIVOLCS reported on July 2, 2019 for the Mayon, sixteen volcanic earthquakes and six episodes of rock falls observed in the last 24 hours; On the day of July 3, 7 volcanic earthquakes and six rock falls were recorded. Inflation has marked the volcano since June 2018, confirmed by measures between 9 and 14 April 2019.The latest sulphur dioxide levels measured on June 14, 2019 are 680 tonnes per day. The alert level remains at 2/moderate level of instability. previously, PHIVOLCS reported that during 13-19 March white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted mainly W and SW, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. PHIVOLCS reported that the phreatic activity continues at the Mayon. At the seismicity level, 6 volcanic earthquakes and 3 episodes of rock falls were recorded. Between the eruptions, a plume of steam was visible. Sulphur dioxide emissions were measured at 763 tonnes/day, and the nocturnal filament noted. On 14 March, at 18h55, a new phreatic episode was accompanied with a plume of ash at 500 metres above the summit, then drifting towards the southwest. Six phreatic events on 13 March, recorded at 0906, 0939, 0946, 0955, 1000, and 1059, produced ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted W. A phreatic event at 1855 on 14 March generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that three eruptive phreatic episodes on March 12, respectively at 3:10 pm, 3:18 pm and 3:34 pm; three volcanic earthquakes accompanied these explosions, which generated small plumes of ash at 500 m., 1,000 m. and 500 m above the summit, then drifted southwest. Emissions of gas and steam have been observed from early morning until early afternoon, initially creeping, then rising 250 meters above the summit. Nighttime glow could be observed. The alert level is at 2 / level of moderate instability. PHIVOLCS reported that 6 volcanic earthquakes and 2 rock falls occurred during the last 24 hours.Two of these earthquakes were related to episodes of phreatic eruptions of March 7 at 8:11 AM and March 8 at 6:27 AM, which generated gray ash plumes at a height of 500 and 300 meters, respectively. Moderate steam plumes were then emitted. The alert level remains at 2. PHIVOLCS reported that the activity was characterized on March 6 and 7 by a daily volcanic earthquake; on March 7th 2019, nocturnal glow was observed, as well as a fall of rocks.Networks of deformation measurements were still recording mid-slope inflation since June 2018. The alert level remains at 2. Previously in 2018 - PHIVOLCS reported that during 5-11 December white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted mainly WSW. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night. A four-minute long event recorded by the seismic network began at 1224 on 9 December, and produced a grayish-brown ash plume that drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 27 November-4 December white steam plumes rose daily, and crater incandescence was visible almost nightly. At 0533 on 27 November a phreatic event generated a grayish-white ash plume that rose 300-500 m and drifted SW. A one-minute-long event that began at 0941 on 30 November produced another grayish-white ash plume. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.PHIVOLCS reported that crater incandescence was visible at night during 24-27 November. Two phreatic explosions were recorded during 0759 and 0805 on 26 November. The events generated grayish ash plumes that rose 300-500 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that two phreatic eruptions occurred on November 26, respectively at 7:59 and 8:05 accompanied by a plume of gray to gray-white ash rising between 300 and 500 meters above the summit. The sulfur dioxide flux was measured at an average of 1,943 tonnes / day on 25 November. Inflation of the south-east sector was measured between October 22nd and 31st, 2018, while a sector north is deflating it, following a magmatic intrusion deep in the volcano.The Phivolcs reminds not to enter the zones of permanent danger of 6 to 7 km according to the sectors. The alert level remains at 2. PHIVOLCS reported that during 14-20 November white steam plumes emitted from Mayon drifted downslope and then in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that at 1243 on 8 November and at 0739 on 12 November small, short-lived brownish ash plumes from Mayon, associated with a degassing events, drifted WSW and SW, respectively. There was no accompanying seismic or infrasound record from these events. On 11 November a volcanic earthquake was associated with a short-lived lava fountaining event at 0840. The event lasted for 36 seconds based on the seismic record and produced a brownish-gray ash plume that drifted SW. Crater incandescence was visible most nights during 7-13 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. As of the 6th of November 2018, Phivolcs reported, on the basis of the Mayon seismic survey, three volcanic earthquakes, a current of pyroclastic density and two avalanches of rocks occurred during the last 24 hours.Sulfur dioxide emissions are measured at an average of 800 tonnes per day at the end of October, as well as inflation in the southeast sector of the volcano, following a possible aseismic magmatic intrusion.Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that at 0653 on 27 August 2018 a short-lived degassing event at Mayon produced a light-brown ash plume that rose 200 m above the summit rim and drifted NE. During 28 August-3 September white steam plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. Eruption 2018 reports - PHIVOLCS reported that at 1509 on 13 July a minor rockfall descended the Mi-isi drainage on Mayon’s S flank, generating a brownish ash cloud. The event was preceded by heavy rainfall on the upper flanks. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 2,398 tonnes/day. Precise leveling data obtained during 2-14 April indicated inflation relative to data collected in late March; electronic tilt data showed pronounced inflation on the mid-flank beginning on 25 June possibly due to a deep aseismic magma intrusion. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.PHIVOLCS reported that white steam plumes from Mayon rose 750 m above the crater rim on 30 June and drifted NE, N, NW, and SW. On 1 July white plumes drifted down the flanks. A short-lived event at 1234 produced a gray gas plume. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that a low emission of a moderate plume of gas and vapor occurred during the day of June 30th at Mayon and then driftet towards a large northern sector. Nighttime glow is also reported. The alert level remains at 2. Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that during 23-29 May white steam plumes from Mayon drifted WNW, WSW, and SW, sometimes rising 250-300 m above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was visible each night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 18-24 April white steam plumes from Mayon drifted NW, W, SW, and NE. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide flux was 796 tonnes/day on 17 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 11-17 April white steam plumes from Mayon drifted NW, WNW, WSW, and SW. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide flux was 2,800, 1,918, 1,621, and 1,617 tonnes/day on 11, 12, 13, and 16 April, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 4-10 April white steam plumes from Mayon drifted WNW, WSW, and SW. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide flux was 899 tonnes/day on 5 April. Tiltmeter data recorded deflation since 20 February despite short-term episodes of inflation at the lower and middle flanks. Precise leveling data showed deflation during 22-29 March relative to surveys conducted during 10-19 March. Overall ground deformation data suggested inflation compared to baseline levels. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. During 30 March-3 April a few rockfalls were recorded, there was faint crater incandescence, and steam plumes drifted SW, WNW, and NW. PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger ZoneOn 29 March PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Mayon to 2 (on a 0-5 scale) noting a deflationary trend since 20 February, decreased seismicity, a lower sulfur dioxide flux, and decreased surficial activity. During the previous two weeks the number of rockfalls from collapse of unstable lava-flow deposits fell from a peak of 82 to less than 10 per day. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from 500 to 2,000 tonnes/day during the previous two weeks, lower than 700-4,500 tonnes/day during 13 January-8 March. Lava last effused from the crater on 18 March, and crater incandescence from hot gas emissions had become faint. Fewer rockfalls and pyroclastic flows were noted as the lava flows stabilized; at 0934 on 27 March one pyroclastic flow traveled down the Bonga-Buyuan drainage and produced a dirty-white ash cloud that drifted SW. PHIVOLCS reported that during 21-27 March activity at Mayon included periods of gravity-driven lava advancement, gas-and-steam emissions, rockfalls, and quiescence. Lava flows were about 3.3 km, 4.5 km, and 1.9 km long in the Mi-isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages, respectively. Steam-and-gas emissions drifted mainly SW. At 1039 and 2133 on 23 March pyroclastic flows traveled 4-5 km down the Mi-isi drainage, producing light brown ash clouds that drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that a new small activity at Mayon occurred with two pyroclastic flows from lava flow collapse in Miisi drainage on March 22 at 10:39 AM and 9:33 PM ; they moved 4-5 km and generated clouds of brown ash. A total of 35 rockfall episodes were recorded by the seismometers; the flow of carbon dioxide is 1,532 tons / day on March 22, and a slight inflation of the volcano's lower slopes, which began on March 11, was still recorded. PHIVOLCS reported that during 13-20 March activity at Mayon was mostly characterized by periods of gravity-driven lava advancement, gas-and-steam emissions, rockfalls, and quiescence. Lava flows extended 3.3 km, 4.5 km, and 1.9 km long in the Mi-isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages, respectively. Sulfur dioxide emissions were between 969 and 2,077 tonnes/day. Steam-and-gas emissions drifted SW. An episode of lava fountaining was recorded during 0831-0832 on 14 March and produced a light-gray ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater and drifted SW. At 1347 on 16 March a pyroclastic flow traveled 4-5 km down the Mi-isi and Basud drainages. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 6-13 March activity at Mayon was characterized by periods of gravity-driven lava advancement, gas-and-steam emissions, lava fountains, and quiescence. Episodes of weak lava fountaining during 6-10 March were accompanied by ash plumes that rose 100-300 m above the crater and drifted mainly SW. Rumbling sounds were audible at least within a 10-km radius. Active lava flows extended 3.3 km, 4.5 km, and 1.9 km long in the Mi-isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages, respectively. Steam plumes rose 2.4 km and drifted SW on 10 March. The next day white-and-gray plumes rose 2.5 km and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that During 27 February-5 March pyroclastic flows generated by collapses of lava at the fronts and margins of flows traveled 4-5 km down the flanks. On 6 March PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level to 3 (on a 0-5 scale) noting a decline in the intensity and frequency of events during the previous week. Data from precise leveling surveys and real-time electronic tilt continued to record deflation of the lower flanks that began on 20 February. The report reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 21-27 February activity at Mayon continued to be characterized by daily lava ffusion from the summit crater, lava fountains on most days, steam-and-ash emissions, advancing lava flows on the flanks, and pyroclastic flows. Weak and sporadic lava fountaining events each lasted between 2 and 77 minutes, and were sometimes accompanied by rumbling sounds audible within a 10-km radius. Each day there were 1-21 pyroclastic flows generated by lava-collapse events traveling as far as 5 km down the Mi-isi, Bonga-Buyuan, and Basud drainages. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a 0-5 scale) and the public was warned to remain outside of the Danger Zone defined as an area within an 8-km radius.As of the 22nd of February Phivolcs reported that during the past 24 hours, the volcano has been marked by low and sporadic fountaining, lava flows and outgassing. Seven episodes of pyroclastic flows following the collapse of the flows were detected on 21 February in the Miisi, Bonga and Basud drainages.PHIVOLCS reported that during 14-20 February daily activity at Mayon continued to be characterized by lava effusion from the summit crater, rockfalls, lava fountains, steam emissions, advancing lava flows on the flanks, and pyroclastic flows. Weak and sporadic lava fountaining events each lasted between 5 and 239 minutes, and were sometimes accompanied by rumbling sounds audible with a 10-km radius. Heavy rainfall on 14 February caused lahars in the Anoling drainage, and sediment-laden streams in most channels where pyroclastic flow deposits were emplaced. During 16-17 February lava fountains were 200-500 m tall and generated steam plumes that drifted SW, WSW, and NW. A lava-fountaining event that began at 0103 on 17 February lasted for 12 hours and 18 minutes. Lava flows 3.3 km, 4.5 km, and 900 m long in the Mi-isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages, respectively, continued to be active. Pyroclastic flows traveled 4.2-4.6 km in the Mi-isi, Bonga, and Basud drainages. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a 0-5 scale) and the public was warned to remain outside of the Danger Zone, defined as an area within an 8-km radius. As of the 12th of February, the activity of the last 24 hours is characterized by a low and sporadic fountaining, lava flows and degassing at the summit crater. The lava fountains reached 150 meters high, and generated plumes rising to more than 400 meters.During the night, lava flows and consequent falls of incandescent rocks were observed in the Miisi and Bonga-Buyuan drainages; pyroclastic flows have respectively covered the Miisi, Bonga and Basud drainages over 4,600 m, 4,500 m and 4,200 m.Seismicity is marked by 92 volcanic earthquakes, most often related to fountaining; inflation is holding steady. As of the 9th of February, PHIVOLCS reported that the activity of the Mayon has been characterized in the last 24 hours by almost continuous fountaining: 69 successive episodes of lava fountains have been recorded by the seismic network since 12:35 on February 7; their duration varied between 3 and 233 minutes, and their height reached 100 meters, producing steam plumes of more than 800 meters above the summit. They were accompanied by sounds audible 10 km away.Lava flows and falling rocks were observed in the Miisi and Bonga-Buyuan drainages. Their progress in the Miisi, Bonga and Basud drainages is respectively 3,300, 4,500 and 900 meters from the summit crater. Pyroclastic flows have borrowed the same drainages, and left deposits up to 4.6 km, 4.5 km and 4.2 km, respectively in the drainages Miisi, Bonga and Basud. As of the 6th of February, PHIVOLCS reported that activity over the past 24 hours has been characterized by sporadic to near continuous lava fountains, lava flows, and outgassing from the summit crater. A lava fountain repeated from 5:57 am to 1:46 pm and almost continuous fountaining from 15:59 to today have been recorded by the volcanic seismic network. These were associated with the generation of ash plumes loaded with steam up to 400 meters in height. The episodes of lava fountains were accompanied by audible rumblings within 10 kilometers of the summit crater. Throughout the night, lava flows and incandescent landslides were observed in the Miisi and Bonga-Buyuan ravines. Large volumes of incandescent lava flows increased to 3.2, 4.5 and about 3.0 km along the Miisi, Bonga-Buyuan and Basud ravines, respectively, from the summit crater.PHIVOLCS reported that on February 4, there will be two episodes of fountaining, at 10:38 and 13:52, accompanied by ash plumes at 500 and 550 meters; the first episode produced audible sounds within a radius of 10 km. During the night, a quiet effusion of lava flowed into the Miisi and Bonga drainages, which rose 3.2 and 4.5 km from the summit; this effusion was interspersed by two episodes of fountaining at 2:54 and 5:22.The sulfur dioxide flux was measured on 2 February at 1.583 tonnes / day. As of the 2nd of February, PHIVOLCS reported that the eruptive activity was characterized by a low and sporadic fountaining, and degassing; this activity produced small white to slightly gray plumes, with the exception of an episode at 9:18, during which the gray ash plume reached a height of 1,000 meters.During the night, the effusion fed the lava flows into the Miisi, Bonga-Buyuan and nearby drainages; the flows now reach 3,200 and 4,300 meters in length from the crater.Seismicity is characterized by 17 volcanic earthquakes, and 10 tremor episodes. Sulfur dioxide emissions have averaged 1.583 tonnes per day, and inflation is continuous. As of the 31st of January, PHIVOLCS reported that sporadic lava fountains and low outgassing characterized the activity. Apart from five plumes of gray ash rising to 1,000 meters, the activity produced only white to slightly gray plumes. Four pyroclastic flows of collapses marked the drainages Miisi, Basud and Bonga.During the night, the effusion fed lava flows and falling rocks.PHIVOLCS reported that two collapses caused pyroclastic flows on January 30: the first at 11:51, in the Miisi drainage, was accompanied by a cloud of ash rising to 1,250 meters drifting southwest; two other flows followed in the Basud darinages and lasted until 12:09, with a cloud of ash drifting to the southwest.Whitish to light gray plumes were then continuously emitted; Sporadic ash emissions began at 17:11, followed by a slow lava effusion and continued in the evening and early morning, feeding the lava flows in the Miisi and Bonga drainages.Lava fountains, intermittent and of short duration, were observed during the night.A cycle of energetic lava effusion with sporadic lava fountaining, and pyroclastic flows from lava-collapse events, occurred late on 29 January. The events were mostly visually obscured, and indicated by seismic data. The period began with a large-volume lava collapse at 1950 at the summit crater that generated pyroclastic flows in the Mi-isi and Bonga drainages. Lava fountaining was detected at 2016 and lasted eight minutes. This was followed by large-volume lava effusion that lasted 96 minutes, and was interspersed with sporadic lava fountaining and/or pyroclastic flows. Sporadic lava fountaining was visually and seismically detected until 2306, with lava fountains rising as high as 200 m. Ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater. Significant ashfall was reported in Camalig and Guinobatan, Albay before 2100, possibly resulting from the lava fountaining and pyroclastic flows. As of the 28th of January, Phivolcs reported that two episodes of fountaining occurred between 4:22 pm yesterday and 1:40 am on January 28, 2018, a duration of respectively 23 and 55 minutes. They fed the lava flows in the Miisi and Bonga drainages, as well as the rock falls, and sprayed the areas near the vent with spatters.The flow of SO2 was measured at 1,916 tonnes / day on 25.01.18. Heavy rains in the Province of Albay increase the risk of syn-eruptive lahars in the many Mayon drainages.The volume of deposits of pyroclastic flows is about 9 million m³, and the total volume of ash falls on the western sector of 1.5 million m³ ... all these materials can be remobilized by the rains and generate lahars, by incorporating existing eroded materials into the borrowed drainages. As of the 26th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that between 6:11 am and 2:31 am on January 26, the Mayon produced sporadic and intense fountaining, lasting between 26 and 57 minutes, which reached between 150 and 500 meters high and generated ash plumes from a height 500 m. to 3,000 m. above the crater. These lava fountains fed the lava flows in the Miisi and Bonga drainages. Spatters and incandescent rocks watered the summit area. Pyroclastic flows are also observed in the Miisi, Lidong / Basud and Buyuan drainages. As of the 25th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that between 6:01 am and 3:00 am on January 25, six sporadic episodes of intense fountaining, lasting between 9 and 58 minutes, were observed. The lava fountains reached 400-500 meters high, accompanied by ash plumes rising between 3,000 and 5,000 meters above the crater. Lava flows remain fed in the Miisi and Bonga drainages, and spatters and incandescent rocks flood the summit area.Pyroclastic flows are also observed in the Miisi, Lidong / Basud and Buyuan drainages; in this last drainage, the pyroclastic flow has traveled more than 5,000 meters.As of the 24th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that between 8:54 on 23.01 and 03:55 on 24.01, the Mayon presented five episodes of fountaining, sporadic and intense, of varying duration, between 7 minutes and 1h24 minutes. The fountains reached a height of 500-600 meters, and generated ash plumes between 3,000 and 5,000 meters above the crater.They fed lava flows in the Miisi and Buyuan drainages, which advanced respectively up to 3 and 1 km., sprayed with spatters around the vent and caused falls of incandescent rocks. The pyroclastic flows related to this activity were observed in the Miisi, Lidong / Basud and Buyuan drainages, in the latter of a length of more than 5,000 meters.Ash falls are reported on the west of the volcano, and concern the municipalities of Guinobatan, Camalig, Oas, Polangui and Iriga City. The flow of sulfur dioxide is greater with 2,466 tons / day on January 23 (against 992 t / d before the phreatomagmatic episode). Inflation is still observed. As of the 23rd of January, PHIVOLCS reported that the activity of the Mayon continued, with on January 22 at 12:43 a brief phreatomagmatic eruption, lasting 8 minutes, which was accompanied by a plume amounting to 5,000 meters, and pyroclastic flows in drainage Miisi, Bonga, Buyuan, Basud, San Andres, Buang, Anoling and others within a radius of 4 km around the summit. Ash falls have been observed on Guinobatan, Camalig, Oas, Polangui and Iriga City. A minor degassing at 17:51 was accompanied by an ash plume at 500 meters. Between 9:37 pm and 5:25 am on January 23, five episodes of sporadic but intense fountaining lasted between 3 and 30 minutes; the lava fountains reached a height of 500 to 700 meters in height, and generated ash plumes up to 3,000 meters above the crater; these fountains fed lava flows in the Miisi and Bonga drainages, while the spatters covered the areas near the vent, causing incandescent rock falls. Legazpi airport activities were suspended at 2:21 pm until new announcement, due to the massive presence of ash.The seismology of January 22 consists of 2 explosion earthquakes, corresponding to the vertical plumes emitted, 18 tremor episodes, some related to the fountaining episodes, 35 episodes related to rock falls, and 2 related to the collapse pyroclastic flows . Lava flows in the Miisi and Buyuan drainages increased by three kilometers and 200 meters respectively from the top.The sulfur dioxide flux was 992 tonnes / day before the phreatomagmatic episode. Inflation remains high, and the level of alert remains at 4/5.On January 23, a plume of eruptive ash at 9:02 was reported, accompanied by pyroclastic flows.As of the 18th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that the effusion continued quietly, with a lava flow in the Miisi drainage, which reaches a length of about three kilometers, and rock falls in the Matanag and Buyuan darinages. Two pyroclastic flows were observed in the last 24 hours. The summit dome spreads into the breach in the edge of the crater. At the seismicity level, there was a volcanic earthquake and 48 rockfall events.Sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased slightly, with 1,159 tonnes / day on 17 January.The alert level remains at 3. As of the January 16th, PHIVOLC reported that activity remained characterized by the effusion of lava from the new dome and 143 collapses of blocks from the front and the edges of the flow, which generate pyroclastic flows in Miisi, Matanag and Buyuan drainages , all in the Permanent Danger Zone / PDZ. Co-pyroclastic clouds result, which disperse to the southwest.Sulfur dioxide emissions reached 3,293 tonnes / day.The alert level remains at 3.PHIVOLCS reported that during the night from 15th to 16th of January , the effusion of lava produced a main lava flow on the south flank, reaching about 2,000 meters in length; avalanches of blocks, originating from the top of the volcano, have traveled two gullies on the south-east flank. The number of evacuees varies according to the sources, between 12,000 and 15,000. Several flights were delayed because of the ashes emitted by the Mayon. Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that a pyroclastic flow was spotted at the Mayon Volcano in Albay on Monday morning, January 15. Aareas around the volcano remain on high alert for a possible major eruption.The pyroclastic flow was observed at around 9:41 am and 10:05pm on Monday.The two episodes of pyroclastic flows lasted respectively 5 and 7 minutes according to the seismic recordings; they seem to come from the front of the lava, and produced at mid-slope during the collapse of lava blocks. The 11h07 degassing episode lasted 8 minutes and produced a gray to dirty white plume about 1,000 meters above the summit before drifting southwest. Ash falls have been reported on Brgys. Travesia, Muladbucad Grande, Maninila, Masarawag, Poblacion, Iraya, Ilawod, Calzada, Inamnan Grande, Inamnan Pequeno, Maguiron, Quitago and Mauraro in the municipality of Guinobatan; Brgys. Cabangan, Anoling, Sua, Tumpa, Quirangay, Gapo, Sumlang, Brgys. 1 to 7, in the municipality of Camalig. Phivolcs posted photos showing the pyroclastic flow, taken from the Lignon Hill Observatory in Legazpi City. This comes after Phivolcs late Sunday, January 14, raised the alert level for the volcano from Level 2 to Level 3, meaning a "hazardous eruption is possible within weeks or even days."The raising of the alert level was due to 3 recorded phreatic, or steam-driven, eruptions and 158 rockfall events from Saturday afternoon, January 13, to early Sunday evening, considered as signs of "relatively high unrest." People are prohibited from entering the 6-kilometer permanent danger zone around the volcano "due to the danger of rockfalls, landslides, and sudden explosions or dome collapse that may generate hazardous volcanic flows." At least 1,547 families or 5,857 persons have already evacuated from the municipalities of Camalig, Guinobatan, and Malilipot in Albay. Their barangays are included in the danger zone. PHIVOLCS reported that a phreatic eruption occurred in Mayon, beginning January 13 at 17:06 local; it wasstill in progress at 18h local. Sulfur odors are perceived in the vicinity of the volcano. Ash falls are observed in Camalig and Guinobatan, following the emission of a greyish plume, 2,500-3,000 meters high, drifting to the southwest.The alert level remains at 1, and residents of Albay are required to take precautions against ashes.Previous News in 2016 - Beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2462 m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. Historical eruptions at this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from strombolian to basaltic plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1200 people and devastated several towns.

