VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on 18th of June 2024 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today : eruption continued at Reykjanes Peninsula (Iceland) - Eruptive activity is still continuing at Lewotolo volcano (Indonesia) - News about eruptive activity at Etna volcano (Italy)

 

Saint Vincent - Soufriere volcano (West-Indies)

March 18th, 2022

As of the 17th of March, seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has continued to decrease reaching the minimum activity since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April, 2021. No lahar signals have been recorded. As of the 15th of February, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has continued to be at a low level since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April. No lahar signals have been recorded. Gas measurements indicate that the plume chemistry shows decreasing sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. The plume chemistry indicates that the gas composition is slowly returning to its pre- eruption chemistry. Previous news 2021 - As of the 30th of November, UWI-SRC declared Eruptive Phase Ends at La Soufriѐre Volcano. Activity at the volcano has declined steadily since the last explosive event on April 22nd, 2021and all currently available monitoring data points to an end in eruptive activity. However, residual steaming at the summit and lahars (mudslides) in the valleys surrounding the volcano will continue to be observed for some time. As of the 24th of November,UWI-SRC reported that the seismic activity at La Soufrière in St Vincent has continued to decrease since the tremor associated with the explosion and the evacuation of ashes on April 22. Small lahars were recorded on October 31. Current activity corresponds to a period of unrest after an eruption. As of the 22nd of October, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has continued to decrease since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April. No lahars occurred . Previously, one lahar was recorded on 11 Oct. UWI-SRC reported no change have occurred in the crater. Measurements of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux at La Soufrière were carried out by boat off the west coast on 23rd September. Several traverses were completed and yielded an average SO2 flux of 176 tons per day. Three lahar signals were observed between 26 - 27 September..Visual observation on 19 of September indicated no major major change have occuured in the crater. As of the 16th of September; the alert level of the volcano La Soufrière de St. Vincent has been lowered to YELLOW. A Yellow alert level means that the volcano is agitated, that the seismic or fumarolic activity is higher than the historical level of the volcano. Activities on the volcano have been weak and significantly reduced in recent months since the last explosive eruption on April 22, 2021. All the communities that evacuated following the evacuation order given on April 8, 2021 can now return to their homes. Access to the top of the volcano remains restricted.As of the 14th of September, UWI-SRC reported that Seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has remained low since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April.No lahar signals have been observed and work has been completed on all seismic stations As of the 30th of August, UWI-SRC reported that over the past week, there has been a slight increase in magnitude, but this has provided no indication of reactivation. Current activity corresponds to a period of unrest after a rash. This can last for weeks or even months. While volcanic activity is on the decline, there is the continued presence of hot spots near the surface, daily seismic activity, and persistent outgassing. Lahar signals were observed: 4 on August 24, and 1 on August 25, related to the precipitation that was recorded during this period. Clear weather conditions at the volcano on August 30 allowed excellent views of the crater and observations indicate that no major changes have occurred in the crater since the end of explosive activity on April 22. As of the 28th of August, UWI-SRC reported that current activity corresponds to a period of unrest after an eruption. This can last for weeks or even months. Heavy rains over the past week-end resulted n lahars in most of the valleys on the volcano. These were all flows very similar in characteristics to a swollen river. On Aug 15, vigorous steaming accompanied a period of heavy rainfall. These observations are in keeping with the continuedpresence of near surface hot spots within the crater and are not a sign of an explosive eruption occurring. Measurements of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux at La Soufrière were carried out by boat off the West coast on 10 August, with the assistance of the coast guard. Several traverses were completed and yielded an average SO2 flux of 205 tons per day. While volcanic activity is on the decline, there is the continued presence of hot spots near the surface, daily seismic activity, and persistent outgassing. Sulfur dioxide flow measurements at La Soufrière were taken by boat off the west coast on August 3, with help from the coast guard. Several crossings were made and gave an average SO2 flow of 207 tonnes per day.As of the 5th of August, UWI-SRC reported that In the last 24 hours, only a few small earthquakes have been recorded. Persistent steam emissions from a few regions inside the crater. Measurements of the sulphur dioxide flux at La Soufrière were carried out by boat off the west coast on 22 July, with the assistance of the coast guard. Several traverses were completed and yielded an average SO2 flux of 233 tons per day. Recent mapping confirmed that no new lava dome formed as a result of the explosions that ended on the 22 April 2021, and the average characteristics inside the new crater (including the crater itself) are all the result of the explosive phase of the eruption between April 9 and 22, 2021. Mapping has identified several prominent fumaroles that are the source of the vapor and gas plumes visible above the rim of the summit crater on a clear day. The presence of fumaroles also confirms the detection of thermal anomalies inside the new crater by the satellites. As of the 6th of July UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has remained low. In the last 24 hours, only a few small earthquakes have been recorded. Persistent steam emissions from a few regions inside the crater continue to be the dominant observable feature. Measurement of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux was carried out by helicopter on June 23rd and yielded an average SO2 flux of 683 tons per day. SO2 can be an indicator that fresh magma from a deeper source is being degassed. As of the 18th of June, UWU-SRC reported that persistent steam emissions from a few regions inside the crater continue to be the dominant observable feature. As o the 15th oj June seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has remained low since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April and in the last 24 hours, only a few small earthquakes have been recorded.Thermal anomalies continue to be detected but do not indicate an explosive event is imminent. As of the 12th of June a photo taken by Prof. Robsertson shows now look of the Crater with 1979 crater rim, the 2021 new explosion crater rim, and the lake. There are several hydrothermal vents and these are responsible for the vapor that can be seen on most days. The alert is still in Orange and access to the volcano is still prohibited for the moment. UWI-SRC noted that with the start of the rainy season, the main danger at Soufrière de St Vincent remains the risk of lahars. Several lahars were reported between 5th to 7th of June.No change reported during the last 24 h regarding previous news. As of the 3rd of June, UWI-SRC reported that in the last 24 hours, only a few long-period.earthquakes have been recorded. Persistent steaming is observable from the observatory once the cloud cover is high enough. Thermal anomalies continue to be detected but do not indicate an explosive event isimminent Measurement of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux was carried out off the west coast on June 1st and 3rd and yielded an average SO2 flux of 543 and 456 tons per day, respectively. As of the 2nd of June UWI-SRC reported that the volcano is still in a state of unrest and access is prohibited at this time. Seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has remained low since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April. From 5:40am on 30 May to 8:00am (local time) on 31 May, there has been no recorded seismicity associated with La Soufrière. Persistent steaming is observable from the observatory once the cloud cover is high enough. Thermal anomalies continue to be detected by the NASA. As of the 28th of May, UWI-SRC reported that a persistent vapor was observable from the observatory once the cloud cover is sufficiently high. Thermal anomalies continue to be detected by the NASA FIRMS alert system. These have persisted since the explosion of April 22. They indicate that there is a heat source in the crater and most likely originate from a small body of magma remaining, near the bottom of Summit Crater. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest. Escalation of activity can still take place with little or no warning. The volcano is at Orange alert level.As of the 26th of may, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has remained low since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April. Persistent steaming is observable from the observatory once the cloud cover is high enough. Measurements of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux were done on 20 May and yielded an average SO2 flux of 461 tons per day. UWI-SRC reported that on 12th of May, In the last 24 hours, seismic activity was limited to a few long-period earthquakes. Gas measurements on May 11 yielded an average SO2 flux of 252 tons per day. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest.As of the 10th of May, UWI-SRC reported that in the last 24 hours, only a few long-period earthquakes have been recorded. Measurements of the sulphur dioxide flux at La Soufrière were carried out by boat off the west. coast yesterday (9 May) with the assistance of the coastguard. Several traverses were completed and yielded an average SO2 flux of 208 tons per day. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest. Escalation in activity can still take place with little or no warning. As of the 7th of may, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity remained low. No earthquakes have been recorded in the last 24 hours. A small lahar signal was observed at 7:40am on the morning. As of the 6th of May, UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to be in a state of turmoil. The government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has lowered the volcanic alert level at La Soufrière to ORANGE based on a recommendation from the University of the West Indies Seismic Research Center. As of the 5th of May, UWI-SRC reported that In the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further seismic tremor. As of the 2nd of May - 6pm - UWI-SRC reported that in the past 24 hours, only a few long-period hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there have been no further earthquakes. The seismic stations recorded the signals from small lahars around 1 a.m. and 8:30 a.m., in the red and orange areas. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest. As of the 30th, UWI-SRC reported that activity has remained low. As of the 29th of April, UWI-SRC reported that in the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further tremor. The seismic stations recorded signals from multiple lahars during a 12-hour period starting at 9pm on 28 April. Lahars seem to have taken place in all the valleys that drain from La Soufrière and caused considerable erosion and damage.As of the 28th of April - 6mp UWI-SRC reported that in the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further tremor. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest. As of the 27th - 6pm - UWI-SRC reported that explosions at La Soufriere in St. Vincent have greatly diminished. Seismic activity remained low with only a few long-period hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes recorded and there was no sign of a tremor. Signals of several lahars (mudslides) were recorded between 9 and 10 a.m. on April 27, during and after a period of rain.An observation flight took place on April 26 at around 11:30 am Visibility was poor with clouds blocking the crater most of the time. However it was possible to see white vapor escaping almost continuously from several places on the bottom of the crater. No dome was visible, although a spine could be seen through the cloudsAs of the 25th (6pm) UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity low since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting around noon on 22 April.In the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano- tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further tremor. Satellite radar imagery acquired on 24th April indicates probable continued growth or formation of a lava dome following the xplosions on 18 and 22 April. As of the 24th of April UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to erupt. Its pattern of seismic activity over the last few days is typical ofthe growth and destruction of lava domes. As of the 23rd of April 6pm, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has been low after the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting around noon on 22 April. Only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded and there was no further tremor.The seismic network recorded signals from multiple lahars (mudflows) at about 9 pm on 22 April. The locations of these lahars have not been only determined.Measurements of sulphur dioxide flux (mass) at La Soufriere volcano was again undertaken along the west coast today with the assistance of the coastguard. An average SO2 flux of 992 tons per day was recorded. As of the 22nd of April, UWI-SRC reported that small long-lived and hybrid earthquakes continued to be recorded, their rate of occurrence gradually increasing on April 22. The high-level seismic tremor began at 11:09 a.m., generated by explosive activity, and lasted for approximately 20 minutes. A vertical explosive eruption plume slowly rose above the crater, eventually reaching a height of around 8,000 meters During the initial stages of the explosion, a base surge (pyroclastic density current, PDC) was observed descending the western flank of the volcano. The tremor continued, at a lower level, for the next two hours as La Soufrière continued to evacuate ash. As of the 21st of April, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity of the Soufrière of St. Vincent continued the pattern established after the explosive activity of April 18. The agricultural sector of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has been severely affected by the eruptions of the Soufrière volcano. Preliminary evaluations reveal that in the red zone, 100% of vegetable crops and 60% of arrowroot (dictame) have been lost. The weight of the heavy ash fall caused the leaves and branches of many tree crops to break. About 90% of tree crops and 80% of root crops would also be damaged in the red zone. The cattle, which were left in the wild, are now without fodder as their pastures have also been totally destroyed by ash and dust. Small, long-lived and hybrid earthquakes continued to be recorded, their rate of occurrence gradually increasing over the past 24 hours.As of the 20th of April - 6pm UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to erupt. Its pattern of seismic activity over the last few days is typical ofhe growth and destruction of lava domes. easurements yielded an average SO2 flux of 350 tons per day. No seismic tremor has been recorded in the last 12 hours.UWI-SRC reported that swarm of long-lived and hybrid earthquakes continues, with no significant change in their frequency of occurrence. Occasional small volcano-tectonic earthquakes were still recorded. Its pattern of seismic activity over the past few days is typical of the growth and destruction of lava domes. An explosion generated a high level tremor period starting at 4 p.m. 49 April 18. The resulting eruption plume rose over 8 km and drifted south and southwest of the island. An average SO2 flux of 232 and 391 tonnes per day, on April 17 and 18, respectively, was recorded. As of the 17th of April, the swarm of long-period and hybrid earthquakes continued at La Soufrière. The rate of occurrence of these earthquakes dropped significantly at about 8 pm on 16 April and has remained near-constant since. No episodes of tremor have been recorded in the lhe crater is thought to be at least 100 m deep (Raphael Grandin, IPGP) and is centred in the SW sector of theast 12 hours. A revised picture has been constructed of the summit crater based on satellite images. The new crater, measures approximately 900 m N to S and at least 750 m E to W pf the. Summit Crater. As of the 16th of April, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière in St. Vincent has changed in appearance and continues with a constant swarm of LP and hybrid earthquakes, interspersed with brief low-level tremor episod. Sulfur dioxide flux measurements at La Soufrière were again undertaken along the west coast, giving an average SO2 flux of 460 tonnes per day. The presence of sulfur dioxide indicates that fresh magma is degassing from a deeper source ... the eruption continues, despite a pause in explosive activity.es. There was a high-level tremor episode at 6:15 a.m., which lasted about three minutes, followed by over two hours of low-level tremor generated by explosive activity and ventilation. SCIENTIFIC UPDATE - 15/04/21 6:00AM -  Seismic activity at La Soufrière continued to follow the established pattern with bands of tremor about between 13 and 15 hours apart separated by swarms of small long-period earthquakes. The latest band of tremor started at about 2:30 am and was associated with increased venting. The volcano continues to erupt explosively and has now begun to generate pyroclastic density currents - hot (200°C-700°C), ground-hugging flows of ash and debris. Its current pattern of explosions appears to be episodic (stop-start) with increasing periods between eruptions and less energy. Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days impacting St. Vincent and neighbouring islands.SCIENTIFIC UPDATE - 14/04/21 6:00AM - Seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent showed a similar pattern to yesterday. Small long-period earthquakes continued to gradually increase in number after the explosive activity at 6:30am on 13 April. These continued until another episode of explosive activity started at 8:30 pm on 13 April. This generated continuous seismic tremor which lasted for four to five hours. 5. After the tremor had died down, small, long-period earthquakes were again recorded, again slowly growing in numbers. The explosions which occurred pulsed for >40 minutes and produced pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) which, appear to have gone down valleys that drain towards the Rabacca River on the east coast of the island. PDCs are hot (200°C-700°C), ground-hugging flows of ash and debris. Lahars (mudflows) were reported in the Sandy Bay Area on 13 April. The volcano continues to erupt explosively and has now begun to generate pyroclastic density currents. Its current pattern of explosions appears to be episodic (stop-and-go). Over the past 24 hours the time between each explosion has increased. Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days impacting St. Vincent and neighbouring islands such as Barbados, Grenada, Saint Lucia.  The volcano is at alert level Red. UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity changed with the explosive activity at 6.30am on April 13th. Prior to the explosion, long-period (LP) earthquakes had increased in number. The explosions of  La Soufrière pulsed for about 30 minutes and produced pyroclastic density currents that reached the sea at the mouth of the Wallibou about 6 km from the volcano and which extended out to sea, according to observers. Observations made during the afternoon show that the pyroclastic flows reached the sea from all the valleys between Larikai and Wallibou. As of the 12th - 6pm - UWI-SRC reported that pattern of seismic activity changed again, with the end of the episodes of high-amplitude tremor 2-8 hours apart.Three episodes of tremor have been recorded since 6am, two of them lower-amplitude and the third, at about 5pm, was high-amplitudeThe episodes continue to coincide with periods of enhanced. A reconnaissance of the entire north coast of St. Vincent from Chateaubelair to Georgetown with assistance from the Coast guards.Observations made indicate that pyroclastic density currents western flanks of the volcano and had reached the sea at Morne onde, Larikai and Trois Loupes Bay.Extensive damage to vegetation was noted in an area extending rom Larikai Bay to Turner Bay on the west coast.No other areas along the coast had been affected by PDCs but villages located on the eastern flank of the volcano had been ffected by heavy ashfall.Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days. UWI-SRC reported that the day of April 12 eruptive activity was marked by a huge explosions at 4:15 am, which was accompanied by a plume of ash and gas reaching an altitude of 17-18 km., And density currents. pyroclastic descending several valleys on the southern and western flanks of the volcano. They reached the sea at Morne Ronde, Larikai and Trois Loupes Bay and caused extensive damage to vegetation. The amplitude of the tremor has changed since April 11 around noon, with a lengthening of the time between high amplitude episodes at 5-8 hours; Around 6 p.m. on April 11, small volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded. On April 12, 3 episodes of tremor were recorded for 6 hours, coinciding with periods of explosive activity or increased venting. UWI-SRC - La Soufriere Eruption Scientific Update 11/04/21 at 9am : in the last twelve hours episodes of tremor normally lasting up to 20 minutes have continued to be recorded.The intervals between the tremors have been between 1.5 to 3 hours. Based on visual observations and satellite imagery, the intervals are associated with periods of explosive activity or enhanced venting.Thunder and lightning were experienced during these periods. Heavy ash fall was observed at the Belmont Observatory throughout the night.Ashfall was also reported to have occurred in most areas of the island overnight and in neighbouring islands: the Grenadines, Barbados and Saint Lucia. Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days. UWI-SRC reported that aAfter the initial explosion of La Soufrière in St. Vincent at 8:41 am on 9th of April, which was accompanied by a plume of ash and gas with an estimated height of 10,000 meters (Dr. Robertson), the seismicity rose again around 11:30 a.m., as a seismic swarm that ended at 2:40 p.m.At 2:58 p.m .: a second explosion occurred, accompanied by a vertical plume of gas and ash about 4 km high.It continues nourished by successive impulses.Tremor has been recorded continuously since 3 p.m., the most important signals accompanying the most important phases of ash emissions, charged with lightning. A third explosion occurred from 6.35 p.m.. As of 8:41 am this morning April 9, 2021 UWI-SRC reported that an explosive eruption began at the La Soufrière volcano in St. Vincent. This is a culmination of the seismic activity that began on April 8. The eruption is ongoing and more information will be shared as things progress. Previously la Soufriere volcano was raised to alert level Red. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, W.I. – 6:30pm April 8th, 2021 - Scientists have observed a significant increase in activity at La Soufriere volcano which has prompted The Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines to raise the volcanic alert level at the La Soufriere volcano to Red. he UWI-Seismic Research Centre scientific team based at the Belmont Observatory in St. Vincent recorded six separate bands of volcanic tremor throughout the day. This new type of seismic event has not yet been observed since the beginning of the eruption in December 2020. This type of seismic signal is usually associated with movement of magma and fluids close to the surface. Ash venting was also observed during the most recent tremor episode.The effusive eruption is continuing and an explosive phase of the eruption may begin with very little warning. An evacuation order has been issued for communities in the Red volcanic hazard zone. Prime Minister Ralph Gonsalves made the announcement during the second of two press conferences held in Kingstown today. The UWI-SRC Geologist and Scientific Team Lead, Prof. Richard Robertson indicated that “We cannot give any clear warning that nothing can happen within the next 24-48 hours and we would not be surprised if there are explosions at the volcano during that period.” As of the 7th of Aprl, UWI-SRC reported that the Volcano Monitoring Network continued to record small earthquakes associated with the growth of the lava dome. There were also several small Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes located beneath the volcano. UWI-SRC reported that the new swarm of Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes which began at the La Soufrière Volcano at 6:38 am on 5th of April continued at a fairly constant rate before starting to decline at about 2:00 p.m. Activities declined significantly at 4:00 p.m. although small Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes were still being recorded. The current swarm of Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes have been located at a depth about 6 km below the summit of the La Soufrière Volcano. This is slightly deeper than those recorded between March 23 and 25, 2021 which were located at depths from 3 to 5 km below the summit. (Earlier estimates of these swarms were revised from 10 km to 3 to 5 km). The largest Volcano-Tectonic earthquake was recorded at 2:16 pm today, with a magnitude of 3.9. There were nine more Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes in the swarm with magnitudes of 3.0 or more.This new warm of Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes were also much more intense compared to those which occurred during the period March 23-25 and contained many more small earthquakes, with an average rate of about 50 earthquakes per hour compared with 1.5 per hour in March.UWI-SRC reported that on 3rd of April, dome growth continues as the magma fills the space around the old 1979 dome. As of the 29th of March, UWI-SRC reported that activity at the La Soufrière Volcano continues to be at a low level dominated by small earthquakes associated with growth of the lava dome. The alert level remains at Orange. The National Emergency Management Organisation is reminding the public that no evacuation order or notice has been issued. As of the 28th of March, UWI-SRC reported that period of elevated volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes which began on 23 March 2021 stopped on March 26, 2021. Since then, the only seismic activity being recorded are small low frequency events associated with the growth of the dome. These kinds of events were dominant before March 23, 2021. Their rate of occurrence does not appear to have changed as a result of the volcano tectonic earthquake swarm.The new dome continues to grow towards the Leeward and Windward sides of the Volcano with the most active gas emissions being at the top of the new dome, as well as the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 and 2020/21 domes. A drone survey of the dome conducted on March 19th indicates that approximately 6,291,084 m3 of new material (nearly double in size), has been added to the dome since the last survey on February 12. As of the 25th of March, UWI-SRC reported that here have been no changes in activities at the La Soufrière Volcano over the past twenty four hours. Volcano tectonic earthquakes continue to be recorded beneath the volcano and their magnitude is such that they can be felt in villages such as Fancy, Owia, Point and Sandy Bay. The alert level remains at Orange. As of the 24th of March, UWI-SRC reported that mMonitoring scientists at the Belmont Observatory led by scientists from The UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC) have noted a change in seismic activity associated with the ongoing eruption of the La Soufrière Volcano. Up until 23 March 2021, the seismic activity had been dominated by very small low-frequency events which were associated with the ongoing extrusion of the lava dome. These were almost always only recorded at the seismic station closest to the dome. Starting at approximately 10:30 local time (14:30 UTC) on 23 March 2021, the monitoring network recorded a swarm of small low-frequency seismic events which lasted for about 45 minutes. These events were different from previous activity in that they were also recorded on other stations. These events were probably associated with magma movement beneath the dome, although their depth cannot be determined. This is the first time that such a swarm has been seen since the seismic network was upgraded in early 2021. Starting at 16:53 local time (20:53 UTC) on 23 March 2021, the monitoring network started recording volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. These earthquakes are normally associated with underground fractures of the rock mass and are commonly generated by magma pushing through an unyielding rock mass. The volcano-tectonic earthquakes were located beneath the volcano, at depths down to 10 km below the summit. The largest of these had a magnitude of 2.6. Some of them have been reported felt by people living in communities close to the volcano such as Fancy Owia and Sandy Bay. At the present time the volcano-tectonic earthquakes continue, with the numbers of events fluctuating. The very-small dome-extrusion events also continue.As of the 23rd of March, UWI-SRC reported that the dome has continued to grow towards the north-west and south-east with the most active gas emissions being at the top of the new dome, as well as the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome. As of the 19th of March, new estimation for lava dome gave a volume of 13.13 millions/m3 with a length of 912 m, a width of 243 m, and a height of 105 m. As of the 16th of March UWI-SRC reported that the lava dome is still slowly growing at about 2m/3 per second. No notable change occurred at the volcano (update video). As of the 12th of March, testing and preparation to install a permanent multi-gas monitoring instrument at the top the volcano continues. The team from the Soufriere Monitoring Unit will conduct a drone survey and take aerial photographs of the volcano on Saturday 13th March, 2020, once the weather condition is good. As of the 8th of March, UWI-SRC that the monitoring team made a visit to the La Soufrière Volcano last week for visual observations and drone survey of the dome. Another visit was made to the hot springs on the Wallibou River for water sampling, gas and temperature measurements. Measurements were also undertaken of carbon dioxide in the soil along the Wallibou riverbed. Clear weather conditions at the top of the volcano allowed for aerial photographs to be taken but no new volumes were obtained due to technical problems with the images. Visual observations of the inside of the volcano during the visit confirmed that slow dome growth continues with the south-eastern front of the dome now in line with the pre-existing fumarole on the 1979 dome. No new data is available on the gas coming from the volcano. The ongoing outflow of magma onto the crater floor continues with periodic changes in the rate of dome growth. As of the 5th of March, the new seismic station built at the Bamboo Range National Parks Interpretive Center on the east side of the volcano was operational. A new Global Positioning System (GPS) continuous monitoring station has been installed on the recently constructed monument in Fancy. Work continued at the Belmont Observatory on the installation of the seismic data acquisition system.The gas plume coming from the dome at La Soufriere continues to cause damage to vegetation in the summit areas on the south-western side of the volcano. The measurement of carbon dioxide in soil along the lower sides of the volcano has commenced. As of the 26th of February UWI-SRC reported that no drone surveys or aerial photographs of the volcano were done due to poor weather conditions. Satellite images on February 23, 2021 confirmed that the dome continues to grow slowly. The results from the testing of gas given off by the new dome remain unchanged and continue to consist of water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2,), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). As of the 25th of February, UWI-SRC reported that the lava dome is still growing. No notable change occurred at the volcano. The camera set up at the La Soufrière Volcano was replaced. There are plans in place to install a new seismic station at Bamboo Range on the eastern (Windward) side of the volcano. Equipment for installation is being prepared by the Seismic Research Centre and Soufrière Monitoring Unit Team. Gusty conditions did not allow for drone footage past week. The team continued their work at the summit on Saturday 20th February and managed to get a few photos. Update on dome volume will be given after a full drone flight. As of the 17th of February, UWI-SRC reported that all monitoring data indicate that the ongoing effusion (outflow) of magma onto the crater floor continues. The overall rate of growth since onset of dome growth is approximately 1.9 cubic metres per second. There are no clear indications that the activity is either increasing or decreasing in intensity, but there are periodic changes in the rate at which dome growth is occurring. Measurements of the gas emissions (releases) from the new dome, as well as a preliminary visual inspection of rock samples collected from the dome is indicative of new magmatic material from depth, contributing to the lava extrusion now taking place in the crater. There is a clear gas plume column/cloud/trail) from the dome that is damaging the vegetation in the summit areas on the south-west of the volcano. As of the 16th of February, UWI-SRC reported that the new dome continues to grow towards the north-west and south-east with the most active gas emissions being the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 domes, as well as the top of the new dome.Plans have been put in place to establish a new seismic station along the volcano trail and for the establishment of benchmarks for GPS measurements to be done at Table Rock and Jacob’s Well along the trail to the volcano. As of the 13th of february, UWI-SRC reported that the volume of the dome  was now estimated at 6.83 million m³, for 618 m in length, 232 m in width and 90 m in height, growing. The most active gas emissions are at the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-2021 dome, as well as at the top of the new dome. Damage to vegetation, due to acid gases emitted by the growing dome, downstream from the summit, continues to be observed. Falling blocks on the sides of the new dome are recorded by seismographs, and observed. New seismic monitoring equipment was provided by the USGS through the Volcano Disaster Program. An Orange Level alert means highly elevated seismicity or fumarolic activity, or both.As of the 12h of February, UWI-SRC reported that the most active gas emissions are at the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome, as well as the top of the new dome.Damage to vegetation, from acidic gases emitted from the growing dome, downslope of the summit continues to be observed. As of the 10th of February UWI-SRC reported that no noticeable change occured, the new dome continue to grow with lateral spreading of material towards the North and South, with a preferred northward growth observed. (updated video). The most active gas emissions are at the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome, as well as the top of the new dome.Satellite images captured on February 5, 202l allowed for a completely clear view of the crater. The new dome continues to grow with lateral spreading of ~15 m towards the north-west and south-east. An investigation was carried out in the region of the hot springs of Wallibou on Sunday February 7, 2021 based on a report indicating irregular temperatures and unusual gas odors. Some gas samples were taken and the temperature was taken at various points and also some liquid samples were taken for further analysis. Lava dome measurements carried out on February 1st was : 511 meters lengh by 231 meters large, for a height of 93 meters and an estimated volume of 5.93 million m³. Observations made northwest of the dome suggest a new area affected by fire that affected vegetation on the crater walls. (updated video) . Some gas measurements were done on 1st of February using a Multi-Gas Instrument and a filter pack and detected the first day that sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas in the eruption. Additional reflectors for the Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) target were installed this day, bringing the total number of reflectors installed to nine (9). These reflectors will be used to assist with measurements of deformation associated with the flanks of the volcano. .Some gas measurements were done today using a Multi-Gas Instrument and a filter pack. The Multi-Gas measurements were successful. Since the installation of station on 06 January on the flanks of the volcano, at Wallibou, and the one at the summit, on 18 January, 573 events have been recorded, up to 07:30 a.m., on 30 January. Three GPS stations are currently streaming data to Seismic Research Centre. Telemetry of the data being collected from the new GPS station installed at the Richmond Vale Academy on 23 January, is still ongoing. Since 31 December 2020, no significant deformation signals related to the current effusive eruption have been observed. The Team from the UWI Seismic Research Centre and the Soufrière Monitoring Unit will spend the next few days scouting to air mark sites to carry out the surveys for the EDM and to install more reflectors inside the base at the volcano for the EDM target.On 27th of January the dimensions of the new dome of the Soufrière de St Vincent  was 428 m lengh, 217 m large and 80 m in height - total volume 4.45 million m³. As of the 25th of January, UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Generally clear views of the volcano indicate that the damage to the vegetation due to acidic gases continue to creep downslope. Alert level remains at Orange.  Full advantage was taken of the general clear conditions at the summit on 24th of January to achieve several tasks.Aerial photographs and video of the volcano were taken, through the assistance of Drone Pilot Rommel De Freitas and Professor Robertson.The electronics team led by Mr Ian Juman installed a camera and EDM reflector on the southern crater wall. The camera will be used to help track growth of the dome while the EDM reflector would be used to check for possible instability of the southern crater wall. UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. GPS monitoring station was installed at the Richmond Vale Academy on 23rd of January. The team prepared monitoring equipment at Belmont to be installed close to the summit of the volcano on Sunday 24th. As of the 22nd of January, UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Close observations of the volcano were made at the Belmont Observatory during most of the day. Gas emissions from the dome were consistent throughout the day.The area of burnt vegetation continues to creep downslope and has now expanded towards the top eastern rim of the crater. As of the 21st of January, UWI-SRC reported that Alert level remains at Orange. The volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. UWI-SRC reported that no clear views were obtained of the dome on 20th of January. The volcano continued to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. As of the 19th of January, UWI-SRC reported that effusive activity of the lava dome continued. The dome took on an elliptical shape. As of the 18th of January, UWI-SRC reported that effusive activity continued (video report from UWI-SRC) . UWI-SRC reported that visual observations of the dome on 17th of January late in the afternoon allowed for clear views into the crater. The dome continues to increase in height, to spread laterally and to emit volcanic gases. The areas of most active gas emission were noted to be the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome, as well as the top of this new dome. An extensive area of burnt vegetation was observed in the western section of the crater floor, extending outwards from the dome. UWI-SRC reported that Soufriere continues to erupt "effusively" as hot magma reaches the surface at extreme temperatures. This appears overnight as a bright red glow above the crater, observed by the villagers of Chateaubelair and surrounding areas on the western flank of the volcano. UWI-SRC team safely and successfully collected rock samples from the new lava dome  on January 16. Analyzing the composition of these rocks will provide valuable information on whether the new dome is made of old material (linked to the 1979 eruption) or fresh material from greater depths. During the field visit on January 16th, UWI-SRC team took photo of the dome with a thermal camera: on a growing area, the max. was 590.8 ° C but the internal temperatures must be higher, which justifies a night incandescence. An expanse of burnt vegetation was observed in the western section of the crater floor, extending outward from the dome. As of the 15th of January, UWI-SRC reported that observations indicate that the dome has continued to grow; and was now about three quarters (¾) of the height of the pre-existing 1979 dome, with a estimated of 340 m long, 160 m wide, and 90 m high. . Growth of the dome continues with lateral spreading of material towards the east and west along the moat areas surrounding the 1979 dome.Gas emissions were observed from several areas of the 1979 dome as well as the crater floor through several cracks which have developed. Damage to the vegetation was extensive within the eastern, southern, and western parts of the inner crater walls. The damage reported on previously that is occurring along the upper part of the south western crater rim, has continued to slowly extend downslope. UWI-SRC reported that te dome continues to grow in height and extends laterally to the east and west, confined between the old dome and the crater wall, following continued magmatic extrusion. Steam is visible from the Belmont Observatory. A helicopter arrived from Antigua on January 14, allowing aerial reconnaissance, and the taking of thermal images, gas emissions and measurements of the dimensions of the new dome. New gas measurements and analyzes must be carried out. The alert level remains at orange. The scientists have reported that carbon dioxide is also one of the gases coming out of the volcano, along with Sulphur Dioxide. UWI-SRC reported that heavy cloud did not allow for aerial reconnaissance on 13th of January. Arrangements have been made for aerial reconnaissance over the next few days via helicopter. As of the 12th of January UWI-SRC reported that due to bad wheather conditions no areial reconnaissance could be carried.dome. The new dome continues to grow (estimation from UWI-SRC) about 1.5 m3 per second; wedged between it and the crater wall, it expands laterally in a westerly direction. Its shape has changed from round to ellipsoid. The vapors emitted are visible from the Belmont observatory.The alert level remains orange.(video) dated 12th of January. As of the 11th of January, UWI-SRC reported that no reconnaissance flight of the La Soufriere was done due to unfavorable weather conditions. The dome that broke through the crater floor, on the south-west perimeter of the existing dome, continues to grow within the crater of La Soufrière and has an ellipsoid shape with growth expanding in a westerly direction. UWI-SRC bulletin 11, dated 10th of January reported that weather conditions did not allow for a reconnaissance flight on Saturday 9th January or Sunday 10th January, 2021, however analysis of footage collected from a drone flight over the volcano on Saturday 9th January indicate that the drone continues to grow (photo). The dome that broke through the crater floor, on December 27, 2020, on the south-west perimeter of the existing dome, continues to grow within the crater of La Soufrière and has an ellipsoid shape with growth expanding in a westerly direction. Alert level remains at Orange. Two scientists from the Seismic Research Centre (SRC) based at the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), will join the current team here in St. Vincent later this week. They are expected to gather data from the dome and crater through temperature and photogrammetry measurements and gas measurements using a MultiGAS and spectrometer. UWI-SRC bulletin 10, dated of January 8th, reported that the dome that broke through the crater floor, on December 27, 2020, on the south-west perimeter of the existing dome, continues to grow within the crater of La Soufrière and has an ellipsoid shape with growth expanding in a westerly direction. UWI-SRC bulletin 9 dated on 7th of January reported the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface, steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory and the new dome also continues to increase in size. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. The SRC Team conducted a successful reconnaissance of the La Soufriere Volcano on board the French Helicopter on Wednesday 6th January, 2021 through an arrangement between the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines and the Government of France, through the Embassy of France to the Eastern Caribbean States, to Barbados and the OECS in Saint Lucia. The second planned reconnaissance on that day on board the Regional Security System (RSS) Aircraft was cancelled due to the presence of heavy cloud cover when the aircraft arrived.UWI-SRC bulletin 8 dated of 5th of January reported that alert level remained at Orange. The Volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory.Based on observations this day, the dome is slowly getting bigger. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. UWI-SRC-NEMO reported that no aerial reconnaissance of La Soufriere was done on 4th of January due to the heavy cloud cover. Alert level remains at Orange. The Volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. UWI-SRC reported that a flyby carried out by the Nemo on January 3rd allowed to see the new dome in constant growth. Satellite images taken by Sentinel 2 SWIR and visible Planetlabs clearly reveal its position in the crater.The surveillance of La Soufrière has been reinforced. A webcam surveillance system was installed at Rose Hall on January 2 to continuously observe the summit of the volcano. A data center has also been created at the Belmont Observatory, to analyze the data collected on the volcano. The alert level remains at Orange. The volcano continues its effusion activity, and steam can be observed from Belmont. UWI-SRC reported that two aerial reconnaissance were carried out on 31st of December 2020 at the Soufrière of St-Vincent: but a strong cloud cover prevented a good view of the crater during the first reconnaissance; The second aerial reconnaissance was carried out around 4:00 p.m. and the photographer was able to capture photos of the crater, which shows the effusive eruption is continuing and the new dome is also continuing to increase in size. The alert level remains at Orange. People living in areas near the volcano, which include communities of Fancy in Georgetown and Belle Isle in Richmond, are urged to remain vigilant and listen to any advice from the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO).As of the 30th of December, NEMO and UWI reported that although there have been no significant changes over the past 24 hours at Soufrière de St -Vincent, materials and magma continue to accumulate on the surface with no associated seismic activity. The construction of the Dome continues, its size is seen slightly larger than on December 29, during the monitoring of the volcano by aerial surveillance. The alert level remains at Orange - high fumarolic activity. All residents living in communities closer to the volcano (red and orange zones) are asked to be on alert for any increased activity.Following an effusive episode residents of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines have been placed on alert.(relief bulletin). According to a press briefing on December 22, the Seismic Research Center at the University of the West Indies (UWI-SRC) in Trinidad was made aware by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of a hot spot on La Soufrière. Since the beginning of November, there has been an increase in the background level of seismic activity recorded at La Soufrière. The photo taken by the main seismic technician of the Soufrière monitoring unit on December 29, 2020 shows a new dome with steam in the crater following an effusive eruption at the La Soufrière volcano in St Vincent. The UWI-SRC is currently monitoring the situation in collaboration with the local authorities and an update will be provided shortly. The public is advised not to visit the volcano until a new update is provided. The UWI-SRC and the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO) are the official sources of information on earthquakes and volcanic activity in St Vincent and the Grenadines. Soufrière St. Vincent is the northernmost and youngest volcano on St. Vincent Island. The NE rim of the 1.6-km wide summit crater is cut by a crater formed in 1812. The crater itself lies on the SW margin of a larger 2.2-km-wide Somma crater, which is breached widely to the SW as a result of slope failure. Frequent explosive eruptions since about 4300 years ago produced pyroclastic deposits of the Yellow Tephra Formation, which blanket much of the island. The first historical eruption took place in 1718; it and the 1812 eruption produced major explosions. Much of the northern end of the island was devastated by a major eruption in 1902 that coincided with the catastrophic Mont Pelée eruption on Martinique. A lava dome was emplaced in the summit crater in 1971 during a strictly effusive eruption, forming an island in a lake that filled the crater prior to an eruption in 1979. The lake was then largely ejected during a series of explosive eruptions, and the dome was replaced with another. (GVN/GVP). Photos booklet online about previous eruption.

FRANCE - Montagne Pelée ( Martinique island)

December 30th, 2022

Over the period from 16 to 23 December 2022, the OVSM (Observatoire volcanologique et seismlogique de Martinique) recorded at least 2 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than 1. These low-energy earthquakes were located. They are identical to those of the well-known families at Mount Pelee, and are located inside the volcanic edifice around 0.4 km above sea level or about 1 km deep below the surface of the summit.This volcano-tectonic superficial seismicity is associated with the formation of micro-fractures in the volcanic edifice. During the period of this report, the LMO also recorded 2 hybrid earthquakes, one of which was located 23 km deep under the summit of Pelee. These signals containing low frequencies are associated with the presence of fluids inside the Caribbean plate, under the volcano. None of these earthquakes were felt by the population. Between November 11, 2022 at 16:00 UTC and November 18, 2022 at 16:00 UTC, the OVSM recorded at least 4 volcano-tectonic type earthquakes of magnitude less than 1. Three of these low energy earthquakes have been located. They are identical to those of the well-known families at Mount Pelée, and are located inside the volcanic edifice around 0.4 km above sea level, i.e. about 1 km below the surface of the summit. This surface seismicity of volcano-tectonic type is associated with the formation of micro-fractures in the volcanic edifice. None of these earthquakes was felt by the population. Between October 7th and 14th at 4 p.m. UTC, the OVSM recorded at least 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, including one of magnitude 1.2. This superficial seismicity, around 0.4 km. above sea level evening about 1 km. deep below the summit of the volcano, is associated with the formation of micro-fractures. Between September 30th and October 7th at 4 p.m. UTC, the Volcanological and Seismic Observatory of Martinique recorded at least 14 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than 0.1 at Mount Pelée. Two of these low-energy earthquakes were located inside the volcanic edifice about 1,000 meters below the summit, and not felt.Seismicity is associated with the formation of micro-fractures. The alert level remains at yellow / vigilance.Between September 16th and 23rd, 2022, the OVSM recorded at Mount Pelée at least 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than 0.1, of which 2 could be located. This seismicity is superficial, and associated with the formation of micro-fractures of the building, located at 400m. above sea level, approximately 1 km. deep below the top surface.In addition, 3 hybrid earthquakes were recorded, related to internal fluids.To the areas of deteriorated vegetation already confirmed located between Morne Plumé and the Rivière Chaude, another has been added since August 26 to the north of the Rivière Chaude.The alert level remains at yellow / vigilance. The weekly report of the OVSM-IPGP for the period between August 19 and August 26, 2022 mentions at least nine volcano-tectonic earthquakes under Mount Pelée (it had been three weeks since there had been any more earthquakes). They were of magnitude less than 0.1 and were located inside the volcanic edifice (500 to 900m deep). These earthquakes are, still according to the OVSM, associated with the formation of micro-fractures in the volcanic edifice. None of the earthquakes were felt by the population. An extension of two areas of deteriorated vegetation located between Morne Plumé and the Chaude River was noted during helicopter overflights carried out on February 9 and May 5 with the support of Dragon 972 (see monthly bulletin for February 2022), and confirmed by analysis of satellite images and a drone (overflight of May 11). The alert level remains yellow: vigilance. Between June 10th, 2022 at 4 p.m. (UTC) and June 17th, 2022 at 4 p.m. (UTC), the OVSM recorded at least 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes. The zone of degassing at sea at shallow depth between St Pierre and le Prêcheur is still observed. The IGP took fluid samples in order to understand the origin of this degassing and to assess its possible relationship with the Mount Pelée hydrothermal system. The alert level remains YELLOW: vigilance. OVSM reported that between March 25 and April 1, the OVSM recorded at least 10 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than or equal to 0.6 under Mount Pelee. (There had been 2 the previous week.) These earthquakes of low energy were located inside the volcanic edifice between 0.7 and 1.5 km depth below the surface. This superficial volcano-tectonic seismicity is associated with the formation of micro-fractures in the volcanic edifice. None of these earthquakes was felt by the population.The zone of degassing at sea at shallow depth between Saint-Pierre and Le Prêcheur is still observed. The IPGP took fluid samples in order to determine the origin of this degassing and to assess its possible relationship with the Mount Pelée hydrothermal system. Between March 18th and 25th at 4 p.m. UTC, the volcanological and seismological observatory of Martinique recorded 2 low-energy volcano-tectonic earthquakes under Mount Pelée, associated with the micro-fracturing of the volcanic edifice; the hypocentres are located between 700 meters and 1,100 meters deep. An extension of two zones of deteriorated vegetation, located between Morne Plumé and Rivière Chaude, was observed and verified by a helicopter flight and satellite images. Between February 25, 2022 and March 4, 2022, the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Martinique recorded at least 27 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than or equal to 1.1. There had been at least 35 the previous week . These low energy earthquakes were located inside the volcanic edifice between 0.7 and 0.9 km deep below the surface. This superficial volcano-tectonic seismicity is associated with the formation of micro-fractures in the volcanic edifice. None of these earthquakes was felt by the population.OVSM recorded between February 18 and February 25 at 4 p.m. UTC at least 35 volcano-tectonic earthquakes with a magnitude less than or equal to 0.5 under Mount Pelee. The hypocenters were located between 500 m and 1,200 meters below the surface.This superficial seismicity is associated with the micro-fracturing of the volcanic edifice.A hybrid earthquake associated with the presence of fluids was recorded.An extension of two areas of deteriorated vegetation was noted during an overflight.The alert level remains at yellow. OVSM reported that between December 31, 2021 and January 7, 2022, the OVSM recorded at Mount Pelée 16 VT earthquakes of M less than or equal to 0.25, between 1.0 km depth and the surface. They are related to the micro-fracturing of rocks. Areas of vegetation degraded by gas are regrowing, while others have been detected. The shallow sea degassing zone is still under investigation. The level of volcanic vigilance has been yellow since December 4, 2020. Previous news 2021 - OVSM reported that between October 15, 2021 at 4 p.m. (UTC) and October 22, 2021 at 4 p.m. (UTC), the OVSM recorded at Montagne Pelée, Martinique, at least 44 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, associated with the formation micro-fractures in the volcanic edifice, of magnitude less than or equal to 0.1.These earthquakes were located inside the volcanic edifice between 1 km and 0.1 km below the surface. None of these earthquakes were felt by the population.A degassing zone at sea was detected at shallow depth (between St Pierre and le Prêcheur). The IGP is currently setting up experiments to map this gas emanation zone, carry out physicochemical measurements of the fluids and samples of these fluids in order to understand the origin of this degassing and to assess its possible relationship. with the hydrothermal system of Mount Pelée. This kind of manifestation is frequent on active or not active underwater volcanic sites. The analyzes underway by the OVSM-IPGP will make it possible to determine the possible relationship of this underwater degassing with the activity of Mount Pelée recorded by the OVSM since 2019.A main area of ​​heavily degraded vegetation is still observed on the southwest flank of Mount Pelée, between the upper Claire River and the Chaude River.The alert level remains at  YELLOW / vigilance. Between August 6 and 13, the OVSM recorded at least 29 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than or equal to 0.2 (since the lightning of the night of June 29 to 30, 82% of the Montagne Pelée seismological station network and 86% of the volcano's deformation detection network are operational). The previous week, between July 30 and August 6, 121 earthquakes were recorded. These earthquakes were located inside the volcanic edifice between 0.3 km above sea level and the surface. None of these earthquakes were felt by the population. This volcano-tectonic-type superficial seismicity is associated with the formation of microfractures in the volcanic edifice.A degassing zone at sea was detected at shallow depth (between Saint-Pierre and Le Prêcheur). The alert level remains on Yellow. Between July 9 and 16, the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Martinique recorded at least 76 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than or equal to 0.2. There were 41 earthquakes between July 2 and 9. This week's 76 earthquakes were located inside the volcanic edifice between sea level and 1 km above sea level. None of these earthquakes were felt by the population. A main area of ​​heavily degraded vegetation is still observed on the southwest flank of Mount Pelée, between the upper Claire River and the Chaude River. These observations reflect the variable dynamics of the processes of magmatic and hydrothermal origin at Mount Pelée in line with its renewed activity since April 2019. L'Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity at Pelée increased during 19-26 March. The seismic network recorded at least 55 high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes less than or equal to 1, located at depths between 1.7 km below sea level and 1 km above sea level. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).L'Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity at Pelée remained at significant levels during 8-15 January, though had slightly decreased compared to the previous week. The seismic network recorded at least 22 high-frequency, volcano-tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes less than 1, located at shallow depths between 600 and 1,000 m above sea level. Two low-frequency, long-period earthquakes were also noted. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). L'Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity related to volcanism has typically remained low at Pelé since 1980, when monitoring instrumentation was first installed, with a few dozen earthquakes recorded per year. Swarms were recorded in 1980, 1985-1986, 2007, and 2014, though the latter two swarms were associated with tectonic events. Volcanic seismicity appeared in April 2019 centered 4-5 km below the summit and deeper (more than 10 km below sea level). In addition, tremor-type signals were recorded during 8-9 November 2020, possibly signifying a reactivation of the hydrothermal system. The seismic data recorded since April 2019 represented an increase above baseline levels recorded during 1 January 2015 to April 2019. As a result of this activity OVSM raised the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 4 December 2020. Seismicity remained above background levels during 18 December 2020-1 January 2021, with at least 14 volcano-tectonic earthquakes detected with magnitudes less than or equal to 1. Scientists did not observe fumarolic activity during an overflight on 29 December 2020. The number of high-frequency, volcano-tectonic earthquakes (M 1 or less) totaled 65 during 1-8 January. A significant number (249) of long-period earthquakes in a volcanic tremor-type signal were distributed over two periods, 0000-0200 on 3 January and between 2100 on 3 January and 0200 on 4 January. Two isolated, low-frequency, long-period signals were also recorded. The data suggested ongoing perturbation of the hydrothermal system. Previously, Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Martinique of the IPGP (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, CNRS) sent, on Thursday 3 December 2020, an explanatory note to the Prefect of Martinique to recommend a passage to the level of yellow volcanic alert (2nd alert level on a scale that counts 4) of the Pelee Mountain. This recommendation of the OVSM-IPGP comes after the detection of the evolution of seismic signals measured in the context of monitoring the volcano by the observatory and the consultation of a group of experts who studied these phenomena.  Renowned Montagne Pelée, forming the northern end of the island of Martinique, is the most active volcano of the Lesser Antilles arc. Three major edifice failures since the late Pleistocene, the last about 9000 years ago, have left large horseshoe-shaped calderas breached to the SW inside which the modern volcano has been constructed. More than 20 major eruptions have occurred here during the past 5000 years. Extensive pyroclastic-flow deposits, incised by steep-walled ravines, mantle the slopes of the volcano. The l'Etang Sec summit crater is filled by two lava domes emplaced during the 1902 and 1929 eruptions. Historical eruptions date back to the 18th century; only two modest phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruptions took place prior to 1902. The catastrophic 1902 eruption, which destroyed the city of St. Pierre, the "Pearl of the Lesser Antilles," became the type-example of pelean eruptions and marked the onset of modern volcanological studies of the behavior of pyroclastic flows. (GVN/GVP)

FRANCE - Soufriere Guadeloupe

October 3rd, 2020

OVSG reported that a new sequence of volcanic earthquakes began on September 29, 2020 at 5:33 am local time in the area of the La Soufrière of Guadeloupe. On October 2, the OVSG networks recorded 228 earthquakes of M <1, not felt; the hypocenter is located 2.5 km under the dome of La Soufrière. The alert level remains at yellow / vigilance.OVSG reported tha the new sequence of volcanic earthquakes that began on Saturday September 12, 2020 at 7.20 a.m. local time in the La Soufrière area continued on 14th of September with 146 recorded earthquakes of very low magnitude (M <1). .OVSG reported that the sequence of volcanic earthquakes that began on Saturday August 15, 2020 at 2:47 a.m. local time (Saturday August 15, 2020 at 6:47 a.m. UTC in the volcanic aera of La Soufrière of ​​Guadeloupe continues on 16th of August. Since the start of this sequence, the OVSG-IPGP networks have recorded 372 very low magnitude earthquakes (M <1). No earthquakes were reported felt. The events are located at a depth of <2.5 km below the top of the dome of La Soufrière. OVSG reported that since the beginning of 2018 a cyclical process of injecting deep magmatic gases at the base of the hydrothermal system of the Soufrière of Guadeloupe, at a depth between 2 and 3 km below the summit. It generates a recurrent process of overheating and overpressure of the hydrothermal system which results in disturbances in the circulation of hydrothermal fluids; the evolution of the activity of fumaroles at the summit, as evidenced by the projection of hot, acid mud over a few meters; increased swarm volcanic seismicity; some volcanic earthquakes felt, four between February and April 2018, including an earthquake of magnitude M4.1 on April 27, 2018, the strongest since 1976, deformations of small amplitude and limited to the dome of La Soufrière of the order of 3- 7 mm / year and the continued opening of summit fractures, the fluctuation of the flow rates of fumarolic gas from a pressurized hydrothermal reservoir, an increase in thermal anomalies in the soil at the top of La Soufrière. These phenomena are not yet clearly associated with an anomaly in the other monitoring parameters which could indicate a possible rise in magma. The latter would typically, but not systematically, manifest itself through numerous deep or felt earthquakes, large-scale deformations beyond the dome, and the emission of sulfur gases at high temperature (> 150 ° C). La Soufrière de la Guadeloupe volcano occupies the southern end of Basse-Terre, the western half of the butterfly-shaped island of Guadeloupe. Construction of the Grand Découverte volcano about 0.2 million years ago (Ma) was followed by caldera formation after a plinian eruption about 0.1 Ma, and then by construction of the Carmichaël volcano within the caldera. Two episodes of edifice collapse and associated large debris avalanches formed the Carmichaël and Amic craters about 11,500 and 3100 years ago, respectively. The presently active La Soufrière volcano subsequently grew within the Amic crater. The summit consists of a flat-topped lava dome, and several other domes occur on the southern flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from NW-SE-trending fissure systems that cut across the summit and upper flanks. A relatively minor phreatic eruption in 1976-77 caused severe economic disruption when Basse-Terre, the island's capital city, which lies immediately below the volcano, was evacuated. (GVN/GVP)