PHILIPPINES - Bulusan Volcano

June 6th, 2017

PHIVOLCS reported that the volcano generated a small phreatic eruption on 5 June at 22:29 local; The episode lasted 12 minutes after the seismographic recordings, and follows three volcano-tectonic earthquakes in the last 24 hours. Traces of ash, smell of sulfur and rumblings were reported to Brgys, Monbon and Cognon on Irosin. Then, moderate emissions in the form of a steam plume surmounted the active vents of 50 meters. The level of alert remains at 1 / abnormal, and a prohibited area of ​​4 km radius is reminded to the public, given the dangerousness and the suddenness of the phreatic eruptions. Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that a weak phreatic eruption at Bulusan occurred at 1357 on 2 March. The event was recorded by the seismic network as an explosion-type earthquake followed by short-duration tremor that lasted approximately 26 minutes. Visual observations were obscured by weather clouds, although a small steam plume rising from the SE vent was recorded by a webcam. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS reported that a phreatic explosion occurred at 1440 on 29 December from a vent on Bulusan's upper SE flank. The seismic network recorded the event as an explosion-type earthquake that lasted about 16 minutes. A grayish ash plume rose 2 km above the vent and drifted WSW, causing minor amounts of ash to fall in areas downwind including the barangays of Cogon, Tinampo, Bolos, Umagom, Gulang-gulang, and Monbon of Irosin, and Caladgao and Guruyan of Juban. Residents of Guruyan, Juban, Monbon, and Tinampo of Irosin noted a sulfur odor. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). As of the 28 December 2016, PHIVOLCS reported that. Mt. Bulusan in Sorsogon, Bicol had a phreatic eruption Thursday, launching a plume of ash about two kilometers high. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology noted the explosion was "recorded as an explosion-type earthquake" that lasted 16 minutes from 2:40 p.m. The 2,000-meter, white-to-grayish ash plume drifted west- northwest, Phivolcs added. Before this, Bulusan generated a seismic earthquake in the last 24 hours and showed increased seismic activity between December 22 and 29. Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that a phreatic explosion occurred at 0458 on 19 October from the vents on Bulusan's upper SE flank. The seismic network recorded the event as an explosion-type earthquake that lasted nine minutes. Dense weather clouds obscured views although limited observations indicated that the plume rose 1 km. A 20-minute-long phreatic explosion occurred from the summit crater at 1234 on 21 October. A thin layer of ash was reported in Casiguran and Gubat, and trace amounts of ash fell in barangays in Barcelona, Casiguran, and Gubat. At 1531 on 23 October a 15-minute-long phreatic explosion from the summit vent produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted WSW. Small pyroclastic flows traveled about 2 km down the flank. Trace ashfall was reported in multiple barangays in Irosin Town, ashfall 0.5 mm thick was reported in the municipality of Juban, and the most ash, 1 mm thick deposits, were found in barangay Puting Sapa, Juban. A second and much smaller explosion was recorded at 1539 from the SE vent and generated an ash plume that rose 500 m. Rumbling and a sulfur odor was noted in several nearby areas. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).. Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 36,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century. Information : PHIVOLCS -

PHILIPPINES - Taal volcano

November 5th, 2019

As of the 4th of November, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano seismic monitoring network recorded 89 volcanic earthquakes during the 24-hour observation period. Two of these events, which took place today at 03:17 and 04:07, were felt at intensity I at Alas-as, at San Nicolas and Tibag, at Pira Piraso, Talisay, Batangas and at intensity II at Tibag. , Pira-piraso, Talisay, Batangas, respectively. Field measurements carried out on October 31, 2019 in the western sector of the main crater lake indicated a decrease in water temperature from 32.9 ° C to 32.5 ° C, a decrease in water level. water from 0.50 meters to 0.47 meters and an increase in acidity from a pH of 2.94 to 2.79.The soil deformation measurements performed through accurate leveling surveys conducted from September 19 to 26, 2019, revealed a consistent building swelling with recent results obtained from continuous GPS data. Alert level 1 remains.PHIVOLCS reported that during the last 48 hours, seismometers recorded 14 and 12 volcanic earthquakes per day, respectively.One earthquake on May 21 at 9:43 was felt in Brgy. Calauit, Balete and Brgy. Pira-piraso, Talisay, and Batangas. Field measurements carried out on May 16 in the western sector of the main crater lake show an increase in water temperature, from 32.2 to 33°C, a decrease in the level of about ten centimeters and in pH. A slight inflation is also measured. PHIVOLCS reported that 7 volcanic earthquakes were recorded on 18 April. Field measurements on April 18, in the western sector of the main crater lake, reveal an increase in water temperature from 31.3 °C to 32.8 °C, a decrease of water level from the 34 cm to 25 cm, and a strong acidity. Low inflation is also observed thanks to the GPS network.Daily volcanic earthquakes began in Taal on March 28, 2019.Alert level remains at 1; an eruption not being imminent. PHIVOLCS reported that the last field measurements were made on April 11th in the eastern sector of the main crater lake, with a temperature increase of 31.7 to 31.9 ° C, a water level decrease of 10 cm and a pH which went from 2.67 to 2.95. Light inflation is measured by GPS. As of the 29th of March 2019 PHIVOLCS has been raised the alert status of the Taal volcano ifrom alert level 0 (normal) to alert level 1 (abnormal), due to changes in surveillance of the different pparameters: - Volcanic seismic activity: A total of fifty volcanic earthquakes have been recorded by the seismic monitoring network of the Taal volcano since March 22, 2019. This recent seismic swarm could indicate a fracturing of the rocks under the building, possibly associated with a hydrothermal activity. . Previously, the frequency of volcanic earthquakes averaged in baseline levels (0 to 5 events per day) since 2016. During the last 24 hours, 10 volcanic earthquakes have been recorded (report of 30.03.2019 / 8h) - Soil deformation: Accumulated altitude changes of the volcanic edifice based on accurate leveling measurements (PL) made in March 2019 indicate that it has slightly increased compared to November 2018 after a period of generalized deflation since 2016. The slight inflation of the building from January 2019 has also registered by Global Positioning Systems (GPS) continuous after a period of general deflation since 2016.- Gas emissions: Dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations in Taal Main Crater Lake (MCL) based on continuous measurements have been steadily increasing since February 2019, indicating a slight increase in the volumetric CO2 supply of the volcano in the system. hydrothermal. - Field measurements, made on March 28 in the eastern sector of the main crater lake, show a temperature increase of one degree (30.7 ° C -> 31.7 ° C) a drop in the water level from 0.46 to 0.41 meters, and an increase in acidity with a pH from 2.95 to 2.67.. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 sq km surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is a complex volcano composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that has grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions of Taal have caused many fatalities (GVN).

PHILIPPINES - Kanlaon volcano

October 27th, 2019

On 25 October 2019 PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Kanlaon to 0 (on a scale of 0-5) noting that volcanic activity had declined to baseline levels in June and had continued to be low.
Previous news 2018 - PHIVOLCS reported that during 17-19 April dirty-white steam plumes from Kanlaon rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW, NW, and NE. White steam plumes rose 300-600 m and drifted SW and NW during 20-24 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that there were three or fewer volcanic earthquakes detected at Kanlaon each day during 27 December 2017-2 January 2018. Dense weather clouds prevented visual observations, though on 30 December a steam plume was seen rising 500 m above the crater rim and drifting SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that during 19-20 December there were 412 volcanic earthquakes detected at Kanlaon. A low-energy, explosion-type earthquake was detected at 0233 on 21 December associated with gas emissions from the summit area. Later in the day steam plumes rose 400 m and drifted NE. The number of daily volcanic earthquakes increased to 957 the next day and then decreased to less than 20 per day during 22-23 December; the daily count increased to 382 and 776 events on 24 and 25 December, respectively, and then decreased to 82 on 26 December. White plumes rose 300 m and drifted NE, NW, and SW on 21 December, and 700 m on 26 December; weather clouds prevented views on the other days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported between 1 and 7 volcanic earthquakes at Kanlaon were recorded each day during 2-8 December, prior to the phreatic eruption on 9 December. Only three events were detected on 10 December, and then the number increased to 155 the next day. The number of daily volcanic earthquakes increased to 578 on 13 December, rising to 1,007 the next day, and peaking at 1,217 on the 15th. The earthquake count dropped to 149 on 16 December before returning to six or less through 19 December. White steam plumes rose 800 and 300 m above the crater on 13 and 14 December, respectively. White plumes were diffuse on 15 December; weather clouds prevented views of the summit area during 16-18 December. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 603-687 tons per day during 13-14 December. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that an approximately 10-minute-long, low-energy phreatic eruption at Kanlaon began at 0947 on 9 December. A plume of voluminous steam and dark ash rose 3-4 km above the summit vent. The event was heard as far away as La Castellana, Negros Occidental. Minor amounts of ash fell in Sitio Guintubdan, and barangays Ara-al, Sag-ang, and Ilihan. The eruption was preceded by the resumption of degassing at the summit crater at 0634, detectable as continuous low-energy tremor during periods when the summit was not visible; degassing was last observed September 2016. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5).
The sound of the eruption was heard in Brgy, Manghanoy and La Castellana, and fine ashes reported on Sitio Guintubdan, Brgy. Araal, and Carlota City. The alert is level 2, with a zone of permanent danger, prohibited entry of 4 km radius. The massive 2435-m-high andesitic stratovolcano is dotted with fissure-controlled pyroclastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by lakes. The largest debris avalanche known in the Philippines traveled 33 km to the SW from Kanlaon. The summit of Kanlaon contains a 2-km-wide, elongated northern caldera with a crater lake and a smaller, but higher, historically active vent, Lugud crater, to the south. Historical eruptions from Kanlaon, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.

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Mayon volcano - Philippines

INDONESIA Volcanoes activity VSI - PVMBG reports : Past events 2016-2017 and recent news 2018-2019

Merapi (Java) - News 2019 - PVMBG reported that on November 9, 2019 at 06:21 WIB an eruption, accompanied by a small pyroclastic flow, occurred at Merapi. The eruptive plume reached 1,500 meters above the crater, leaning to the west. The fingerprint was recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude. 65 mm and with a duration of ± 160 seconds.PVMBG reported that lava continued to extrude during 14-20 October 2019, generating at least two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1 km down the Gendol drainage. Foggy conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. White emissions rose as high as 500 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred on 14 October 2019 at 16:31 WIB, accompanied by a plume at 3,000 meters above the summit, and pyroclastic flows towards the southwest. The recording on the seismogram is 270 seconds and an amplitude of 75 mm. On the same day at 20:19 WIB, a pyroclastic flow was recorded, the amplitude on the seismogram was 30 mm, and the duration of 76 sec. The event changed the shape of the dome by removing a NE-SW trending section that was 100 m long, 30 m wide, and 20 m deep.The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km. PVMBG reported that the lava dome at Merapi slowly grew during 3-10 October and was an estimated 468,000 cubic meters, based on 19 September drone photos.PVMBG reported that the lava dome at Merapi slowly grew during 20-26 September 2019 and was an estimated 468,000 cubic meters, based on 19 September measurements based on drone photos. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating three block-and-ash flows that traveled as far as 1.5 km down the Gendol drainage. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. At 1136 on 22 September the seismic network began recording signals indicating pyroclastic-flow generation, that lasted two minutes and five seconds; pyroclastic flows traveled 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage. An ash plume rose around 800 m above the summit and caused minor ashfall in areas as far as 15 km SW. Temperature increases at several points on the lava dome were recorded about one hour before the event. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that during 26 August-1 September 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 461,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images on 8 August. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating block-and-ash flows that traveled down the Gendol drainage; a block-and-ash flow traveled 2 km on 27 August. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 80 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that the Merapi dome continued its build-destruction cycles. Blocky avalanches were recorded, as well as a pyroclastic flow on August 27, 2019 at 18:09 WIB. The latter traveled 2,000 meters in the drainage towards Kali Gendol, and left a seismographic imprint of maximum amplitude at 70 mm and a duration of 198 seconds.PVMBG reported that during 12-18 August 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 461,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating a total of two block-and-ash flows that traveled as far as 950 m down the Gendol drainage on 13 and 14 August. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 100 m above the summit on some days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that during 5-11 August 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi had decreased compared to the week before and was an estimated 461,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating a total of two block-and-ash flows that traveled as far as 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage on 4 and 6 August. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit on some days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. The PVMBG reporteds that on August 4 at 8:41 WIB an avalanche sliding over 900 meters to Kali Gendol; its imprint on the seismogram is of max. 35 mm and a duration of 90 seconds. PVMBG reported that during 22-28 July 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1,000 m and 950 m down the Gendol drainage on 24 and 27 July, respectively. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit on some days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that during 15-21 July 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extrudedlava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating three block-and-ash flows that traveled 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage on 21 July. White plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that during 8-14 July 2019 the lava dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 13 and 14 July. White plumes rose as high as 300 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that on July 13th, 2019, several pyroclastic flow occurred : first at 17:15 WIB, evolving over 1,000 meters as a lover of Kali Gendol, with an imprint of seismogrammic amplitude 58 mm, and a duration of 98 seconds; and second one July 14 at 10:27 am WIB, a pyroclastic flow was recorded for 112 seconds, with an amplitude of 37 mm; she moved 1,100 meters to Kali Gendol.The seismicity of July 13 is marked by 21 avalanche earthquakes, a pyroclastic flow earthquake, 7 low frequency earthquakes, 2 hybrid earthquakes, 4 shallow volcanic earthquakes and a distant tectonic earthquake. PVMBG reported that during 28 June-4 July 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not significantly change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images taken on 4 July. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating one block-and-ash flow that traveled 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage on 1 July. White plumes rose as high as 200 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that during 17-23 June 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 458,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage on 17 and 20 June. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. The seismicity of the week between 7th to 13th of June 2019 was characterized by an earthquake linked to a pyroclastic flow, 210 collapse / avalanche earthquakes, 18 earthquakes of emission. No significant changes in deformation.PVMBG reported that during 3-10 June 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 458,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone footage. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating one block-and-ash flow that traveled 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 9 June. White plumes rose as high as 75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that an avalanche of incandescent blocks on June 2nd, 2019 at 22:45 WIB. Iimprint on the seismogram was of maximum amplitude. 65 mm and a duration of 110 sec. it traveled about 1,100 meters towards Kali Gendol.The dome morphology remained relatively unchanged, as most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank Gendol River drainage. One block-and-ash flow traveled 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG recorded on May 20, 2019 at 3:37 pm WIB, an earthquake probably linked with a pyroclastic flow observed over a distance of 1,100 meters towards Kali Gendol. The seismographic recording shows a max. 65 mm of amplitude, with a duration of 118 seconds.In addition, 52 avalanche earthquakes, 14 hybrid earthquakes, 4 blast earthquakes and 4 low frequency earthquakes have been recorded.The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km radius.PVMBG reported that on 11 May thelava dome at Merapi had an estimated volume of 458,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone footage. The dome morphology remained relatively unchanged during 12-19 May, as most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank Gendol River drainage. Two block-and-ash flows traveled as far as 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that a pyroclastic flow occurred on April 28th at 10:00, for more than two minutes, not observed directly because of the haze.Seven blast earthquakes and 44 earthquakes of collapses were also reported for the same day. The activity level remained at 2 / waspada, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km radius. PVMBG reported that on April 21st, between 6am and 6pm WIB, three avalanches of blocks towards Kali Gendol, with respective lengths of 600,800 and 1,100 meters. PVMBG reported that during 15-21 April the lava dome at Merapi continued to grow slowly, with any extruded material channeled into the SE-flank Gendol River drainage. White emissions rose 70 m. The status remains at 2 / waspada.PVMBG reported that during 5-11 April 2019 the lava dome continued to grow slowly, with extruded material channeled into the SE-flank Gendol River drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.As of the 5th of April, PVMBG reported that a light plume rose to about 500 meters above the summit, before drifting east and northeast.The seismicity of April 4th was characterized by 26 earthquakes of collapse, and 3 hybrid earthquakes.The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km radius.The volume of the lava dome remained relatively unchanged during 22-28 March 2019; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. As many as eight block-and-ash flows traveled up to 1,500 m down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. As of the 24th of March 2019 , PVMBG reported that the lava dome is still growing which generates avalanches of blocks, clearly visible at night, and some pyroclastic flows towards the southeast and Kali Gendol. Most of the lava extrusion immediately falls into the upper part of Kali Gendol. Pyroclastic flows occurred on 18, 19 and 23 March 2019 to 3 times up to 1500 m. in the direction of Kali Gendol. The volume of the lava dome, measured on March 21th, was 472,000 cubic meters. PVMBG reported that during 1-12 March white-and-gray emissions of variable density rose as high as 1 km above Merapi's summit. The volume of the lava dome was 470,000 cubic meters on 5 March, as estimated from drone photographs, and relatively unchanged from the previous weeks. There were no apparent morphological changes; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. Block-and-ash flows traveled 500-1,900 m down the Gendol drainage on 2, 3, and 7. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. The Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately N of the major city of Yogyakarta. The steep-sided modern Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated and inhabited lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory (MVO).

Dieng volcano complex (Java) - PVMBG reported that new phreatic eruption occurred at Sileri crater / Dieng Plateau on April 8 at 8:18 PM at 11:21 AM WIB; it was accompanied by a thick white vapor discharge rising 50 meters above the crater and projections of mud at a distance of 20 meters to the east. Previous news - PVMBG reported that a phreatic eruption occurred on April 1, 2018 at 13:42 WIB at the Sileri crater of the volcanic complex of the Dieng Plateau / Central Java.The eruption was accompanied by a projection of mud at 150 meters height and in a zone of 50 m. over 200 m. No toxic gas emanations were observed.The eruption was preceded by a black smoke emission, 90 meters high and followed by emission of white vapors, rising to 150 meters. The eruption is similar in type to that of July 2, 2017. - Previously in 2017 PVMBG reported that since 20 September 2017 tremor and water temperature at Sileri Crater lake (Dieng Volcanic Complex) both declined. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 2 October 2017. PVMBG warned the public to stay at least 100 m away from the crater rim. PVMBG reported that during 8 July-14 September 2017 measurements indicated an increase in water temperature at Sileri Crater lake (Dieng Volcanic Complex) from 90.7 to 93.5 degrees Celsius. Soil temperatures also increased, from 58.6 to 69.4 degrees Celsius. At Timbang Crater temperatures in the lake increased from 57.3 to 62.7, and in the soil they decreased from 18.6 to 17.2. The report noted that conditions at Timbang Crater were normal. Temperature increases at Sileri, along with tremor detected during 13-14 September, prompted PVMBG to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG warned the public to stay at least 1 km away from the crater rim, and for residents living within that radius to evacuate. The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century CE. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic gas emissions are a hazard at several craters and have caused fatalities. The abundant thermal features and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect. (GVN/GVP)

Agung volcano (Bali) - PVMBG reported that a new eruptive episode occurred on June 13th 2019 at 01h38 local, recorded on a seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 30 mm and for 3 minutes 53 seconds.The height of the eruptive column could not be observed due to fog. Incandescent materials were ejected in all directions for a distance of about 700 meters, and their glow still observable 10 minutes after the eruption. Deposition of ash and lapilli is observed in the rain in the Besakih region. PVMBG reported that a new eruption occurred on June 10, 2019 at 1212 WITA, with ash column height observed at ± 1000 m above the summit (± 4 142 m above sea level). of the sea). The column of ash is gray, of moderate intensity, inclined to the east and south-east. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 24 mm and a duration of ± 1 minute..PVMBG reported that a new eruption took place on May 31, 2019 at 11:42 am WITA. The height of the ash column was observed at ± 2000 m above the summit (± 5 142 m above sea level). The column of ash was gray, thick in intensity and inclined to the northeast and east. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 30 mm and a duration of ± 8 minutes 4 seconds.PVMBG reported that on May 24, 2019 at 19:23, the height of the ash column being observed at ± 2500 m above the summit (± 5 642 m above sea level). The column of ash was gray and thick, bending west and southwest. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 30 mm (off scale) and a duration of ± 4 minutes 30 seconds.PVMBG reported that a new eruptive episode occurred on May 18, 2019 at 02:09 WITA at the Agung volcano , accompanied by a plume of ash, gray and thick, about 2,000 meters above the summit the dissipated to the east and north, with no influence on air traffic.The activity level remains at 3 / siaga with a 4 km risk zone around the crater. An eruption occurred on May 12, 2019 at 22:29 Wita, characterized by a dull sound heard at the Rendang post, a glow at the top and incandescence on the flanks.The height of the plume could not be determined due to cloud cover.On the seismogram, the activity remained marked for 2 minutes 16 sec., With a max. 25 mm. PVMBG reported that an event at Agung was recorded by the seismic network at 1859 on 3 May 2019. An ash plume was not visible from the Agung Volcano Observatory in Rendang (about 8 km SW), although the Darwin VAAC report a growing thermal anomaly and possible ash near the summit. About 30 minutes later the VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE; a thermal anomaly continued to be visible. On 6 May at 2255 a gray ash plume rose to around 2 km above the crater rim and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.PVMBG reported that a new eruptive episode occurred on April 30th, 2019 at 5:34 WITA. It was recorded for 2 minutes 15 sec., with a max amplitude of 25 mm. An ash plume, gray and thick, was observed 1,000 meters above the summit. Ash falls are reported on the surrounding villages.PVMBG reported two explosive eruptions at Agung on 21 April: the first was recorded at 0321 and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted W and S. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Besakih (7 km SW), Rendang (12 km NW), Klungkung (~40 km S), Gianyar (20 km WSW), Bangli (17 km WNW), Tabanan (51 km WSW), and the International Gusti Ngurah Rai (IGNR) airport (60 km SW) in Denpasar. The second event was recorded at 1856 and generated a dense ash plume that rose 3 km and drifted S. Minor ashfall was reported in Besakih, Rendang, Sebudi (6 km SW), and Selat (12 km SSW). The eruptions were accompanied by a boom heard at both the Rendang and Batulompeh observation posts. Ejected incandescent material from the two events fell on the flanks in all directions within a radius of 4 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that a new eruptive episode occurred on 11 April 2019 at 18:47 local accompanied by a gray and thick ash plume, observed at about 2,000 meters above the summit, leaning to the west. The plot on the seismogram, with a maximum amplitude of 25 mm, lasted 2 minutes 8 seconds.PVMBG reported that a new eruption occurred on April 4, 2019 at 01:31 WITA, accompanied by a column of ash observed at ± 2,000 m above the summit (± 5,142 m above sea level). The column of ash was gray, of a thick intensity, bending towards the west. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 25 mm and a duration of ± 3 minutes 37 seconds. A roaring roar was heard as far as Rendang Station.PVMBG reportede that a new eruptive episode occurred on March 28th, 2019 at 6:25 pm. A loud noise was heard until Amed and a black ash plume observed rising to about 5,400 meters, partly obscured by clouds. Ash falls are reported from surrounding villages.On the seismogram, the eruption amplitude measured was of 25 mm for a duration of 2 min. 32 sec.The alert level remains at 3 / siaga, with an orange VONA. PVMBG reported that a new eruptive episode on March 21, 2019 at 0:18 WITA, recorded on the seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 23 mm and a duration of 1min. 47 sec.The height of the plume could not be observed, due to top cover.The volcano remains on alert level 3 / Siaga, with a danger zone of 4 km radius.PVMBG reported that at 1827 on 15 March an explosive event at Agung was recorded for one minute and 23 seconds and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose about 1 km above the crater rim and drifted NNW. Minor ashfall was reported in the villages of Kubu (6 km N), Tianyar (14 km NNW), Ban, Kadundung, and Sukadana. At 0803 on 17 March an event was recorded for 39 seconds and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose about 500 m above the crater rim and drifted E. A second event began at 1030 and lasted about one minute and 16 seconds; a dense gray ash plume rose about 600 m and drifted E. At 0736 on 18 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W and NW. Thermal satellite images continue to indicate hot areas in the crater on the previously-erupted lava surface especially near the flow margins. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred on March 15, 2019 at 18:27 WITA at Agung, on Bali Island; a column of gray ash rose about 1,000 meters above the summit, bending westward.On the seismogram, it was recorded with a max. 23 mm during 1 minute 23 seconds.The level 3 / siaga remains in force, with a danger zone of 4 km radius and increased vigilance in drainages. The VONA is orange. PVMBG reported that at 0452 on 4 March 2019 an event at Agung was recorded for just under three minutes and produced ashfall in Besakih (7 km SW) around 0615. No ash plume was visible although foggy conditions prevented views of the summit. An event that began at 0047 on 9 March lasted for 3 minutes and 50 seconds, and produced an ash plume that drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that on February 22 at 16:31 WITA an eruptive episode occurred accompanied by a gray plume rose to 300 - 700 meters above the summit, inclined to the East. On the seismogram, it lasted 6 min. 20 sec. with a maximum amplitude of 11 mm. For the day of 22.02.2019, the PVMBG reports 2 eruption earthquakes, 4 breath earthquakes, and one episode of harmonic tremor. The activity level remains at 3 / siaga. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred in Agung, on the island of Bali, on 14th February 2019 at 4:34 WITA. The height of the plume could not be determined, and small fallout of ashes are reported in several villages near the volcano.PVMBG reported that on January 21st, a first eruption of 16:45 WITA was recorded on the seismogram with a max. 22 mm and a duration of 1 min. 52 sec. A second eruption occurred at 17h WITA was with an amplitude of 23 mm and a duration of 1 min. 17 sec.In both cases, the ash plume could not be observed due to fog. On January 22, at 3:42 local time, another eruption was accompanied by a plume of ash 2,000 meters above the crater.The activity level remains at 3 / siaga.PVMBG reported that a small eruption occurred on January 19, 2019 at 2:45 local time; the amplitude on the seismogram was 23 mm and the duration was 128 sec. A plume 700 meters rose above the crater could be observed, as well as the projection of incandescent materials on the upper east flank, with a range of up to 1,000 meters from the edge of the crater.The activity level remains at 3 / Siaga. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred on January 10, 2019 at 7:55 PM at Agung, on the island of Bali. The height of the plume could not be estimated due to fog. It is announced up to 6,000 meters to NNW by VAAC Darwin.On the seismogram, the recording has a maximum amplitude of 22 mm and a duration of about 4 minutes 26 seconds. According to information obtained by Bali Express, a number of residents of Bal. The latest image of the Sentinel 2 satellite, dated January 8, showed various hot spots on the slab in the crater; a very slight thermal anomaly of 1MW was recorded by Mirova on January 10 at 6:10 PM The PVMBG maintains the level of activity at 3 / siaga, with a 4 km radius danger zone around the crater and recommendations not to park in the drainages, where a lahar possibility exists. Ash rains occurred in the Desa Ban area of ​​Kubu district, as far as Terunyan village, Kintamani district, Bangli. PVMBG reported that on December 30 at 04:09 WITA; un explosive event occurred with duration 3 minutes 8 sec., with an amplitude of 22 mm on the seismogram. The eruption is due to an "overpressure" due to the accumulation of volcanic gases. At the time of the eruption, an incandescence was observed at the top, but the height of the ash column was not observed due to the fog. According to satellite information, the volcanic ash is moving towards the southeast, reaching 5,500 m altitude. An orange aviation code has been established by VAAC Darwin.Light ash rains were reported in the Karangasem regency, in the southeastern sector of Mount Agung, as in the city of Amlapura and in several villages including Seraya Barat, Seraya Tengah and Tenggalinggah. As of the 22nd of August, according to the Darwin VAAC, a webcam recorded a diffuse ash emission from Agung rising to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that white plumes rose 100-300 m above Agung's crater rim during 1 and 2-7 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius. According to PVMBG a ground-based observer reported that at 0041 on 25 July an event at Agung produced a dense ash-and-gas plume that rose 700 m and drifted E and SE. Seismic data recorded the event for two minutes and 15 seconds. At 1406 on 27 July an event lasting one minute and 32 seconds produced a dense ash-and-gas plume that rose 2 km and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that an explosion occurred on July 24 at 12:52 WITA; it lasted 2 minutes and 13 seconds, and was accompanied by a plume of ash rising to 1,500 meters above the crater, before drifting to the southeast.Seismicity is characterized by low frequency earthquakes.The alert level remains at III / Siaga, with an orange VONA. PVBMG reported that two explosion occurred on 15th of July; the first eruptive episode occurred this 15.07.2018 at 04:52 WITA and lasted 2 min.20 sec. The plume could not be observed.- the second lasted 1min.45 sec., and was accompanied by a plume of ash rising to 1,500 meters. The BNPB reports ash falls in various villages: Bhuana Giri, Pidpid, Nawa Kerti, Datah Ababi, Abang Kertha Mandala and Amlapura.Bali Airport operates normally. The VONA is orange.The seismicity of July 15th, between 0h and 18h, ​​is characterized by 1 eruption earthquake, 3 blast earthquakes, 4 superficial volcanic earthquakes, and 1 deep, and 1 distant tectonic earthquake.The PVMBG reports a new strombolian eruption on July 8 at 4:22 am WIB.It was followed at 10 am local time by an ash emission, following an eruption of a duration of 150 sec., with a record of an amplitude of 24 mm on the seismogram.New ash emission at 16:00 local time.They noted that 4,415 evacuees were housed in 54 evacuation centers. An ash plume rose from the crater at 1120 on 9 July and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVBMG reported that on July 6 in the early evening, around 19:21, incandescence coud be observed at the top, accompanied with small black plume. An event at 0413 on 3 July generated an ash plume that rose around 2 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that during night Monday 2nd of July around 9 pm a new explosive activity occurred characterized by ejection of the hot rocks. The event was heard ad felt around East Bali, leading evacuations of 28 villages around the volcano. An ash column rose to 2000 m high above the summit crater and quickly disperded. PVMBG reported that eruptive activity on the evening of June 30 was characterized by incandescence indicating the presence of fresh lava in the crater. On 1st of July around 1:51 WITA, a white degassing rose above the crater of 1,500 meters, before drifting to the west.The alert level remains at 3, with an orange VONA. All airports operate normally. Lava continued to effuse, and by 1 July the estimated volume of new lava was 4-5 million cubic meters making the total volume erupted since 21 November 2017 around 27-28 million cubic meters (50% of the total crater volume). The height difference between the lowest part of the crater rim (SW side) and the highest part of the lava surface (in the center of the crater) was 85-90 m. PVMBG reported that on June 27 at 22h21 local an ash emission formed a thick plume observed at about 2,000 meters above the summit (5,142 meters asl), before drifting westward.Seismicity is dominated by volcanic earthquakes and harmonic tremors.On June 28, there is still a small gray-white plume rising 500 meters above the summit.The alert level remains unchanged, with a prohibited area of ​​4 km radius.PVMBG reported that at 1105 on 13 June an event at Agung produced a dense ash plume that rose around 2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW and W. Based on analysis of the seismic data, the event lasted two minutes and 12 seconds. Another event was detected at 2115 on 15 June, though foggy conditions prevented estimations of the ash plume height; ash fell in areas W, including in Puregai (7 km W). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the 4-km-radius exclusion zone was unchanged. PVMBG reported that an explosion accompanied by an ash plume was recorded on 10 June at 22:14 local.The plume, which dissipated to the west, could not be observed due to fog.In general, tiltmeter and GPS showed long-term deflation since December 2017, though inflation began to be detected the second week of May; deformation analysis indicated that magma continued to accumulate about 3-4 km below the crater. Low- and high-frequency earthquakes also suggested rising magma. Sulfur dioxide flux was 190-203 ons/day, and thermal anomalies in the crater were identified in satellite data. The erupted volume of lava was estimated to be 23 million cubic meters, equivalent to about a third of the total crater volume. The maximum amplitude on the seismogram is 22 mm and the duration of the episode of 1 minute 58 sec.PVMBG reported that although there were some periods of foggy conditions during 23-29 May, white plumes were occasionally observed rising as high as 400 m above Agung's crater rim. At 0539 on 29 May an event generated an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that at 1719 on 19 May an event at Agung generated an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. An explosive event occurred on 30th of April 2018 at 22:45 local. A plume of ash and gas rose 1,500 meters above the summit. PVMBG reported that although there were often foggy conditions during 18-24 April, white plumes were observed rising as high as 300 m above Agung's crater rim and drifting E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. Based on webcam views, satellite data, and ground-based observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 April an event at Agung generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. PVMBG reported that an event at Agung at 1737 on 5 April generated an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted W. Seismicity was dominated by high- and low-frequency earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that at 1009 on 26 March 2018 an event at Agung generated an ash plume that rose at least to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,650 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that although there were sometimes foggy conditions during 7-13 March , white plumes were observed rising as high as 600 m above Agung's crater rim and drifting E. An event at 2332 on 11 March generated an ash plume that rose about 950 m and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that on 28 February gray-white plumes rose as high as 300 m above Agung's crater rim. During 1-5 March white plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4) with an exclusion zone set at a 6-km radius. As of the 13th of February, PVMBG reported that during the past month, the frequency of eruptive incidents has decreased according to the observations, the last eruption is reported by the observatory on January 24, 2018.The volume of the lava dome has not changed significantly, and is still estimated at 20 million cubic meters, or 1/3 of the empty volume of the crater.Inflation is still observed, but characterized by a lower ratio, indicating that pressurization following magmatic movements is less significant. On February 12, the seismicity was characterized by 7 emission earthquakes, an episode of harmonic tremor, 5 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, 7 deep volcanic earthquakes VA and a tectonic earthquake.On February 13 at 11:49 local, a plume of ash and gas was observed at 1,500 meters above the summit. On Saturday, February 10 at 9 am WITA, the authorities announced at the Rendang Observation Station that the status of the Agung was downgraded from level IV to level III.The radius of the risk zone has been reduced from 6 to 4 km; all refugees can return home, repatriation measures being taken. PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 1 km above Agung's crater rim during 24-25 January. Foggy conditions prevented visual observations of the crater during 26-30 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 6-km radius. PVMBG reported that at 1920 on 19 January a Strombolian event produced an ash plume that rose as high as 2.5 km and drifted E, and ejected incandescent material as far as 1 km from the crater. Incandescence emanated from the crater for about two hours after the event. White-to-gray plumes rose 500 m during 22-23 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 6-km radius. . PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred this January 15 at 7:23 WITA; it was accompanied by a plume of gray ash rising to about 2,000 meters. A fine shower of ashes fell on Kesimpar.The alert status remains at maximum level and Ngurah Rai airport is operating normally. PVMBG reported that following the high ash emission of January 11 at 17:54 WITA and a plume at 2,500 meters, those of January 12 was less intense and was maintained at a height around 500 meters. The night glow was not perceived. PVMBG reported that during 3-9 January gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that during 27 December 2017-2 January 2018 gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2 km above Agung's crater rim and drifted W, SW, and E. Incandescence from the crater was often observed at night. Ash fell in several local villages including Badeg, Yeha, Temukus, Besakih (11 km WSW), and Muncan (12 km SW) on 1 January, and Rendang post on 2 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions. PVMBG reported that during 20-26 December gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2 km above Agung's crater rim and drifted W and E; weather clouds and fog sometimes prevented visual observations. Incandescence from the crater was sometimes observed at night. BNPB reported that during 22-23 December events generated dense gray ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NE. Ash fell on the flanks and in Tulamben, Kubu. As of 25 December there were 71,045 evacuees spread out in 239 shelters. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions. PVMBG reported that during 13-19 December gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above Agung's crater rim and drifted W, N, and E; weather clouds and fog sometimes prevented visual observations. Incandescence from the crater was sometimes observed at night. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions.PVMBG posted two map-view images of Agung, one from 20 October showing pre-eruptive conditions and one from 16 December showing the lava that had erupted onto the crater floor, noting that about 1/3 of the crater had been filled with an estimated 20 million cubic meters of lava. The number of evacuees on 10 December was 70,079 (spread out in 237 shelters). Ash plumes rose as high as 2 km. Lahars were observed in a drainage originating on the flanks of Agung. An explosion at 0549 on 11 December generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted W and NW. Multiple ash-plume events were observed during 11-12 December, with plumes rising 1.5 km above the crater rim. Video taken at the summit crater. on 13th of December. An overflight by drone, carried out on December 14 showed the "lava cake"in the summit crater.The PVMBG states that the ratio of magma emitted has decreased since the end of November, and only 1/3 of the crater is filled with lava. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions. BNPB reported that on December 9, plumes of ashes were observed at 5:05 and 5:49 local; strong winds tilted the plume north. A local 7h30 eruption ejected ash and gas to 2,000 meters above the crater. ashfall was reported on the village of Temakung / Karangasem. As of the 8th of December, some ash emissions reaching a height between 500 and 2,100 meters above the summit; glowing was observed during the night. BNPB reported that a gray-white plume rose to 500-1,000 meters above the crater, then drifted eastward on December 4 at 23:15 WITA. during nighttime glowing was observed above the crater. The seismicity was characterized by 4 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 14 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, 29 low frequency earthquakes and 2 harmonic tremor episode. The level of the tremor is of 1-2mm of amplitude, with a dominant at 1 mm. According to BNPB, the volcano seems calm on the morning of December 3, emitting only a plume of steam and gas at 500-1,000 meters above the crater. However,, the internal activity remained important. Yesterday, a continuous tremor of 22 minutes between 14:34 and 14:56 local were recorded indicates, according to the PVMBG, a supplied of magma still occurs, and predicts a lapse of time of ten days for the filling of the crater, a total volume estimated at 60,000,000 m³.Seismicity remains low overall, and the level of alert identical. In the day of November 29, a gray plume was seen at a height of 1,500-2,000 meters above the crater; the 17:25 WITA eruption and plume height could not be observed because of the fog covering the summit.The thermal anomaly observed at Agung in recent days has been several times: 27.11 with 51 MW, 28.11 at 22:20 WITA with 97 MW, 29.11 with 5 MW, attesting to magmatic activity, and risks of ejection of incandescent ballistic projectiles and ashes, at first, production of lava flows and pyroclastic flows, or more in case of plinian eruption.As for the inconvenience due to ashes on the air traffic, the airport of Bali is opened, this November 30, while that of Lombok was closed again. The seismicity is relatively low, with 9 VA deep volcanic earthquakes, 23 VB superficial volcanic earthquakes, a local tectonic earthquake, an eruption earthquake, and a continuous tremor of amplitude varying between 1 and 24 mm (with a dominant at 2 mm) ; On November 30, the tremor level decreased with a dominant at 1 mm.As of the 28th of November, BNPB reported that magmatic eruption continued. The ash plume oscillates between 2,500 and 4,000 meters above the summit, before drifting to the southwest. On November 27, the MIROVA site detected for the first time a thermal anomaly of 51 MW, indicating the presence of lava on the surface. Tremor, of amplitude 1 to 2 mm (dominant 1 mm) is recorded continuously, and reported increasing 28.11.Heavy rains increase the risk of lahars and landslides. The mudslides and lahars in progress have so far been no casualties. 22 villages are present in zone of danger (8-10 km around the volcano), and the number of people living there is estimated between 90,000 and 100,000. This particular situation has a direct impact on air traffic: the authorities extended the closure of Ngurah Rai International Airport until 29 November at 7am. As of the 27th of November, BNPB reported that based on the analysis of the instrumental and visual data, and the consideration of potential dangers, the alert level of the Agung has reached the maximum: level IV / Awas.The exclusion zone has been extended to a radius of 8 km, and to 10 km at NNE and SSO of the crater. These areas are permantly evaluated; they include the villages of Ban, Dukuh, Baturinggit, Sukadana, Kubu, Tulamben, Datah, Nawakerti, Pidpid, Buanagiri, Bebandem, Jungutan, North Duda, Amerta Buana, Sebudi, Besakih and Pempatan.The airport Ngurah Rai was closed initially until 28.11 in the morning, because of the ashes.Following the rains, a first lahar was observed south of Agung in Sidemen district. It is advisable not to have activity around the river. The ashes fell in many places, covering the roofs and plants with thick ash layer; they are reported from the villages of North Duda, Duda Timur, Pempetan, Besakih, Sideman, Tirta Abang, Sebudi, Amerta Bhuana in the Klungkung District, and some villages in Gianyar.According latest news, the activity of the Agung has changed during the night, and on November 26 in the morning, a large ash plume rose from a height of 2,000 meters above the summit at 5:05 WITA to 3,000 meters at 5:45 am. Gome-2 satellite detected the sulfur dioxide emitted by the eruption; this morning at 9:30 local, the flow of SO2 was estimated at 1,000-2,000 tons, a value qualified with certainty of magmatic. The BNPB also reported that the eruptions have a magmatic character since last night. The VONA for Agung is now Red, while the volcanic alert level remains at III, for now. Seismicity is characterized by low frequency earthquakes.The ash cloud is heading towards ENE and Lombok Island, where small ash falls are reported.As of the 25th of November according to local news an eruption has begun on Agung, this time it's larger than the initial phreatic eruption from the other day. Mount Agung eruption occurred at 17:30 WITA. The gray columns were observed in medium-grayish-blackish-gray as high as 1500 meters above the summit of Mount Agung. Communities remain calm and follow PVMBG's recommendation on Level III (Siaga) status not to engage in any activity within a 6 km radius plus a sectoral extension of 7.5 km to the North-Northeast, Southeast and South-Southwest. VONA color code: ORANGE. Previously, The PVMBG reported that an ash eruption / emission started on 21.11.2017 at 09.05 UTC / 17.05 local time, accompanied by a scattered ash plume rising about 700 meters from the summit crater. The eruption and the emission of ashes, towards the East - Southeast, continued. Seismicity is characterized by volcano-tectonic earthquakes. A VONA / Volcano Observattory Notice for Aviation has been issued: the code changes from Yellow to Orange. The alert level remains at 3, with a exclusion zone of 6-7.5 km radius.A drone flyover shortly after the explosive eruption shows a very white plume, suggesting a preponderance of steam, with no significant component of ash.The ashes will have to undergo an examination by the volcanologists to make sure of the exact nature of this episode, which seems phreatic. PVMBG reported that white plumes from Agung rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim during 8-14 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones remained intact (at 6 km, and an additional expansion to 7.5 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions). As of the 9th of November, BNPB reported that the seismicity was characterized by an episode of harmonic tremor, 78 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 34 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 14 local tectonic earthquakes, of which 2 felt. The earthquake of M5.0 SR of November 9 at 4:54 WIB, and a depth of 10 km, located at 11.35 km from the Agung, is associated,  function of the position of its epicenter and its depth,  with an active fault. The vapor and gas plume was observed at a height of 50-200 meters above the crater.On 7th of November, BNPB reported that seismicity and visible activity remained at low level; the steam plume rose between 400 meters on November 5th and about 100-200 meters on the 6th of November. According to the same source 116,766 inhabitants are still displaced, despite the lowering of the alert level.t On 29 October PVMBG lowered the Alert level for Agung to 3 (on a scale of 1-4), noting a decline in activity, especially since 20 October. The thermal anomaly in the crater identified in satellite data was less intense in October than in September. Beginning on 20 October GPS data showed a slower deformation rate. Seismic signals decreased in number and amplitude, though low-frequency events continued to indicate magma movement. White fumarolic plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim during 20-29 October; a comparison of video taken by drones on 20 and 29 October showed a relative decrease in the intensity of fumarolic emissions. BNPB stated that, despite the decreased Alert Level, the exclusion zones remained intact (at 6 km, and an additional expansion to 7.5 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions). The number of evacuees was 133,457 (spread out in 385 shelters). PVMBG reported that on October 26, the status remained unchanged. A plume of steam is observed between 100 and 300 meters above the summit. On 25 October, a non-harmonic tremor episode, 119 VA deep volcanic earthquakes, 87 VB superficial volcanic earthquakes, and two local tectonic earthquakes were recorded.The inflation marking the volcano is more than 6 cm, and the level of magma, raised to 4 km, is estimated at 18.5 million cubic meters. PVBMG reported that during past days visibility has allow to see steam and gas plumes between 200 and 500 meters above the summit.The seismicity has decreased, while remaining important:- on October 22nd, the PVMBG reports 122 VA deep volcanic earthquakes, 62 VB superficial volcanic earthquakes, and 9 local tectonic earthquakes.- On October 23, there were 4 episodes of non-harmonic tremor, 154 VA earthquakes, 53 VB earthquakes and 11 local tectonic earthquakes.The seismic activity of the Agung remains high and fluctuates after the upgrade of the activity to level IV (Awas). On 17 and 18 October, the summit is visible, and surmounted by a plume of steam and gas rising this 18.10 between 300 and 500 meters above the summit. PVMBG reported that although foggy conditions at Agung sometimes prevented visual observations, during 11-17 October dense white plumes were seen rising 200 m above the crater rim. On 14 October BNPB stated that seismicity remained high; PVMBG noted that seismicity was dominated by shallow volcanic events, and the number of volcanic earthquakes remained steady. The governor of Bali extended the state of emergency to 26 October, noting that the Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4). The number of evacuees was 139,199 (spread out in 389 shelters). Oon 15th of October, PVMBG reported that the summit is dominated this day with a plume of steam up to 200 meters, possibly potentiated by rains on the summits the day before. In comparison with October 14, seismicity shows a decrease in episodes on October 15:- 14 October: 764 deep VA volcanic earthquakes, 283 VB volcanic earthquakes, 89 local tectonic earthquakes, and 6 nonharmonic tremor episodes.- 15 October: 474 deep VA volcanic earthquakes, 270 VB volcanic earthquakes, 44 local tectonic earthquakes.-On 5 October 2017 PVMBG reported that the rate of volcanic earthquakes at Agung had not increased during the previous 12 days, but continued to fluctuate at a high level. The seismic network detected 1-3 earthquakes per minute on average, with a total more than 600 events per day. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes increased to 200 per day during 24 September-5 October, possibly indicating that magmatic activity at shallow depths was still high. The number of earthquakes felt by staff at the Mt. Agung Volcano Observatory in Rendang village, 12.5 km SSW, peaked on 27 September and then decreased afterwards. Gas plumes rose 50-200 m above the crater rim. Satellite data indicated an area of water expulsion near the solfatara field on the crater floor thought to reflect a disturbance to the hydrologic system in response to intruded magma at depth. On 5 October BNPB reported that the number of evacuees reached 146,797 (spread out in 427 shelters), though about 28 villages (70,000 people) were located within the evacuation zone. About 10,000 farm animals had also been evacuated. On 7 October a white plume likely composed mostly of water vapor rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and slowly drifted E. During 8-10 October fumarolic plumes rose 50-200 m above the rim. The Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone at 9 km, and an additional expansion to 12 km in the SE, S, and SW directions. No major changes to the Agung, where the seismicity remains high and slightly up, accompanied by emissions at 200 meters above the summit on the morning of October 7th. On 29 September PVMBG reported that earthquakes at Agung were becoming stronger with more felt by local residents, and larger ones felt in areas 45-55 km SW including Denpasar and Kuta. Fumarolic emissions were identified in satellite data, as well as hot areas on the crater floor that had enlarged over the previous week. A new fracture on the crater floor emitted steam. After a M 4.2 earthquake was detected at 1627 on 26 September emissions intensified and rose 500 m above the crater rim. On 4 October BNPB reported that seismicity continued to fluctuate at high levels, and weak emissions rose above the crater rim. The number of evacuees reached 141,213 (spread out in 416 shelters) from 78 villages, though about 2,600 in locations outside of the evacuation zone were returning home; there were 28 villages (about 70,000 people) within the evacuation zone. The Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone at 9 km, and an additional expansion to 12 km in the SE, S, and SW directions. PVMBG reported that seismicity remained high with, on 28 September, 444 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 214 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 23 local tectonic earthquakes. On September 29, between 0h and 6h local, seismic network recorded 125 VA earthquakes, 40 VB earthquakes and 5 local tectonic earthquakes. Since two days, gas and steam emissions have become permanent. The PVMBG reported a visible fracture in the crater, from which emit these emissions, based on satellite images ... according to local scientist the existence of this fracture shows that movements of the magma continue towards the surface. the last data of the PVMBG report for the 27 of September, at 19h, 444 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 329 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 56 local tectonic earthquakes, earthquakes with a force and in greater number than the day before. The BNPB figures the number of people evacuated to nearly 100,000, possibly increasing. On 24 September BNPB reported that the number of refugees continued to grow, as residents were leaving the expanded evacuation zones; there were 34,931 people in 238 shelters. The report noted that some evacuees were returning home in the daytime to feed their livestock. On 27 September the number of evacuees reached 96,086 (spread out in 430 shelters), seismic activity continued to escalate, and diffuse white plumes rose 50 m above the crater rim. Seismicity remained high on the Agung, where the observatory reports, on 22 September, noted 586 volcanic earthquakes VA, 119 Superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 119 local tectonic earthquakes. On September 23rd, between 0h and 6h local, there are already 72 volcanic earthquakes VA, 16 volcanic earthquakes VB and 6 local tectonic earthquakes.PVMBG reported an Increased seismicity at Agung, as well as the severity of past eruptions, prompted PVMBG to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The report noted that volcanic earthquakes (VA) began to be recorded on 10 August 2017 and shallow volcanic earthquakes (VB) began to be recorded on 24 August. Local tectonic earthquakes were also recorded and began to increase consistently on 26 August. PVMBG warned the public to stay at least 3 km away from the crater. On 13 September a climber observed a sulfatara plume rising from the bottom of the crater as high as 50 m above the crater rim. During 14-18 September 2017 four earthquakes centered around Agung were felt. On 18 September PVMBG reported that the number of VA and VB events continued to increase; the Alert Level was increased to 3. The exclusion zone was increased to 6 km, with an additional expansion to 7.5 km in the N, SE, and SSW directions. Elevations above 950 m were also restricted. A VEI 5 eruption during 1963-64 produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and resulted in more than 1,100 deaths. Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali's highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means "Paramount," rises above the SE caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks of Agung extend to the coast. The 3142-m-high summit contains a steep-walled, 500-m-wide, 200-m-deep crater. The flank cone Pawon is located low on the SE side. Only a few eruptions dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded in historical time. The 1963-64 eruption, one of the world's largest of the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall along with devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities (GVN/GVP). Webcam 1 - Webcam 2 -