Grenade - Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano

June 17th, 2020

Following an increase in the seismic activity of the underwater volcano Kick 'em Jenny, in the volcanic arc of the Lesser Antilles, observed over a period of seven days in June - a swarm of more than 1,400 volcanic earthquakes of M <1 , 8 -, the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) issued a vigilance notice on June 14, 2020. Although the alert level remained at Yellow / 2, with a 1.5 km marine exclusion zone around the submerged summit of the volcano, the corner is to be avoided, even between eruptions: the release of large quantities of gas bubbles from the volcano, without signs of this surface activity, can decrease the density of seawater above the vent, and decrease the lift of the water.Any navigator is therefore reminded that the 1.5 km exclusion zone must continue to be observed. The volcano is under surveillance by the University of the West Indies Seismic Research Center of the Trinidad and Tobago campus (UWI SRC) and the NaDMA. Kick 'em Jenny, a historically active submarine volcano 8 km off the north shore of Grenada, rises 1300 m from the sea floor. Recent bathymetric surveys have shown evidence for a major arcuate collapse structure that was the source of a submarine debris avalanche that traveled more than 15 km to the west. Bathymetry also revealed another submarine cone to the SE, Kick 'em Jack, and submarine lava domes to its south. These and subaerial tuff rings and lava flows at Ile de Caille and other nearby islands may represent a single large volcanic complex. Numerous historical eruptions, mostly documented by acoustic signals, have occurred at Kick 'em Jenny since 1939, when an eruption cloud rose 275 m above the sea surface. Prior to the 1939 eruption, which was witnessed by a large number of people in northern Grenada, there had been no written mention of Kick 'em Jenny. Eruptions have involved both explosive activity and the quiet extrusion of lava flows and lava domes in the summit crater; deep rumbling noises have sometimes been heard onshore. Historical eruptions have modified the morphology of the summit crater. (video)

MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

May 4th, 2022

MVO reported that a smaller rockfall activity occurred at the volcano starting on 28 April at 22:50 local time until 1 May. The reason for the event is a partial collapse of the lava dome in combination with a recent heavy rainfall resulting in the flow tumbling down the slope. Previous news 2021 - Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded nine volcano tectonic earthquakes and one rockfall this week from 5th to 12th of November. SO2 flux measurements were taken by boat on 06 and 10 November. The average flux valueswere 305 tonnes per day on the 06 November from nine traverses and 280 tonnes per day on 10 November from nine traverses..MVO Weekly Report for the Period 29 October to 05 November 2021 -Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded four volcano tectonic earthquakes and two rockfalls this week.Measurements of the SO2 flux were taken from the helicopter on 02 November. There were eight traverses with an average flux of 254 tonnes per day. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano remains low.The seismic network recorded four volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week.Measurements of the SO2 flux were taken by helicopter on 13 April. There were ten traverses withn average flux of 151 tonnes per day.Due to an unusual, more northerly, wind direction during the week it was possible to smell gases from the volcanic plume at times. On 13 April a very light and fine-grained ash deposit was observed which is thought to have originated from the recent extensive explosive activity of La Soufriere of Saint Vincent. Due to the large size of the lava dome, pyroclastic flows can occur at any time without warning on any side of the volcano, including Gages from where they can travel rapidly into Plymouth. Tracks across the Belham Valley can be destroyed or heavily modified by flash flooding or lahars, and caution should be exercised crossing the valley during and after rainfall. MVO reported that a good visibility on the lava dome of the Soufriere Hills volcano on January 29 and February 2 allowed various fumaroles to be imaged using the portable thermal camera, giving temperatures included between 212 and 472 ° C. These are consistent with previous temperatures measured in December 2020. Visual observations from the helicopter also revealed evidence of continued rockfall activity under all steep faces of the lava dome, particularly inside the 2010 collapse scar and at the head of Gage Fan on the west side of the Lava Dome. Three large slabs have also been observed to form in the cliff wall on the Tar River side of the lava dome, which could lead to large rockfall in the future. This is part of the natural process of weathering and loss of mass and does not imply a decrease in the stability of the lava dome. Previous news 2020 - On the evening of October 19th, 2020, the cloudless Soufriere Hills lava dome was photographed from the Montserrat / MVO and Jack Boy Hill Observatory. A series of digital photographs and thermal images were taken at both locations to capture the fumaroles and hot spots on the lava dome. Digital photographs captured an incandescence of three prominent fumaroles in the cliff that forms the back wall of the 2010 collapsed scar.Comparing these images to the previous ones, there are no changes in the number and distribution of glowing features and hot spots. MVO reported that the activity for the period from June 26 to July 3, 2020 remains low. The seismic network recorded 6 volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week.The alert level remains at 1, with prohibition of public access to zone V; maritime zones E and W can be used by maritime traffic, without stopping. MVO recent weekly report. Latest MVO report about period 1st of April - 30th of September 2018 - The pause in lava extrusion that started on 11 February 2010 continues and is now more than 103 months long as of 30 September 2018. This prolonged period of persistent low-level unrest, (i.e., continued inflation, sporadic seismicity and persistent de-gassing) clearly demonstrates that the magmatic system has not shut down. Thus, the potential for a restart remains. Consequently, MVO continues to hold the view that little has changed in regards to the Hazard and Risk posed by the Soufriere Hills volcano at this time. Overall, activity during the reporting period has been low. Seismic activity has consisted of sporadic volcanotectonic (VT) earthquakes, sometimes in strings or brief swarms. Low-frequency seismicity has been completely absent, while rockfall activity has continued at a very low level - Read complete report - No recent news since 2016 - latest MVO Weekly Report for the Period 26 August to 2 September 2016 - Activity at the Soufriere Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded eight rockfalls, seven volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week. Four of the volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred in a very brief swarm on 28th August. The rockfalls were probably a continuation of the increased activity following the heavy rainfall on 24 August. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were not possible during the reporting period. No recent activity reported since September 2015 - Based on satellite image analyses and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 September 2015 possible re-suspended ash from Soufriere Hills drifted WNW at an altitude of 1 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. - latest previous report about eruptive activity dated for the period from 8th of March 2013 to 5th of July 2013 - Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 28th of June to 5h of July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 271 tonnes/day with a maximum of 427 and a minimum of 161 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 21st to 28th of June. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 353 tonnes/day with a maximum of 459 and a minimum of 221 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded four rockfalls and nine volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes the week from 14th to 21st.of June. Six of the VT earthquakes occurred in a brief swarm on 16 July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were only possible on three days this week and gave an average flux of 289 tonnes/day with a maximum of 332 and a minimum of 247 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 7th to 14 th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 281 tonnes/day with a maximum of 428 and a minimum of 185 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded nine rockfalls, five volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event the previous week frm 31st of may to 7th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 485 tonnes/day with a maximum of 543 and a minimum of 430 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event this week from 24th to 31st of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 395 tonnes/day with a maximum of 588 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. . The seismic network recorded three rockfalls the week from 17th to 24th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 380 tonnes/day with a maximum of 536 and a minimum of 281 tonnes/day. Many residents of Montserrat felt an earthquake at 7:51 pm on 18 May 2013. This earthquake had a magnitude of 4.9 and was located south-west of Barbuda; about 100 km north of Montserrat. It was not associated with the Soufrière Hills Volcano. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic this week from 10th to 17th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 373 tonnes/day with a maximum of 553 and a minimum of 137 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week from 3rd to 10th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 313 tonnes/day with a maximum of 435 and a minimum of 160 tonnes/day. Measurements were only possible on three days this week because of adverse wind conditions. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 26th of April to 3rd of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 379 tonnes/day with a maximum of 466 and a minimum of 254 tonnes/day. The wind has been mainly towards the north and north-east since the night of 1/2 May. This has blown the volcanic plume over inhabited areas and the smell of volcanic gases has been noticeable at times. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 19th to 26th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 366 tonnes/day with a maximum of 535 and a minimum of 181 tonnes/day. There have been no good views of the dome for over a month now. Reports from helicopter pilots suggest that most of the large slab on the eastern side of the dome is now gone; removed by the pyroclastic flow on 28 March 2013. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week from 12th to 19th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 556 tonnes/day with a maximum of 1155 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. Past week 5th to 12th of April, the seismic network recorded no seismic events related to the volcano this week. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 325 tonnes/day with a maximum of 585 and a minimum of 186 tonnes/day. MVO reported that during 22-29 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the Tar River Valley (E) at about 0500 on 28 March. The flow was not observed directly, but the deposits indicated that it traveled halfway down the valley, 1-1.5 km from the dome. There were no reports of ashfall; any ash was probably blown over Plymouth and out to sea. The source of the flow was not known due to cloud cover, but was likely from the failure a large slab that had been slowing moving away from the dome. Heavy rainfall during the evening of 28 March generated large lahars in several valleys around the volcano, including in the Belham Valley (NW). These started at about 1900 and lasted for several hours. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded one rockfall and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 15th to 22nd of March.Sulphur-dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 359 tonnes/day with a maximum of 540 and a minimum of 258 tonnes/day. There appear to have been no changes in the large slab recently observed to be peeling away from the dome above the Tar River Valley. The slab is now estimated to have dimensions of 80 by 60 by 4-6 metres. If this slab falls as a single block it will produce a large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas. previously , the seismic network recorded one rockfall this week from 8th to 15th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 251 tonnes/day with a maximum of 264 and a minimum of 227 tonnes/day. During a helicopter inspection on 8 March 2013, we observed a large fissure in the cliff on the eastern side of the dome, part of which has existed since 2007. This fissure is the result of slow cooling and erosion of the dome. It is parallel to the cliff face and is estimated to be two metres wide, suggesting that a large slab is slowing peeling away from the dome. If this slab falls as a single block it will probably produce a moderate-to-large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas The seismic network recorded one rockfall, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one hybrid event this week from 1st to 8th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements for the week gave an average flux of 368 tonnes/day with a maximum of 552 and a minimum of 213 tonnes/day. Variable winds blew the volcanic plume over inhabited areas for much of the week, particularly the first half, and the smell of volcanic gases was very noticeable at times. There has been no visible emission of ash from the volcano this week. Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)

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Soufriere Saint Vincent dome - 14th of January 2021 - UWI-SRC

Evolution of the new dome (Soufriere Saint-Vincent)

Soufriere Saint Vincent lava dome footprint between 27th of December 2020 and 19th of March 2021 ( UWI-SRC document)

Explosion on 9th of April 2021 (UWI-SRC)

ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

October 27th, 2022

IGEPN reported that on Wednesday, October 26th, from approximately 7:00 p.m. TL, the Achupashal station in Tungurahua, recorded seismic signals corresponding to the descent of mudslides and debris (lahars) from the Tungurahua volcano. It is important to highlight that the Baños-Penipe highway crosses the mouth of this ravine, so the circulation of vehicles must be careful in case secondary lahars descend towards said highway.IGEPN informed that through the Volcanic Observers Network (ROVE) and IGEPN cameras recorded on Monday January 3, 2022, a process of resuspension of ash on the northwest flank of the Tungurahua volcano. This process is recorded from around 12:00 TL and is due to the strong winds in the area and the dry climate. There is no change in the internal activity of the Tungurahua volcano. The Geophysical Institute of the National Polytechnic School is monitoring the activity of the volcano and will report on any changes that may be recorded. Previous news 2021 - As of the 7th of June, IGEPN reported that the latest earthquakes felt in the town of Baños, of magnitudes less than 2.9 and shallow, were associated with faults nearby. They do not pose a threat to the population. Monitoring of the volcano remains permanent; its surface activity is very low, and the internal activity remains low, both unchanged. Previous news 2020 -IGEPN reported that on November 15th from 6:40 am local, the seismic stations BULB and BILB of the Tungurahua volcano recorded a high frequency signal, perhaps associated with the appearance of mudslides and debris (lahars) which descended the drainages of the volcano. Proximity to rivers was not recommended. IGEPN can make a connection with the information of November 9 which mentionned a process of resuspension of ash in the upper part of Tungurahua, following strong winds blowing towards the north-west. (NOAA - IGEPN satellite image) Previous news dated 2016 - IG reported that during 27 September-4 October seismic activity at Tungurahua remained at moderate levels, characterized by 1-8 long-period earthquakes and up to three volcano-tectonic events per day. An hour-long period of tremor was recorded on 1 October. Minor fumarolic emissions rose above the crater rim. IG reported that Tungurahua's seismic network detected a significant increase in the number of long-period (LP) earthquakes on 12 September and small episodes of tremor beginning on 16 September. A swarm of 24 LP events were detected during 0408-0424 on 18 September. Starting at 1400 on 24 September the number of LP events again increased. Gas emissions were low, and together with the increased seismicity, possibly indicates a blocked conduit. IG noted that a possible large-scale eruption may happen within hours to days. In response, the Secretaria de Gestion de Riesgos (SGR) announced that the Alert Level was raised from Yellow to Orange (the second highest on a 4-color scale) on 26 September. Previously IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate-to-high levels during 16-17 March, moderate levels during 18-21 March, and low levels on 22 March. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano; the weather cleared for a brief period on 20 March and no activity was observed. IG reported that moderate-to-high levels of activity at Tungurahua continued during 9-15 March. Gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater on most days, often to heights less than 2 km above the crater, and drifted NW, W, WSW, and SW; cloud cover sometimes obscured views of the volcano. Explosions were recorded daily, and crater incandescence was reported almost nightly. Ash fell on 9 March in Pillate (8 km W), El Manzano (8 km SW), Cotalo (8 km NW), and Macas. On 10 March a small pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km NW down the Achupashal drainage. On 15 March residents in the Runten sector (NNE) heard an explosion and sounds resembling rolling rocks on the NE flank. Ash fell in Patate (NW) and Juive (7 km NNW). Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano. Tungurahua - Live webcam

ECUADOR - Cotopaxi volcano

June 1st, 2023

As of the 31st of may, IGEPN reported that the explosive eruption at the volcano continues at moderate levels. It is characterized by near-constant vulcanian-type explosions releasing mostly dense grey ash columns to estimated 21,000 ft (6,400 m) altitude that drifted west and southwest. The seismic instrument continues to register long-period earthquakes and tremors associated with gas, water vapor and ash emissions. The MOUNTS system registered a flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions to be measured at 392 tonnes on 29 May.
As of the 5th of May, IGEPN reported that the explosive eruption at the volcano continues. The activity is characterized mainly by near-continuous ash emissions and sporadic strong vulcanian-sized explosions. An intense eruption appeared from the summit vent in the afternoon yesterday, spewing a dense grey ash column to estimated 24,000 ft (7,300 m) altitude that drifted southwest. Seismic records registered 28 long-period earthquakes and 2 tremor events over the past 24 hours. The MOUNTS system registered a flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions which reached 98.2 tonnes on 3 May.As of the 1st of May, the explosive activity at the volcano continues with near-frequent small to moderate ash emissions. According to the Instituto Geofísico (IGEPN), ash columns reached 6,4 km (21,000 ft) elevation over the past week and drifted in the west and south-west direction, respectively. The seismic station recorded 10 long-period, 50 volcano-tectonic earthquakes and 1 tremor event over the past 24 hours.As of the 19th of April, the explosive activity at the volcano continues with near-frequent small to moderate ash emissions, intermittent stronger vulcanian-type eruptions and venting of gas and steam emissions (so-called degassing). According to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington, ash column heights have ranged between 6,7 and 7 km altitude over the past few days and drifted in the east and south-west direction, respectively. The MOUNTS system registered a flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions which reached 51 tonnes on 18 April.As of the 9th of April, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 23000 ft (7000 m) altitude or flight level 230 and is moving at 5 kts in E direction.IG reported that eruptive activity at Cotopaxi was ongoing during 29 March-4 April. Gas-and-ash plumes visible in webcam images and reported by the Washington VAAC during 28-29 March rose as high as 2 km above the summit and drifted SE and N. Minor ashfall was reported in Machachi (23 km NW), El Chasqui (17 km W), and Latacunga (34 km SW). Gas-and-steam plumes were seen rising 100-300 m during 30-31 March. Ash-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted W during 1-2 April. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 1 km and drifted W on 3 April. Servicio Nacional de Gestion de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).The Instituto Geofisico (IG) issued a special report on 21/03/23 outlining changes in the current eruptive period at Cotopaxi, which began on October 21, 2022. There is evidence of declining volcanic activity, with a decrease in monitoring parameters within the volcanic system and at the surface. During the current eruptive period, the most common volcanic product has been ash emissions, which were most intense between December 2022 – February 2023, averaging ten events per week. In comparison, the week of March 13 – March 20 recorded only two ash emissions. The current rate is less than one event every two days.IG reported that the eruption at Cotopaxi continued during 1st February -7 March. Several daily ash, gas, and steam plumes rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit during 28 February-2 March and drifted W and SW. Minor ashfall was reported in Mulaló parish (Colcas-Ticatilín) of the Latacunga canton during the afternoon of 28 February. Steam-and-gas emissions were visible rising as high as 700 m and drifting SW and W during 3-7 March. Minor ashfall was reported in Mulaló parish on 5 March.As of the 1st of March, IGEPN rported that the explosive activity at the volcano continues with near-frequent small to moderate ash emissions and intermittent larger vulcanian-type eruptions. According to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington, dense grey-to-black ash column heights ranged between 6,7 km and 7,3 km (22,000 ft-25,000 ft ) elevation over the past week and drifted in the west and south-west direction, respectively. The MOUNTS system registered a flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions which reached 35 tonnes on 28 January. The seismic station recorded 26 long-period and 1 volcano-tectonic earthquakes over the past 24 hours.IG reported that the eruption at Cotopaxi continued during 14-21 February, characterized by almost daily emissions of gas, steam, and ash; inclement weather conditions occasionally prevented views. Gas emissions with some ash rose as high as 600 m above the crater rim and drifted E, SE, and SW during 14-15 February. Minor ashfall was noted in San Ramon (17 km SW), Ticatian (15 km WSW), San Agusin del Callo (18 km WSW), Mulala (19 km SW), and Lasso (20 km WSW). Daily ash-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.1 km during 16-19 February and drifted mainly E, SE, S, and SW. Minor amounts of ash occasionally fell on the downwind flanks. During 20-21 February steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted E and SW. Servicio Nacional de Gestion de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).As of the 12th of February, the explosive activity at the volcano continues with near-frequent small to moderate ash emissions and intermittent larger vulcanian-type eruptions. According to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington, ash column heights have ranged between 6,1 and 7,3 km altitude over the past few days and drifted in the south-west and north-west direction, respectively. The MOUNTS system registered a flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions which reached 546 tonnes on 25 January.As of the 26th of January IGEPN reported that the explosive activity at the volcano continues with near-frequent small to moderate ash emissions and intermittent larger vulcanian-type eruptions. According to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington, ash column heights have ranged between 6,1 and 7,3 km altitude over the past few days and drifted in the south-west, north-west and north direction. The MOUNTS system registered a flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions which reached 215 tonnes on 25 January. As of the 21st of January, IG reported that the explosive activity at the volcano continues with near-frequent small to moderate ash emissions and intermittent larger vulcanian-type eruptions. According to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington, ash column heights have ranged between 6,7 and 7,6 km altitude over the past few days and drifted in the east-southeast direction. The MOUNTS system registered a flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions which reached 1796 tonnes on 20 January.IG reported that the eruption at Cotopaxi continued during 11-17 January, characterized by daily steam-and-gas emissions often with variable content. On 11 January ash plumes rose as high as 200 m above the crater rim and drifted W and SW. Minor ashfall was noted in areas of Mula, Macala Grande, San Antonio, San Ramon (127 km W), Ticatilan (15 km SW), and MAE Norte (18 km N), and a sulfur odor was noted in Ticatilan and Control Caspi (20 km WSW) of the Parque Nacional Cotopaxi. On 12 January steam, gas, and ash plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted SE, SW, and W. On 13 January a dense ash plume rose 2 km and drifted NE, causing ashfall in Ticatilan; other ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted W and N that same day. Steam-and-gas emissions rose 300-700 m during 14-17 January and drifted E, SE, and SW. Ash-and-gas plumes rose 1 km on 17 January and drifted W and SW; minor ashfall was reported in Mulaló and San Juan de Pastocalle (20 km WSW). Servicio Nacional de Gestion de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).As of the 8th of January, IG reported that the explosive activity at the volcano continues at moderate levels. Minor short-lived eruptions and near-frequent gas and water vapor emissions continue to take place from the main crater, rising to estimated 6,7 km height. According to the MOUNTS system, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reached to a 811 tonnes on 7 January.IG reported that the low-level eruption at Cotopaxi continued during 28 December 2022-3 January 2023, characterized by daily steam-and-gas emissions with occasional low ash content. Several gas-and-steam emissions with low ash content were visible on 28 December rising 600-900 m above the summit and drifting W. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 1,314-2,550 tons per day during 27-28 December based on satellite data. Only gas emissions were visible during 29 December-2 January, though weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite observations. At 1740 on 3 January a diffuse ash plume rose 1 km above the summit and drifted W, based on a satellite image. Minor ashfall was possible in areas to the W. Servicio Nacional de Gestion de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Previous news 2022 -As of the 26th of december, IGEPN reported that xplosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 22000 ft (6700 m) altitude or flight level 220 .On 23 December IG issued a special report about increased activity at Cotopaxi. A total of 27 ash emissions had been recorded since the eruption began on 21 October; one ash emission was recorded in October, four were recorded in November, and 22 were recorded by 23 December. Based on Washington VAAC notices, ash clouds drifted the farthest, 60 km NNW, on 26 November and 20 December after rising 2.2 km (the maximum recorded height) and 1.5 km above the crater rim, respectively. Ashfall on those two days was reported in the Mesa, Rumiahui, and Quito regions. Ash samples from 21 October and 26 November revealed a slight increase in the total percentage of juvenile material; an analysis of 20 December ash was in progress. Increases in sulfur dioxide emissions were measured both by satellite and ground-based Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments. Gas measurements taken during periodic overflights showed increases in the ratio of sulfur dioxide to hydrogen sulfide. Based on these and other monitoring data, IG reiterated that the activity was caused by magma in the volcano’s conduit, though not from new magma entering the system after the 2015 eruption.The volcano is being constantly monitored since the new eruptive phase began in late October. On 9 Dec, the Instituto Geofísico in collaboration with the Ecuadorian Armed Forces and National Risk and Emergency Management Service crew made another overflight to measure temperatures and gas emissions equipped with a proper technique to do that. Thermal images were taken by using a portable infrared camera which is able to distinguish temperature contrast between meteorological clouds (blue) and volcanic plumes (red, yellow and green). Primary gas emission (SO2, CO2, H2S) samples were taken by using a multiGAS device and visual cameras. At that time, low emissions of gas and water vapor rose only 500 meters above the summit crater extending west of the volcano.As of the 8th of December, IGEPN reported that the eruptive activity at the volcano continues. Near-constant emissions of ash, gas and water vapor from the crater have been observed by surveillance cameras at Sincholahua between 08:00 and 08:19 local time yesterday morning. The plume continued to dissipate towards the west-northwest and rose up to 7 km altitude. Continuing ash emissions from Cotopaxi volcano yesterday As of the 23rd of November, IGEPN reported that since the explosive eruption occurred at the volcano on 21 October, a strong constant degassing continues to be active from the summit vent. Surveillance cameras located on the Sincholagua (northeast) and Rumiñahui (northwest) volcanoes observed gas and steam plumes that have been rising 2 km above the crater. Although, the activity is still characterized as low-leveled. Ground deformation data follow the pattern of deflation (subsidence) on the western slopes rather than inflation (uplift), portrayed as blue in the attached InSAR image. Crater temperatures depict similar values to those after the 2015 eruption. The maximum recorded temperatures reached about 98 °C, however, are underestimated due to an abundant presence of gases and vapor. Thus, a risk of an impending eruption remains high as a certain rate of uncertainty prevails in monitoring data and volcano behavior so far. As of the 2nd of Nomber IG issued a report that included data analysis and additional information about the minor eruptive activity at Cotopaxi recorded during 21-22 October. The eruption began with a high-frequency earthquake recorded at 1944 on 21 October and was followed by an episode of volcanic tremor from 1950 on 21 October to 0040 on 22 October. A diffuse gas-and-ash cloud rose 1.7-2.3 km above the summit and drifted NE. As of the 22nd of October G reported minor eruptive activity at Cotopaxi. A low-amplitude tremor signal recorded by the seismic network from 1950 on 21 October to 0040 on 22 October was associated with gas-and-ash emissions. The emissions were not visible due to darkness and weather conditions, but minor ashfall and a sulfur odor was reported by mountaineers in the Refugio José Rivas, 2 km N of the summit crater; the mountaineers evacuated. The symmetrical, glacier-covered, Cotopaxi stratovolcano is Ecuador's most well-known volcano and one of its most active. The steep-sided cone is capped by nested summit craters, the largest of which is about 550 x 800 m in diameter. Deep valleys scoured by lahars radiate from the summit of the andesitic volcano, and large andesitic lava flows extend to its base. The modern edifice has been constructed since a major collapse sometime prior to about 5,000 years ago. Pyroclastic flows (often confused in historical accounts with lava flows) have accompanied many explosive eruptions, and lahars have frequently devastated adjacent valleys. Strong eruptions took place in 1744, 1768, and 1877. Pyroclastic flows descended all sides of the volcano in 1877, and lahars traveled more than 100 km into the Pacific Ocean and western Amazon basin. Smaller eruptions have been frequent since that time.(GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