Tangkubanprahu volcano (Java) -Diffuse white water-vapor plumes rose 40 m above the vent on Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater floor during 14-21 October 2019 . PVMBG lowered the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 21 October, noting that phreatic events had not been recorded for the past month, deformation data indicated no rising magma, and other data all suggested decreased activity. Tourists were advised to avoid going into the crater. PVMBG reported that during 30 September-6 October 2019 diffuse white water vapor plumes rose 150 m above the vent on Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater floor. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater. PVMBG reported that during 23-29 September 2019 diffuse white water vapor plumes rose 200 m above the vent on Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater floor. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater. PVMBG reported that the seismic network at Tangkubanparahu recorded continuous tremor during 16-22 September 2019 . A phreatic event at Ratu Crater on 17 September was accompanied by roaring. An ash plume rose as high as 40 m above the vent and steam plumes rose as high as 200 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater. PVMBG reported that phreatic events, accompanied by roaring, continued at Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater during 9-15 September 2019 , though no larger eruptions were recorded. Ash-and-steam emissions rose as high as 20 m above the vent and steam plumes rose as high as 200 m. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater. PVMBG reported that during 2-8 September 2019 emissions at Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater were characterized by bursts white vapor plumes. At 0724 on 4 September a dense white-to-gray plume rose about 100 m above the vent and drifted S and SW. Two large eruptive events were recorded at 1657 and 1709 on 7 September. White water vapor plumes rose to 200 m above the vent and dense black tephra plumes rose as high as 180 m. Ashfall was localized around Ratu Crater. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater.PVMBG reported that a new eruption occurred on September 4, 2019 at 07:24 WIB, accompanied by cypressoid emissions of black ash to ± 100 m from the bottom of the crater. A thick white to gray plume is still emitted, leaning to the south and southwest. This eruption was recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 50 mm and a duration of ± 58 seconds.As of the 31st of August 2019 at 09:30 WIB a phreatic explosion occurred accompanied by ash emission, in the form of cypressoid plume, at - / + 150 m above the summit, and steam emission. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 50 mm and a duration of 45 seconds.PVMBG also reported a continuous tremor with dominant amplitude ç 50 mm /The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a forbidden zone of 1.5km As of the 22nd of August 2019 PVMBG reported that emission of thick white to gray plumes still occurs in the Ratu crater. The seismicity was still characterized by a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude of 50 mm. The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a 1.5 km zone around the active crater. PVMBG reported that during 5-11 August 2019 phreatic events at Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater continued to produced sometimes dense, gray-to-white plumes that rose as high as 200 m above the vent and ash plumes rose as high as 100 m. The emissions were accompanied by roaring. Ashfall was localized around Ratu Crater. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater. PVMBG reported that on August 8 and 9th, 2019 a white to gray plume 80 to 100 meters above the bottom of the crater is observed. A picture of the PVMBG dated August 10 at 9:59 am WIB showed a high white plume, and dark gray "cypressoids" jets, suggesting a phreatic-type activity. PVMBG reported that on August 2nd, 2019 at 0:43 WIB, a new phreatic eruption occurred; the recording lasted 3 minutes 6 seconds, with a maximum amplitude of 50 mm. The same day, other episodes were recorded at 1:45, 3:57 and 4:06 WIB, and continued. In addition to a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 50 mm and four eruption earthquakes, low local inflation and an increase in the concentration of volcanic gases are measured. A white to gray plume of varying intensity is observed. Due to the instability of the volcano, and the different parameters analyzed, the level of activity of the Tangkuban Parahu has been increased to 2 / waspada, together with a forbidden zone of 1,500 meters radius around the active crater. PVMBG reported that following the phreatic eruption on July 26, 2019, Tangkuban Parahu's activity was dominated by gas and ash emissions at a height of 20-200 meters above the bottom of the main Ratu crater.- On August 1st, at 8.46 pm WIB, the eruptive activity resumed, characterized by a plume of gray ash of 180 meters; its max amplitude imprint 50 mm (scale exceeded) was recorded for 11 minutes 23 seconds.- On August 2 at 0:43 WIB, a new phreatic eruption occurred; the recording lasted 3 minutes 6 seconds, with a maximum amplitude of 50 mm. The same day, other episodes were recorded at 1:45, 3:57 and 4:06 WIB, and continue.In addition to the tremor, low local inflation and an increase in the concentration of volcanic gases are measured. Due to the instability of the volcano, and the different parameters analyzed, the level of activity of the Tangkuban Parahu has been increased to 2 / waspada, together with a forbidden zone of 1,500 meters radius around the active crater. As of the 28th of July 2019, PVMBG reported that activity dropped after the phreatic eruption of July 26 / 3:48 pm.The amplitude of the tremor decreased from 12-20 mm on the 1st day, to 2-12 mm on the second, and 1-1.5 mm on 28th July. In addition, vibrations are continuously recorded so that the safety zone of 500 meters around the point of eruption and crater rim is maintained.PVMBG reported that a sudden phreatic eruption occurred on July 26, 2019 at 3:48 pm WIB. Surtseyan projections accompanied a thick gray gas and ash plume were observed at about 200 meters above the summit sloping to the northeast and south. The seismogram showed a maximum amplitude of 50 mm for this eruption and duration of 5 minutes 30 seconds. Then, a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude of 15 mm followed (amplitude between 2 and 32 mm), in relation with the release of pressure. Ashes fell within a radius of 1 to 2 km; a Vona Orange has been published, with some disturbances of flights. Previously, PVMBG reported an increase in seismicity since July 22, 2019. More than 425 earthquakes were recorded, including two harmonic tremor episodes, 3 volcanic earthquakes and 3 low frequency earthquakes.Changes in groundwater level are suspected to be related to this seismic activity. It is recommended not to approach the Queen's and Upas craters due to the presence of harmful volcanic gases, and the possibility of sudden phreatic eruptions. Tangkubanparahu (also known as Tangkuban Perahu) is a broad shield-like stratovolcano overlooking Indonesia's former capital city of Bandung. The volcano was constructed within the 6 x 8 km Pleistocene Sunda caldera, which formed about 190,000 years ago. The volcano's low profile is the subject of legends referring to the mountain of the "upturned boat." The rim of Sunda caldera forms a prominent ridge on the western side; elsewhere the caldera rim is largely buried by deposits of Tangkubanparahu volcano. The dominantly small phreatic historical eruptions recorded since the 19th century have originated from several nested craters within an elliptical 1 x 1.5 km summit depression. GVN/GVP)

Mount Semeru ( Java) - The Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 October 2019 an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and S based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 October 2019 an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 September 2019 ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 September 2019 an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).The Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 July 2019 an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW based on satellite images and weather models. Ash plumes rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. on 13 July and drifted NW and W. VAAC Darwin informed that an emission of ash occurred on 8th of July 2019 and reached about 4,000 meters of altitude (flight level 130), moving on 15 km in direction north-west; the ashes quickly dispersed, but a hot spot remains, and emissions remain possible.The aviation code has changed to orange.Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The volcano, rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967. (GVN/GVP)

Slamet (Java) -PVMBG reported that seismicity at Slamet significantly increased beginning in June 2019, with 51,511 signals indicating emissions and 22 tectonic earthquakes recorded through 8 August. White plumes with variable density rose as high as 300 m above the crater rim.Tremor began to be recorded at the end of July with gradually increasing amplitude. In addition, notable inflation was detected at the end of July and long-term temperatures of hot springs showed an upward trend. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay outside a radius of 2 km. Slamet, Java's second highest volcano at 3428 m and one of its most active, has a cluster of about three dozen cinder cones on its lower SE-NE flanks and a single cinder cone on the western flank. It is composed of two overlapping edifices, an older basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcano on the west and a younger basaltic to basaltic-andesite one on the east. Gunung Malang II cinder cone on the upper E flank on the younger edifice fed a lava flow that extends 6 km E. Four craters occur at the summit of Gunung Slamet, with activity migrating to the SW over time. Historical eruptions, recorded since the 18th century, have originated from a 150-m-deep, 450-m-wide, steep-walled crater at the western part of the summit and have consisted of explosive eruptions generally lasting a few days to a few weeks. .(GVN/GVP)

Rinjani volcano (Lombok) -PVMBG and BNPB reported that a M 6.4 earthquake was recorded at 0547 on 29 July, shaking the islands of Lombok, Bali, and Sumbawa, and causing significant damage to buildings (including collapses) and roads, ground cracks, multiple injuries, and the death of 17 people in Lombok. The hypocenter was 24 km deep, and 47 km NE of Mataram City. Aftershocks were numerous and as large as M 5.7. The earthquakes caused remobilization of ash deposits on Rinjani as well as landslides. There were 1,226 visitors to
the Mount Rinjani National Park Area at the time, and, according to news articles, about 690 climbers were on the volcano and had to be rescued. One person in the national park died from rockfalls. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); the public was warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra's Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak (Samalas) caldera. The caldera formed during one of the largest Holocene eruptions globally in 1257 CE, which truncated Samalas stratovolcano. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera. Historical eruptions dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lake.

Iya volcano (Flores Islands) - PVMBG reported that after an increase on 29 September 2016 seismicity at Iya decreased significantly, with the number of deep volcanic earthquakes
slowing from a rate of five per day or less, to none on 22 October. On 31 October the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4). Gunung Iya is the southernmost of a group of three
volcanoes comprising a small peninsula south of the city of Ende on central Flores Island. The cones to the north, Rooja and Pui, appear to be slightly older than Iya and have not shown historical activity, although Pui has a youthful profile (a reported 1671 eruption of Pui was considered to have originated from Iya volcano). Iya, whose truncated southern side drops
steeply to the sea, has had numerous moderate explosive eruptions during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

Egon volcano ( Flores ) - PVMBG reported that during 1 July-31 October 2016 gas plumes from Egon rose no higher than 100 m above the crater. Seismicity decreased and was dominated by signals indicating emissions. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 November. Gunung Egon volcano sits astride the narrow waist of eastern Flores Island. The barren, sparsely vegetated summit region has a 350-m-wide, 200-m-deep crater that sometimes contains a lake. Other small crater lakes occur on the flanks of the 1703-m-high volcano, which is also known as Namang. A lava dome forms the southern 1671-m-high summit. Solfataric activity occurs on the crater wall and rim and on the upper southern flank. Reports of historical eruptive activity prior to explosive eruptions beginning in 2004 were inconclusive. A column of "smoke" was often observed above the summit during 1888-1891 and in 1892. Strong "smoke" emission in 1907 reported by Sapper (1917) was considered by the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Padang, 1951) to be an historical eruption, but Kemmerling (1929) noted that this was likely confused with an eruption on the same date and time from Lewotobi Lakilaki volcano. (GVN/GVP)

Gamalama (Ternate) - On 10 October 2018 PVMBG reported only gas emissions (mostly water vapor) from Gamalama; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. Based on satellite data and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 October 2018 ash plumes rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. According to news from PVMBG an eruption occured on October 4, 2018 at 11:52 WIT; a column of ash was observed at about 250 meters above the summit (ie at 1,965 m altitude), probably in connection with a hydrothermal activity. Previous news 2016 - Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-4 August 2016 ash plumes from Gamalama rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, E, and NE. On 5 August PVMBG noted that seismicity continued to be elevated although inclement weather prevented visual observations. PVMBG reported that at 0628 on 3 August a weak explosion at Gamalama generated an ash plume that rose 500-600 m above the crater and drifted SE and S. Ash emissions declined at 0655. Ashfall was reported in areas on the SSE flank including Ake Huda. The report also noted a brief airport closing. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. PVMBG reported that During 1 January-6 March seismicity at Gamalama fluctuated but decreased overall; shallow volcanic earthquakes and signals indicating emissions appeared on 3 March and a series of deep volcanic earthquakes were detected on 6 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 1 August-4 November seismicity at Gamalama fluctuated, and was dominated by hybrid earthquakes and signals indicating emissions. Three periods of increased seismicity were recorded during 3-5 and 11-19 August, and 8-22 October, though seismicity declined overall. A sudden, small eruption from a fissure on the NW flank occurred at 1953 on 8 September with no precursory seismicity, and produced a plume that rose 1 km. Gray plumes rose from 300-600 m the vent during 9-24 September. White plumes rose from Main Crater and fissures on the E and NW flanks as high as 200 m during 1 October-3 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. Gamalama (Peak of Ternate) is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island of Ternate was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of Gamalama's historical activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit of Gamalama, which reaches 1715 m. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano. Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63. (GVN/GVP)

Dempo volcano (Sumatra) According to PVMBG a three-minute-long phreatic eruption at Dempo began at 1651 on 9 November 2017, and generated a dense ash plume that rose 4.2 km
(13,800 ft) a.s.l., about 1 km above the crater rim, and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Previously, Observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during January and February no plumes rose from Dempo's crater, and during 1 March-4 April diffuse white plumes rose no higher than 50 m above the crater. Seismicity increased from 21 March to 4 April. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale from 1-4) on 5 April. Visitors and residents were advised not to approach the craters within 3 km. Previously, observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during 1 June-9 September 2016 no plumes rose from Dempo's crater and seismicity was low. On 10 September the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale from 1-4). Visitors and residents were advised not to approach the craters. Previously, observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during 0730-0900 on 27 April 2015 diffuse gray-white plumes rose 50 m above Dempo crater. Seismicity had increased during April as compared to the previous month. On 29 April the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale from 1-4). Visitors and residents were advised not to go within a 1-km radius of the summit. Dempo is a prominent 3173-m-high stratovolcano that rises above the Pasumah Plain of SE Sumatra. The andesitic Dempo volcanic complex has two main peaks, Gunung Dempo and Gunung Marapi, constructed near the SE rim of a 3 x 5 km caldera breached to the north. The one called Dempo is slightly lower, with an elevation of 3049 m and lies at the SE end of the summit complex. The taller Marapi cone, with a summit elevation 3173 m, was constructed within a crater cutting the older Gunung Dempo edifice. Remnants of 7 craters are found at or near the summit of the complex, with volcanism migrating to the WNW with time. The large, 800 x 1100 m wide historically active summit crater cuts the NW side of Gunung Marapi (not to be confused with Marapi volcano 500 km to the NW in Sumatra) and contains a 400-m-wide lake located at the far NW end of the crater complex. Historical eruptions have been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive activity that produced ashfall near the volcano. (GVN/GVP)

Kawah Ijen volcano ( Java island) - As of the 27th of March 2018, PVMBG reported that based on information from residents of Sempol (8 km W), PVMBG reported that 27 people in Watu Capil village (7 km NW) required medical treatment after exposure to sulfur dioxide gas from Ijen at 2100 on 21 March. The path from Paltuding (SW base) to the top of the crater was closed as a result. During 21-22 March white plumes rose 100-200 m above the summit area; there were no visible changes in the emissions after the incident. PVMBG noted that there had been three occurrences of anomalous gas concentrations during January-March. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim or crater floor. The Ijen volcano complex at the eastern end of Java consists of a group of small stratovolcanoes constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng) caldera. The north caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung Merapi, which forms the high point of the complex. Immediately west of the Gunung Merapi stratovolcano is the historically active Kawah Ijen crater, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide, turquoise-colored, acid lake. Picturesque Kawah Ijen is the world's largest highly acidic lake and is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation in which sulfur-laden baskets are hand-carried from the crater floor. Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of cones forms an E-W zone across the southern side of the caldera. Coffee plantations cover much of the caldera floor, and tourists are drawn to its waterfalls, hot springs, and volcanic scenery. (GVP/GVN)

Bromo volcano (Tengger caldera) - Java Island - The Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 July 2019 ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW based on webcam images, satellite data, and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.PVMBG reported that the volcano erupted on July 19th, 2019 at 16:37 local; its eruption was accompanied by a "bang" and rumblings. The recording is characterized by a max. 37 mm, and a duration of 7 minutes and 14 seconds.The height of the plume could not be detected due to poor weather conditions.Two areas of the Regency of Malang were affected by fine ash, including the village of Gubuklakah about 14.4 km away, where a smell of sulfur was perceptible.The PVMBG also reported for July 19th five eruption earthquakes, three blast earthquakes, a shallow volcanic earthquake and a continuous tremor of amplitude between 0.5 and 37mm, with a dominant at 1mm. PVMBG reported also that rain triggered a lahar at 1700 on 19 July that originated on the SW flank of Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.The level of activity remains at 2. Previously, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-26 April 2019 white plumes of variable density rose 300-500 m above Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone. White-to-black emissions rose 500 m above the cone on 27 April, and white-to-gray emissions rose 600 m above the cone on 29 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.On 21 April 2019 PVMBG stated that ash emissions had been observed almost daily, and that tremor was recorded continuously. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater. PVMBG reported that on April 17th the plumes, sometimes white, sometimes black, more or less laden with ashes, rose to a maximum height of 500 meters. The seismicity is characterized by a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude of 1mm., And by a deep volcanic earthquake. On April 18, the parameters remain the same, except the height of the plume at max 300 meters. The Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-11 and 15-16 April 2019 ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft)a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions, based on webcam images and satellite data. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.As of the April 6th, 2019, PVMBG reported that a moderate plume, white to gray, rose to a maximum height of 900 meters above the summit. 3 eruption earthquakes and a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 3mm occurred on April 7; the seismographic recording of April 8 showed only a continuous tremor of amplitude between 0.5 and 31 mm. The alert level remains at 2 / waspada, with a 1 km radius prohibited area around the crater and an orange VONA. According to PVMBG and VAAC Darwin, ash emissions continue in Bromo, with a plume at 1,300 meters above the summit. The ash cloud was drifted toward east and north-east on the 25th and 26th of March. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)

Kerinci volcano (Sumatra) - PVMBG reported that at 0614 on 30 October 2019 a brownish-white ash emission from Kerinci rose around 800 m above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE.
Brownish ash emissions rose 800 m and drifted WSW at 1721 on 30 October and to 500 m and drifted ESE at 0543 on 1 November. An eruptive event at 0553 on 2 November generated a brown ash emission that rose 500 m and drifted ESE. During 3-5 November brown ash plumes rose 100-500 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that at 1253 on 6 October 2019 a brown ash emission from Kerinci rose around 600 m above the summit and drifted WSW according to a ground observer. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. As of the 1st of September 2019 VAAC Darwin reported a possible minor eruption with ashes at flight altitude 160. Due to variable winds, the ashes remaines around the volcano. The PVMBG reported, for September 1th, 205 breath earthquakes, and continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 1 mm.The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a forbidden zone of 3 km radius around the summit crater, and warning of risk of lahar in the drainages.
As of the 3rd of August 2019 PVMBG reported that explosive activity continues, according to VAAC Darwin, which reports a plume of ash at 4,300 meters altitude moving west over 15 km.PVMBG reported that the volcano, in eruptive phase since April 21, 2018 (GVP), experienced an eruptive episode on July 31st, 2019 at 12:48 WIB, accompanied by an ash plume observed at about 800 meters above the summit (4,605 ​​meters asl) drifted toward NE and E. Kerinci is on alert level 2, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km radius around the active crater, and an orange VONA. The Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 July 2019 an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, based on satellite images and weather models. The 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. Kerinci is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. The volcano contains a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit of Kerinci. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. The frequently active Gunung Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838. Latest activity occurred in June 2013.