May 16th 2024

As of the 14th of May, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-frequent vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,3 km (14,000 ft) height and drifted west, northwest and southwest over the past few days. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down about 800 meters distance from the summit.As of the 1st of april, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-frequent vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,3 km (14,000 ft) height and drifted west and northwest over the past few days. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down about 500 meters distance from the summit.As of the 17th of March, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-frequent vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted west and northwest over the past few days. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down about 500 meters distance from the summit. Lahars (mud flows) could also occur if heavy rainfalls remobilise the fresh ash deposits.As of the 10th of March, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached heights between 4,3 km and 4,9 km (14,000 ft-16,000 ft) height and drifted west over the past few days. Late night yesterday, a relatively powerful eruption occurred from the summit, showering the mid-to-upper eastern and southern flank with bright lava bombs. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down about 700 meters distance from the summit.As of the 25th of January, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted west and southwest over the past few days. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down about 500 meters distance from the summit. Lahars (mud flows) could also occur if heavy rainfalls remobilise the fresh ash deposits. Previous news 2023 - As of the 15th of December, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 .As of the 12th of December, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted west and northwest over the past few days. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down several hundred of meters distance from the summit.As of the 11th of December, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted west and northwest over the past few days. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down several hundred of meters distance from the summit. Lahars (mud flows) could also occur if heavy rainfalls remobilise the fresh ash deposits.As of the 20th of November, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted west and northwest over the past few days. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down several hundred of meters distance from the summit. Lahars (mud flows) could also occur if heavy rainfalls remobilise the fresh ash deposits. As of the 9th of October, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted west and northwest over the past few days. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down several hundred of meters distance from the summit. Lahars (mud flows) could also occur if heavy rainfalls remobilise the fresh ash deposits.As of (the 23rd of August the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted west and northwest over the past few days. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down several hundred of meters distance from the summit.As of the 21st of August, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 14000 ft (4300 m) altitude or flight level 140 .As of the 15th of August, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted west and northwest over the past few days. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down several hundred of meters distance from the summit.As of the 7th of August, IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted west and northwest over the past few days. The viscous lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank, tumbling down several hundred of meters distance from the summit.As of the 17th of May, IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted into various directions, but most often to northwest and northeast directions. The lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank tumbling down at about 700 meters distance from the summit.As of the 8th of May, IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted into various directions, but most often to west and southwest directions.The lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. According to MIROVA Detection System a low thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images over the past 24 hours. Incandescent blocks of the lava continue to be observed on the southern flank tumbling down at about 700 meters distance from the summit.As of the 12th of April, IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft) height and drifted into various directions, but most often to northeast, northwest and west. The lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. According to MIROVA Detection System a low thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images over the past 24 hours. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reached to a 121 tonnes on 10 April detected by the MOUNT system.As of the 5th of March, IGEPN reported that vulcanian activity is ongoing and remains almost constant at Reventador. The IG (Geological Institute of Ecuador) reports that between 28/02 - 4/03, despite cloud cover making observation onerous, four ash emissions were recorded, reaching 688 m - 800 m above the crater and leaning northwards. Ballistics, fragments of lava and rock ejected during an explosion were observed landing 500 m down the volcano's flanks. Lava flows were not observed. In the absence of constant obervation, seismic data gives additional insight into the ongoing acivity. During the reported period, 125 seismic events were recorded as a result of explsions and 112 by long-period earthquakes (produced by the movement of magmatic material).As of the 20th of February, IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft), occasionally 5,2 km (17,000 ft) height and drifted into various directions, but most often to northeast. The lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active. IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continued on 22nd of January and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached elevation between 4,3 km and 4,9 km (16,000 ft) and drifted into various directions, but most often to the southeast and southwest. The active lava flow is being oozed out from the summit vent causing rockfall avalanches that tumble down along the northeastern flank.Previous news 2022 - As of the 27th of December, IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit crater that reached 4,6 km (15,000 ft), occasionally 4,9 km (16,000 ft) height and drifted into various directions, but most often to southwest and northwest. The lava flow on the northeastern flank remains active.The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington reported intermittent emissions of volcanic ash plumes. IG reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit vent that reached 15,000 ft (4,600 m) altitude and drifted west and northwest direction.The lava flow continues to be active on the northern flank and slowly advancing downslope. The lava flow continues to be active on the northern flank and slowly advancing downslope.IG described the ongoing eruption at Reventador as moderate during 9-15 November. Daily seismicity was characterized by 18-47 explosions, 22-45 long-period earthquakes, and 2-18 signals that indicated emissions. During 9-12 November there were also 1-4 periods of daily harmonic tremor. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, observed almost daily with webcams or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.3 km above the summit and drifted SAs of the 8th of November, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 16000 ft (4900 m) altitude or flight level 160 .As of the 6th of November, IGEPN reported that Mild explosive activity continues from the volcano. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington reported intermittent emissions of volcanic ash plumes.IGEPN reported moderate surface and internal activity levels continued, and an with unchanged trend. The seismicity on October 18th at 11 a.m. was characterized by 24 explosion earthquakes, 39 LP earthquakes and 6 tremor episodes. For October 19th at 11 a.m., 19 explosion earthquakes were reported, as well as 39 LP earthquakes, and 6 episodes of tremor. VAAC Washington mentionned 3 ash emission alerts less than 1,000 m above the crater on 18th, and 4 emissions at 1,338 m on 19th of October. On October 18th around 11 p.m., incandescence was observed at the crater and at a lava flow on the northeast flank. The explosive-effusive activity remains moderate on September 24th-25th. The REVS reference station for daily seismic statistics transmitted without problems during the last 24 hours: with 64 explosion earthquakes, 19 LP earthquakes, 1 episode of emission tremor, and 6 episodes of harmonic tremor. At the end of the afternoon yesterday the volcano was clear and an emission of steam, gas and ash could be observed moving towards the northeast at more than 1000 meters above the level of the crater. The Washington VAAC issued 3 reports of ash emission 988 meters above the summit in a northeasterly, northwesterly and southwesterly direction. The IGEPN reported for the period from 22d to 23rd of September at 11 a.m. gas and ash emissions observed, reaching heights of up to 1200 meters above the level of the crater in a west and northwest direction. The Washington VAAC reported 3 ash emissions with heights of 1338 meters above the summit in a northwesterly direction.At night and early in the morning, incandescence was observed in the crater and the rolling of blocks up to 600 meters below the summit on all sides of the volcano. The lava flow on the northeast flank remains active. IGEPN rported that on August 24th, several gas and ash emissions were observed with heights of up to 500 meters in a northwest direction. The Washington VAAC recorded 4 ash releases with heights of 988 m to 1638 m, the direction oscillated from northwest to southwest.For August 25th, 3 ash emissions at 1,638 m. above the crater were recorded by VAAC Washington. During the night and early in the morning, an incandescence could be observed at the level of the crater with the descent of blocks along the northeast flank up to 500 meters below the summit, today morning it rose clear and an ash emission was observed 300 meters high above the crater to the northwest. IGEPN reports moderate surface and internal activity levels, however on the rise on the surface for July 29th / 11 a.m. Seismicity was characterized by: 38 explosion earthquakes, 62 Long Period (LP) earthquakes, 11 emission tremor periods. In the morning, several gas emissions with ash were recorded with heights up to 1,000 meters in a northwest direction, in addition the Washington VAAC reported an emission of 688 m above the level of the le summit in a westerly direction. As of the 8th of July, IGEPN reported that moderate levels of surface activity and internal activity, with no changes. Several ash and gas emissions were observed, with heights of 500 to 800 m above the level of the crater and with a direction to the west. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission with a height of 1338 m above crater level, with a westerly direction. At dawn, an incandescence was observed in the upper part of the volcanic edifice, and an active lava flow in the northeast flank. As of the 27th of June, IG reported that the surface and internal activity continued at moderate levels, with no changes. Seismicity is characterized by 45 explosion earthquakes, 70 LP earthquakes, 13 episodes of emission tremor, and 4 of harmonic tremor On June 16 and 17, gas and ash emissions were observed, ranging up to 1,200 meters, with directions oscillating between SO and NO. The WORLDVIEW system records 3 thermal alerts in the last 12 hours.IG reported that a high level of activity continued during 14-22 June, though cloudy weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Gas-and-ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.7 km above the summit and drifted mainly NW and W. Incandescence from the crater was often visible at night or during the early morning.IGEPN reported that on May 26 at the end of the afternoon, an emission of gas and ash was observed in Reventador / Ecuador, with a height of 800 m and a direction towards the West. Thanks to images shared by ECU-911, several emissions were recorded this morning, with heights of less than 2 km. The Washington VAAC reported two ash emissions that reached up to 988 m and the direction was west. No thermal anomaly has been recorded in the past 24 hours. Seismicity is characterized by 40 explosion earthquakes, 63 long-period earthquakes and 4 emission tremors. As of the 18th of May, IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit vent that reached 15,000 ft (4,600 m) altitude and drifted west direction. The lava flow continues to be active on the northeastern flank. Visibility of the volcano is very limited due to dense clouds for now.IGEPN reported that in the afternoon of 19 and April 20, steam, gas and ash emissions up to 1,000 m. asl. to the Reventador, with dispersion between the north and the northeast. Nocturnal incandescence was observed at the level of the crater.Seismicity is characterized by 25 explosion earthquakes, 62 LP earthquakes and 4 episodes of harmonic tremor. IGEPN reported that at the end of the afternoon of April 15, the volcano cleared and several emissions of steam, gas and ash could be observed with a maximum height of 800 meters above the level of the crater, heading towards the North-west. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP) - IG webcam

ECUADOR - Sangay volcano

April 4th, 2024

As of the 3rd of April, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. The lava flow on the SE flank remains active, and slowly advance nearly to the base of the edifice at about 2000 m distance from the summit. Near-frequent vulcanian eruptions continue to generate ash columns releasing pyroclastic material to approx. 6,1 km (20,000 ft) elevation in the western-northwestern direction over the past week. Most of the ejected hot, juvenile and glowing material slid down along the southeastern flank in the form of incandescent avalanches.As of the 21st of March, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. The lava continues to travel onto the SE flank ravine, keep the flow active and slowly advance nearly to the base of the edifice at about 2000 m distance from the summit. Near-frequent vulcanian eruptions continue to produce ash columns spewing pyroclastic material to approx. 5,8 km (19,000 ft) elevation in the western-southwestern direction over the past week. Most of the ejected hot, juvenile and glowing material slid down along the southeastern flank in the form of incandescent avalanches.As of the 13th of February, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. The lava continues to emerge onto the SE flank ravine, keep the flow active and slowly advance nearly to the base of the edifice. Near-frequent vulcanian eruptions continue to produce ash columns releasing pyroclastic material to approx. 6,1 km-7 km (20,000 ft-23,000 ft) elevation in the western-southwestern direction. Most of the ejected hot, juvenile and glowing material slid down along the southeastern flank in the form of incandescent avalanches. IG-EPN reported a high level of eruptive activity at Sangay during 9-16 January, with seismic stations recording 232-626 daily explosions. Ash-and-gas plumes were visible in both webcam and satellite images during 9-14 January, rising as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifting W, WSW, and SW. On 12 January an explosion deposited incandescent material on all flanks as far as 1 km from the summit crater. At 1810 that same day a pyroclastic density current descended the SE drainage and an ash plume rose 1 km above the summit and drifted SW. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night, and during 11-12 and 13-14 January incandescent material was observed descending the SE drainage as far as 1 km. Cloudy weather prevented views during 15-16 January, though crater incandescence was observed overnight. Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Previous news 2023 - As of the 1st of October, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and remains essentially unchanged. The lava continues to emerge onto the SE flank ravine, keep the flow active and causes frequent glowing rockfalls as flow front blocks detach from the flow reaching length of at least 1800 m. Near-frequent vulcanian eruptions continue to produce ash columns, releasing pyroclastic material to approx.20,000 ft - 23,000 ft (6,1 km -7 km) elevation in the western-southwestern direction. Most of the ejected hot, juvenile and glowing material slid down along the southeastern flank in the form of incandescent avalanches. According to MIROVA Detection System, a high thermal anomaly (561 MW) was identified in satellite images over the past 24 hours.As of the 28th of August, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and remains essentially unchanged. The lava continues to emerge onto the SE flank ravine, keep the flow active and slowly advance about 1000 meters distance from the summit. Near-frequent vulcanian eruptions continue to produce ash columns, releasing pyroclastic material to approx.20,000 ft - 23,000 ft (6,1 km -7 km) elevation in the western-southwestern direction. Most of the ejected hot, juvenile and glowing material slid down along the southeastern flank in the form of incandescent avalanches. According to MIROVA Detection System, four high thermal anomalies (455,475,398 and 335 MW) were detected in satellite images over the past 24 hours.As of the 31st of July, the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. The lava continues to emerge onto the SE flank ravine, keep the flow active and slowly advance nearly to the base of the edifice. Near-frequent vulcanian eruptions continue to produce ash columns releasing pyroclastic material to approx. 6,1 km (20,000 ft) elevation in the western-southwestern direction. Most of the ejected hot, juvenile and glowing material slid down along the southeastern flank in the form of incandescent avalanches. Heavy rainfalls occurred in the area of the volcano. Nonetheless, no debris avalanches and/or lahars were detected. In addition, the flow rate has increased in the Upano river. The current hazards pose lahars (mud flows) which could also occur if heavy rainfalls remobilise the fresh ash deposits.As of the 29th of June, IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. The lava continues to spill out onto the SE flank ravine, keeping the flow active and slowly advancing until about halfway to the base of the edifice. Near-frequent vulcanian eruptions continue to produce ash columns releasing pyroclastic material to approx. 56,1 km (20,000 ft) elevation in the western-southwestern direction. Most of the ejected hot, juvenile and glowing material slid down along the southeastern flank in the form of incandescent avalanches. Satellite-based measurements of SO2 concentrations were detected in plumes of about 58 tonnes yesterday. According to MIROVA Detection System, a high thermal anomaly (118 MW) was detected in satellite images over the past 24 hours. Yesterday afternoon, heavy rainfalls were observed in the area of the volcano. Nonetheless, no debris avalanches and/or lahars were detected. In addition, the flow rate has increased in the Upano river. The current hazards pose lahars (mud flows) which could also occur if heavy rainfalls remobilise the fresh ash deposits.As of the 29th of May, IGEPN reported that the volcano showed a dramatic activity. A strong, dilute pyroclastic flow (gravity-driven mass flow) appeared to descend over the southeastern flank in early this morning. The reason for this torrent is not clear yet, but from previous observations at the volcano, it might come from continuous glowing rock falls on the southern slope and its sudden accumulation and destabilization culminating into pyroclastic density currents as happened today. Pyroclastic flows are deadly, turbulent hot avalanche of lava rock fragments of all sizes embedded in a mixture of turbulent gas and ash racing down slopes. Near-frequent vulcanian eruptions continue to produce ash columns releasing pyroclastic material to approx. 5,8 km-6,1 km (19,000 ft-20,000ft) in the western-northwestern direction. Satellite-based measurements of SO2 concentrations were detected in plumes of about 759 tonnes on 1 March.As of the 23rd of April, IG reported that two stronger-than-usual eruptions occurred at the volcano over the past few hours. Dense ash emissions rose about 26,000 ft (8,000 m) above the summit crater and drifted to the southwest of the volcano where tephra covered surfaces in the province of Chimborazo (Guamote, Cebadas and Matriz).) Most of the ejected hot, juvenile and glowing material slid down along the southeastern flank in the form of incandescent avalanches. Satellite-based measurements of SO2 concentrations were detected in plumes of about 495 tonnes on 21 April.As of the 20th of March, IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. From available webcam imagery on 18 March, it seems a fresh batch of magma has been shifting through the main conduit. Most of the red, hot fluid lava has flowed directly from the summit crater into the southeastern flank ravine. Simultaneously, strombolian activity has been picking up at the summit vent while erupting. This also confirms a stunning satellite image of the elevated effusive activity of Sangay acquired by Sentinel-2. Near-frequent vulcanian eruptions continue to produce ash columns releasing pyroclastic material to approx. 5,8 km (19,000 ft), occasionally up to 6,1 km (20,000 ft) elevation in the eastern direction. Most of the ejected hot, juvenile and glowing material slid down along the southeastern flank in the form of incandescent avalanches. Satellite-based measurements of SO2 concentrations were detected in plumes of about 208 tonnes on 18 March.Over the past week, explsoive activity has dominated at Sangay volcano. Dispite intermittent thick cloud cover, ash and gas plumes were observed on five of the last seven days. The erupted plumes of ash and gas ranged in height between 560 m - 1000 m above the crater and leaned north, northwest, southwest and southeast. The last observation of effusive activity (lava flow) was recorded on March 2nd. Rainfall occurred on all but one day. This is significant as Sangay is prone to secondary lahars, which are formed when volcanic material mixes with water to form volcanic mud flows, which at Sangay flow down river pathways, notably the Volcan and the Upano.As of the 2nd of March, IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. The lava continues to spill out onto the SE flank ravine, keeping the flow active and slowly advancing until about halfway to the base of the edifice. Near-frequent vulcanian eruptions continue to produce ash columns releasing pyroclastic material to approx. 5,8 km (19,000 ft), occasionally up to 7,3 km (24,000 ft) elevation in the western direction. Most of the ejected hot, juvenile and glowing material slid down along the southeastern flank in the form of incandescent avalanches. Satellite-based measurements of SO2 concentrations were detected in plumes of about 759 tonnes on 1 March.IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 14-21 February, which included daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, periods of tremor, and gas, steam, and ash emissions. The daily count of explosions ranged from 30-56, though the daily seismic data transmission was sometimes interrupted. Almost daily gas, steam, and ash plumes were either observed in IG webcam images or described in Washington VAAC volcanic activity notifications; weather clouds often prevented observations of the summit. The plumes rose as high as 1.8 km above the volcano and drifted mainly E, SE, and W. Multiple thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images on most days. Incandescence from the crater, a 500-m-long lava flow on the SE flank, and rolling blocks were visible during the nights of 14-15 and 18-19 February. Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).As of the 5th of February, IGEPN reported that the activity at the volcano remains unchanged. Continuing lava flows continue to be active on the SE flank. Near-frequent vulcanian eruptions continue to produce ash columns sending pyroclastic material to approx. 6,1 km (20,000 ft) in the north-northwestern direction. Most of the ejected hot, juvenile and glowing material slid down along the southeastern flank in the form of incandescent avalanches. Satellite-based measurements of SO2 concentrations were detected in plumes of about 1,551 tonnes on 3 February.The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Wolf volcano (Galapagos)

May 8th, 2022

On 5 May IG reported that the eruption at Wolf's SE flank was over. The eruption began at 2320 on 6 January from an approximately 8-km-long radial fissure, trending NW-SE, that had at least five active vents. Lava flows from the vents traveled SE then E, covering an area of more than 30 square kilometers. The maximum length of the flow field was 18.5 km, with the
farthest-reaching flow stopping 150-200 m from the coastline. The highest levels of heat, sulfur dioxide emissions, seismicity, and deformation were recorded in the early days of the eruption. Sulfur dioxide emissions had been absent for the previous 30 days.A s of the 6th of May. The latest available satellite image from 1 May seems to confirm that the lava flow has stopped its advance about 150-200 meters off the ocean shore and started to cool itself gradually. According to the local volcano observatory Instituto Geofísico (IG), the reported length of the lava flow is about 18,5 km covering more than 30 km2 of the area. The seismic activity has continued at decreasing levels.IG reported that the eruption at Wolf continued during 13-18 April. Lava flows continued to advance towards the coast based on thermal data; satellite images showed minor advancement during 11-16 April and the end of the flow near the coastline.IG reported that the eruption at Wolf continued during 5-12 April. Minor sulfur dioxide emissions were recorded during 5-6 April. Thermal data captured and mapped on 6 April indicated that lava flows were getting closer to the coast; daily thermal alert counts, as many as around 154, indicated active and advancing lava flows during the rest of the week. IG reported that the eruption at Wolf continued during 22-29 March. Daily thermal alert counts, as many as around 200, indicated active and advancing lava flows on the SSE flank.As of the 21st of March, IGEPN reported that volcano's surface and internal activity levels remain high, with a decreasing trend. Between March 20 and 21 / 11 a.m., the IGEPN recorded 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes The MOUNTS system recorded 12.6 tons of SO2 on 03/20/2022 at 2:15 p.m. TL. FIRMS registers 63 thermal alerts and MIROVA registers 1 high thermal alert (1276 MW) and 1 moderate alerts at Wolf (between 210 and 491 MW) during the last 24 hours. The thermal anomalies of the GOES-16 satellite are maintained due to the advance of the flows of lava.As of the 16th of March, IGEPN reported that hermal anomalies are still recorded. Surface and internal activity levels remain high, unchanged. Thanks to the images provided by the GOES-16 satellite, thermal anomalies can be observed due to the effect of the advance of the lava, which has still not reached the coast. No seismic event has been recorded at the volcano in the past 24 hours.
IGEPN reported that on 12.03.2022 / 11 a.m., a volcano-tectonic earthquake during the last 24 hours.The FIRMS system recorded 159 thermal alerts. The MIROVA system recorded 2 thermal alerts high (889 MW and 606 MW).The observatory has uploaded an animation of the weekly advance of lava flows in Wolf Volcano. The current eruption began on January 6 this year. The animation was created using information from daily thermal anomalies recorded by NASA's FIRMS satellite system. IGEPN reported that thermal anomalies are still reported at Wolf Volcano on March 11, 2022: The FIRMS system recorded 91 thermal alerts. The MIROVA system recorded 2 moderate thermal alerts, 1 high (471 MW) and 1 very high (1840 MW). In the MOUNTS system, 31.8 tonnes of SO2 were recorded, with data from March 10. Seismicity comes down to a single Volcano-tectonic earthquake (VT). As of the 6th of March, IGEPN reported that the activity, both superficial and internal, of the Wolf volcano remained high, with an unchanged trend. Thermal anomalies continue to appear on satellite images, associated with the presence of lava flows. The MIROVA system recorded 3 very high thermal anomalies (1089, 1139 and 1859 MW) and the WORLDVIEW system recorded 106 thermal alerts over the past 24 hours.Seismicity comes down to a single volcano-tectonic earthquake. No good satellite view as the Galapagos were covered with clouds. IGEPN reported that activity of the Wolf volcano continued on 28th of February. FIRMS registers 229 thermal alerts and MIROVA registers 2 high thermal alerts (181 and 974 MW) and 1 very high (2012 MW) in the last 24 hours These thermal anomalies on the satellite are due to advancing lava. Only one volcano-tectonic earthquake is reported in the last 24 hours. Thermal anomalies continue to be observed at Wolf Volcano by satellites, due to advancing lava.The WORLSVIEW system recorded 170 thermal alerts in the last 12 hours and MIROVA recorded 4 very high thermal alerts (1783, 1424, 2343 and 2364 MW) at the Wolf as of February 25, 2022.on February 26, the WORLDVIEW system recorded more than 100 thermal alerts, and MIROVA recorded 2 high thermal alerts (105 and 999 M.W.) and 1 very high (1522 M.W.) in the last 24 hours.Seismicity is limited to one daily LP earthquake. The GOES-16 satellite images show no anomalies on 22nd of February at 13:20 UTC (TL Galapagos -6HS) at Wolf Volcano. At the seismic level: only one volcano-tectonic earthquake were mentioned by the IGEPN. No VAAC alert or ash emission report was recorded. WORLdVIEW records 171 thermal alerts at Wolf, in the last 12 hours MIROVA records very high thermal alerts, in the last 24 hours During the night, the thermal anomaly recorded by the satellites was maintained. The eruption of the Wolf volcano, which began on January 6, 2022, continues. As of the 16th of February thermal anomalies have been observed in satellite images at Volcan Wolf, in the Galapagos archipelago. FIRMS records 235 thermal alerts; while MIROVA registers 1 high thermal alert (748 MW) and 3 very high (1617, 1537 and 2142 MW). These thermal anomalies are related to lava flows. As of the 9th of February FIRMS recorded 309 thermal alerts, while MIROVA records 3 very high thermal alerts, of VRP 1876, 3727 and 4714 MW, and a high alert of VRP 670 MW in the last 24 time. No emission was observed by the GOES-16 satellite. On the map of lava flows established on February 8, 2022, we can see that since mid-January, a flow has been mainly fed in a south-southwest direction; another heading west. The lava field has widened but the flows have still not reached the coast. Only one Volcano-tectonic earthquake has been recorded in the last 24 hours. As of the 2nd of February MIROVA recorded 3 very high thermal anomalies (6005 MW, 3392 MW and 1532 MW) and 1 moderate, while FIRMS recorded more than a hundred thermal anomalies during of the last 24 hours.These anomalies are related to lava flows to the south.WORLDVIEW applications recorded 18 thermal anomalies and MIROVA recorded 1 high thermal anomaly (672 MW), and three smaller ones on January 30 in the past 24 hours. At 19:52 UTC, through the MOUNTS project, a measurement of 2,173 t of SO2 is recorded for the Wolf volcano. Surface and internal activity levels remain high, although decreasing. IGEPN reported that the eruption continued from January 18th-25th. Daily thermal alerts numbered in the hundreds, centered on advancing lava flows on the SE flank. Diffuse gas emissions were visible drifting SW from 18 to 20 January. The level of activity remained stable at the beginning of the week then began a downward trend from 21 January.On January 26 / 11 a.m., the IG reports a large-period (LP) earthquake. IGPEN reported that the level of surface and internal activity of the Wolf volcano remains high, but decreasing. Only two long-period earthquakes are mentioned in the last 24 hours. There is no observation of gas emissions in the satellite images. MIROVA reported thermal anomalies for this January 21, between 122 and 5729 MW, and FIRMS recorded hundreds of thermal alerts in 24 hours, observed due to advancing lava flows.Light ash emissions were observed by satellite at Wolf Volcano drifting southwest on January 19.Thermal alerts are broadcast by Mirova and FIRMS, in connection with lava flows. Seismicity is characterized by 3 LP earthquakes. Satellite monitoring of Wolf Volcano, Galapagos, shows that thermal anomalies are continuing on January 18, 2022. The MIROVA system reports 2 very high (2,190 and 7,581 MW) and 1 extreme (14,048 MW) thermal alerts in the last 24 hours, and the WORLDVIEW system reports hundreds of thermal alerts. They are due to lava flows that have not yet reached the sea. Slight gas emissions were observed on the satellite towards the southwest. At the seismic level, only three LP earthquakes are reported. The effusive eruption of the volcano continues. A satellite image from 16 January identified that the lava flow, being active from two eruptive fissures, branched off into two lava arms traveling east. The larger (northern) lava tongue didn't make it to the sea yet, 2 kilometers have been leaving to the ocean entry. According to MIROVA Detection System, extreme thermal anomalies (14000 MW-17000 MW) continue to detect in satellite images.As of the 16th of January, IGEPN reported that superficial and internal activity of the Wolf volcano remains high, but with a downward trend.. On January 16 in the evening, slight gas emissions were observed in a southwesterly direction, on an image from the GOES-16 satellite. MIROVA is reporting extreme thermal anomalies on January 16-17, while FIRMS is reporting hundreds of thermal alerts over the past 24 hours. Satellite monitoring shows that thermal anomalies are continuing. During the last 24 hours, the seismicity is characterized by a volcano-tectonic earthquake and 3 LP earthquakes. As of the 15th of January, according to IGEPN eruptivze activity is continuing. Very weak gas emissions, in a southwesterly direction, were observed thanks to satellite images at the Wolf volcano on 13th of January. The MIROVA satellite system reported 1 extreme thermal alert (11728 MW), 2 very high (7571 and 8791 MW) and 1 high (200 MW) and FIRMS reported more than 100 thermal alerts in Wolf, in the last 24 hours. On the satellite images, we observe that the thermal anomalies are gradually weakening. However, although unlikely, new pulses of lava flow emission are not excluded. As of the 12th of January, two active eruptive fissures continue to keep the lava flow active while the highest vent shows signs of inactivity. The total length of the lava flow is about 16,5 km and 15 km length of the active flow and haven't reached the sea entry yet. According to the latest official data, the area covered by lava flows amounts to 7,6 km per square in total.As of the 9th of January, GOES-16 satellite images show the gas emission column from the eruption of Wolf volcano in the Galapagos, looking southwest. The Washington VAAC reported four alerts, mostly for gas, with heights up to 700 meters above sea level and heading southwest. GOES 16 satellite images at 11:20 UTC (TL GALÁPAGOS: UTC-6) show that the thermal anomaly associated with the lava flows has slightly altered its course from SSE to E. The lava flows continue to move towards the sea , situation on January 9, 2022/11 a.m. The WORLDVIEW satellite system has reported hundreds of thermal alerts to Wolf during the past 12 hours. As of the 8th of December, IGEPN reported that eruption continues. The Washington VAAC reported four emissions, mostly gas, with average heights of 1,300 meters and a westerly direction on January 8, 2022. The MIROVA satellite system reported 2 extreme thermal anomalies, respectively VRP 38,693 and 30,045 MW, mainly associated with lava flows. The FIRMS system reported more than a hundred thermal alerts in the last 12 hours. On satellite images, it was possible to observe gas emission columns and thermal anomalies associated with lava flows. The seismicity is characterized by 40 explosion earthquakes, and 9 emission tremor episodes between 07.01 and 08.01 at 11 a.m. IGEPN reported that on on Friday January 7, 2022 from 00:20 TL (23:20 on January 06, 2022 local time) a new fissure eruption was observed at the level of the volcano Wolf. (Photo) Seismic recording from the FER1 station, located in the Galapagos Islands, shows that at approximately 9:00 p.m. local time in the Galapagos, a seismic swarm occurred. At 9:35 p.m., an earthquake of magnitude 2.4 was recorded, with its epicenter at the Wolf volcano. From 11:15 pm TL Galapagos, a tremor signal can be observed, probably associated with the onset of the eruption. All of these signals were of low amplitude because the FER1 station is located on Fernandina Island. At 01:20 TL (00:20 TL Galapagos) on January 07, 2022, a cloud of gas and ash is visible on satellite images, reaching heights between 3,793 m asl in the northeast (NE) and 1,943 m asl in the west (W); There is no population near the volcano or towards the ash clouds. The FIRMS satellite system shows several thermal alerts located on the southern and southeastern flanks of the volcano. These alerts are associated with the high temperatures generated by the eruptive fissure and lava flows.Observation confirmed that the opened crack south of Wolf volcano where magma emerges in the same direction, towards the interior of the island. The columns of gas and ash reach several thousand meters in height (between 1900 and 3800 meters) and are directed to the north, then the west of the island, where there is no human population at risk. Previous eruptive activity occurred in 2015. Wolf, the highest volcano of the Galápagos Islands, straddles the equator at the north end of the archipelago's largest island, Isabela. The 1710-m-high edifice has steeper slopes than most other Isabela volcanoes, reaching angles up to 35 degrees. A 6 x 7 km caldera, at 700 m one of the deepest of the Galápagos Islands, is located at the summit. A prominent bench on the west side of the caldera rises 450 above the caldera floor, much of which is covered by a lava flow erupted in 1982. Radial fissures concentrated along diffuse rift zones extend down the north, NW, and SE flanks, and submarine vents lie beyond the north and NW fissures. Similar unvegetated flows originating from a circumferential chain of spatter and scoria cones on the eastern caldera rim drape the forested flanks to the sea. The proportion of aa lava flows at Volcán Wolf exceeds that of other Galápagos volcanoes. An eruption in in 1797 was the first documented historical eruption in the Galápagos Islands. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sierra Negra volcano (Galapagos)

September 2nd, 2018

As of the 1st of September IG reported that due to the continuous decrease in seismic energy levels, reaching even earlier values ​​at the beginning of the eruptive period from June to August 2018 at the Sierra Negra volcano, and the decrease in the number of thermal alerts and SO2 emission , the IGEPN reported the possible end of the eruptive activity or the entry into a period of calm after 58 days of eruption. By 25 August the lava flows in total covered an area of 30.6 square kilometers. Activity continued to decline the last week of August with decreased
seismicity, gas emission, and no surficial activity visible. . IG reported that during 20-21 August both steam-and-gas emissions and incandescence from lava flows were visible on the Sierra Negra webcam. No activity was noted when the weather was clear during 22-28 August. On 15 August satellite images showed lava from Fissure 4 continuing to enter the ocean. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 7-14 August. Incandescence from active NNW lava flows was visible almost nightly. A steam-and-gas plume rose 1.8 km a.s.l. and drifted W on 7 August. IG reported that on August 9, at 17:45 GMT, the tremor increased in amplitude, in relation with a new surge of activity on the northern flank.
Seismicity is further characterized by 52 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, and 6 LP earthquakes.The largest earthquake occurred at 10:55 am M3,1 TG and a depth of 2 km. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 1-7 August. Incandescence from active lava flows was visible daily. An increase of tremor began at 2220 on 3 August and lasted two hours, signifying a new pulse of activity on the N flank. Small gas emissions were visible on 4 August, and steam-and-gas emissions were noted on 6 August. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 25-31 July. Sulfur dioxide flux was as high as about 1,400 tons per day (on 28 July), and daily counts of volcano-tectonic and long-period events were 24-65 and 3-32, respectively. Nightly incandescence from advancing lava flows was visible. Gas plumes rose more than 1.8 km above the vents and drifted N, NW, and W. As of the 20th of July, IGEPN reported that the activity remains unchanged, at a superficial and high internal level.During the last measurement period, 18 to 19 July at 11am, the number of VT earthquakes decreased, with 39 events; the number of LP earthquakes is 11.The gas emissions are at least 1,800 meters above sea level, and go to the WNW.Nighttime glow is observed at the emission points, and on the lava flows.As of the 10th of July, IGEPN reported that Sierra Negra's surface and internal activity levels remain high. The eruptive process continues, as evidenced by numerous volcano-tectonic earthquakes and emission tremor; thermal anomalies are noted as well as the emission of a plume of vapor, gas and ash rising to 2,400 meters in height, then moving towards the southwest sparing the populated areas for the moment. Lava flows come from a source located in the lower part of the northwestern flank of the volcano; the emission of lava would have increased significantly since July 7 at 17h local. From July 2nd to 3rd at 11am local time, the IG reports 241 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 37 LP earthquakes and 2 VLP earthquakes. During the last 24 hours, about fifty volcanic earthquakes have been located at a depth of less than 5 km; the strongest was on the east flank of the volcano, at a depth of 2 km, with a magnitude of 3.4.The satellite images show gas and vapor emissions, and the presence of lava flows. IGEPN reported that after a small earthquake on July 1, 2018 at 15:52 GMT, tremor appeared. At 18 o'clock, the National Park staff reports incandescence and the presence of lava flows on the northwest flank of the volcano. The IGEPN informs, for the period from 01 to 11 am to 02 July at 11 am, 286 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 43 LP earthquakes, 3 VLP earthquakes and emission tremor. An ash emission was mounted 1,000 meters above the crater, then headed west. IGEPN reported that the activity of the past 12 hours was characterized by a gradual decrease in seismic and acoustic tremor, but these signals nevertheless indicate the continuation of the eruption with a lower intensity.One hundred and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded; the largest, with a magnitude of 3.3, is located south of the caldera at a depth of 4.3 km. The others are located at a shallower depth, and in the western part of the caldera. Previously, IGEPN and PNG reported that following a rise in seismicity for some months, and some more recent major earthquakes, including one of M 4.2 on June 22 at 6:24 GMT and another of M 5.3 on June 26 at 3:15 GMT under the Sierra Negra volcano / Isabela Island to the Galapagos, the seismicity was marked by replicas and tremor. On June 26, from 11:17 am TG, a new seismic swarm began in Sierra Negra; earthquakes are characterized by a depth of between 3 and 5 km and a magnitude of 4.6 maximum. Since the earthquake of M 4,2 at 13:38 TG, the amplitude of seismicity and infrasonic signals has greatly increased. Galapagos National Park staff reported rumbles from the volcano. all these signs suggest the beginning of the eruptive process. Images from the GOES-16 Satellite show a strong thermal anomaly in the northern area of ​​the caldera. The Park staff then reported lava flows inside the caldera and on the northern flank of the volcano towards Bahia Elizabeth. As Isabela Island is populated, the authorities have ordered the evacuation of 50 residents, who will be cared for by host families; tourist access to the Sierra Negra volcano area and the El Cura area is restricted. On 8 June IG reported a continuing high level of seismicity at Sierra Negra, characterized by a larger number and magnitude of earthquakes, indicating magma movement. The number of events per day had been significantly increasing since mid-2016. In the previous 10 days there was an average of 42 local events/day; on 25 May there were 104 events, the largest number of earthquakes per day recorded since 2015. In addition, in a 24-hour period during 7-8 June there were a total of 48 volcano-tectonic events, two long-period events, and three hybrid earthquakes; a M 4.8 long-period earthquake was recorded at 0715 on 8 June. The earthquake epicenters were mainly located on the edges of the crater, in two NE-SW trending lineaments; the first covered the N and W edges of the crater and the second went from the NE part around to the S edge. Data showed very large deformation at the caldera's center, compared with lower levels of deformation outside of the caldera. The broad shield volcano of Sierra Negra at the southern end of Isabela Island contains a shallow 7 x 10.5 km caldera that is the largest in the Galápagos Islands. Flank vents abound, including cinder cones and spatter cones concentrated along an ENE-trending rift system and tuff cones along the coast and forming offshore islands. The 1124-m-high volcano is elongated in a NE direction. Although it is the largest of the five major Isabela volcanoes, it has the flattest slopes, averaging less than 5 degrees and diminishing to 2 degrees near the coast. A sinuous 14-km-long, N-S-trending ridge occupies the west part of the caldera floor, which lies only about 100 m below its rim. Volcan de Azufre, the largest fumarolic area in the Galapagos Islands, lies within a graben between this ridge and the west caldera wall. Lava flows from a major eruption in 1979 extend all the way to the north coast from circumferential fissure vents on the upper northern flank. Sierra Negra, along with Cerro Azul and Volcan Wolf, is one of the most active of Isabela Island volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Fernandina volcano (Galapagos)

May 24th, 2024

As of the 22nd of May, the effusive eruption at the volcano continues. As indicated in the satellite image on May 15, a very faint thermal signal (SWIR) of lava flow emissions on the southern flank has been captured, suggesting that the activity seems to be weakening. According to the MIROVA Detection System, a moderate thermal anomaly (27 MW) was detected in satellite images on 22 May.As of the 5th of May, the effusive eruption at the volcano continues. Judging from the latest Sentinel-2 satellite image two days ago, the lava persists, sustaining its flow and progressing in the formation of the lava delta along the southern coastline. The active lava flow covers an area of approximately 16.2 square kilometers with a length of 13.4 kilometers. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reached 625.5 tonnes at 13:19 local time on 1 May. According to the MIROVA Detection System, a high thermal anomaly (556 MW) was detected in satellite images the day before. As of the 18th of April, the effusive eruption at the volcano continues. Although the lava flow advance seems to have slowed down a bit due to a lesser amount of gas-steam emissions at the new lava delta identified in the latest satellite image, it still continuse to be active and feed the shoreline. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reached 325 tonnes at 13:00 local time on 16 April. According to the MIROVA Detection System, a high thermal anomaly (589 MW) was detected in satellite images this morning. As of the 16th of April, the effusive eruption at the volcano continues. The lava flow advance seems to have slowed down a bit due to a lesser amount of gas-steam emissions at the new lava delta, identified in the PlanetScope satellite image from 13 April. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reached 120.3 tonnes at 02:55 local on 13 April. According to the MIROVA Detection System, a moderate thermal anomaly (14 MW) was detected in satellite images on 14th of April. As of the 9th of April, the effusive eruption at the volcano continues. Since the lava flow front made it to the ocean on 7 April, it continues to expand the coastline by building a new beach bench known as the lava delta. In addition, the lava at the contact with water is likely developing another kinds of volcanic edifices, known as littoral cones. The water, reacting with lava, will quickly generate steam explosions, so-called laze (lava haze), blasting out showers of solid-to-semisolid fragments derived from the outer part of the flow. As the volcano is uninhabited, there is no threat to the population.Previously, the Galapagos National Park institute reported that the advancing lava flow at the volcano entered the ocean on 7 April. Over the past month since the eruption commenced, the lava has been traveling over the entire length of the southern slope until it reached the shoreline. The lava at the contact with water started to develop other kinds of volcanic edifices, known as littoral cones. The water, reacting with lava, will quickly generate steam explosions, so-called laze (lava haze), blasting out showers of solid-to-semisolid fragments derived from the outer part of the flow. As the volcano is uninhabited, there is no threat to the population.As of the 1st of April, the effusive eruption of the volcano continues. The lava flow on the south-southwestern flank remains active and continues to advance towards the shoreline, currently about 2,6 km from the ocean entry.. Once the lava interacts with water, it does so explosively, forming abundant steam-gas emissions, so called laze (lava haze).As of the 25th of March, the effusive eruption of the volcano continues. The lava flow on the south-southwestern flank remains active and continues to advance towards the shoreline, currently about 2,7 km from the ocean entry. Once the lava interacts with water, it does so explosively, forming abundant steam-gas emissions, so called laze (lava haze). According to the MIROVA Detection System, a very high thermal anomaly (1037 MW) was detected in satellite images on 23rd of March. As of the 17th of March, the effusive eruption at the volcano continues. According to the latest Sentinel-2 satellite image of the eruption, acquired on March 16th, a cluster of several vents feeds the lava, which continues to keep the flow active on the south-southwestern flank. The lava flow has increased in length, currently about 8.9 km and slowly travels towards the shoreline, about 3.4 km from the sea entry. Once the lava interacts with water, it does so explosively, forming abundant steam-gas emissions, so called laze (lava haze).As of the 15th of March the low-level effusive eruption at the volcano continues. The lava flow gradually continues to slow down its advance over the past few days. According to the MIROVA Detection System, a high thermal anomaly (619 MW) was detected in satellite images yesterday. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reached to a 576 tonnes measured on 13 March. Gas and steam emissions have extended west-southwest of the volcano. No ash emissions have been recorded over the past 24 hours.As of the 13th of March, the effusive activity of the volcano continues at reduced levels. The lava flow gradually continues to slow down its advance over the past few days. This confirmed the GOES-16 satellite system as well when a slight thermal anomaly of the volcano was identified yesterday. However, according to the MIROVA Detection System, a very high thermal anomaly (5192 MW) was detected in satellite images the day before. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reached to a 2500.4 tonnes measured on 11 March. Gas and steam emissions have extended west-southwest of the volcano. As the volcano is uninhabited, there is no threat to the population.As of the 7th of March, the effusive eruption at the volcano goes on. Lava flows continue to be active on the south-southeastern flank of the volcano, currently about 7,8 km long (from the flank fissure up to the flow front). Lava hasn't made it to the ocean yet, and it is still uncertain whether it'll eventually reach the sea. Otherwise, when lava interacts with water, it does so explosively, forming abundant steam-gas emissions. According to the MIROVA Detection System, a very high thermal anomaly (7592 MW) was detected in satellite images in the afternoon on 7 March. The recent satellite image of the eruption depicts a forest fire located west of the lava flow. Gas and steam emissions have extended west-southwest of the volcano, reaching a height of several hundreds of meters above the crater.As of the 5th of March, the effusive eruption at the volcano continues. Several lava flow arms, oozing from the flank fissure, continue to be active on the south-southeastern slope of the volcano. Lava hasn't made it to the ocean yet, and it is still uncertain whether it'll eventually reach the sea. Otherwise, when lava interacts with water, it does so explosively, forming abundant steam-gas emissions. Low gas and steam emissions with no ash traces had been dispersed west-southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reached to a 46,457 tonnes measured at 01:27 on 3 March/ The new eruption commenced at the volcano on 3rd of March. At 11:50 PM local time, a new lava effusion began to emerge from a 3-5 km long eruptive fissure in the upper part of the southeastern slope of the volcano. The eruption has been producing multiple lava flows over the flank, reaching length of at least 5-6 km from the fissure. Lava flows have not yet reached the ocean, and it is still uncertain whether they will eventually make it to the sea. The onset of the new effusive eruption was identified by the GOES-16 and VIIRS satellites. Moreover, the near-polar satellites SUOMI-NPP and NOAA-20 have recorded more than 1000 thermal anomalies during their passage over the Galapagos at 00:44 and 01:35 local time tonight. A gas-steam plume containing some amount has been rising about 2-3 km above the summit towards the west, north-northwest and south-southeast. Previous news 2021 - As of the 17th of November, IG reported that slow deformation at Fernandina has been recorded over the previous 18 months. InSAR data showed that inflation was occurring at a rate of about 400 mm/year in the summit caldera and on the NE flank, while deflation was occurring at a rate of about 100-400 mm/year in areas on the upper W and SW flanks. On 13 October the areas of deflation changed to inflation and the rate of deformation in the caldera increased. On 17 November IG noted that fumarolic activity in the summit crater was visible during the previous few days and may have been related to a small episode of tremor on 16 November. IG also noted that periodic fumarolic activity and small episodes of tremor are common at Fernandina without an eruption.Fernandina, the most active of Galápagos volcanoes and the one closest to the Galápagos mantle plume, is a basaltic shield volcano with a deep 5 x 6.5 km summit caldera. The volcano displays the classic "overturned soup bowl" profile of Galápagos shield volcanoes. Its caldera is elongated in a NW-SE direction and formed during several episodes of collapse. Circumferential fissures surround the caldera and were instrumental in growth of the volcano. Reporting has been poor in this uninhabited western end of the archipelago, and even a 1981 eruption was not witnessed at the time. In 1968 the caldera floor dropped 350 m following a major explosive eruption. Subsequent eruptions, mostly from vents located on or near the caldera boundary faults, have produced lava flows inside the caldera as well as those in 1995 that reached the coast from a SW-flank vent. Collapse of a nearly 1 km3 section of the east caldera wall during an eruption in 1988 produced a debris-avalanche deposit that covered much of the caldera floor and absorbed the caldera lake. (GVN/GVP)

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Tungurahua volcano from Pelileo