Sinabung volcano (Sumatra) - News about previous years 2015 - 2016 - 2017 - 2018 - 2019 Special Summary from the beginning of the eruption - PVMBG reported that a new powerful eruption occurred on June 9, 2019 at 4:28pm, with an ash column observed at ± 7 000 m above the Summit (± 9 460 m above sea level). The ash column was black, with a thick intensity, leaning southwards. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 120 mm and a duration of ± 9 minutes 17 seconds. The plume reached at least the tropopause; satellites only detect low sulphur dioxide levels in the vicinity of 11 kilotonnes. PVMBG reported that after the eruption episode that occurred yesterday 6:29 WIB, another occurred on the same day at 23:23 WIB; the height of the eruptive column could not be observed. The seismographic recording indicates a maximum amplitude of 70 mm, lasting 12 minutes 36 seconds. On the morning, May 28 at 1:18 WIB, a third episode was recorded with a max amplitude. 120 mm and a duration of 2 minutes 32 seconds; the height of the plume could not be observed due to fog and night. PVMBG reported that an explosive actovoty occurred on May 27, 2019 at 06:29 WIB was accompanied by an ash plume observed at ± 2,500 m above the summit (± 4,960 m above the level of the sea). The column of ash was gray, of thick intensity and leaning towards the south. This eruption is recorded on the seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 41 mm and a duration of ± 6 minutes 24 seconds. A strong eruption occurred on May 25th, 2019 at 02:53 WIB / May 24 at 19:53 UTC at Sinabung. It lasted 7 minutes 6 seconds, and was recorded on the seismogram with a max amplitude. 120 mm. The height of the plume could not be estimated visually due to fog. The aviation code has gone red by VAAC Darwin / orange by Magma Indonesia.The level of activity is accompanied by a prohibited area of ​​3 km radius, enlarged 4 km NE and 5 km SE. The level of activity of Sinabung has been revised downward from May 20th at 10am WIB, at level 3 / siaga.Seismicity up to 20 May 2019 at 06:00 WIB tends to decrease even though there are fluctuations associated with sources of low fluid / magma volume. Deformation data (inclination and EDM) fluctuate stably, indicating that at present the activity is dominated by the release of fluid (essentially low pressure gas) without detecting a continuous feed . Geochemical data for the SO2 gas flow in May 2019 showed a decrease after the eruption of May 12, 2019, up to a value of 500 tonnes / day. PVMBG reported that a small eruption occurred at 1233 on 12 May and was recorded by the seismic network; foggy weather prevented visual confirmation. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG reported that On May 11, 2019 at 20:39, an eruption has been recorded on the seismogram with a maximum amplitude. 9 mm for 33 minutes; the height of the plume could not be observed. The PVMBG also reported another eruption on May 12, 2019 at 12:33 WIB. PVMBG and BNPB reported that an eruption at Sinabung at 0641 on 7 May 2019 generated a dense ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW, causing the sky to turn dark in some areas. The eruption lasted 42 minutes and 49 seconds according to the seismic data. Ashfall was reported on farms in many villages in the Simpang Empat (7 km SE), Namanteran, Kabanjahe, and Berastadi districts. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.Previously in 2018 based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-22 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.PVMBG reported that at 0700 on 15 June an event at Sinabung produced an ash plume that rose at least 500 m above the crater rim and drifted ESE. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG reported that during 16-21 May gray-to-white plumes from Sinabung rose as high as 700 m above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. At 0900 on 20 May an event produced an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted NW. An ash plume from an event later that day at 2122 rose 2.5 km and drifted W and NW. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG reported that during 18-22 April gray-to-white plumes from Sinabung rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. At 1604 on 20 April an event produced an ash plume that rose 3 km and pyroclastic flows that traveled 1 km down the E, SE, W, and NW flanks. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG reported that at 0640 on 12 April an event at Sinabung generated an ash plume that rose 200 m and drifted WNW. At 1655 pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that drifted WSW. At 0827 on 15 April an event generated an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted WNW. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG and BNPB reported that an eruption at Sinabung at 1607 on 6 April generated a dark gray ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater, and a pyroclastic flow that descended the SE and SW flanks 3.5 km. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. According to news articles, ashfall affected hundreds of hectares of agricultural land in the district of Karo, North Sumatra, and the Alas Leuser airport was closed on 7 April due to ash. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-26 February ash lumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-3.7 km (11,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W.PVMBG reported that following two-week of increasing in sulfur dioxide emissions, based on the Aura OMI satellite detections, a sign of a rise in fresh magma, and seismicity since February 17, the Sinabung presented this February 19 at 8:53 am WIB a strong eruption; It was accompanied by a plume of ash and gas rising to 5,000 meters in height, and several pyroclastic flows traveling 4,900 meters to the SSE and 3,500 meters to the ESA, lasting between 195 and 792 seconds. ; They have only impacted exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that ash plumes at Sinabung rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater during 24-30 January and drifted E, S, SW, and W. Avalanches of incandescent material traveled as far as 1.5 km down the ESE flank. A pyroclastic flow traveled 2.5 km down the ESE flank on 27 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG and BNPB reported that ash plumes at Sinabung were seen rising as high as 3.5 km above the crater during 18-23 January and drifting E, SE, and W, although sometimes foggy conditions prevented visual observations. Avalanches of incandescent material traveled as far as 1.5 km down the ESE flank during 21-23 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG reported that 5 eruptions occurred on 12 January, accompanied by ash plumes rising to 1,000-1,800 meters above the summit and 3 pyroclastic flows towards the East and SSE.PVMBG reported that on January 10, three eruptions, accompanied by ash plumes at 700-1,500 meters above the summit and 60 episodes of collapse of blocks transiting up to 1,500 meters south, southeast and east, were enumerated.The volume of the summit dome is always close to 2 million cubic meters.PVMBG reported that dome growth continues, as well as explosions, reported by the PVMBG five in number on December 6, accompanied by ash plumes rising between 300 and 2,500 meters above the summit. Many earthquakes related to collapse are recorded.PVMBG reported that during 27 December 2017-2 January 2018 events at Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.2 km above the crater rim, and avalanches of material that traveled as far as 1.5 km E, SE, and S. Pyroclastic flows descended the E, SSE, and S flanks during 27-29 December, traveling 4.6 km SSE and 3.5 km E and S. As of the 28th of December, PVMBG reported that Sinabung was the site of a strong eruption on December 27 at 15:36 WIB. The height of the eruptive column could not be observed due to atmospheric conditions (see video); Following the eruption, two pyroclastic flows were reported by the Sinabung observation post, one traveling over 3,500 meters to the ESE, the other over 4,500 meters to the SSE. They did not cause any casualties, remaining confined within the forbidden zone.The ash falls have affected thousands of people, without causing panic. They have fallen on a large eastern sector, including Sukanalu, Tonggal Town, Kuta Central, Gamber, Berastepu, Jeraya, Iron Door.The aviation alert level is orange. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-19 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4-5.5 km (13,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE, ESE, SE, and S. PVMBG noted that avalanches of hot material traveled as far as 3.5 km S, SE, ESE, and E. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-9 and 11-12 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4.3-4.9 km (14,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE, E, SE, and SW. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 November and 1-2 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-4.9 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and E. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-25 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-6.7 km (11,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, WSW, ESE, and E. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-19 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4.3-4.9 km (14,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9 and 11-12 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4.6-4.9 km (15,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and ESE. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2 and 5-7 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-4.9 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and SSE. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 and 21-23 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose 2.4-4.6 km (8,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directionsBNPB stated that at 1051 on 11 October 2017 an event at Sinabung generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted ESE, causing ashfall in several local villages. At 0245 on 12 October an event produced an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater, and was followed by pyroclastic flows traveling 1.5 and 2 km down the S and ESE flanks, respectively. The report noted that activity remained high. Based on observations by PVMBG and information from the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-15 October ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sectorBased on observations by PVMBG and BMKG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 and 7-9 October 2017 ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.8 km (10,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directionsBased on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-29 September and 1-2 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.7-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 September 2017 ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-4 km (11,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted E and SE. On 25 September ash plumes rose 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE. Based on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-16 and 18 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-7.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted ESE, SE, SW. Strombolian activity marked the Sinabung on 17 September, characterized by plumes of different colors, above a nearby dome. The seismographs recorded three eruptions, and the observatory observed an ashcolumn high of about 1100 - 2000 meters, and some ashfalls on the Sinabung station. Based on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-8 and 12 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, and E. Based on observations by PVMBG and the Jakarta MWO, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 August-1 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-4 km (11,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW, NW, and ENE.Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4-4.9 km (13,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and ESE. PVMBG reported that the lava dome in Sinabung's crater that had been growing since April was destroyed during the 2-3 August events. The dome had grown to an estimated volume of 2.3 million cubic meters. Measurements on 6 August indicated that a new dome had a volume of 23,700 cubic meters. Based on PVMBG ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 August an ash plume from Sinabung rose to 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE. Based on PVMBG ground observations, the Jakarta MWO satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 and 13 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-5.2 km (11,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and ESE. PVMBG reported intense activity at Sinabung on 2 August; between 0800 and 1200, pyroclastic flows were generated 17 times and traveled as far as 4.5 km ESE. Ash plumes rose up to 4.2 km above the crater and drifted S, causing ashfall in local areas including Perbaji (4 km SW), Sukatendel, Temberun, Perteguhen (7 km ESE), Kuta Rakyat (5 km NE), Simpang Empat (7 km SE), Tiga Pancur (6 km SSE), Selandi (5 km SSW), Payung (5 km SSW), and Kuta Gugung (5 km N). Significant ashfall was noted in Ndokum Siroga (9 km ESE), Gajah (8 km E), and Naman Teran (5 km NE). BNPB noted that there were 2,038 families (7,214 people) displaced to eight shelters, and an additional 2,863 people living in refugee camps. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-7 August multiple ash plumes rose as high as 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-29 and 31 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-4.6 km (11,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, ENE, and ESE. Based on PVMBG and pilot observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-25 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose 2.7-6.1 km (9,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. -Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAACreported that during 14-15 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-4.9 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, SE, and W.Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6 and 8-11 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-5.5 km (11,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, SE, and NW. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 June-3 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-4.9 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-27 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.2 km (10,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-17 and 19 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-6.4 km (10,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-14 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-5.5 km (11,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and S. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 May-5 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-5.5 km (11,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. -Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-29 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.7-5.8 km (12,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-20 and 24 May 2017 ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4.3-8.8 km (14,000-29,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. BNPB reported a high-intensity eruption at the volcano on 20 May. An ash plume rose 4 km and drifted SE. There were 2,038 families (7,214 people) displaced to eight shelters, and an additional 2,863 people living in refugee camps. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.9 km (10,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-9 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-30 April and 2 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.6 km (11,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-22 and 24 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.3 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and E. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-15 and 17 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.6 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and E. Based on PVMBG observations and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7 and 9-11 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-8.2 km (11,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and WNW. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22, 24-25, and 27 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.3 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-18 and 21 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, N, W, and WSW. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-14 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.2 km (10,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, SW, and S. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2, 5, and 7 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22 and 24-26 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-5.2 km (11,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW, W, and SW. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-18 and 20-21 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and S. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-13 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-6.7 km (11,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and SE. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-7 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes as high as 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and SW. BNPB reported that each day during 2-7 February there were 8-12 ash-producing events with plumes rising as high as 2 km above the crater and drifting E. Pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 2 km S, SE, and E. BNPB noted that more areas had been designated disaster prone, therefore the number of people needed to be relocated also increased. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. Based on PVMBG observations, Indonesian Met Office observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-30 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-4.6 km (11,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and SSE. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-20, 22, and 24 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.9-4.9 km (13,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, SW, and SE. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam views, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-17 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4-7.3 km (13,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NNE, E, SE, and S. Based on PVMBG observations and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-3 and 8-10 January 2017 ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.6-6.4 km (12,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NE, and E. Plumes drifted as far as 55 km E ln 8 January. A thermal anomaly was detected on 9 January. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam views, satellite images, and wind data the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28 December 2016-1 January 2017 ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.6 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted SW. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 30 December. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam views, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21-22 and 26-27 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-6.2 km (11,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NW. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam views, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15, 17, and 19 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.8 km (10,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and S. Based on satellite images, wind data, and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.2 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The report noted that the eruption had ceased and that the ash plume was expected to dissipate in the next hours. Based on satellite images, wind data, ground reports from PVMBG, and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-3.9 km (11,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite images, wind data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11 and 13-14 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-5.8 km (12,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on ground observers and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.9 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite images, wind data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 and 29 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.2 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. During 31 October-1 November ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Based on ground observations from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 October an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. On 12 October an ash plume drifted E at an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-29 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-3.9 km (12,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.Based on satellite images, the Jakarta MWO, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-25 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.2 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and SE. Based on ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 September an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-3 September 2016 ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4.3-5.5 km (14,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WSW. BNPB reported increased activity at Sinabung on 24 August. Observers at the PVMBG Sinabung observation post noted a marked increase in seismicity, and counted 19 pyroclastic flows and 137 avalanches from the early morning until the late afternoon. Foggy conditions obscured visual observations of the activity through most of the day, although incandescent lava as far as 500 m SSE and 1 km ESE was noted in the morning, and a pyroclastic flow was seen traveling 3.5 km ESE at 1546. The lava dome had grown to a volume of 2.6 million cubic meters. There continued to be 2,592 families (9,319 people) displaced to nine shelters. Activity remained very high on 25 August; pyroclastic flows continuously descended the flanks, traveling as far as 2.5 km E and SE, and 84 avalanches occurred during the first part of the day. Based on satellite images and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NNE. On 29 August ash plumes reported by ground-based observers rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.Based on satellite images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17 and 21-22 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Based on satellite images, model data, ground reports from PVMBG, and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite images, model data, ground reports from PVMBG, and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-5 and 7 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, NE, and NNW. Based on satellite and webcam images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 July and 1 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4-4.3 km (13,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SSE.Based on satellite and webcam images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 and 24-25 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NE, and SE. Based on satellite images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-16 and 19 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW.Based on satellite images, model data, notices from the Jarkarta MWO, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6, 8-9, and 11 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, NE, and W.Based on PVMBG ground-based observations, satellite images, and webcam views, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 June-5 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-5.5 km (11,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. On 3 July BNPB reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued at a very high level. Lava was incandescent as far as 1 km down the SE and E flanks, and multiple avalanches were detected. An explosion at 1829 generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted E and SE, causing ashfall in Medan (55 km NE). The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. There were 2,592 families (9,319 people) displaced to nine shelters, and an additional 1,683 families in temporary shelters waiting for relocation. Based on PVMBG ground-based observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-27 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite and webcam images, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-20 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km (14,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-11 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-5.9 km (11000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, WSW, and W. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-7 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-3.9 km (11000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-29 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.9 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18, 21-22, and 24 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and E. BNPB reported that pyroclastic flow descended the flanks at 1648 on 21 May, killing six people and critically injuring three more. The victims were gardening in the village of Gamber, 4 km SE from the summit crater, in the restricted zone. The report noted that activity at Sinabung remained high; four pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 21 May, and ash plumes rose as high as 3 km. BNPB reported that a lahar passed through Kutambaru village, 20 km NW of Sinabung and near the Lau Barus River, at 1545 on 9 May, killing one person and injuring four more. One person was missing. A news article noted that three houses were also damaged. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 and 16 May ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-4.5 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, WNW, and NW.Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 and 9-10 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.8 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-30 April and 4 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.2 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WSW. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-21, 23-24, and 26 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.5 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15-50 km SW, W, and NW.Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-16 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.5 km (13,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNW, NW, and W. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6, 8-10, and 12 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.8 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and WNW. On 10 April BNPB reported that the eruption at Sinabung has not shown any signs of ceasing since the onset of activity in September 2013. Activity remained high, characterized by almost daily lava extrusion and pyroclastic flows, and high levels of seismicity. Four events on 10 April generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km. BNPB noted that although there were no new evacuees that day, 9,322 people (2,592 families) remained in 10 evacuation centers. Many families awaited relocation; 1,212 people had already been permanently relocated to new homes. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4); the public was reminded to stay outside of a 3-km radius. People within 7 km of the volcano in the SSE sector, within 6 km in the ESE sector, and within 4 km in the NNE sector should remain evacuated. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30 March-2 April and 4 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.2 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 and 28-29 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.9-5.5 km (13,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km NW, W, and SW. A low-level ash plume was identified by PVMBG on 27 March. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-19 and 21-22 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 2.7-4.9 km (9,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 65 km WSW, W, WNW, and NW. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 and 13-15 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.9 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km NW, W, and SW. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2 and 5-6 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km SE, SW, and W. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24 February-1 March 2016 ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km in multiple directions. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18 and 20-23 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km S, SW, W, and NW.Based on satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-5.2 km (11,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and almost 30 km NE. Based on satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW. Based on information from the Jakarta MWO, the DarwinVAAC reported that on 30 January and during 1-2 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Based on information from PVMBG and satellite images, the DarwinVAAC reported that during 20-22 and 25 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, and N. PVMBG reported that during 4-14 January 2016 inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. As many as 192 hot avalanches and 12 pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-3 km ESE. Ash plumes from a total of 40 events rose as high as 3 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche and pyroclastic-flow signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week, and indicated lava-dome growth. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano in the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-15 and 17-19 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. Based on information from PVMBG, ground reports, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-12 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15-40 km SW, W, NW, and NE.PVMBG reported that during 21-28 December inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. As many as 21 hot avalanches and pyroclastic flows traveled 0.7-1.5 km ESE, producing ash plumes that rose 1 km. Ash plumes from explosions rose as high as 3 km and drifted E and SW. Seismicity consisted of avalanche and pyroclastic-flow signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week, and indicated lava-dome growth. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG, satellite images, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 and 27-28 December ash plume from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-4 km (11,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted 10 km SW on 27 December.Based on information from PVMBG, satellite images, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-22 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, SE, and E. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 15 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km W. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SE. On 7 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 1 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-16 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and E. -Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. A pyroclastic flow was visible on 8 November; an ash plume was generated but the altitude was unable to be determined due to a weather cloud in the area. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30-31 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-7.6 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted over 35 km W on 31 October. Based on information from PVMBG, and analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 October an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 6.1 (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 October an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km SW. On 20 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km N. PVMBG reported that during 28 September-7 October inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km E to SE. As many as three pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 3 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. .PVMBG reported that during 21-28 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 3 km E to SE. As many as five pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 4 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. -PVMBG reported that during 14-24 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km E to SE. As many as eight pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 4 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 September ash plumes rose 1-2.5 km. PVMBG reported that during 8-14 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km ESE. As many as six pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 3.5 km ESE and SE. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated, although it had declined compared to the previous week. Deformation measurements showed deflation. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 September an ash plume from a pyroclastic flow rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. On 21 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Later that day a pilot observed an ash plume drifting 45 km SW at an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. PVMBG reported that during 2-9 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km ESE to SSE. The daily number of pyroclastic flows usually ranged from one to seven, although 11 were observed on 4 September; none were detected on 8 September. The pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3.5 km E to SE and generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. BNPB reported that on 15 September pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 4 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 3 km and drifted E, causing thick ashfall deposits in Berastagi, Kabanjahe, and surrounding areas. The number of displaced people totaled 2,572.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 September an ash plume from Sinabung rose 2 km above the summit. On 3 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km W. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km W. Based on weather models and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29-30 August an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. PVMBG reported that during 31 July-10 August foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km S to SE. The occurrence of pyroclastic flows per day ranged from one to seven, although none were noted on 8 August. The pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 4 km E to SE and generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 August a pyroclastic flow generated an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate.Based on weather models and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 35 km ESE. On 10 August an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. On 4 August BNPB reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued at a very high level. Lava was incandescent as far as 1.5 km SE and E down the flanks, and multiple avalanches were detected. Pyroclastic flows traveled at most 3 km ESE and SE, and ash plumes rose 2 km. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SE sector, and 6 km in the E sector. There were 3,152 families (11,114 people) displaced in 10 shelters, and an additional 2,053 families (6,179 people) in temporary shelters.Based on satellite images, webcam views, weather models, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 July an explosion at Sinabung generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km W. An explosion on 26 July generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. PVMBG reported that foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 22-29 June. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 3 km S and SE. Multiple pyroclastic flows per day during 22-26 and 28 June traveled 2.5-4 km down the flanks from the SSE to the SE. One pyroclastic flow was observed on 27 June. Ash plumes rose generally 3.5 km on most days, drifting E, SE, and S, although an ash plume rose as high as 5 km on 25 June. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. Deformation data showed a trend of inflation. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate.BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high. On 17 June there were 120 avalanches, four pyroclastic flows that traveled 2-3 km ESE and S, and lava was incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. On 18 June a pyroclastic flow traveled 2.5 km SE and incandescent lava as far as 1.5 km SE was observed. Based on ground observations, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE during 18-22 June. On 23 June BNPB noted that 10,184 people (3,030 families) were displaced, housed in 10 different shelters. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high. On 13 June six eruptions generated ash plumes that rose 1-2 km high and pyroclastic flows that traveled as far as 3 km SE. At 2140 about 200 people from Sukanalu village were ordered to evacuate. The report noted that 2,053 families (6,179 people) had been living in temporary shelters since June 2014. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). On 5 June BNPB reported that the Alert-Level increase for Sinabung on 2 June prompted 2,727 people (677 families) from the S and SE flanks to evacuate. PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations during 5-10 June, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose at most 1 km above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. Pyroclastic flows traveled 0.7-1.3 km daily down the S and SE flanks. Ash plumes from pyroclastic flows rose as high as 1 km during 5-6 and 10 June. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 25 May-2 June, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose 200-700 m above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2-3 km down the S and SE flanks during 26-28 May. An ash plume from a pyroclastic flow on 28 May rose into the fog. Two pyroclastic flows occurred on 2 June but fog prevented visual observations. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. Deformation data showed a trend of inflation. The Alert Level was raised to 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the S to E flanks should evacuate. On 3 June BNPB reported that the lava dome volume had increased to more than 3 million cubic meters and was unstable.PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 19-25 May, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose as high as 800 m during 19-20 and 22-24 May. Lava from the lava dome was active as far as 1.5 km S during 21-23 May. On 24 May a pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the S flank and produced an ash plume that rose 500 m. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions. PVMBG reported that foggy weather prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 4-12 May, except for a few clearer periods on some days. On 4 May dense white-to-gray plumes rose 700 m above the summit. During 7-11 May white plumes rose as high as 700 m. Lava from the dome traveled 1 km S on 10 May. A pyroclastic flow originating from the lava dome traveled 3 km S on 12 May, and produced ash plumes mainly obscured by fog. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; levels declined overall. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.PVMBG reported that during 6-12 April white plumes rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung; misty conditions prevented observations on 13 April. Lava was incandescent as far from the lava dome as 1.5 km S and SE. The main lava flow remained 2.9 km long. After pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 2 April, a new lava flow from the growing lava dome formed near the crater and traveled 170 m SSE. Recorded seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Overall seismicity decreased compared to 30 March-6 April. Tilt and EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) data fluctuated but showed overall deflation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions. According to social media sources, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and a pyroclastic flow descended the flank. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite observations.PVMBG reported that during 6-12 April white plumes rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung; misty conditions prevented observations on 13 April. Lava was incandescent as far from the lava dome as 1.5 km S and SE. The main lava flow remained 2.9 km long. After pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 2 April, a new lava flow from the growing dome formed near the crater and traveled 170 m SSE. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, local and far tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Overall seismicity decreased compared to 30 March-6 April. Tilt and EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) data fluctuated but showed overall deflation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE, and 3 km in other directions Based on PVMBG notices, BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung increased on 1 April. Seismicity increased. Pyroclastic flows traveled 3.5 km S and produced ash plumes that rose 2 km and drifted SW. Avalanches were detected and incandescent lava was observed at night. On 2 April 2015 pyroclastic flows traveled 4 km S and 1 km SE. Avalanches continued. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.Based on report from PVMBG, new pyroclastic flows episode started at Sinabung on 2nd of April. Several Pyroclatic flows travelled more than 3 4km on the flank of the volcano and generated plume above the volcano Based on reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 March an eruption at Sinabung generated a plume that rose 3 km above the summit. Satellite images detected an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100-230 km WNW and NW. Later that day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SW. Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 February an eruption from Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted almost 540 km NW, and became detached. A lower-level eruption later that day produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 30 km SE. Based on satellite images, weather models, and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10-30 km W.Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 January an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NW. On 18 January BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; low-frequency earthquakes and constant tremor were detected. A pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km S and ash plumes rose 700 m. The number of people that remained displaced was 2,443 (795 families). The Alert Level was at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).Based on satellite images, weather models, and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported an eruption from Sinabung on 10 January with an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas at night on 11 January. During 12-13 January ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. BNPB reported that an eruption at Sinabung occurred during 0833-0919 on 3 January; this event was larger than the events that had been occurring almost daily. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2-4 km down the flanks and ash plumes rose as high as 3 km. Ashfall was reported in Payung (5 km SSW), Tiganderket (7 km W), Selandi (5 km SSW), Juhar (20 km SW), and Laubaleng (35 km WSW). Since the September 2013 onset of activity, 2,443 people (795 families) still remained displaced.Based on satellite images, webcam views, and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Sinabung drifted almost 30 km SW on 24 December. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The notice stated that the eruption was more significant and higher than the intermittent pyroclastic flows observed during the previous week. Eruptions during 11-16 December produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.3-6.1 km (14,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted at most 30 km N, NW, and W. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Eruptions during 5-7 December produced ash plumes that drifted 2-20 km in multiple directions. On 4 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that duirng 19-20 November eruptions from Sinabung produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Continuous dense white plumes and intermittent pyroclastic flows were also visible. During 22-23 November intermittent pyroclastic flows recorded by the webcam reached the base of the volcano. On 23 November an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. On 14 November BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained elevated; avalanches occurred 79 times, and pyroclastic flows generated by three of the avalanches traveled 4 km S. Ash plumes rose 1 km and the lava flow was active 500 m down from the crater on the S and W flanks. The report stated that 2,986 people from 956 households remained displaced. The Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes drifting W, SW, and S were recorded by a webcam during 12-18 November. Dense white plumes and intermittent pyroclastic flows were visible on 19 November.The Darwin VAAC reported that eruptions from Sinabung were recorded by a webcam during 4-7 and 10-11 November. Based on a report from PVMBG, the VAAC reported that an eruption on 9 November produced an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NW. Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported localized ash from Sinabung on 2 November, but a meteorological cloud in the area prevented further observations. A pyroclastic flow and an ash plume were recorded by the webcam on 3 November. The ash plume rose to an estimated altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE; the altitude of the ash plume was again uncertain due to meteorological cloud. On 4 November an ash plume observed with the webcam rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Based on webcam views, wind data models, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 October ash plumes rose from Sinabung. During 23-24 October ash plumes drifted 15-40 km N and SW. A small eruption observed on the webcam on 25 October produced a minor amount of ash that drifted SW; a later ash plume drifted almost 30 km WNW. The next day another eruption generated an ash plume that drifted E. Ash emissions on 27 October were recorded by the webcam. The VAAC noted that PVMBG reported an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and then dissipated. On 27 October BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; on 26 October pyroclastic flows traveled 3.5 km S and avalanches occurred multiple times. Hot ash clouds rose 2 km. The report stated that 3,284 people from 1,018 families remained in evacuation shelters. Based on webcam views and wind data models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-20 October daily small eruptions from Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted 55 km NW during 15-17 October and ESE on 19 October.The Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption from Sinabung, observed in the webcam at 1248 on 8 October, generated a pyroclastic flow. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. (based on webcam views and wind models) and drifted E. Eruptions recorded at 0636 and 1107 on 9 October generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, based on webcam views and wind models. On 10 October satellite images and the webcam detected an ash plume drifting 55 km NE. An ash plume drifting SW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. was recorded by the webcam on 11 October. On 14 October an ash plume was again recorded by the webcam and rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported four eruptions from Sinabung on 5 October. The first one occurred at 0146, and produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled 4.5 km S and an ash plume that rose 2 km. The next three events, at 0638, 0736, and 0753, all generated pyroclastic flows that traveled 2.5-4.5 km S. The fourth event also produced an ash plume that rose 3 km. A news article stated that pyroclastic flows from a fifth event at 0900 were smaller, but again traveled 4.5 km after a sixth event at 1200. According to the Darwin VAAC a low-level eruption recorded by the PVMBG webcam generated a pyroclastic flow on 6 October; some of the ash rose higher and drifted E. The Jakarta MWO noted that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 7 October. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations. A news article posted on 8 October noted that eruptions in the previous four days caused some evacuations. According to news articles a pyroclastic flow at Sinabung traveled 2 km SE down the flanks at 1343 on 24 September 2014. The height of a corresponding ash plume could not be determined because it rose into the cloud cover. About 4,700 people remained in evacuation shelters. On 30 September at 1720 an ash plume rose 2 km and a pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km. PVMBG reported that RSAM values from Sinabung were low and stable during 12-20 September. Earthquake signals indicating lava-dome instability were recorded and had increased from 96 to 110 events/day since the 5-11 September period. Seismicity also continued to signify growth of the main lava flow on the flanks; incandescent lava was visible at the top, middle, and front of the lava flow. The length of the lava flow was 2.9 km on 6 September. White and sometimes bluish plumes rose as high as 1 km above the lava dome. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2.5 km SE on 15 September and 2 km S on 18 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Eruptive activity is still continuing. As of the 10th of July, a short pyroclastic flow occurred (about 1000 m long) went down toward the Soutwest flank of the volcano. previously, after more than a month of dome growth and lava flows, PVMBG reported that Sinabung erupted explosively again on 29 June 2014. The eruption plume rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and pyroclastic flows extended 4.5 km SE. Visual observations were impeded by inclement weather. About 14,000 persons remain evacuated since September 2013. The Alert Level remains at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported visual monitoring of Sinabung during 1-17 June 2014 from the Ndokum Siroga village (~8.5 km of the summit). Dome growth continued and was accompanied by a lava flow that was frequently visibly incandescent. The observatory noted that the lava flow (particularly avalanches from the flow front) presented a threat to areas S and SE within a 5 km radius from the summit. During this reporting period, seismicity was dominated by tremor associated with avalanches, and there was minor deformation. Alert Level 3 was maintained (on a scale of 1-4). Based on webcam images, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km W.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 23 March-8 April 2014 based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose at most 1.2 km above the lava dome. Lava had traveled 2.5 km down the flanks as of 6 April and was incandescent at various locations. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 2 km S and 500 m SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied but were relatively insignificant. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.Based on webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite views. Gas emissions were noted on 30 March. PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 15-22 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose 500 m above the lava dome daily, and as high as 1 km on 21 March. Lava had traveled 2.4 km down the flanks as of 20 March and was incandescent at various areas. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 1.5 km S and 200 m SE. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3 km S on 17 March. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased slightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day, indicating no new magma. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 8-15 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose from the lava dome daily, as high as 1 km on most days; plumes rose 2 km on 12 March. Incandescent material originating from various parts of the lava dome traveled up to 2 km S and SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome increased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day. Observations on 13 March showed that lava from the dome had flowed 2.4 km downslope. The report also noted that three people burned during a pyroclastic flow on 1 February later died in the hospital bringing the total number of casualties from that day to 17. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.Based on wind data, satellite images, and webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-7 and 9-11 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4 km (12,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Ash plumes drifted 35-165 km SW and W during 6 and 9-11 March.Based on wind data, webcam images, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 February-1 March and 3-4 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4 km (10,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km E, NE, N, NW, W, and SW. On 19 February 2014 BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung continued to return to their homes. Based on wind data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19 and 21-22 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-35 km NE and SW. Ash plumes were visible in webcam images during 23-25 February; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 25 February and drifted 45 km E. On 24 February BNPB noted that 16,361 people remained in 34 evacuation shelters. Dense white plumes rose 100-300 m above the dome and incandescent material as far as 2 km SE from the dome was observed. previously,b ased on webcam images, Indonesian Met office notices, wind data, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 and 15-18 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-95 km N, NE, and E. On 16 February BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung slowly return to their homes.Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported on 8 and 9 February 2014 that seismicity at Sinabung continued to be dominated by hybrid earthquakes, indicating pressure below the crater and a growing lava dome. Earthquakes associated with avalanches increased. The 9 February report noted that the number of displaced people reached 32,351 (9,991 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Refugees from 17 villages outside the 5-km radius were allowed to return to their homes, starting with four villages during the first phase.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 24-31 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. On 24 January dense white plumes rose as high as 1 km. During 25-26 and 28-31 January dense grayish-white plumes rose 0.1-1.5 km; on 27 January plumes rose 4 km. Each day pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km SE and S. Incandescent material was observed 0.2-1.5 km SE of the vent. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to decrease. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that between 1200 and 1800 on 23 January pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5 km down Sinabung's S flank. The number of displaced people reached 28,715 (9,045 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Based on webcam views, satellite images, ground reports, and altitude and drift directions derived from wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 and 25-27 January ash plumes rose to an altitude 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-185 km N, NE, and E. PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 10-17 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day brownish white or gray and white ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed on the S and SE flanks as far as 3 km. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to drop, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 3-10 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed as far as 2 km SE and E. Roaring was periodically heard and burned trees on the S flank were noted on 4 January. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes dropped dramatically, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 7 km on the SE flank and 5 km elsewhere. Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of hybrid earthquakes decreased on 11 January and volcanic earthquakes increased. Ash plumes rose 1-5 km and drifted W, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1-4.5 km SE and 1 km E. Several villages in the Namanteran district reported ashfall. The 11 January report noted that the number of displaced people reached 25,516 (7,898 families) in 38 evacuation centers.Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that during 30-31 December 2013 Sinabung continued to be very active. Ash plumes rose as high as 7 km above the lava dome, pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3.5 km SE, and incandescent avalanches traveled 1.5 km SE. On 3 January 2014 the lava dome continued to grow and collapse. Pyroclastic flows occurred 172 times and traveled 2-4 km SE, and ash plumes rose 2-6 km. Two villages located 6.5 km SE, Jerawa and Desa Pintu Besi, were evacuated. On 4 January pyroclastic flows were larger and more frequent. They continued to travel up to 5 km SE as well as 3.5 km SSE. Ash plumes rose 2-4 km. On 5 January the number of hybrid earthquakes increased, indicating a growing lava dome, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5-4.5 km SE. During 4-5 January pyroclastic flows were recorded 426 times. On 7 January ash plumes rose 1-6 km and drifted SW, and pyroclastic flows continued to travel 1.5-4.5 km SE. The number of refugees reached 22,145. PVMBG reported that seismicity at Sinabung increased during 21-26 December and indicated rising magma and lava-dome growth. Observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted dense white plumes rising 70-1,200 m above the crater. Roaring was also periodically heard. A lava dome in the North Crater, visible on 24 December, was 56 m high and 210 m wide. During 25-26 December plumes were white and gray, and rose 300-400 m above the crater. On 26 December the lava-dome volume was estimated to be over 1 million cubic meters, with a growth rate of 3.5 cubic meters per second. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km. On 30 December Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of displaced people reached 19,126 (5, 979 families). They also noted that activity at Sinabung had increased. Collapsing parts of the lava dome generated block-and-ash flows as well as pyroclastic flows which traveled as far as 3.5 km down the SE flank. Explosions and pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that rose at least 6 km above the crater.PVMBG reported that observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted gray plumes rising 1 km above Sinabung on 6 December 2013. Grayish-white plumes rose as high as 400 m on 7 December, and dense white plumes also rose as high as 400 m the next day. Dense grayish-to-white plumes rose 70-200 m on 9 December. White plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater during 10-13 December. Tremor during 6-13 December was recorded continuously, with varying amplitude. The number of low-frequency earthquakes significantly increased on 7 December, and the number of hybrid earthquakes increased the next day. RSAM values had steadily increased since 28 November. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on webcam data, wind data, satellite image analysis, and PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 December 2013 an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Later that day and during 5-6 December ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 10 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. A few hours later an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km NW. Based on webcam data and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-31 November and 2 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted 150 km W during 30-31 November and 55 km Won 2 December. On 3 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. According to a news report on 2 December, landslides killed nine people in the Gundaling village, 12 km E. As of the 25th of November 2013, CVGHM reported that explosive activity increasing again during the past days. Eight explosions occurred between Saturday and Sunday and many ashfalls occurred on villages around the volcano (0,5 -1 cm) and until the town of Medan (50 km North). CVGHM raised the Alert level to 4(AWAS) and exclusion zone radius to 3.5 km. About 19 villages with 15.000 people should be evacuated. VAAC raised the alert level for Airlines to Red because the ashplume rose to 7000 m high in the area. On 25 November Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that 17,713 people, out of the 20,270 residents living within 5 km, had been evacuated to 31 helters. Previous news :an explosion observed with the webcam on 18 November 2013 produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. About 30 minutes later an ash plume also visible in satellite images rose to an altitude of 11.3 km (37,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W. Four hours later satellite images showed ash plumes at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. to the W of Sinabung and at an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. On 19 November the webcam recorded an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. A news article stated that later that night that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. Based on webcam data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 150 km NW and W. According to a news article, a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.2 km down the SE flank on 14 November, prompting more evacuations from villages near the base of the volcano. The article noted that more than 7,000 people had been evacuated from 10 villages. Based on information from the Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, webcam data, wind data, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The next day an ash plume rose to the same altitude but was not observed in satellite images due to meteorological cloud cover. According to webcam views an eruption on 8 November produced a low-level ash plume. The Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, the webcam, and satellite data detecting sulfur dioxide indicated two explosions on 10 November. The first one, at 0720, generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. The altitude of the second plume, from an explosion at 1600, was unknown. An ash plume on 11 November rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km SW. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW.According to a news article posted on 12 November, more than 5,000 people from seven villages had evacuated their homes in recent days. The article noted that the government had called for an evacuation of people living within a 3-km radius of Sinabung, but people outside of that zone had also been evacuating. The 6th of November 2013 PVMBG(CVGHM) the new eruption occurred at 1423 on 5 November. This event lasted for 20 minutes and generated an ash plume up to 3,000 m above the crater that drifted SW. Rumbling sounds were also noted by staff at the observation post. Pyroclastic flows were observed at 1431; the flows extended 1 km down the SE flank. No casualties were reported due to the event. The evacuated residents remained displaced on 5 november.Previously, PVMBG reported that elevated seismicity, including events of continuous tremor, was ongoing since 29 October. Relatively small ash explosions were also reported prior to the larger events on 3 November. During 29 October-2 November plumes rose to 200-2,000 m above the summit. Gas measurements conducted during 31 October and 1-2 November showed an SO2 flux of 226-426 tons per day; this was a general decrease in emissions. During 31 October ashfall was noted on the SE flank up to 1 km from the summit. An eruption began at 0126 on 3 November that generated ash plumes up to 7 km a.s.l. (~23,000 ft) and triggered evacuations from communities within 3 km of the volcano (approximately 1,681 residents); the ash plume drifted W. Rumbling sounds that lasted up to 10 minutes long were noted by staff at the Sinabung Observation Post (~8.5 km from the volcano). News agencies reported that this was the second largest eruption since the 24 October event that displaced more than 3,300 people. The Alert Level was increased from Level II (Watch) to Level III (Alert) at 0300. A second eruption occurred in the afternoon. PVMBG reported that Sinabung had been erupting more frequently and with increasing energy.PVMBG reported that after 29 September, the day the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), seismicity at Sinabung declined but continued to fluctuate through 22 October. White plumes were seen rising 100-300 m from the crater. On 22 October plumes were also grayish and rose 250 m. Vents appeared on the N flank and produced dense white plumes that rose 70 m. On 23 October landslides at two locations were observed, and explosions occurred at 1619 and 1651. Plumes rose from the summit crater and from a fracture formed on 15 October near Lau Kawar. Fog prevented observations for a period after the explosions; once the fog cleared dense gray plumes were observed. A third explosion occurred at 2100. On 24 October an explosion at 0550 generated an ash plume that rose 3 km and caused ashfall in areas S. Another explosion was detected at 0612. According to a news article about 3,300 people that evacuated their homes were mostly from two villages within 3 km of Sinabung, in the Karo district. CVGHM reported that seismicity at Sinabung fluctuated in 2012-2013, including during July-September 2013. During 1-14 September dense white plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater, and at 0255 on 14 September incandescence from the crater was observed. According to news articles an eruption at 0245 on 15 September produced an ash plume and ashfall in Sukameriah (50 km NE), Kutarayat, Kutagugung (16 km SW), and Berastagi (14 km E). About 3,000 people evacuated from areas within a 3-km radius of the volcano, and several flights at Medan's airport (55 km NW) were canceled. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). An eruption at 1203 on 17 September ejected tephra and a dense ash plume that rose higher than the plume from 15 September. According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SE. On 18 September a low-level ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical, 2460-m-high andesitic-to-dacitic volcano is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks of Sinabung in 1912, although no confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to 2010.