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

March 1st, 2024

As of the 29th of February, he intense activity at the volcano continues. Near-constant and copious ash emissions had been rising to 21,000 ft-24,000 ft (6,400 m-7,300 m) and extending about 180 km to the north-northeast of the volcano over the past 24 hours, as is identified in the attached satellite imagery. Due to continuing periods of copious ash columns, moderate rain of very fine ash particles was reported over the past several days in several municipalities around the volcano. As of the 28th of February,the volcano has been dominated by strong ash emissions over the past week. Due to continuing periods of copious ash columns, moderate rain of very fine ash particles was reported yesterday in the municipalities of Hueyapan, Yecapixtla and Tetela del Volcán, Morelos; in Ixtacuixtla, Panotla, Tepetitla, Nativitas, Zacatelco, Santa Apolonia Teacalco, San Damián Texóloc, Tetlahuaca, Zacatelco, Xicohtzingo, Paplotla, Tenancingo, Santa Catarina Ayometla, Magdalena Tlaltelulco, San Francisco Tetlanohcan and Teolocholco, Tlaxcala; in Iztacalco, Iztapalapa and Coyoacán, Mexico City; and finally in Atlautla, Ayapango, Ecatzingo, Chalco, Tenango del Aire, Temamatla, Ozumba, Tepetlixpa, Tlalmanalco and Amecameca, State of Mexico.As of the 26th of February, persisting dense ash emissions had been continuing from the summit vent most of the day yesterday. A considerable load of lapilli and fine ash material spewed to estimated 22,000 ft (6,7 km) elevation and drifted SE. The CENAPRED seismic station registered periods of a low-amplitude, high-frequency volcanic tremor lasting about 1300 minutes. The crater area of the volcano remains closed for climbing as the risk of being caught in sudden explosions is very high. The alert status remains at Level 2.A period of strong ash emissions occurred from the volcano's crater on 21st of February. At about noon, a sustained, grey, dense and billowing ash column could be seen rising from the summit vent via surveillance cameras. The plume rose approx. to 6,1 km elevation and drifted SW. An ashfall has been reported in the municipalities of Hueyapan, Tetela del Volcano and Jiutepec in Morelos. The elevated volcanic tremor had continued today. The CENAPRED volcano observatory reported a seismic signal with a mean amplitude of 918 minutes. The crater area of the volcano remains closed for climbing as the risk of being caught in sudden explosions is very high. The alert status remains at Level 2.As of the 20th of February, the explosive eruption at the volcano continues. According to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington. vulcanian-sized explosions continues to occur from the summit vent at roughly regular intervals of 2 to 3 per day. Plumes of ash rose to an altitude ranging between 19,000 ft (5,800 m) and 20,000 ft (6,800 m) over the past week. The seismic station registered 939 minutes of amplitude tremor over the past 24 hours. In general, seismic recordings depict elevated continuous ground vibration duration of approx. 1100 min / day over the past weeks, indicating movement of magma through the volcanic conduit.As of the 29th of January, the explosive eruption at the volcano continues. Vulcanian-sized explosions continues to occur from the summit vent at roughly regular intervals of 2 to 3 per day. Plumes of ash rose to an altitude ranging between 19,000 ft (5,800 m) and 23,000 ft (7,000 m) over the past week. The seismic station registered 972 minutes of amplitude tremor over the past 24 hours. In general, seismic recordings show elevated continuous ground vibration duration of approx. 1300 min / day over the past weeks, indicating movement of magma through the volcanic conduit.CENAPRED reported that eruptive activity continued at Popocatepetl during 9-16 January. Long-period events totaling 6-64 per day were accompanied by steam-and-gas plumes that occasionally contained minor amounts of ash. The plumes mainly drifted ENE and NE. The seismic network recorded 14.5-23 daily hours of tremor, including both low- and high-frequency events. Minor amounts of ash fell in Nealtican (21 km E) during 11-12 January. Ashfall was also reported in Nativitas (40 km NE), Tetlatlahuaca (42 km NE), Zacatelco (45 km NE), Xicohtinco (45 km NE), Ayometla (46 km ENE), Papalotla (62 km NNW), Tenancingo, San Pablo del Monte (49 km E), Mazatecochco (50 km ENE), Tlaxcala (50 km NW), and Tepeyanco (47 km NW) in the state of Tlaxcala on 15 January and in Nealtican, Juan C. Bonilla (32 km ENE), and Tlaltenango in the state of Puebla on 16 January. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale) and the public was warned to stay 12 km away from the crater.Previous news 2023 - As of the 18th of December, the explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 19000 ft (5800 m) altitude or flight level 190 and is moving at 5 kts in S direction.The explosive eruption at the volcano continues at a bit heightened levels within the past two weeks. Popocatépetl is mainly characterized by strong near-constant ash emissions from the summit vent rather than vulcanian-sized explosions. Ash plumes rose to estimated 6-7 km elevation, drifting mostly to the S-SW, occasionally SE direction. About 100 emissions of gas, water wapor and ash on average have been detected during 3-17 November. Seismic recordings registered 1000-1500 minutes of amplitude tremor during this period. Strong ash and lapilli fall have been occurring in the municipalities of Ayapango, Ozumba and Ecatzingo, State of Mexico and Axochiapan, Hueyapan, Tetela del Volcán, Morelos.As of the 14th of November, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 20000 ft (6100 m) altitude or flight level 200 .As of the 29th of September, t he explosive eruption at the volcano continues. According to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington, spewed grey ash columns rose to 20,000 ft-21,000 ft (6,1 km-6,4 km) height and dissipated towards the southwest over the past few days. Additionally, 20 minutes of high-frequency amplitude volcanic tremor have been recorded on 28 September. The alert status remains at Level 2.As of the 27th of August, the explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150. As of the 27th of June, CENAPRED reported that the explosive eruption at the volcano was continuing. Relatively vigorous eruptions occurred from the summit in the morning the day before. At about 06:35 and 08:12 local time, plumes of grey ash rose to an altitude of 20,000 ft-22,000 ft (6,100 m-6,700 m) and drifted west and southwest. Seismic records registered 5178 minutes of amplitude tremor over the past 24 hours associated with 22 emissions of gas, water vapor and ash. In addition, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded at 15:20 and 21:34 local time yesterday with magnitude M 1.8 and 1.4 A light-to-moderate ash fall has been registered in the municipalities of Amecameca and Ayapango.As of the 7th of June, based on the recommendation of the Comité Científico Asesor (CCA) in participation with the Coordinación Nacional de Protección Civil (CNPC), a decision has been made to decline the current Level 3 alert for the volcano back to Level 2. The decision followed short-term fluctuating levels at the volcano, i.e. there might lead to either increase or decrease in the general activity. Monitored data indicate a slight drop of detected parameters over the last few days, characterized by small amounts of ash emissions, glowing lava bombs, and low-to-moderate amplitude tremor. Vulcanian-type explosions have been mostly mild only, but fluctuated in both frequency and intensity.Another eruptive episode appeared at the volcano in the late afternoon on 4th of June. At about 04:30 PM, after the recent rapid decrease of tremor, a new vigorous lava fountaining (likely to be classified as paroxysm) activity started to throw glowing lapilli-to-bomb-sized lava fragments, indicating rapid magma acceleration within the conduit towards the surface. Sustained hurling of incandescent ejecta accompanied by a typical strong ash-rich bursting continued at least until 08:00 PM.As of the 3rd of June the high-frequency tremor signal has decreased significantly over the past 48 hours, the CENAPRED reported. Seismic records registered 11 minutes of amplitude tremor over the past 24 hours associated with 219 emissions of light amounts of ash and occasional incandescent fragments. Vulcanian activity continues from the summit vent at weakened levels but still remains above long-term average values. Ash plumes continue to reach nearly the same altitudes of about 19,000 ft-20,000 ft (5,800 m-6,100 m) drifting south. The crater area of the volcano remains closed for climbing as the risk of being caught in sudden explosions is very high. The alert status remains at Yellow Phase 3. As of the 20th of May, the high activity dominates the volcano with near-frequent strong vulcanian-type explosions and periods of dense ash emissions from the summit area. Intense powerful explosions continue to generate abundant grey ash plumes spewing to estimated 21,000 ft (6,400 m) elevation associated with glowing bomb ejecta. Soon after landings, the vast edifice area is being constantly illuminated by fragmented incandescent material.As of the 28th of May, CENAPRED reported that the high activity dominates the volcano with near-frequent strong vulcanian-type explosions and periods of dense ash emissions from the summit area. Intense powerful explosions continue to generate abundant grey ash plumes spewing to estimated 21,000 ft (6,400 m) elevation associated with glowing bomb ejecta. Soon after landings, the vast edifice area is being constantly illuminated by fragmented incandescent material. Strong bursting of large amounts of ash emissions continued most of the previous days.As of the 25th of May, CENAPRED reported that the highly elevated explosive activity at the volcano continues. A vigorous bursting of dense ash and gas emissions occurred from the summit crater in the early morning yesterday. The continuous eruption lasted several dozen minutes, generating an ash-rich billowing column to estimated 25,000 ft (7,600 m) in the southeast direction. Strong vulcanian-sizes explosions continue to take place by throwing a large amount of incandescent lava fragments from the summit vent onto the variously oriented slopes. Seismic records registered 1089 minutes of volcano-tectonic tremor and 19 ongoing emissions of water vapor, gas and ash over the past 24 hours.The volcano continues at highly elevated levels. The activity has been picking up on 22nd of May in the early morning as a short-term lava-fountaining eruptive episode took place from the summit vent. From the available webcam imagery, lava jets onset appeared to start at about 05:22 local time by an impressive lava fountain of up to perhaps a hundred meters above the crater, following nearly 6-minute continuous bursting fountaining accompanied by ejecting incandescent lava bombs. The eruptive episode calmed down at approx. 05:28 local time. Dense grey ash emissions continued during the eruption and darkened the sky above Puebla town.CENAPREDreported that the alert status of the volcano was raised to "Level 3", as the activity continues at high levels characterized by stronger-than-usual vulcanian-type explosions. The decision about the alert status change was made by the Scientific Advisory Committeeon 21st of May based on the ongoing volcano's activity. The strong eruptive phase at the volcano continues by throwing a large amount of incandescent lava fragments from the summit crater onto the variously oriented slopes. Grey ash-rich columns reached 32,000 ft (9,800 m) height and drifted E over the past 48 hours.As of the 18th of May, CENAPRED reported that the strong eruptive phase at the volcano has continued during the past several weeks. The activity is dominated by larger-than-usual vulcanian-type explosions, throwing a large amount of incandescent lava fragments from the summit crater onto the variously oriented slopes. The broad area of the edifice is being constantly brightened by these lapilli-to-bomb-sized tephra fragments as some of the lava bombs, visible in the webcam screenshot, fall outside the frame border, meaning that they reached distances greater than 2 km.As of the 16th of May explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 23000 ft (7000 m) altitude or flight level 230 As of the 15th explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 20000 ft (6100 m) altitude or flight level 200 .As of the 12th of May, CENAPRED reported that the eruptive activity at the volcano continues at moderately high levels. The volcano observatory recorded five minor-to-moderate vulcanian-sized eruptions over the past 24 hours, of which one (05:26 local time appeared to be powerful. The explosion ejected hot, glowing lava bombs to approx. height of hundred meters above the summit crater following landing onto the upper snow-capped slopes. The eruption sent an ash column to 23,000 ft (7,000 m) height drifting SE. 225 ongoing emissions of water vapor, gas and ash continued most of the morning.CENAPRED) recorded a quite strong eruption in the morning on 12 April. According to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington, a spewed grey ash column rose to 19,000 ft (5,8 km) height and dissipated towards the southeast. Lava bombs were ejected as far as 2 km away from the crater landing onto the southern flank. Additionally, 160 emissions of water vapor, gases and ash and 364 minutes of volcanic tremor were monitored. Nevertheless, the Volcanic Alert Level remains at Yellow.As of the 3rd of April, the explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 25000 ft (7600 m) altitude or flight level 250 and is moving at 10 kts in NE direction.As of the 31st of March, CENAPRED reported that explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 22000 ft (6700 m) altitude or flight level 220 and is moving at 20 kts in NE direction.Vulcanian activity continues from the summit crater. A spectacular explosion took place from the volcano in the evening, at about 06:00 PM local timeon 27th of March. A spectacular grey ash-rich plume rose nearly 2 kilometers above the summit, extending to the southeast of the volcano, the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington reported. According to the local monitoring institute CENAPRED, 227 emissions of water vapor, gases and ash were emitted over the past 24 hours. The internal activity represented 129 minutes of low-amplitude volcanic tremor.As of the 26th of March, CENAPRED reported that the eruptive activity at the volcano continues at moderately high levels. A relatively forceful explosion appeared from the main crater in the late evening yesterday, showering the upper part of the edifice with hot, glowing lava bombs. An eruption plume released ash emissions to estimated 7 km elevation and drifted east. According to the local monitoring institute CENAPRED, 235 emissions of water vapor, gases and ash were emitted over the past 24 hours. The internal activity represented 62 minutes of low-amplitude volcanic tremor including two volcano-tectonic earthquakes with a magnitude of M 1.4.As of the 18th of March, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 22000 ft (6700 m) altitude or flight level 220 .As of the 15th of March, CENAPRED's surveillance cameras observed several vulcanian-type explosions over the past 24 hours, of which a powerful one generated glowing hot lava fragments showering most of the upper edifice, including the summit cone. The eruption took place shortly after a midnight yesterday. A released ash was carried to approx. 6,7 km elevation and drifted east direction. Furthermore, 131 passive emissions of water vapor, gas and ash (venting) were detected. The seismic network recorded 15 minutes of internal high and low frequency tremor.As of the 27th of February, CENAPRED reported that several powerful explosions occurred at the volcano over the past few days, otherwise the eruptive activity continues at generally moderate levels. The Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED) recorded quite vigorous eruptions that happened in the mornings of 26 and 27 February. According to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington, spewed grey ash columns rose to 5,8 km and 6,7 km height and dissipated towards the north and southeast, respectively. Additionally, 51 minutes of low amplitude volcanic tremor have been recorded yesterday.As of th 24th of February , explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 22000 ft (6700 m) altitude or flight level 220 .CENAPRED reported that there were 102-215 steam-and-gas emissions, often containing ash, rising from PopocatÃepetl each day during 14-21 February; minor explosions also occurred almost daily. Minor explosions were recorded at 1334, 1456, and 1822 on 14 February and at 0253 on 15 February based on data from the seismic network. On 17 February minor explosions occurred at 0210, 1827, 2210, 2252, and 2325. Additional minor explosions were recorded at 0235, 0252, and 0614 on 18 February; a webcam iage from 0236 showed ejected incandescent material on the flanks. The lava dome on the crater floor was visible in satellite images and had not significantly changed since the 27 January overflight. On 20 February a minor explosion was recorded at 1805, and a moderate explosion at 2331 ejected incandescent material onto the upper flanks. A series of five minor explosions were recorded at 0027, 0052, 0252, 0401, and 0529 on 21 February. Ash fell in Amecameca (19 km NW), in the State of Mexico, during 20-21 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale).As of the 5th of February, CENAPRED reported that he explosive activity at the volcano continues. At about 09:30 local time yesterday morning, an above-average eruption took place from the summit vent triggering an increasingly larger rising thick grey ash column. The pyroclastic material (tephra) was being released to estimated 20,000 ft (6,100 m) that extended towards the SW of the volcano. The seismic station monitored 153 minutes of volcano-tectonic tremor over the past 24 hours. In addition, 317 emissions of water vapor, gases and ash were detected.As of the 21st of January, CENAPRED reported that the explosive eruption at the volcano continues. A significant above-average eruption occurred from its crater at 07:38 local time. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington detected a tall and dense ash plume that rose up to 28,000 ft (8,500 m) height and drifted northeast.As of the 15th of January, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 21000 ft (6400 m) altitude or flight level 210 and is moving at 20 kts in E direction.As of the 10th of January, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 22000 ft (6700 m) altitude or flight level 220 and is moving at 40 kts in NE direction.As of the 1st of January 2023, CENAPRED reported that vulcanian activity continues from the main crater. Two spectacular eruptions occurred at the turn of 2022 and 2023. The very last explosion in 2022 appeared to happen at about 11:21 PM local time and later on in approx. two hours at 01:33 AM, the first eruption in 2023 took place. Both eruptions were characterized by ejecting incandescent lava bombs from the crater showering the summit cone spreading into various directions. Moreover, a magnificent lenticular cloud was accompanied during the first eruption above the crater. Lenticular clouds form when moist, stable air flows over a larger swirls, usually formed by mountains, a series of large-scale standing waves form on the leeward side of the mountain. If the temperature at the crest of the wave drops below the dew point, moisture in the air may condense to form these clouds.As of the 20th of December, CENAPRED reported that Vulcanian activity at the volcano continues. A spectacular eruption occurred at 06:39 local time on the morning showering the summit cone and upper edifice with incandescent lava bombs thrown from the crater. Some of the bombs may be part of the growing lava dome in origin, ripped out from it due to the powerful momentum of the explosion. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington reported about an ash column spewing fine pyroclastic material to estimated 6,5 km altitude. 191 emissions of water vapor, gases and minor amounts of ash have been detected over the past 24 hours, extending NE direction. The seismic network registered 187 minutes of a volcanic tremor and one volcano-tectonic quake with a magnitude M 1.1. As of the 14th of December, CENAPRED reported that the explosive eruption at the volcano continues at moderate levels. Near-constant gas, steam, ash emissions and near-frequent vulcanian-sized explosions continue to take place from the summit crater. According to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington, ash plume heights varied between 22,000 ft-23,000 ft (6,700 m-7,000 m) altitudes and drifted into W-SW directions over the past few days. The seismic network detected 123 minutes of the low-amplitude volcanic tremor. The small lava dome continues to grow with magma rising into it. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Yellow.As of the 11th of The explosive eruption at the volcano continues. A strong explosion occurred from the summit crater yesterday morning. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington detected a tall and dense ash plume that rose up to 23,000 ft (7,000 m) height and drifted south. The eruption was recorded by witnesses from a plane flying over the Mexico City. of the 21st of October, CENAPRED reôrted that during the last 24 hours, 62 exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash. In addition, 251 minutes of tremor, 139 minutes of low amplitude and high frequency and 112 minutes of harmonic type were recorded. Two volcano-tectonic earthquakes were also recorded yesterday at 8:59 p.m. and today at 4:56 a.m. local time, with respective magnitudes of 1.5 and 2.1.As of the 23rd of September, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, 67 exhalations have been detected accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash. On September 23rd at 04:26 (local time) an explosion was detected which, due to the energy and seismic amplitude, was classified as minor. Note that on September 22, there were 4 explosions, and on September 21, 7 explosions were mentioned by Cenapred.In addition, 52 minutes of tremor were recorded. As of the 31st of August CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours,75 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and sometimes slight amounts of ash. At the end of the morning, a constant emission of water vapor and gas is observed, dispersing in a West North-West direction. CENAPRED reported that there were steam-and-gas emissions, sometimes containing minor amounts of ash, rising from Popocatepetl each day during 9-16 August. A minor explosion was recorded at 0839 on 10 August and a moderate explosion was detected at 1528 on 11 August. Minor ashfall was reported in the municipality of Ecatzingo, State of Mexico. An explosion at 1952 on 13 August was followed at 2125 by minor amounts of ashfall in Tetela del Volcán. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale).As of the 25th of July, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours,17 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor and volcanic gases, sometimes accompanied by ash. In addition, 18 minutes of low amplitude tremor and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded, the first recorded yesterday at 11:04 p.m. and the second today at 7:57 a.m. local time, both with a magnitude of 1.7.As of the 11th of July, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, 22 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash. During the morning and on July 11 / 11 a.m. local, a continuous emission of water vapor and gas is observed, dispersing towards the southwest. As of the 26th of June, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours 23 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash, In addition, nine minutes of very low amplitude tremor and a volcano-tectonic earthquake recorded today at 00:33, with a magnitude of 1.3, were recorded.As of the 18th of June, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 40 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash. In addition, low amplitude tremor segments were recorded which totaled 41 minutes and a volcano-tectonic earthquake of magnitude 1.4. The volcano is no longer observed after due to the intense clouds in the area..Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages. (GVN/GVP) . - Live cam of Popocatepetl -

Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico)

MEXICO - Colima volcano

July 17th, 2019

Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and two small explosions were recorded during 5-12 July. Five lahars descended the Montegrande ravine. An overflight on 9 July revealed that the diameter of the vent had slightly increased, likely caused by subsidence, and other areas of minor subsidence within the crater were noted. An area of collapsed material on the outer W wall was also identified. Temperatures inside the crater were 116 degrees Celsius, lower than the temperature of 250 degrees Celsius recorded in May. The temperatures in the fumarolic area decreased from 202 degrees Celsius in May to 169 degrees. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with fumarolic emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and three small explosions were recorded during 29 June-5 July. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater and small explosions continued to be recorded during 8-14 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, originating mainly from the NE side of the crater, continued to be recorded during 1-7 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during 25-31 May small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater continued to be recorded. During overflights conducted during 23-24 May scientists observed that the new feature (a crack or cavity) reported the previous week had become a hole due to the combination of excavation due to explosions and probable subsidence. The maximum temperature recorded with a portable thermal camera was 252 degrees Celsius, an increase of 80 degrees since recorded on 1 May. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that 51 low-magnitude explosions mainly from the NE part of Colima’s crater were recorded by the seismic and infrasound network during 11-24 May. Emissions from the explosions consisted mainly of water vapor and gas, and were the first surficial manifestations of activity since seismicity increased in the past few weeks. Footage from five drone overflights conducted on 22 May showed fumarolic activity on the inner wall of the NE part of the crater and a new small explosion crater near the center of the main crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported increased seismicity at Colima during 20-26 April characterized by a considerable increase in the number of high-frequency and volcano-tectonic events. On 26 April a consensus was reached to raise the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and extend the exclusion zone to a 8-km radius during a meeting of the Coordinación Nacional de Protección Civil (CNPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil Colima (UEPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil y Bomberos de Jalisco (UEPCBJ), the Universidad de Colima (UdeC), and la Universidad de Guadalajara (UdeG). Seismicity continued to be elevated through 3 May. The largest events (M 2.4-3) were located 0.5-3 km deep in the N and NE parts of the volcano. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base - new webcam *************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