Sangeang Api volcano ( lesser Sunda Islands) -The Darwin VAAC reported that during 30-31 October and 3-4 November 2019 discrete and short-lived ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose 2.7-3.5 km (9,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. Thermal anomalies were visible on 3 and 5 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-28 October 2019 multiple discrete ash emissions from Sangeang Api rose to 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated rapidly to the NW, WNW, and W. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 26 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 September a diffuse ash plume from Sangeang Api was identified in satellite images rising to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-7 September 2019 intermittent diffuse ash plumes from Sangeang Api were identified in satellite images rising to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting S and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-26 August 2019 intermittent ash plumes from Sangeang Api were identified in satellite images rising to 3 km (10,000 ft)a.s.l. and drifting W and WNW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).The Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-20 August 2019 intermittent ash plumes from Sangeang Api were identified in satellite images rising to 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and quickly dissipating to the N, NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Sangeang Api volcano, one of the most active in the Lesser Sunda Islands, forms a small 13-km-wide island off the NE coast of Sumbawa Island. Two large trachybasaltic-to-tranchyandesitic volcanic cones, 1949-m-high Doro Api and 1795-m-high Doro Mantoi, were constructed in the center and on the eastern rim, respectively, of an older, largely obscured caldera. Flank vents occur on the south side of Doro Mantoi and near the northern coast. Intermittent historical eruptions have been recorded since 1512, most of them during in the 20th century. (GVN/GVP)

Lewotolo volcano (Lomblen) - On 2 January 2019, the PVMBG reported the level of Lewotolo at 2 / waspada due to an increase in volcanic earthquakes and fumarolic activity. Since December 29, 2018, the seismic network has recorded 4 seismic swarms, a superficial earthquake and three deep volcanic earthquakes, indicating a possible magmatic intrusion. Previously, in October 2017, PVMBG reported that white plumes rose as high as 50 m above Lewotolo's summit crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The number of shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes at Lewotolo recently increased, prompting PVMBG to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 7 October 2017. The report noted that the public should not enter the 2-km-radius exclusion zone around the crater. Solfatara emissions rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim on 9 October; emissions during 1 August-6 October rose 50-600 m. BNPB reported that five earthquakes recorded by Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) on 10 October ranged in magnitude between 3.9 and 4.9, and were located 10-30 km below Lewotolo. The events were felt by local populations, causing an evacuation of 723 people. Preliminary data suggested that five homes were damaged from rock avalanches, triggered by the earthquakes. Anchoring the eastern end of an elongated peninsula that is connected to Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island by a narrow isthmus and extends northward into the Flores Sea, Lewotolo rises to 1423 m. Lewotolo is a symmetrical stratovolcano as viewed from the north and east. A small cone with a 130-m-wide crater constructed at the SE side of a larger crater forms the volcano's high point. Many lava flows have reached the coastline. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1660, have consisted of explosive activity from the summit crater. (GVN/GVP)

Gamkonora (Halmahera) -PVMBG reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 1 January-6 March 2016 diffuse white plumes rose up to 150 m above the crater rim, although weather conditions often obscured views. RSAM values fluctuated; higher values during mid-January through February were due to increased tremor and tornillo-type earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. PVMBG reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 1-15 November diffuse white
plumes rose up to 100 m above the crater rim. RSAM values fluctuated; tremor continued to be elevated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. PVMBG reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 1 August-3 November diffuse white plumes rose up to 70 m above the crater rim. RSAM values fluctuated; an increase was detected in October coincident with a period of increased tremor. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 July. Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. The shifting of eruption centers on Gamkonora, at 1635 m the highest peak of Halmahera, has produced an elongated series of summit craters along a N-S trending rift. Youthful-looking lava flows originate near the cones of Gunung Alon and Popolojo, south of Gamkonora. Since its first recorded eruption in the 16th century, Gamkonora has typically produced small-to-moderate explosive eruptions. Its largest historical eruption, in 1673, was accompanied by tsunamis that inundated villages.

Ibu volcano (Halmahera ) - PVMBG reported that during 1-5 November 2019 white-and-gray plumes from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted E and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side. PVMBG reported that at 0707 on 15 October 2019 an ash plume from Ibu rose at least 400 m above the summit and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side. The Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-7 October 2019 ash plumes from Ibu rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and N based on satellite images and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side. The Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 September 2019 ash plumes from Ibu rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,00-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW based on satellite images and weather models. PVMBG reported that at 1806 on 30 September an ash plume rose about 800 m above the crater rim and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. Only a few eruptions have been recorded in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Dukono (Halmahera) - VAAC Darwin reported that ashes at flight altitude 70 on 12 November 2019 were visible by the Himawari-8 satellite. The day before, the white-gray plume, thick, was reported by the PVMBG at 200-500 meters above the summit.The seismicity was characterized by a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 2 mm. PVMBG reported that during 1-5 November 2019 white-and-gray plumes from Ibu rose 200-800 m above the summit and drifted E and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side. Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30 October-5 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone. PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-29 October 2019 ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone. Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-22 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.3 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that explosive activity continued. Based on satellite and wind model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-15 October 2019 ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone. The volcano Dukono is located in northernmost Halmahera has been in the recent time one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

G. Karangetang (Siau Island)-
PVMBG reported that during 1-5 November lava continued to effuse from Karangetang's Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.5 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 200 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that during 21-27 October 2019 lava continued to effuse from Karangetang's Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 500 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that during 14-20 October 2019 lava continued to effuse from Karangetang's Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Incandescence from both summit craters was visible at night. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 600 m above the summit. According to the Darwin VAAC minor ash plumes were visible in satellite images rising to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. (600 m above the summit) and drifting W and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that during 7-15 October 2019 lava continued to effuse from Karangetang's Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.5 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 400 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that activity remained high; during the night of October 13th, 2019 , the lava was visible, and moved for a distance reaching 1,500 meters in the drainages Kali Pangi, Nanitu and Kali Sense. At the seismicity level, the continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 0.25 mm, 125 erupting earthquakes, 20 blast earthquakes, and three shallow volcanic earthquakes are observed. The activity level is 2 / siaga. PVMBG reported that during 30 September-6 October 2019 lava continued to effuse from Karangetang's Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 300 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that during 25 September-1 October 2019 lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S), traveling as far as 1.5 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 300 m above the summit. On 27 and 29 September the Darwin VAAC noted that ash plumes rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. (about 330-640 m above the crater rim) and drifted SW and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that degassing was observed on 26th of September 2019 at a height of 300 meters above the summit, of white color and moderate intensity. The lava flow of the main crater was observed at a distance of 1000-1500 meters in the western drainages. Seismicity was characterized on September 25 by 146 earthquakes of eruption, 16 earthquakes of blast, 7 hybrid earthquakes, 3 distant tectonic earthquakes and the tremor of dominant amplitude to 2mm. PVMBG reported that during 16-22 September 2019 lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S) and Dua Crater (N), traveling as far as 1.8 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW and W flanks. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 500 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that during 9-15 September 2019 lava continued to effuse from Karangetang's Main Crater (S) and Dua Crater (N), traveling as far as 1.5 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW flank. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 100 m above the summit. According to the Darwin VAAC an ash plume rose almost 650 m above the summit and drifted E on 11 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).PVMBG reported that during 2-8 September 2019 lava continued to effuse from Karangetang’s Main Crater (S) and Dua Crater (N), traveling as far as 1.5 km down the Nanitu, Pangi, and Sense drainages on the SW flank. Sometimes dense white plumes rose to 200 m above the summit. According to the Darwin VAAC a diffuse ash plume rose almost 350 m above the summit and drifted SE on 7 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).As of the 26th of August 2019, PVMBG reported that lava flows over 1.500 meters in Kali Sense and Kali Nanitu, and 2.000 meters in Kali Pangi; flushes of burning ash alternate with low vapor plumes. Seventeen families were evacuated from the village of Winangun Lindongan and relocated temporarily to Kinali, in Siau NW, following this activity. PVMBG reported that Karangetang was still in activity level 3 / siaga, with a plume observed at a hundred meters above the two craters, as well as a crater flow from the south crater, to the northwest. On August 24th 2019 , the PVMBG reported 38 earthquakes, 47 earthquakes, a hybrid earthquake, a shallow volcanic earthquake, 3 episodes of harmonic tremor, and a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 1 mm. PVMBG reported that eruptive period since November 25, 2018 showed incandescent projections 100 meters above the south crater, and flows over 1,000 to 1,500 meters towards the north-west flank, coupled to a hot spot at North crater. Mirova reported thermal anomalies on 16 and 17 August 2019 of 68-69 MW.The PVMBG informed for August 17, 2019, 105 eruptive earthquakes, 9 earthquakes of blast, 3 hybrid earthquakes, a volcanic earthquake and continuous tremor of dominant amplitude to 2 mm. PVMBG reported that during 5-11 August 2019 lava continued to effuse from Karangetang's Main Crater and travel down drainages on the W and SW flanks, producing incandescent avalanches that descended those same drainages. White plumes rose from the summit craters rose 50-100 m above the peak. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). As of the 8th of August 2019 PVMBG reported that the eruptive-effusive activity was still continuing and, characterized by hot spots at both craters and a lava flow to the west, respectively 1,500 meters to Kali Pangi and Kali Nanitu, and 1,750 meters to Kali Sense. The PVMBG reported for 7 August 68 earthquakes of eruption, 10 earthquakes of blast, a hybrid earthquake and continuous tremor of dominant amplitude to 0.25 mm.The level of activity remains at 3 / siaga, with a forbidden zone of 2.5km from the summit, lengthened to 4 km to the north.PVMBG reported that night glow and thermal signals were reported by Mirova (335 MW July 29th of July 2019), as well as an increase in earthquakes related to block avalanches (71 earthquakes on July 29 and 109 earthquakes on July 30 ) show increased eruptive activity. Local guides confirm this activity. The level of activity remains at 3 / siaga since November 25, 2018. As of the 20th of May, PVMBG reported 5 blasts earthquakes, 12 hybrid earthquakes, and a shallow volcanic earthquake on May 14, 2019. Nighttime glow and hot spots are detected at the two summit craters. The activity level remains at 3 / siaga, with hazard prediction zones of 2.5 km, extending north at 4 km. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 April 2019 an ash emission from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).A Sentinel 2 image from April 14th showed gas plumes heading southwest and hot spots into the craters.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 April a minor ash emission from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). As of the 2nd of April, PVMBG reported that the activity of Karangetang has shown a small increase since the ten latest days of March, when two distinct plumes of gas and vapor have been observed, rising straight probably from two active craters.The thermal anomalies of the last days remain low. As of the 24th of March 2019, PVMBG reported that the weak lava effusion is still ongoing with avalanches of blocks in the Malabuhe drainage at the NNW. A white plume of varying intensity has reached up to 400 meters above the summit.PVMBG reported a white plume that rose to about 100-150 meters on March 12 and 13th 2019 and a weak to moderate intensity at the main crater, drifting east and southeast. The seismicity is marked these two days by avalanche earthquakes, blast earthquakes, multi-phase hybrid earthquakes and some superficial volcanic earthquakes. Continuous tremor is perceived, with a dominant 0.25 mm. On March 10, a Sentinel 2 image shows hot spots at both craters and degassing, more important at the south crater. PVMBG reported that during 25 February-5 March 2019 a low rate of lava effusion continued at Karangetang's Kawah Dua (North Crater). White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the summit crater rims. The Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 February a pilot observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2.5-km exclusion zone around the N and S craters, and additionally within 3 km WNW and 4 km NW. On 8 February PVMBG reported that lava from Karangetang's Kawah Dua (North Crater) continued to advance over 3.5 km down the Malebuhe River drainage on the NW flank into the ocean. Levees had formed at the margins channeling the lava down the middle of the flow. Avalanches from the edges of the flow generated brown and gray plumes. A lava delta was building out into the ocean and generating a dense steam plume. Drone footage acquired on 9 February showed that the flow was about 160 m wide where it crossed a road (about 210 m from the coast) and about 140 m wide at the coast. Seismicity remained high. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2.5-km exclusion zone around the N and S craters, and not enter within 3 km WNW and 4 km NW. On 7th of February 2019, PVMBG reported that lava flow has reached the ocean: the encounter between lava and seawater produces a white plume of steam and volcanic gases. In the last 48 hours, the authorities evacuated 110 inhabitants from 5 villages. Four boats are deployed for immediate evacuation in case of danger.PVMBG reported that lava was still emitted and continued advance towards the ocean. Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. It is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows. (GVN/GVP)

Anak Krakatau ( Sunda Strait) - PVMBG reported that the seismicity of the last days showed a continuation of activity On November 5th, 19 earthquakes of eruption and 78 breath earthquakes were reported. On November 6, an earthquakeof eruption  and 71 breath earthquakes were recorded.For November 7, an orange Vona was issued, following an eruption at 7:34 local, accompanied by a gray-white plume at 150 meters in height and a seismogrammic imprint of maximum amplitude. 40 mm, lasting 43 seconds; the daily total is 10 eruptions and 3 blasts earthquakes. PVMBG reported that an eruptive episode occurred on October 29th, 2019 at 10:49 WIB at Anak Krakatau marked with a seismographic imprint with a maximum amplitude of 41 mm and a duration of 297 seconds. PVMBG reported that several eruptive episodes occurred on October 26 and 27, 2019. Two orange Vona were issued on 26.10, the first at 08:02 local, with visual observation of ashes emitted 200 meters high to the north; the imprint on the seismogram is of a max. 40 mm and a duration of 738 seconds. The second episode was observed, similar to the previous one at 16:09 local, with a seismographic fingerprint of max amplitude. of 50 mm, and a duration of 687 sec. PVMBG reported on October 19, 2019, eight eruptive episodes occurred on the Krakatau; gray to black plumes were observed up to a height of 200 meters, and  white fumes between 25 and 150 meters above the crater. The seismicity of the day is marked by 8 eruption earthquakes, 1 blast earthquake, 1 shallow volcanic earthquake, 3 volcanic earthquakes and a continuous tremor of amplitude between 1 and 38 mm, dominating at 2 mm. PVMBG reported that at 1010 and 1226 on 12 October, 1026 on 13 October, and 1228 on 14 October 2019 the webcam at Anak Krakatau recorded dense gray-black ash plumes rising about 200 m above the bottom of the crater and drifting N. The 14 October event was recorded by the seismic network for three minutes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reported that two new explosive activity occurred on 12th of October 2019 at at 03:10 UTC (10:10 loca) and 05:26UTC (12:26 local). Eruption recorded on seismogram with maximum amplitude 42 mm and duration 107 second. Visually from cctv crater seen volcanic ash moving to north, volcanic ash gray-black thick 200 meters high from the bottom of the crater. PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau's seismic network recorded one eruptive event during 30 September-6 October 2019. A webcam at the summit recorded diffuse white plumes rising as high as 50 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reported that a new eruption occurred on 29 September 2019 at 11:42 WIB, without observing the height of the ash plume.This eruption was recorded on a seismogram, with a maximum amplitude of 4 mm and a duration of ± 5 seconds. The CCTV of Gunung Anak Krakatau crater is clear, on 29 September 2019 at 11:42 WIB; the eruption was observed with a thin column of white-gray ash and a column of ash thickness about 100 meters from the bottom of the crater. The PVMBG reported for September 26th of September 2019 , 4 earthquakes of eruption, and for September 27, 2 earthquakes of eruption, and one seism of breath. The tremor is continuous with dominant amplitude at 1 mm. A gray-white plume is observed on the webcam about 200 meters above the crater. The last VONA date of September 27 at 8:20 WIB, following an eruption that left a seismographic footprint of 20 seconds. A new eruption occurred on September 25, 2019 at 8:13 WIB without observation of the height of the plume. The trace on the seismogram is of maximum amplitude of 7 mm and a duration of 13 seconds. A thick white plume is visible on the webcam, 200 meters above the crater. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred on 24 September 2019 at 08:43 WIB. The height of the ash column was observed at ± 200 m above the summit (± 357 m above sea level). The column of ash was white to gray, thick and leaning northward. This eruption was recorded on a seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 5 mm and a duration of ± 38 seconds.PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau's seismic network recorded nine eruptive events during 16-22 September. A webcam at the summit recorded dense gray-to-white eruption plumes and diffuse white plumes rising 200 m from the bottom of the crater. An eruptive event at 0843 on 24 September produced a dense white-to-gray ash plume that rose around 360 m a.s.l. and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau's seismic network recorded five eruptive events during 9-15 September 2019. A webcam at the summit recorded diffuse white plumes rising 150 m from the bottom of the crater, and dense gray-and-white ash plumes rising 300 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded six eruptive events during 2-8 September 2019. The events were not followed by visible ash emissions, even though there were favorable weather conditions for viewing. A webcam at the summit recorded diffuse white plumes rising 100 m from the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km-radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reported that the activity on 2-3 September 2019 was characterized by five earthquakes of eruption, 2 earthquakes of breath, and continuous tremor of dominant amplitude to 20 mm. The crater lake is topped by a column of ash 200 meters high, alternating with a white plume of gas and steam 150 meters high. The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with an orange VONA. PVMBG reported that after the intense eruptive activity of August 22nd and 24th, the volcano manifested on the 25th by two  earthquakes of eruption, two breath earthquakes and this 26 of August, by 3 earthquakes of breath. During the last two days, continuous tremor was recorded, with a dominant at 20 mm.PVMBG reported that the eruptive activity was still fluctuating with eruptions recorded on 17, 19, 22, 23 and 24 August 2019. An image of the webcam showed a white degassing of gas and water vapor on August 24 at 5:56. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred on 22 August 2019 at 7:55 am WIB at Anak Krakatau, accompanied by a plume at 457 meters above sea level, ± 300 m above the summit. It was recorded on the seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 44 mm, for a minute 47 seconds.Currently, the Gunung Anak Krakatau is at Level II / waspada, with recommendations: people / tourists are not allowed to approach the crater within 2 km of the crater. PVMBG reported that two explosions, probably phreatomagmatic or phreatic, occurred on August 3rd, 2019 at the beginning of the day, at 1:16 am (lasting 53 seconds) and 2:39. They were detected by the seismic network and not observed directly due to poor visibility. The aviation code is orange. PVMBG reported that an explosive eruption accompanied by un ash plume occurred on July 30th, 2019 at 7:25 local time. The activity level ramins at 2. PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded eight eruptive events during 1-7 July 2019 . The events were not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network recorded periods of increased activity with three eruptive events detected during 25-26 June 2019, four events detected on 1 July, and one event on 2 July. The event was not followed by visibl eash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2 km radius hazard zone from the crater.PVMBG reported that a explosive eruptive episode occurred on June 25 around 9:22 local, filmed by a PVMBG camera installed on the island.On the images, we can see a black cypressoid plume followed by the rise of a whiter vapor plume : https://twitter.com/i/status/1143372011177033728. The seismogram imprint lasted 149 seconds. On the Sentinel 2 image of 24.06.2019, there is less water staining than before, a change in the color of the lagoon waters, and a landslide that occurred on Rakata. The aviation code is orange and the volcanic alert level remains at 2 / waspada. PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau's seismic network recorded one eruptive event at 0719 on 12 June 2019. The event was not followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2 km radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reported an explosive eruption on June 10, 2019 at 09:06 WIB, but the height of the ash column was not observed. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 11 mm and a duration of ± 50 seconds. PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau's seismic network detected two eruptive events on 29 May and two events on 2 June 2019. None of the events were followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by weather conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reported that Anak Krakatau’s seismic network detected 26 eruptive events during 20-26 May 2019. None of the events were followed by visible ash emissions, though observations were hindered by fog. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater. As of the 25th of May, 2019, PVMBG reported that the volcano remained unstable, with production in recent days of intermittent explosions. Seismic activity and thermal signals are rising, and suggest a rise in magma.PVMBG reported that an explosive event occurred on May 19, 2019 at 4:17 WIB, but the height of the ash column was not observed. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 44 mm and a duration of ± 2 minutes 41 seconds.A new eruptive episode occurred on May 15 at 15:58 WIB, recorded on the seismogram with an amplitude of 43 mm and a duration of 41 seconds. The height of the plume could not be observed. Sentinel 2 allowed a clear observation of the volcano the same day showing that the morphology of the west flank is slowly changing. The alert level remains at 2, with a radius of 2 km around the crater. An eruptive episode occurred on 14 May 2019 at 00:21 WIB, but the height of the ash column was not observed. This eruption was recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 55 mm and a duration of ± 1 minute 7 seconds. Currently, the Anak Krakatau is in the Status Level II (Waspada). On May 12, 2019, 21 earthquakes of eruption and 17 of blast were recorded by the PVMBG, as well as 12 earthquakes of low frequency and two harmonic earthquakes. Another eruption was also recorded on May 12 at 12:20 local, lasting 152 sec. and a max. 58 mm. The VONA is orange.PVMBG reported that an event at 0519 on 6 May 2019 was recorded by Anak Krakatau’s seismic network, although no emission was visually observed. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reported that there were 19 events during 22-28 April 2019 recorded by Anak Krakatau’s seismic network; no emissions from the events were visually observed, even though the visibility was a mix of clear and foggy conditions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater.PVMBG reported that there were four eruptive events during 15-22 April 2019 and multiple events on 23 April recorded by Anak Krakatau' s seismic network, though no emissions were visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 2-km radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reported that an eruption at Anak Krakatau was recorded by the seismic network at 0932 on14 April 2019 . An ash plume drifted NE. An event was recorded at 2358 on 15 April, though no ash plume was visible. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.PVMBG reported that during 1-7 April 2019 there were six explosions at Anak Krakatau detected by the seismic network. Foggy weather conditions prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reported an eruption earthquake on 30 March, accompanying with emission of a plume of ash, and recorded with a maximum amplitude. 52 mm for 276 seconds.For March 31, 3 eruptions of eruptions were reported in the morning. The activity level remained at 2 / waspada. Magma Indonesia reported during conference that according to the results of observation and analysis of visual and instrumental data as of March 25, 2019, activity level tends to decrease, even if it fluctuates slightly. The eruptive potential still exists, but with low intensity compared to the December 2018 period, and the distribution of hazardous eruption material has spread only within a radius of 2 km from the active crater of Mount Anak Krakatau. As a result, the level of activity is reduced to 2 / waspada,  from 25 March 2019 at 12.00 WIB, with a 2 km radius prohibited zone, due to potential phreatic or strombolian eruptions. PVMBG reported that a new eruptive episode occurred on March 18, 2019 at 6:05 am WIB, accompanied by a white plume reaching about 500 meters above the current summit / about 657 meters asl. On the seismogram, the maximum amplitude is 55 mm for a duration of 4 min. 3 sec. The alert level is 3 / siaga, with a prohibited area of ​​5 km radius. The aviation code is set to orange by VAAC Darwin. PVMBG reported that an explosive event that occurred on 14th of March 2019 at local 17h16 was accompanied by an unreferenced height plume due to cloud cover. The seismogram of the eruption shows an amplitude of 52 mm for 32 seconds.PVMBG reported that an event at Anak Krakatau began at 1525 on 23 February 2019 and lasted four minutes and 31 seconds. An ash plume rose to about 610 m above sea level and drifted ENE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reported that a brief explosive event at Anak Krakatau was recorded at 0026 on 14 February, though weather conditions prevented clear views of the event. During 15-17 February diffuse white plumes rose 50 m above the summit. At 1402 on 18 February another short-lived event produced an ash plume that rose about 500 m above the summit and drifted S and SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater. PVMBG reportred that a white to thick gray plume was observed on February 18, about 500 meters abovethe volcano ; at the seismicity leve;, also reported for the same day an eruption earthquake, three deep volcanic earthquakes and a distant tectonic earthquake. PVMBG reported that on 11th of January, the Surtseyan eruptions seem to calm down; the hydrothermal activity is manifested by intense outgassing around the volcano, and a brown water color towards Sertung Island, due to iron hydroxide particles, and greenish to the east, following differences in density . A recent report on 10th of January revealed the current morphology of the volcano : the surtseyan activity produced a tufa ring, which separates a "crater lake" from the ocean; a trace on the inner circumference reveals height differences between the current external and internal levels. Gaseous emissions and steam are observed on its edges near the ocean.An intense hydrothermal activity is outstanding, as evidenced by the coloring of the water, tinted by particles of iron hydroxide.The coast of Rakata, facing Krakatau was disfigured by the tsunami and landslides about 25 meters high. An image of Sentinel 2 on January 8th showed the steam plume, the coloring around the volcano and the differences in vegetation of the nearby islands. PVMBG reported that during the day of January 8th the surtseyan eruptions continued, with gray and thick plumes reported at about 1,000 meters above the volcano, and drifted to the east. At the seismic level, 61 eruption earthquakes, 11 blast earthquakes and continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 4 mm were recorded. The level of activity remains at 3 / siaga, with a 5 km forbidden zone around the crater, and an orange VONA. PVMBG reported plume-gray plumes at a height of about 1,000 meters. As of January 6th, 46 earthquakes, 37 earthquakes and a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 5 mm were recorded. Activity level and Vona remained unchanged. PVMBG reported that on 5th of January, the surtseyan activity was still continuing. This activity was characterized by numerous earthquakes of eruption, and the emission of large steam plumes, white to grayish (ash content). A continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 7 mm was recorded. On the photo provided by Planet Labs, there is a gradual closure of the bay formed following the eruption of December 22, 2018. On January 5, a thick plume of gray ash was reported at 11:11 WIB at about 1,500 meters above the current summit; it is inclined to the southwest. The amplitude of the episode, lasting 1 minute 5 seconds, is 18 mm. On January 4, a stereo analysis performed by AIRES reports the height of the ash cloud at 17 ± 0.5 km.The activity produces a flow of sulfur dioxide that disperses east over the Jakarta region and reaches the east of Java Island, at an altitude of about 10 km.PVMBG reported that the Surtseyan eruptions continued in Krakatau on 3 and 4 January. The seismicity of January 3rd was characterized by 37 earthquakes of eruption, 42 earthquakes of emission, and a continuous tremor of amplitude between 1 and 15 mm, with a dominant to 7 mm. For the 4th of January at 6am WIB, 13 eruptions were enumerated, with an amplitude of 15-22 mm and a duration between 40 and 110 sec. ; 5 emissions lasting between 35 and 65 sec. and with an amplitude of 14-21 mm. The tremor was recorded continuously with an amplitude of between 2 and 21 mm, with a dominant at 6 mm.Among the heights of plumes emitted, there is that of the local 03.01 / 10h17 at 2,000 m, and that of 12:03 loc. at 1,500 m. altitude.The aviation code is orange; the level of activity remains at 3 / Siaga, with a prohibited area of ​​5 km. The VAAC Darwin reported on January 2, 2019 an ash plume that reached an altitude of 12,000 meters, and intermittent and regular emissions of ash up to 10,000 meters.An eruption  on 3 January 2019 at 12:03 WIB was characterized by a column of ash observed at ± 1,600 m above the summit (± 1,710 m above sea level), black , thick and leaning to the north and northeast. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 31 mm and a duration of ± 1 minute 10 seconds.The latest photos of Anak Krakatau provided by Planet Labs show that almost the entire island, with the exception of a northwestern part, is covered with tephra recent; a crescent of tufa is occupied to build up at the edge of the bay dug by the eruption of December 22, 2018 and a large fringe of sea water is discolored under the effect of the submarine degassing. A Sentinel 2 image reveals various hot spots around the newly formed bay. Surtseyen-type activity continued, and an orange VONA was issued on the morning of January 2, following an eruption accompanied by an ash plume rising to 1,610 meters at 2:38 UTC / 9:38 local, which lasted 71 sec. Dissipation occurred to the northeast. As of the 29th of December, PVMBG reported that according to recent visual observations, the top of the volcano cone has disappeared. The PVMBG estimates that the highest point of the volcano has risen from 338 meters to 110 meters. From Pasauran's PGA post, the position of the top of Mount Anak Krakatau is currently lower than that of Sertung Island, which is the background. For the record, the island of Sertung is 182 meters high and 132 meters long. The missing volume of Krakatau is about 150 to 180 million cubic meters ... which leaves it between 40 and 70 million cubic meters.This change in morphology results from the combination of strong eruptive activity and slippage of a part of the volcanic body. The current potential danger of the ongoing Gunung Anak Krakatau eruption is the more likely occurrence of Surtsey type eruptions, a phreatomagmatic type (direct contact between magma and seawater) producing a lot of ash.The risk of another tsunami is considered low, unless reactivation of the fault structure in the Sunda Strait. Krakatau's activity level remains at 3 / siaga, with a prohibited area of ​​5 km radius.A large explosive activity occurred On December 22, 2018 at 9:03 pm (local time) accompanied by an eruptive column more than 16,8 km.The explosion blast must have dislocated much of the island, causing an aerian collapse (and / or submarine) in the south and southwest areas causing a deadly tsunami hit the coast of Sunda Strait and affected Pandeglang and Serang District in Banten Province, as well as Lampung Selatan, Tanggamus and Pesawaran, districts of Lampung Province. The eruption continued on 23 December: From aerial images available on line around 16h WIB), showing black cypressoïdes jets and whites plume of steam, base surges at the base, one can qualify the current phase of the surtseyan type.The latest assessment of the tsunami on December 24 at 19h WIB, still on the rise, mentions 420 dead, more than 1,500 wounded, 128 missing, and 11,687 displaced; the material damage concerns 611 houses, 69 hotels, 60 stalls and shops, 420 boats. As of the 14th of December, at 2:15 pm WIB an eruptive episode, which was accompanied by a thick and black ash plume to 200 m. about above the summit, leaning to the northeast. The seismic amplitude of the episode is 57 mm max. and a duration of 48 seconds.On December 13th, the PVMBG reported 22 earthquakes of eruption, 37 earthquakesof emission, 67 episodes of harmonic tremor and a continuous tremor of dominant at 3 mm .PVMBG reported that an explosive activity occurred on 9 December 2018 at 1050 WIB accompanied with a an ash column observed at about 700 m above the summit . The column of ash was black and thick, drifting northward. This eruption was recorded on a seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 57 mm and a duration of ± 5 minutes 29 seconds. PVMBG reported that during the week of 26 November to 2 December 2018 incandescent explosions 200 meters rose above the summit; during the day, a black ash plume is noted between 100 and 700 meters above the summit, often covered with fog.Seismicity is characterized by 154 eruptions, 45 earthquakes, volcanic earthquakes, 60 shallow and 80 deep, 57 episodes of harmonic tremor and a continuous tremor of amplitude between 1 and 58 mm. PVMBG reported that events at Anak Krakatau were recorded at 0611 on 24 November, at 0810 on 25 November, and at 0900 and 1037 on 26 November, each lasting between 30 and 42 seconds. Ash plumes from the events rose 300-600