March 23rd, 2024

As of the 22nd of March, the explosive eruption from the volcano persists. Weak-to-moderate strombolian-to-vulcanian-sized explosions continue to take place from the summit vent at roughly regular intervals of 4 to 12 per hour. Eruptions released ash emissions to an elevation range between 4,500 m (14,800 ft) and 4,800 m (15,700 ft) over the past few days. Ash plumes extended about 20 km to the west-southwest of the volcano. Ash fall has been reported in the communities of Panimache I and II, Santa Sofía, Morelia, Los Yucales, and Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa.As of the 9th of January, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 21000 ft (6400 m) altitude or flight level 210 .As of the 7th of January, the explosive eruption from the volcano persists. Weak-to-moderate strombolian-to-vulcanian-sized explosions continue to take place from the summit vent at roughly regular intervals of 5 to 6 per hour. Eruptions released ash emissions to an elevation range between 4,500 m (14,800 ft) and 4,800 m (15,700 ft). Ash plumes extended to the north, northeast and northwest of the volcano. Ash fall has been reported in the communities of Parramos, La Soledad, Alotenango, El Porvenir, San Cayetano, San Miguel Dueñas, Ciudad Vieja, La Antigua Guatemala, and San Lucas.As of the 19th of September, the explosive eruption from the volcano persists. Weak-to-moderate strombolian/vulcanian-sized explosions continue to take place from the summit vent at roughly regular intervals of 5 to 6 per hour. Eruptions released ash emissions to an elevation range between 4,000 m (13,100 ft) and 4,500 m (14,700 ft). Ash plumes extended to the west and southwest of the volcano. Ash fall has been reported in the communities of Panimaché I and II, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo.As of the 15th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that the explosive eruption from the volcano continue. Weak-to-moderate strombolian/vulcanian-sized explosions continue to take place from the summit vent at roughly regular intervals of 5 to 8 per hour. Eruptions released ash emissions to an elevation range between 4,400 m (14,400 ft) and 4,600 m (15,100 ft). Ash plumes extended about 8-12 km to the west of the volcano. Ash fall has been reported in the communities of Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo and Yepocapa. Glowing lapilli and bomb-sized scoria ejected to an approximate height of 100-150 meters above the summit vent and caused weak-to-moderate avalanches of lava material towards Ceniza, Seca, Taniluyá and Lajas chutes.As of the 30th of July, t he explosive eruption from the volcano persists. Weak-to-moderate strombolian/vulcanian-sized explosions continue to take place from the summit vent at roughly regular intervals of 4 to 8 per hour. Eruptions released ash emissions to an elevation range between 4,400 m (14,400 ft) and 4,600 m (15,100 ft). Ash plumes extended about 15-30 km to the west-northwest of the volcano. Ash fall has been reported in the communities of San Pedro Yepocapa and Acatenango. Glowing lapilli and bomb-sized scoria ejected to an approximate height of 150 meters above the summit vent and caused weak-to-moderate avalanches of lava material towards Ceniza, Seca, Taniluyá and Lajas chutes.As of the 29th of June the explosive eruption from the volcano persisted. Weak-to-moderate strombolian/vulcanian-sized explosions continue to take place from the summit vent at roughly regular intervals of 1 to 3 per hour. Eruptions released ash emissions to an elevation range between 4,500 m (14,800 ft). Ash plumes extended about 20 km to the west-southwest of the volcano. Ash fall is continually reported in the communities of Panimache I, Morelia and Santa Sofia. Glowing lapilli and bomb-sized scoria ejected to an approximate height of 200 to 300 meters above the summit vent and caused weak-to-moderate avalanches of lava material towards Ceniza, Seca, and Lajas chutes.As of the 24th of May, INSIVUMEH reported that the activity at the volcano continues at reduced levels since the recent paroxysm episode ended in early May. Passive emissions of gas and steam dominate at the volcano's summit vent which are being dispersed mostly in the eastern direction. A near-constant night-time glow and the ongoing degassing suggest continued surge of fresh magma within the conduit. No ash emissions have been reported since 17 May as the last eruption from the volcano was detected by the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington.As of the 4th of May on the morning at 02.00 hrs, Fuego entered a new eruptive stage. A report published this morning at 05.10 hrs by the INSIVUMEH stated this new stage was punctuated by a lava flow in the Ceniza Canyon, followed by constant incandescent activity and gas and ash emissions, forming avalanches to the south and southwest. An additional report at 05.45 hrs noted a 5 km exclusion zone around the volcano and provided recommendations for the public on how to handle the increased volcanic activity. Recommendations included wearing a face covering to prevent inhaling ash and being aware of evacuation routes. The volcano showed a dramatic activity at 16:18 local time on 2 May. A strong eruption culminated in a pumice-and-ash flow caused by an ash plume collapse. The pyroclastic flow raced down through the southwestern Ceniza gorge. Phoenix clouds, typical phenomena for pyroclastic flows, Appeared to happen as billowing grey ash plumes separated from the torrent. Plumes reached approx. 16,400 ft (5,000 m) and extended about 40 km to the west-southwest of the volcano.As of the 4th of May, INSIVUMEH reported that the volcano showed a dramatic activity at 16:18 local time on 2 May. A strong eruption culminated in a pumice-and-ash flow caused by an ash plume collapse. The pyroclastic flow raced down through the southwestern Ceniza gorge. Phoenix clouds, typical phenomena for pyroclastic flows, appeared to happen as billowing grey ash plumes separated from the torrent. Plumes reached approx. 16,400 ft (5,000 m) and extended about 40 km to the west-southwest of the volcano.As of the 23rd of April, INSIVUMEH reported that the explosive eruption from the volcano persists. Weak-to-moderate strombolian/vulcanian-sized explosions continue to take place from the summit vent at roughly regular intervals of 7 to 11 per hour. Eruptions released ash emissions to an elevation range between 4,500 m-4,700 m (14,800 ft-15,420 ft). Ash plumes extended about 65 km to the south-southwest of the volcano. Ash fall is continually reported in the communities of Panimache I, Morelia and Rochela. Glowing lapilli and bomb-sized scoria ejected to an approximate height of 200 to 300 meters above the summit vent and caused weak-to-moderate avalanches of lava material towards Ceniza, Seca, Taniluya and Lajas chutes.As of the 13th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that vVulcanian and strombolian explosive activity continues from the summit crater and remains essentially unchanged. The volcano is dominated by near-continuous moderate-to-strong, sometimes ash-rich explosions at regular intervals of 5 to 8 per hour. Plume heights varied between 14,700 ft-15,700 ft (4,500 m-4,800 m) altitude and extended in range between 15 to 20 kilometers to the west, south and southwest of the volcano. Much of the ejected incandescent material is being ejected to a few hundreds meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate glowing avalanches towards Ceniza and Santa Teresa and Honda chutes.As of the 26th of February, INSIVUMEH reported that vulcanian and strombolian activity continues from the summit crater. The volcano continues to erupt near-continuous moderate-to-strong, sometimes ash-rich explosions at regular intervals of 4 to 7 per hour. Ash plume heights varied between 14,700 ft-15,700 ft (4,500 m-4,800 m) altitude and extended in range between 15 to 40 kilometers to the west, northwest and southwest of the volcano. Much of the ejected incandescent material is being ejected to a few hundreds meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate glowing avalanches towards Ceniza and Santa Teresa and Honda chutes.As of the 9th of February, INSIVUMEH reported that Vulcanian and strombolian activity continues from the summit crater. The volcano continues to erupt near-continuous weak-to-moderate, sometimes ash-rich explosions at regular intervals of 5 to 10 per hour. Ash plume heights varied between 14,100 ft-15,700 ft (4,300 m-4,800 m) altitude and extended in range between 12 kilometers to the southwest of the volcano. Much of the ejected incandescent material is being ejected to a 100 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate glowing avalanches towards Ceniza and Santa Teresa and Honda chutes.As of the 6th of February, INSIVUMEH reported that vulcanian and strombolian activity continues from the summit crater. The volcano continues to erupt near-continuous weak-to-moderate, sometimes ash-rich explosions at regular intervals of 5 to 10 per hour. Ash plume heights varied between 14,100 ft-15,400 ft (4,300 m-4,700 m) altitude and extended in range between 10 kilometers to the west of the volcano. Much of the ejected incandescent material is being ejected to a 100 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate glowing avalanches towards Ceniza and Santa Teresa and Honda chutes.As of the 19th of January, vulcanian and strombolian activity continues from the summit crater. The volcano continues to erupt near-continuous weak-to-moderate, sometimes ash-rich explosions at regular intervals of 6 to 8 per hour. Ash plume heights varied between 14,100 ft-15,400 ft (4,300 m-4,700 m) altitude and extended in range between 15 to 40 kilometers to the west and southwest of the volcano. Much of the ejected incandescent material is being ejected to a few hundreds meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate glowing avalanches towards Ceniza and Santa Teresa and Honda chutes.Previous news 2022 - As of the 30th of December, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 14000 ft (4300 m) altitude or flight level 140 and is moving at 10 kts in NW direction.As of the 28th of December, INSIVUMEH reported that vulcanian and strombolian activity continues from the summit crater. The volcano continues to erupt near-continuous weak-to-moderate, sometimes ash-rich explosions at regular intervals of 3 to 5 per hour. Ash plume heights varied between 14,700 ft-16,000 ft (4,500 m-4,900 m) altitude and extended about 30 kilometers to the east and northeast of the volcano. Much of the ejected incandescent material is being ejected to a few hundreds meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate glowing avalanches towards Ceniza and Santa Teresa and Honda chutes.As of the 12th of December, INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive-explosive eruption at the volcano continues at generally moderate levels. The lava continues to keep the flow active in the Ceniza drainage. The volcano continues to erupt near-continuous weak-to-moderate, sometimes ash-rich strong explosions at regular intervals of 5 to 7 per hour. Ash plume heights varied between 15,400 ft-15,700 ft (4,700 m-4,800 m) altitude and extended about 20 km to the west and southwest of the volcano. As of the 11h of December, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 and is moving at 5 kts in SW direction.As of the 10th of December, INSIVUMEH reported that explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 19000 ft (5800 m) altitude or flight level 190 and is moving at 5 kts in NE direction. The volcano entered a new eruptive phase last night, dominated by a new lava flow and intense explosions. A strong eruption likely occurred from the summit vent, triggering a lava overflow out of the crater terrace, and emerged onto the outer slopes that probably came out around late evening. The lava is traveling in the Ceniza drainage reaching a current distance of about 800 meters from the vent. Collapsing parts of the flow continue to generate constant glowing avalanches impacting the edge of vegetation. The volcano continues to generate near-continuous weak-to-moderate, sometimes ash-rich explosions ejecting incandescent material to an approx. height of 500 m above the vent. Ash plume heights reached 16,000 ft (4,900 m) altitude and extended about 30 km to the west and northwest of the volcano.INSIVUMEH reported that 5-12 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 9-15 November, generating daily ash plumes that rose as high as 4.5-4.8 km above the crater rim. The ash plumes drifted as far as 10-15 km S, SE, E, NE, SW, and W, causing fine ashfall in areas downwind, including Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), La Asuncion, La Rochela, San Andres Osuna, El Rodeo, Ceylon, Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Yepocapa (8 km NW). The explosions generated weak and moderate rumbling that vibrated the roofs and windows of nearby houses. Daily block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), Honda, Santa Teresa, and El Jute (ESE) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. The avalanches uplifted fine material 200 m high that dispersed to the S and SW. Explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 400 m above the summit. Weak crater incandescence was observed accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. On 9 November lahars were generated in the Las Lajas and Ceniza drainages, which carried branches, tree trunks, and blocks 30 cm to 1.5 m in diameter.INSIVUMEH reported that 4-10 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 1-8 November, generating daily ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. The ash plumes drifted as far as 15 km NW, W, SW, and SSW, causing almost daily ashfall in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Los Yucales (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), La Rochela, San Andres Osuna, Finca la Asunción, and Ceilen. Daily shock waves rattled structures in communities around the volcano. Daily block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluye (SW), Honda, Las Lajas (SE), and El Jute (ESE) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 200 m above the summit on some of the days.As of the 29th of October, Volcano Observatory reported that 5 to 8 explosions occurred per hour of weak, moderate and some strong characteristics which generate weak and moderate rumblings and a weak shock wave causing vibrations in the roofs and windows of houses near the volcano. They expel a column of ash with a height of 4,600 to 4,800 meters above sea level, which disperses in a west and southwest direction for 20 kilometers.As a result of these explosions, avalanches of weak, moderate and strong characteristics are generated in the contour of the crater, as well as in the ravines of Ceniza, Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, Honda, part of the material reaching the edge of the vegetation due to this activity, ash remains suspended in the ravines. At night an incandescent pulse was also observed 200 meters higher above the crater. A noise similar to that of a train locomotive lasting 1 minute is reported. Ash falls are reported in the communities of Panimaché I, Panimaché II Morelia, Santa Sofía, La Rochela, Ceilán, San Andrés Osuna and others in this direction. OVFGO reported a weak fumarolic activity of white color at Fuego on August 31, interspersed with explosions, at a rate of 5 to 8 per hour, weak to moderate; sometimes a louder explosion may occur. They generate plumes of gas and ash at an altitude of 4,500-4,800 m., dispersing over 10-20 km in a westerly and southwesterly direction, and cause avalanches in the contours of the crater, towards the barrancas Ceniza, Santa Teresa, Taniluya and Trinidad, and ashfall southwest of the volcano.Incandescent pulses are observed during the night and the morning at 100-300 meters above the crater. INSIVUMEH reported that The heavy rains of the last hours favor the descent of lahars through the ravines that surround the Volcán de Fuego, which constitutes a risk for the inhabitants of tthe communities located on the slopes of the volcano, mainly in Escuintla, onMonday, August 29, from after the local authorities. Fuego observatory reported that on August 22, 2022 about 5 to 8 weak to moderate explosions occurred per hour, which are accompanied by columns of ash at 4,500-4,800 m. asl. spreading west and south-west for more than 10 km. Fine ash falls were recorded on Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde, Yrpocapa and their surroundings. Incandescent pulses were observed at 100-200 m. above the crater, generating avalanches around the crater, some of which reach the limit of vegetation. As of the 12th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that the persistence of intense rains on the Fuego-Acatenango complex generated a lahar in the barranca Las Lajas, between weak to moderate, transporting fine volcanic material, rocks from 50 cm to 1.5 m. in diameter, branches and tree trunks. As of the 2nd of August, The local observatory reported that the lava flow decreased its advance and is no longer active towards the Ceniza chute. Weak-to-moderate vulcanian-type explosions continue to take place at regular intervals of 4 to 7 per hour generating 1,1 km-1,3 km high ash plumes that extended about 15 km to the west-southwest of the volcano.As of the 30th of July, OVFGO, reported a weak plume at a height of 4,800 meters above sea level which disperses in a west and south-west direction. Incandescent pulses were observed at a height of 200 meters above the crater, these generate avalanches on the edge of the crater of weak to moderate characteristics. The lava flow towards the barranca Ceniza has a length of about 1.2500 meters according to the image of the Landsat-9 satellite. The monitoring parameters of the seismic and acoustic stations around the Fuego volcano show an increase which translates into greater degassing and incandescence observed in the crater, since the early hours of July 28.This increase allowed the formation of a lava flow of about 300 meters in length towards the Ceniza ravine, constantly causing avalanches of moderate characteristics in the same direction. These could cover distances close to 2 km long, with the probability of reaching the top of the hill known as "El Cucurucho".The length of the flow reached 700 meters on July 29, generating strong avalanches towards the barranca Ceniza, and a plume of up to 4,800 m. asl.The instrumental recording of seismic and acoustic stations around the Fuego volcano shows an increase in degassing activity from the crater since Saturday 9th of July in the evening. OVFGO observers at Panimaché reported low to moderate sounds similar to a train locomotive, which went from intermittent periods of between 1 and 5 minutes, to remaining constant since early today. At this time, 2 to 5 weak explosions per hour are observed, as well as moderate and strong avalanches towards the Ceniza ravine. This activity raises a curtain of ash above the ravine, and the wind disperses this material over distances between 10 and 15 kilometers to the west and southwest. Some weak avalanches were also observed towards other ravines such as Santa Teresa and Las Lajas. All this favors the fall of fine ash in the communities of the southwestern flank such as Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Yucales, Palo Verde, El Porvenir, La Asunción and La Rochela. As of the 6th of July, INSIVUMEH and the OVFGO, observatory reported a weak white fumarole at a height of 4,500 meters above sea level which disperses in a west and southwest direction, as well as 5 to 8 explosions per hour of weak and moderate characteristics: these explosions generate a column of gas and ash from a height of 4,500 to 4,900 meters above sea level which spreads to the west and southwest of the volcano at a distance of 15 kilometers, and are accompanied by weak and moderate rumblings with a weak shock wave. At night and early in the morning, an incandescent pulse was observed 200 meters above the crater. Weak and moderate avalanches are also recorded around the crater and towards the ravines of Ceniza, Taniluyá, Santa Teresa, Honda and Las Lajas. A locomotive noise lasting 1 to 3 minutes is reported. Ash falls are reported at Panimaché I, Panimaché II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo and others in that direction. A lava flow is reported in the direction of the Ceniza ravine with a length of 100 meters, avalanches originate at the front of this flow.INSIVUMEH reported that effusive activity  has decreased on July 5, however it still maintains a lava flow 200 meters in length towards the Ceniza ravine. . During the last hours, the activity in the crater generated weak, moderate and some strong explosions accompanied by a weak shock wave and abundant ash columns with heights of 4,800 meters above the level of the sea ​​(15,748 feet) which are scattered to the west and southwest of the volcanic complex, at a distance of about 30 kilometers. Ash falls are reported in the communities of Santa Sofía, Morelia, Panimaché I and II, El Porvenir and others in these directions.INSIVUMEH reported that effusive activity recorded a gradual increase from the night of July 2nd, accompanied by periods of constant and abundant degassing that last from a few minutes to a few hours. This generated the formation of a new lava flow more than 1000 meters long in the direction of the Ceniza ravine, also generating, according to the recordings of the seismic stations and what is reported by the Fire Volcano Observatory (OVFGO ) , a pyroclastic flow in the barranca Ceniza and with a high probability that they also descend into nearby ravines, such as Trinidad. INSIVUMEH reported that on June 18th of 5 7 explosions, weak to moderate, per hour, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash at 4,600 - 5,000 m. asl., dispersing 15-20 km southwest and west. Fine ash falls were reported. They generate weak to moderate avalanches in the rim of the crater, with material reaching the limit of the vegetation. As of the 3rd of June, INSIVUMEH reported that s cloudiness in the area, however, low rumblings were heard 2 to 6 times per hour, associated with explosions; these explosions generate columns of ash from 4,500 to 4,800 meters above sea level which are dispersed in the northeast and east direction of the volcano due to the wind pattern. In addition, low noises were heard due to the avalanches generated around the crater and towards the ravines of Santa Teresa, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas and Honda. There is a likelihood of ash fall in communities northeast and east of the volcano, as well as in the Guatemala City metropolitan area.As of the 27th of May INSIVUMEH reported that activity continues, with moderate and some strong explosions, in a range of 6 to 9 per hour, accompanied by plumes of gray ash at heights of 4,500 to 4,800 meters above sea level, that the wind scatters towards the west northwest at a distance of about 30 kilometers. Ashfall is reported at Yepocapa, La Soledad, Acatenango, with the likelihood of ashfall at Antigua Guatemala and other towns on this flank. The explosions generate moderate avalanches towards the ravines of Santa Teresa, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas which reach the vegetation. Moderate and loud explosions generate rumbling and shock waves. INSIVUMEH reported tht on May 25th, from 5 to 8 hourly explosions of weak and moderate characteristics. Due to the activity recorded in the volcanic edifice, it presents columns of ash between 4,500 and 4,700 meters above sea level. They are moving north and northeast over a distance of about 25 kilometres. INSIVUMEH reported that 5 to 9 weak and moderate explosions per hour are recorded, with ash columns from 4,600 to 4,700 m. asl, extending 10 to 15 km in a northwesterly direction, on May 20.INSIVUMEH reported that 4-8 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 30 March through 5 April, generating gas-and-ash emissions that rose to 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 30 km NW, W, SW, and S. Block avalanches descended the Las Lajas (SE), Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluye (SW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Santa Teresa drainages. At night, incandescence was observed up to 150 m above the crater. Fine ashfall was reported in Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Yepocapa (8 km NW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Shock waves from the explosions and rumbling sounds rattled local structuresAs of the 24th of March INSIVUMEH reported that 3 to 5 explosions per hour occurred, with weak, moderate and strong characteristics, which raise columns of gray ash to heights of 4,500 to 4,800 meters above sea level, which propagate north and northwest for a distance of up to 30 kilometers or more, with the probability of generating a weak ashfall on La Soledad, San Antonio Nejapa, Acatenango and Patzicía. The explosions produce weak avalanches and moderate towards the ravines of Santa Teresa, Ceniza and Las Lajas until they reach the edge of the vegetation, as well as low rumblings with shock waves that vibrate the roofs and windows of the houses of the nearby communities of the volcano.As of the 15th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that 4 to 7 weak, moderate and a few strong explosions occurred per hour, these generate a column of ash at a height of 4,500 to 5,000 meters above the level of the sea, which disperses 15 to 20 km to the west and southwest. Following the explosions, ash falls continue to be recorded in Panimaché I, Morelia, Santa Sofía, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa and other communities. The explosions produce the descent of weak, moderate and strong avalanches around the crater and towards the ravines of Las Lajas, Ceniza and Trinidad, some reaching the vegetation. Incandescence is reported at a height of 200 to 300 meters above the crater. As of the 12th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that a degassing was recorded in the crater of the Fuego volcano at an altitude of 4,300 m above sea level, explosions with weak, moderate and strong characteristics with abundant gas and ash which dispersed towards the west and the southwest. These explosions also generated weak and moderate avalanches towards the ravines of the volcano, in particular towards the barrancas Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas. Due to this activity, tephra falls were reported in the communities of Morelia, Panimaché I, Panimaché II. As of the 8th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that weak to moderate explosions continue to produce copious amounts of ash. They accumulate on the flanks of the volcano and are unstable, being able to generate collapses, and descend in the form of moderate avalanches in the barrancas recently affected by pyroclastic flows. The vegetation, the streets and the roofs of the houses are covered with large deposits of ash, which can be mobilized by the wind, conditions that are detrimental to health.he RSAM reflects the drop in seismic amplitude, which returned to its base levels around 3 a.m., after 26 hours of eruptive activity. INSIVUMEH reported that a new eruptive stage has been in place at Fuego since March 5. From 6 p.m. on March 6, the audible parameters of the Fuego Volcano Observatory, OVFGO, seismic and acoustic recordings increased, noticing this increase in rumble with moderate to loud characteristics and sounds similar to those of a locomotive at constant train and a moderate aircraft turbine. Strombolian activity was observed in the crater of the volcano, which feeds two lava flows of 400 and 200 meters in length respectively advancing in the barrancas Ceniza and Santa Teresa. An incandescent source, from a height of between 100 and 200 meters above the crater, generated moderate to strong avalanches towards the ravines of the Fuego volcano, mainly the barrancas Ceniza, Trinidad and Santa Teresa. Pyroclastic flows, composed of gas, ash and blocks of rock at high temperature, were observed descending into the barranca Ceniza between 12:03 p.m. and 2:31 p.m. The flows traveled about 7 km. Ash falls were reported in Panimaché, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Yucales, El Porvenir and Sangre de Cristo, with a noticeable deterioration in air quality. In the evening, the OFGO recorded an increase in seismic parameters greater than that recorded in the last 24 hours, resulting from the large quantities of pyroclastic flows, mainly in the barranCa Ceniza, with a possibility in the barranca Las Lajas. An evacuation process in the village of Morelia, Yepocapa, Chimaltenango has been launched; Approximately 220 people will be transferred by bus from the Ingenio Pantaleón to the Santa Lucia Cotzumalguapa Fairgrounds, Escuintla. Conred advocates self-evacuation. Previously, As of the 23rd of February, INSIVUMEH reported that activity was characterized by explosions, at the rate of 3 to 6 weak explosions generated per hour. ; they are accompanied by plumes of gas and ash from 4,500 to 4,700 m. asl. which extend to the west and southwest. The explosions are accompanied by avalanches of weak, moderate and strong characteristics in all the ravines, mainly towards the barranca Ceniza, generating materials that reach the edge of the vegetation.As of the 18th of February INSIVUMEH reported that 3 to 6 explosions occurred per hour, with weak, moderate and some strong characteristics, which raise columns of gray ash to heights of 4,500 to 4,800 meters above sea level ( 14,764 to 15,748 feet), which disperse to the west and southwest for a distance of up to 20 kilometers; They cause a weak fall of ash in San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde, Panimaché I, Morelia and other communities in this direction. INSIVUMEH reported that since February 9th, 2022, the activity begins an effusive phase which generated a lava flow in the direction of the Ceniza ravine, with a length which varied between 75 and 200 meters. Seismic and acoustic monitoring parameters and field observations made by OVFGO observers indicate that starting yesterday (February 14), said effusive activity has increased, generating periods of high activity that last a few minutes. a few hours away. As a result, the extrusion of magmatic material generates greater degassing and incandescence at night and early in the morning. As of the 27th of January, INSIVUMEH reported that 5 to 7 weak and moderate explosions occurred per hour. These explosions generate a column of ash from a height of 4,300 to 4,600 meters above sea level (14,108 to 15,092 feet) which disperses to the west and southwest of the volcano; low and moderate rumblings are reported, which cause vibrations in the roofs and windows of houses near the volcano. Weak, moderate and strong avalanches are observed around the crater, and weak and moderate avalanches towards the barrancas Ceniza, Taniluyá and Trinidad and weak towards the barrancas Santa Teresa and Las Lajas. A sound similar to a train locomotive lasting 5-8 minutes is reported, sometimes the sound is heard continuously with durations of 20-30 minutes. Ash falls are reported in the communities of Panimaché I, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Palo Verde el Porvenir and others in this direction. A lava flow in the direction of the Ceniza ravine with a length of 40 meters is reported, in front of this lava flow constant avalanches are generated in the direction of the barrancas Ceniza and Trinidad.As of the 23rd of January, INSVIVUMEH reported that weak moderate and some strong explosions continued , in the range of 8 to 12 per hour, expelling columns of ash at an approximate height of 4,500 and 4,800 meters above sea level. (14 763 to 15,748 feet) extending west southeast, a distance of 15 kilometers. Sounds similar to a train locomotive for periods of 2-5 minutes. Ash falls are reported on the communities of Morelia, Santa Sofía, Panimache, La Rochela, Ceilán, Osuna. On the sides of the crater constant avalanches of blocks in all directions, some reaching the vegetation. Previous news 2021 - As of the 28th of December, the seismic stations reflect activity and OVFGO / Fuego observers report that during the night and early in the morning incandescent pulses that rise from 100 to 200 meters were observed. Weak and moderate explosions are further reported, in a range of 5 to 12 per hour, expelling gray ash plumes which rise to an average height of 4700 m, generating fine ash falls within a range of 10 to 15 kilometers specifically in the areas of Panimaché 1, Panimaché 2, Morelia, Santa Sofía, El Porvenir, among others. At the same time generating low and moderate rumblings with shock waves. Constant boulder avalanches were heard in the direction of the Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Santa Teresa barrancas, some of the material reached the edge of the vegetation. As of the 6th of December INSIVUMEH reported that the increase in radiance values ​​recorded from the evening of December 4 shows the appearance of a lava flow in the Ceniza canyon, which according to OVFGO reports reaches 500 meters in length and has generated abundant avalanches in the direction of the canyon in question. This Strombolian activity continued to increase during the afternoon and night, generating almost continuous explosions, which raise pulses of incandescent material to heights between 200 and 300 meters above the crater. The activity is accompanied by abundant avalanches towards the ravines of Trinidad, Taniluyá, El Jute, Las Lajas and Seca, some reaching the edge of the vegetation. Sometimes the explosions produce dense ash plumes that rise to 4,700 meters and spread south and west. Low and moderate sounds are heard, audible to several kilometers in the municipalities of the southern flank. The network of seismic stations records the activity of explosions and tremors (internal vibrations). INSIVUMEH reported that on November 20 with 8-11 explosions per hour occurred , generating ash plumes at 4,300-4,700 m. asl., dispersing southwest. Avalanches occur mainly towards the Ceniza, Trinidad, Taniluya barrancas, and more weakly towards the Santa Teresa and Las Lajas barrancas; some reach the vegetation limit.Ash falls are reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Yucales, and El Porvenir. As of the 10th of November, OVFGO, reportseda weak gray fumarole at a height of 4,400 m above sea level (14,436 feet) which dispersed in the west direction of the volcano.From 6 to 12 explosions per hour are reported, with weak and moderate characteristics that expel. column of ash at a height of 4,400 to 4,800 m above sea level (14,436 feet to 15,748 feet) which is scattered in the west, northeast and north directions of the volcano, weak and moderate rumblings are reported, which cause vibrations in the roofs and windows in the houses near the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that 3-14 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 26 October-2 November, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and shock waves felt in communities around the volcano. Ash plumes mostly drifted as far as 50 km SW, W, and NW and 20 km N and S, causing almost daily ashfall in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Yucales (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit each day.During 24-28 September there were that 6-12 explosions per hour generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and shock waves that often rattled buildings within 10 km of the volcano. Ash plumes mostly drifted as far as 15 km W and SW, causing daily ashfall in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluya (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-300 m above the summit on most days.As of the 25th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that the lava flows towards the barrancas Ceniza and Trinidad are no longer active.Weak white fumaroles were observed at night and early in the morning, rising to 4,400 meters above sea level and the number of explosions remains within a range of 8 to 12 per hour, expelling columns of ash at an altitude of 4,700 to 4,800 m above sea level, moving west and southwest over a distance of 15 km.Fine ash falls are reported in the communities of Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, El Porvenir, Yepocapa and others in this direction.Incandescent pulses were observed above the crater, and constant avalanches of boulders were heard in the direction of the barrancas Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Santa Teresa, some of the material reached the edge of the vegetation. As of the 24th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that the seismic and acoustic monitoring parameters and field observations show a gradual decrease in activity: the effusion is decreasing, and the flows are no longer active. The materials deposited in the Ceniza and Trinidad barrancas can generate lahars of high temperatures, moderate to strong, under the effect of rains on the upper parts of the volcano. The number of explosions remains between 7 and 13 per hour, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,800 m. asl., moving west and southwest. Ash falls could affect the villages located in these directions. INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues at elevated levels. A strong explosion, starting on 23rd of September around 05:40 local time, triggered a pyroclastic flow that traveled over the Ceniza ravine reaching length of at least 4-6 km. Ash plumes separated from the pyroclastic density current and formed so-called phoenix clouds. The eruption column rose to an altitude of 16,000 ft (4,900 m) and extended to the west of the volcano. Pyroclastic flows are deadly, turbulent hot avalanche of lava rock fragments of all sizes embedded in a mixture of turbulent gas and ash racing down slopes. Seismic recordings of INSIVUMEH's instruments detected an increasing trend of the activity at the volcano on the morning of 24 september. Elevated strombolian activity started to produce two new lava flows slowly advancing towards Ceniza and Trinidad ravines. Lava continues to keep the flow active, currently about 250 and 350 m long. INSIVUMEH reported that a lava flow has been observed since September 13 in the barranca Ceniza, with an approximate length of 150 to 200 meters. Mirova reports moderate thermal anomalies on September 13 and 14, between 75 and 31 MW. Weak white fumaroles and explosions accompanied by ash have been observed at night and early in the morning in a range of 8 to 12, which rise to an approximate height of 4500 to 4700 m., dispersing in a southwest direction generating ash fall in areas close to the area. Incandescent pulses were observed rising 300 above the crater, accompanied by a faint white fumarole. Constant avalanches of boulders were heard in the direction of the barrancas Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Santa Teresa, some of the material reached the edge of the vegetation. INSIVUMEH reported that 6-13 explosions per hour were recorded during 18-25 August at Fuego, though the weather sometimes prevented visual confirmation. The resulting ash plumes rose to 4.5-4.8 km and drifted as far as 15 km W, SW, S, and NW, causing daily ashfall downwind in Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Yucales (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Yepocapa (8 km NW). White gas-and-steam plumes rose to 4.5 km (14,764 ft) a.s.l. on 19 and 25 August. Shock waves often rattled buildings around the volcano as far as 15 km from the summit. Block avalanches accompanied the explosions, descending the Santa Teresa, Ceniza (SSW), Taniluye (SW), Trinidad (S), Seca (W), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, sometimes reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent ejecta was visible rising 100-400 m above the summit during the nights and early mornings of 20-23 August. INSIVUMEH reported that 4-13 explosions per hour were recorded during 3-10 August at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and shock waves that often rattled buildings around the volcano. Ash plumes mostly drifted as far as 15 km W and SW, causing daily ashfall in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Yucales (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluye (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit during 4-6 and 9-10 August. At 1700 on 6 August a lahar descended the Las Lajas drainage, carrying fine material along with tree branches and blocks 1-2 m in diameter.INSIVUMEH reported that 5-15 explosions per hour were recorded during 13-20 July at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and shock waves that often rattled buildings around the volcano. Ash plumes mostly drifted 10-20 km NW, W, and SW and caused daily ashfall in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluye (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit during 13-19 July.INSIVUMEH reported that on July 3, 2021 from 3 to 5 explosions per hour, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500-4,700 m. asl. scattered in a north and west sector. Meanwhile, a white to gray degassing column was observed at 4,400 m Asl. Ash fallout is sporadic, between weak to strong, on the communities of San Miguel Duenas, Parramos, Jocotenango and Chimaltenango; Avalanches were reported in the direction of the Ceniza, Trinidad, Raniluya, Santa teresa and Las Lajas barrancas, part of which reaches the vegetation limit. INSIVUMEH reported that on 24 June lahars resulting from substantial rainfall descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on Fuego's ESE flank, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks as large as 1 m in diameter. During 23-29 June there were 4-15 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Daily shock waves rattled buildings in towns around the volcano. Ashfall was reported daily in several areas downwind, including Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), La Rochela, El Zapote, and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit each day. INSIVUMEH reported that on 15 June lahars descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on Fuego's SE flank, carrying tree branches and blocks as large as 1.5 m in diameter. During 16-22 June there were 4-15 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Daily shock waves rattled buildings in towns around the volcano, and within 15 km of the S and SW flanks during 20-21 June. Ashfall was reported almost daily in several areas downwind, including Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluya (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-350 m above the summit each day.INSIVUMEH reported that 5-13 explosions per hour were recorded during 1-8 June at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves often rattled buildings around the volcano. Ashfall was reported almost daily in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluya (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-350 m above the summit on most days. INSIVUMEH reported that 5-14 explosions were recorded per hour during 21-27 April at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano, especially in areas as far as 20 km W and SW. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit almost daily.As of the 26th of April INSIVUMEH reported that thermal anomalies were visible in recent days. Moderate to strong explosions at a rate of 9 to 12 per hour, are accompanied by shock waves and plumes of gas and ash reaching 4,500-4,600 m. asl., with dispersion towards the southwest. Ash falls are reported on Morelia, Santa Sofia, Panimache. The activity generates avalanches of boulders in the direction of the various barrancas. INSIVUMEH reported that 6-11 explosions per hour were recorded during 24-30 March at Fuego, generating ash  plumes that rose to 4.7 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.and drifted W, NW, and SW as far as 10-15 km. Shock waves rattled buildings near the volcano. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), and Trinidad (S) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ash plumes from explosions rose to 4.8 (16,000 ft) km a.s.l. and drifted N and NE on 25 March and W on 27 March far as 15-20 km, resulting in ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache (8 km SW), Yucales (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Yepocapa (8 km NW), La Soledad (11 km N). Block avalanches descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, in addition to those affected on 24 March. Weak crater incandescence was observed at night and in the early morning during 26 March. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m above the summit on 28 March, accompanied by ash plumes that rose to 4.8 km a.s.l. and resulted in ashfall in Palo Verde, Panimache II, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa, and El Porvenir (8 km ENE).INSIVUMEH reported that t 4-12 explosions were recorded per hour during 17-23 February at Fuego, generating  ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Notably, on 17 February ash plumes drifted as far as 50 km E, causing ashfall in local communities as well as in Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Ash plumes drifted 40 km SW on 18 February. Curtains of old ash deposits remobilized by strong winds were observed during 19-21 February. Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m above the summit during 19-22 February.As of the 15th of February, INSIVUMEH reported that the intense effusive activity that had started a few days ago from the summit crater decreased significantly and seems to ended as seismic instrument detected decreasing period of the amplitude. The lava flow in Seca western direction ceased and is now no longer active while the second lava flow in Ceniza direction on the SW flank remains active, currently about 300 m long but it is expected to reduce its length in the coming hours. INSIVUMEH reported that on February 14, the occurrence in the morning around 10:20 a.m. of two pyroclastic flows in the barranca Ceniza, and the maintenance of two active lava flows, one in the barranca Seca, 200 meters long, the another in the barranca Ceniza, 800 meters long, with avalanches at the lava front. The explosive activity is characterized by expulsions of incandescent material 150 m away. above the crater and plumes of ash at 4,200 m. asl., dispersing over a large area west, south and southwest up to 20 km. This activity is maintained at a high level. A special INSIVUMEH bulletin reports an increase in the effusive activity of Fuego from 9 p.m. on February 13th, 2021, the incandescent materials were emitted at a height of 200 meters, accompanied by noises due to the decompression of the gases, and feed a new lava flow in the direction of the barranca Seca. Boulder avalanches occur at the lava front of the two flows. The explosive activity generates an ash plume at 4,500-4,800 m. asl., moving in a west-southwest direction. The ashes could affect La Aurora International Airport. INSIVUMEH reported that 5-11 explosions were recorded per hour during 19-25 January at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted no more than 15 km W, SW, and S. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano and were felt by residents as far as 12 km away. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m above the summit almost daily. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). As of the 12th of January, INSIVUMEH reported that explosive eruption of the volcano has remained essentially unchanged at moderate to high levels. No significant change in activity has occurred since the previous update. Ongoing moderate-to-strong strombolian-to-vulcanian activity continues from the summit crater at regular intervals of 9 to 12 per hour showering the summit cone with glowing lava bombs. Incandescent material is being ejected to an approximate height of several hundred meters above the crater and caused moderate to strong avalanches of material as can be seen in the attached video. Plume of ash rose to an estimated altitude of 4,700 ft (15,420 m) and extending about 15-20 km to the NW of the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that 3-15 explosions were recorded per hour during 29 December-5 January at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 7-30 km generally N, NW, W, SW, and S. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano and were detected as far as 25 km away. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m above the summit almost daily. Ashfall was reported most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Yucales, La Soledad (11 km N), San Miguel Dueas (10 km NE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Previous news 2020 - INSIVUMEH reported that activity increased at 0430 on 11 December with notable avalanches of material and block-and-ash flows lava dome traveling down the W and SW flanks. Ash plumes drifted 15 km SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Finca Montebello, Loma Linda, and San Marcos Palajunoj. Activity remained elevated at least through 13 December; ash plumes drifted as far as 20 km W, SW, and S, and pyroclastic flows descended the flanks. As of 10th of December INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued with weak to strong explosions, at a rate of 3 to 6 per hour; ash falls were reported on Panimache, Sangre de Cristo, Ojo de Agua, Santa Isabel, and others. Moderate boulder avalanches were reported in the drainages, some boulders reach the vegetation limit. A night glowing was observed 100-200 meters above the crater. As of the 21st of November, INSIVUMEH reported that the volcano showed 4-8 weak and moderate explosions per hour, expelling plumes of gas and gray ash at an altitude of 4,500 to 4,700 meters (14,763 to 15,419 feet) which disperse mainly to the south -Where is. Some explosions are strong and cause shock waves that vibrate the roofs and windows of houses near the volcanic perimeter. The explosions are accompanied by weak and moderate avalanches, which disperse towards the ravines of Seca, Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Las Lajas. Avalanches with strong characteristics persist on the ravines of Seca and Ceniza, some of which reach the vegetation limit. Fine ash falls were recorded in the Panimaché 1 area. At night and early in the morning, reflections of incandescent pulses were observed on the crater. INSIVUMEH reported that 2-14 explosions were recorded per hour during 27 October-3 November at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 10-25 km generally S, SW, and W. Shock waves rattled buildings within 12 km of the summit. Incandescent material ejected 100-300 m high caused block avalanches in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported during 30 October-3 November in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, Santa Sofi­a (12 km SW), Ceylon, El Zapote (10 km S), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). INSIVUMEH reported that, during September, a total of 2,306 explosions occurred. In mid-October, 1,037 explosions were recorded, including 5 strong explosions over the last 18 hours, accompanied by white-gray plumes of 1,000 meters above the crater. On October 14 at 10 a.m., an illustrated explosion, qualified as moderate, generated an avalanche in the barranca Ceniza. As of the 27th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions occurred, at a rate of 6 to 12 per hour, generate incandescent impulses 200 meters above the crater, and were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500-4,700 meters asl., dispersing to the west and the southwest for about ten kilometers. Avalanches affecting Barancas Seca, Ceniza, Tanilyua, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some reaching the vegetation limit. Fine ashes fall on the surroundings of Panimache, Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Morella and Santa Sofia.As of the 24th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that a high amplitude tremor on the southeast flank has been recorded at the volcano yesterday. According to seismic instruments a moderate to strong lahars (mud flows) were detected towards the El Jute and Las Lajas direction as the heavy rainfalls remobilised the fresh ash deposits. Larger lahars are expected including blocks with diameter between 1-2 m today. As of September 23, INSIVUMEH reported that the pattern of activity remains the same as the previous days, with weak to moderate explosions, at a rate of 12 to 18 per hour, accompanied by columns of ash reaching 4,700 meters asl. Constant avalanches from the edge of the crater are observed in the direction of the many drainages. Ash falls are reported in the areas of Panimache, Morella, Santa Sofia, Porvenir, Yucales, Sangre de Cristo and San Pedro Yepocapa. As of the 20th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that explosive eruption of the volcano continued moderate to high levels. The effusion of the lava flow in Ceniza direction has stopped and is no longer active.Near-constant strombolian explosions are associated with incandescent material that is ejected to an approximate height of 300 m above the crater with moderate to strong avalanches. As of the 12th of September, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 .INSIVUMEH reported that the activity of the Fuego remained charaterzed by explosions, which generate avalanches of blocks in the direction of the various drainages, which for some reached the limit of the vegetation; the ash plumes that accompany them cause only small fallout of ash and shock waves perceptible up to 8 km from the volcano. Tthe lava flow in the Ceniza barranca was no longer active. Insivumeh reports in its special September 11 bulletin that the effusive activity of Fuego has been on the increase since the 5th of the month. Extrusion does not happen at a constant rate; the length of the lava flow in the Ceniza barranca varies from 100 to 650 meters approximately - the last daily bulletin indicates it at a length of 200 meters -, and the avalanches generated by the flow also affect the barrancas Trinidad and Tanilyua. INSIVUMEH reported that during 31 August-1st of September the first 200 m of the lava flow was active and continued to produce block avalanches. As of the 28th of August INSIVUMEH reported that 5 to 10 Vulcanian explosions, weak and moderate occurred per hour, during the night and early in the morning which expelled plumes of ash to a height of 4400 to 4700 meters above sea level, which dispersed in a north and northwesterly direction, accompanied by incandescent pulses between 150 and 300 meters high above the crater, weak and moderate avalanches channeled towards the barrancas Santa Teresa, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some advancing to the limit of vegetation. Low, moderate and up to four loud rumblings were heard, causing sensitive shock waves up to 12 km from the volcano. The lava flow towards the barranca Ceniza remained active, with an approximate length of 400 meters and the detachment of blocks in front. As of the 26th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that that explosions occurrs at a rate of 4 to 6 per hour, accompanied by shock waves, avalanches of blocks in the direction of the Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas drainages, some of which reach the limit of vegetation, and ash plumes at 4,500-4,700 meters above sea level. Ash falls were reported in the villages of Panimaché I, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde and Yepocapa. Incandescent pulses were observed during the night and early in the morning. INSIVUMEH reported that at 2050 on 29 July lahars descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on Fuego's SE flanks. There were 6-13 explosions per hour recorded during 29 July-4 August, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 15-20 km NW, W, and SW. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius, particularly in areas on the S flank. Incandescent material ejected 100-350 m high caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluye (SW), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). INSIVUMEH reported that on July 25th that moderate explosions continued at a rate of 8-12 per hour, accompanied by plumes at 4,700 meters asl., Dispersing over a west / north- west sector over 15 km. During the night and in the morning, incandescent pulses were observed at 100-200 meters in height, as well as boulder avalanches in the barrancas Seca, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some of which reach the vegetation zone . Ash particles were reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, el Porvenir, Palo verde and San Pedro Yepocapa.As of the 21st of July, INSIVUMEH reported that weak to moderate explosions occurred at a rate of 8-11 per hour, accompanied by plumes of gray ash reaching 4,500-4,700 meters asl. Incandescent projections were observed 100-200 meters above the crater, which generate weak to strong fallout, and avalanches in the direction of the Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, lajas and Honda barrancas, with blocks reaching the level of vegetation. The shock waves are perceived at 20 km from the volcanic perimeter, with vibrations of the roofs and windows. Ash falls were reported in the villages to the south, Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa. As of the 13th of July, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions still occurs at the rate of 6-9 per hour, accompanied by columns of gas and ash at 4400-4700 meters asl. dispersing west. Ash falls were reported in the areas of Panimache II, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde and El Porvenir. Night glow was reported, 150 to 300 meters high, accompanied by avalanches of boulders towards the Trinidad, Tanilyua, Ceniza honda, Las Lajas and Seca barrancas; some blocks roll to the limits of vegetation. INSIVUMEH reported that around 2:30 p.m. on June 24, a moderate lahar descended the El Jute and Las Lajas barrancas, on its western flank and tributaries of the Achiguate and Guacalate rivers respectively. From 3.30 p.m. local time, a lahar was observed in the Secanca barranca, a tributary of the Rio Pantaleon. As of the 19th of June INSIVUMEH reported that a slight white degassing rose at a height of 4,200 m above sea level, and 7 to 9 light and moderate explosions per hour which expel columns of gray ash at a height of 4,300 to 4,700 m. asl., which dispersed in a west and southwest direction, and which were accompanied by incandescent pulses between 200 and 300 meters above the crater, as well as weak and moderate avalanches in the direction of the canyons of Santa Teresa , Ceniza and Las Lajas, some extending to the edge of the vegetation. A low and moderate rumbling was perceived, causing shock waves causing vibrations in the houses of the villages near the volcano on its southern flank. Sounds similar to train locomotives are heard for periods of 2 to 5 minutes. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 4-13 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 10-16 June, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km NW, W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Shock waves from explosions sometimes rattled houses in the vicinity of the volcano. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Santa Teresa (W), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. A new lava flow traveled 250 m down the Seca drainage on the NW flank in the early hours of 12 June. The lava effusion was accompanied by almost constant summit crater incandescence and gas emissions. Incandescent material was ejected 100 m above the summit. Avalanches of material descended the flanks and reached vegetated areas. Ash plumes rose over 1 km and shock waves from explosions were felt. The lava flow had lengthened to 300 m by 13 June, but was an estimated 250 m long on 14 June. Effusive activity can intensify and even extend to another ravine, presenting block avalanches; it is recommended not to stay near or in the barrancas. A notice of possible dispersion of ash up to 20 km in a south and southwest sector has been issued to civil aeronautics. As of the 8th of June, INSIVUMEH reported that a weak white fumarole rose a height of 4,100 meters with weak and moderate explosions, between 7 to 10 per hour, accompanied by columns of gray ash, at a height of 4,300 to 4,600 meters, dispersed in a north and northeast direction. Weak incandescent pulses were observed at the crater, as are weak and moderate block avalanches, towards the Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Honda and Seca barrancas. The explosions generated low rumblings with shock waves, vibrant roofs and windows in the homes of villages near the volcano. Sounds similar to locomotives are heard for periods of 1 to 3 minutes. As of the 28th of May 2020 INSIVUMEH reported that moderate to strong Strombolian explosions occurred at the rate of 8-12 per hour which raise columns of ash at 4,500-4,700 meters asl., dispersing south and southwest. Moderate avalanches occurred in the Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas barrancas. Fine ashes fall on the volcano observatory. Lahar has been also reported reported in the Barra Seca, a tributary of the Pantaleon river, located on the southwest flank of the volcano at 1 p.m. A weak to moderate lahar flowed in the Ceniza barranca tributary of the Achiguate river, from 4:20 p.m. Maintaining heavy rains can result in more lahars, carrying tree branches and volcanic material. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 5-12 explosions per hour recorded during 22-26 May, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km in multiple directions. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius, particularly in areas on the S flank. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Ciudad Vieja (13.5 km NE), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), and Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE). Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage varied in length between 150 and 400 m long. As of the 24th of May, lava flow a hundred meters long towards the Seca barranca was observed in the images of Sentinel-2, as well as avalanches of blocks reaching up to 280 meters in length. The rains on the upper parts of the drainage generate weak to moderate lahars, marked by volcanic material, blocks of 1-2 meters in diameter, and trees. INSIVUMEH reported a lahar on May 25 at 8:15 p.m. local in Barranca Seca, and Rio Pantaleon. INSIVUMEH reported that a change in the type of activity was recorded by the seismic and acoustic networks from May 5, 2020 . On the evening of May 8 a lava flow has been observed since the morning, in the direction of Barranca Ceniza reaching a length of about 400 meters. It was accompanied by almost constant incandescence at the crater and avalanches towards the vegetation zone over 1 km. The explosions remained weak to moderate, with shock waves and ash plumes reaching 4,800 m. asl. There were 5-12 explosions per hour recorded during 22-28 April, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). The two lava flows continued to be active during 25-28 April; the flow in the Ceniza drainage did not advance past 200 m and the flow in the Seca drainage had extended to 800 m long. The ends of the lava flows continued to generate blocks that reached vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that lava began to descend Fuego's Ceniza (SSW) drainage on 19 April. The rate of effusion increased in the evening of 23 April and observatory staff saw a second lava flow in the Seca (W) drainage that was 170 m long. On 24 April satellite data confirmed thermal anomalies from both lava flows. The main part of the lava flow in the Ceniza was 200 m long, but prodced incandescent blocks from the end of the flow traveled an additional 240 m, reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent blocks from the end of the flow in the Seca drainage traveled 520 m. Explosions at the summit crater generated shock waves and ash plumes that rose almost 1.2 km above the crater. Avalanches of blocks from these explosions traveled up to 1 km down all flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that the night of April 18 the seismic and acoustic network of Fuego recorded a change in the type of activity. bad meteorological conditions no permitted observation of the lava flow, but analysis of satellite images helped to obtain its characteristics. The flow to Barranca Ceniza on April 19 was approximately 320 meters long. The activity was accompanied by almost constant incandescence at the crater and avalanches over 1 km, reaching the level of vegetation. There were 5-14 explosions per hour recorded during 7-14 April, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-20 km in multiple directions. Minor ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Quisache, and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within a 25-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-600 m high. Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage had variable lengths during the week, from 200 to 600 m long. Avalanches of blocks from the lava flows traveled sometimes long distances, and in some cases set fire to vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that on April 12th, 4 strong explosions occurred with expulsion of incandescent materials on the flanks of the volcano, respectively at 2:42, 2:56, 3:55 and 4:12 Yhis day, the sector was cloudy and the atmosphere is warm, and moderate fallout; a lava flow of 200 meters wide followed the barranca Ceniza. INSIVUMEH reported that on April 8th weak to moderate explosions, 10 to 14 per hour, accompanied by gray plumes at 4,500-4,800 meters asl. scattered west and southwest, as well as incandescent pulses 300-400 meters high and avalanches in the vicinity of the crater, and the various drainages.A change in Fuego's activity since April 6 is reported by the Government in a special bulletin on April 8 at 9 p.m. local, following the change in seismicity: the activity has now become effusive, and forms a flow of lava 400 meters long towards the Ceniza barranca. There is an almost constant glow at the crater and avalanches up to 1 km. reaching the vegetation. The current activity is similar to that recorded from March 16, 2020, which lasted 8 daysThere were 4-12 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 17-24 March, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km S, SW, and W. Almost daily ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and La Cruz. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled nearby houses and were felt in communities within a 25-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Honda, and Las Lajas ravines. Lava flows of variable lengths (400-1,000 m) descended the Trinidad and Ceniza ravines each day but were inactive by the evening of 23 March. INSIVUMEH reported that a new change occurred in eruptive behavior on March 15 from 19:24, with an increase in degassing accompanying the lava flow, well observable at night on about 600 meters long in the Trinanca barranca. An increase in avalanches was reported in Las Lajas, Trinidad and Cenizas barrancas.Effusive activity was accompanied by weak explosions.The seismic activity presented a continuous signal of low amplitude in relation to the expulsion of the materials feeding the lava flow and its degassing. As of the 26th of february INSIVUMEH recorded 5 to 12 moderate explosions of Strombolian type per hour which generated a plume of gray ash which reached approx. 4,500 m-4,700 m asl and derivative W and SW. In addition, a white plume that reached 4,300 m asl and drifted west and southwest is observed.The incandescent material is ejected at an approximate height of 100 m to 200 m above the crater with moderate avalanches around the crater, mainly in the Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Santa Teresa, Trinidad, Las Lajas barrancas, with slight fallout.A lava flow 300 meters long is described in the Ceniza barranca, with moderate to strong avalanches from the flow front.Ash falls have been reported in several leeward areas, including Santa Sofía, Morelia , Panimaché I and II , Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa , Sangre de Cristo and El Porvenir .INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-16 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 12-18 February, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Alotenángo (8 km ENE), and La Soledad (11 km N). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within an 8-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 150-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines lava flows in the Ceniza drainage were 700-800 m long during 13-17 February and lengthened to 1.2 km during 17-18 February. INSIVUMEH reported that on February 5th explosive activity continued at the rate of 5 to 8 episodes per hour, accompanied by ash plumes reaching an altitude of 4,900 meters (flight alt. 160 / VAAC Washington). The ashes move towards the northeast for about twenty kilometers, with fallout on Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja and Antigua Guatemala. Night glow is linked to impulses 200 meters high and avalanches of boulders in the barrancas. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-17 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 14-21 January, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within a 7 km radius, though they were felt up to 25 km away during 19-20 January. Incandescent material was ejected 100-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ash plumes drifted 18 km E during 20-21 January. INSIVUMEH reported that low to moderate ash emissions continued at the rate of 11-17 episodes per hour, accompanied by plumes between 4,500 and 4,800 meters asl. moving west and southwest. Night glow was observed at 200-300 m. above the crater; this activity generating weak to moderate avalanches around the crater, and some stronger towards the drainage. Ash falls were reported on Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de cristo, San Pedre Yepocapa, and Panimache. Previous news 2019 - As of the 27th of December, INSIVUMEH reported that activity remained at the same level the last days with 15-18 explosions per hour, weak to moderate, which were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,200-4,500 meters asl., and avalanches in direction of the different barrancas. Nighttime incandescent impulses were observed at 100-200 meters in height and a lava flow in the barranca Seca reached a length of 300 meters. On the other hand following a change of direction of the winds blowing from the southwest, the ash plumes dispersed on December 27 in the morning towards the northeast and the north, with the probability of falls in the areas of Acatenango, Ciudad Vieja and Antigua Guatemala. INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity increased; night and early morning glow were visible and according MIROVA moderate thermal anomalies could be observed, included in recent days between 18 and 91 MW.The active lava flow in the direction of the Ceniza barranca was about 600 meters, with avalanches and steam at the head of the lava front. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 6-15 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 20-26 November, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 100-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows advanced in the Seca and Santa Teresa (W) drainages during November, and were 300 and 800 m long on 21 and 24 November, respectively. INSIVUMEH following important rain on of the volcano, a weak to moderate lahar was reported on November 17th of November in the Ceniza gorge consisting of ashes and blocks deposited by constant activity, and remobilized. INSIVUMEH reported that since November 6 a lava flow towards the barranca Seca, long on November 13 of about 900 meters. This activity was effusive, according to the OVFGO, despite a notable incandescence in night and hours of low light, as well as a sustained degassing. This activity, similar to that recorded in April, could be prolonged in the following months. Discrete emissions of ash and gas continue, with a plume at 4,700 m. asl., moving west and southwest for 20 km. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-18 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 2-8 October, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, W, and NW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows traveled 200 m down the Seca drainage on 6 October and were active in the Santa Teresa (W) drainage on 8 October. Lahars descended the Ceniza, El Mineral, and Seca drainages during 3-7 October, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks 1-3 m in diameter. As of the 5th of October, INSIVUMEH reported that constant rains over the past few days are likely to cause floods, lahars and landslides. Especially in the area of ​​the Fuego volcano, weak to moderate lahars were reported in different drainages: the Ceniza, Las Lajas, Seca and Rio Mineral barrancas are involved. These lahars were characterized by the transport of ash, blocks 1 to 2 meters in diameter and generate steam columns and shock waves. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that at night and early June 22 in the morning, incandescence was observed at a height of approximately 350 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches in the crater contour, some over long distances to vegetation in the direction of the crater. Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, El Jute, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash fallout is reported from Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimache I and II. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 15-18 June, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km W, SW, and E. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluya¡ (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofi­a (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Previous month, INSIVUMEH reported that there were 15-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 16-17 and 19-20 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, and W. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 300-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). A lava flow on the W flank was 300 m long. On 16 May lahars carrying variously-sized blocks and tree branches and trunks descended the Las Lajas ravine. On 20 May hot lahars with a sulfur odor descended the Ceniza, El Jute, and Las Lajas drainages, carrying blocks 1-3 m in diameter. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 13-24 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 9-10 and 12-14 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km S and SW. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in areas to the S and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (and reached vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW).Lava flows were 500-600 m long on the W flank. On 11 May steaming lahars descended the Las Lajas, Seca, Ceniza, and Mineral drainages, carrying variously-sized blocks and tree parts. Lahars on 14 May carried blocks and tree trunks down the Ceniza drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that on 18 April steaming hot lahars descended Fuego's Ceniza (SSW) and Taniluya (SW) drainages, carrying variously-sized material including blocks up to 2 m in diameter. The lahars were 1 m deep, 15 m wide, and had a sulfur odor. During 20-23 April there were 17-22 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1.1 km and drifted 15-20 km S, SW, and W. Shock waves vibrated local structures. Incandescent material was ejected 300-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines. A lava flow, 600 m long, advanced in the Seca drainage. Ashfall was reported in reported in Yepocapa (8 km N), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Panimache (8 km SW). INSIVUMEH reported that on April 11 between 18 and 22 low to moderate explosions occurred every hour, with ash plumes as high as 4,800 meters asl, before dispersing to the east. During the night, incandescent impulses rose 300 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches to the barrancas.A lava flow extends for 500 meters, from the crater to the direction of Barranca Seca. A low ashfall is reported on Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja, and La Reunión; according to the direction of the wind, the ashes could fall back on Antigua Guatemala.Persistent heavy rains on the Fuego volcano in Guatemala resulted in lahars in various drainages on April 11th: the Taniluya, Ceniza and El Jute barrancas were impacted, and thousands of people from surrounding communities were blocked. Previously, a special bulletin from INSIVUMEH was issued on 31 March describing another increase in activity with the number of explosions ranging from 14 to 32 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted W, SW, and S. The explosions vibrated local residences. A lava flow that had emerged in the early morning hours advanced 800 m in the Seca drainage. On 1 April there were 13-16 explosions recorded per hour. Ash plumes rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-15 km S, SE, and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate residential structures. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, reaching vegetation. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I, Morelia, Palo Verde Estate, Santa Sofia, La Rochela, and San Andres Osuna. INSIVUMEH reported that on 29th of March, the eruptive activity was characterized by constant periods of increase in its eruptive behavior, with 20 hourly explosions, and plumes of ash reaching 5,000 meters asl. before moving for 15 to 30 km. These explosions generate avalanches in the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas, which remobilize materials; at night, they were incandescent and visible over 350 meters from the crater. The respect of the instructions is recalled in view of possible new eruptions, accompanied by pyroclastic flows. As of the 22nd in the morning, INSIVUMEH reported an increasing activity of the volcano; between 15 and 20 moderate and strong explosions occurs every hour, columns of ash and degassing rising up to 5 thousand meters above sea level, dispersing at 30 kilometers south, west, south-west, east and southeast, generating moderate and strong crater avalanches that take the direction of Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash falls were reported on La Rochela, Ceylon, Osuna, Las Palmas, Siquinalá and Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa; other communities could be affected up to 30 km from the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that explosive activity was still contnuing during recent days, with 13 to 16 weak to moderate explosions accompanied by ash plumes at 4.400-4.700 meters asl, scattering over a wide area according to the winds.Incandescence was observed at 200 -300 meters in height, as well as avalanches in the contours of the crater and the barrancas.Ash falls occurred in El Rodeo, El Zapote, Celan, La Rochela, Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, and Sangre de Cristo. INSIVUMEH reported that on the 1st of February, nocturnal glow was observed, and the rhythm of the explosions was13 to 18 per hour at the beginning of the day, with plumes of ashes reaching 4,800 m. asl. The ashfall occurred toward the Northeast on Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja, and the capital Ciudad Guatemala. Avalanches were observed in the barrancas Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that 10-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 29-31 January. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted E and NE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE), and Guatemala City (70 km E). Incandescent material was ejected 300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. During 31January-1 February there were 14-16 explosions recorded per hour, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km and drifting 20-25 km S and SE. Ash fell in the communities of El Rodeo (10 km SSE), El Zapote, Ceilan, and La Rochela. Incandescent material rose 200-400 m high causing avalanches of material to descend the Seca, Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda (E) ravines. Shock wave causing vibration in the communities near the volcano.INSIVUMEH reported that on January 22, the activity was maintained with 15 -25 low to high explosions, per hour, a plume of ash amounting to 4,800 m asl. before dispersing to the west and south-west, and incandescent impulses 100-300 meters above the crater.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché I y II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Yepocapa. As of the December 5th, few explosions occurred accompanied by plumes of gray ash at a height of 4,500-5,000 meters asl. dispersing to the west and southwest over 25 km. Incandescent impulses are reported at a height of 150-200 meters above the crater, generating fallout in the vicinity of the crater and to the main barrancas. INSIVUMEH repored that heavy rains during 28 and 29 November generated hot lahars, accompanied by the smell of sulfur and degassing columns, towards the Seca, Santa Teresa and El Mineral barrancas. The lahars carried ash and blocks 1 to 3 meters in diameter, volcanic materials deposited during the last eruptions.INSIVUMEH reported that moderate to strong explosions continued at a rate of 12 to 15 per hour, this vulcanian-type activity is accompanied by eruptive columns with ashes rising to 5,000 meters asl. and shock waves and vibrations felt within a radius of 25 km. A change of wind direction, November 26 in the morning from south to north, produced ashfalls on Alotenango, San Miguel, Dueñas, Antigua Guatemala and Ciudad Guatemala. During 24-25 November there were 12-15 weak-to-moderate explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate local structures, and ashfall was again reported in Panimache, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Moderate-to-strong Vulcanian explosions on 26 November generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted N. The explosions were heard, and shock waves felt, mostly within 25 km, though some explosions were audible to residents of Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Explosions continued the next day at a rate of 10-15 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high, and avalanches of material descended multiple drainages. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. As of the 22nd of November, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions accompanied by expulsions of a dark gray plume continued.The avalanches of blocks and ashes, accumulated during the eruption of November 18, continued in the Seca, Ceniza, El Jute, Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that the strong eruption of the Fuego was accompanied on November 19 in the morning by constant explosions, and a sustained ash plume rising to about 7,000 meters asl, before dispersing 50-60 km to the west and southwest.The incandescent source was observed 800-1000 meters above the crater, with ballistic materials scattered for more than one kilometer around the volcano.The main lava flow reached about 3,000 meters in length towards the barranca Ceniza ; two other shorter flows, of about 300 meters, were observed in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. The flows was accompanied by avalanches and mobilization of ashes.Pyroclastic flows descended from the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. Abundant falls of ash and particles are falling on Panimache, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Paolo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, San Juan Alotenango, and Antigua Guatemala.The Conred also reported light ash falls on Mazatenango, San Bernardino, San Antonio, San Miguel Panán, Chicacao, San Juan Bautista, Santa Bárbara Río Bravo and Patulul, and that 2,052 people were safe and 3,000 have been evacuated; 76,145 people would be affected. At about 11h40 AM slight decrease in seismicity was observed, as well as a decrease in the height and extension of the ash plume: height of 6,000 meters asl dispersing over 20-30 km. In the evening (6PM) the seismogram and the RSAM showed a drop in activity, and according to the observatory this 5th eruptive phase of the year was over, after a duration of 32 hours. However, Explosions were always recorded, weak to moderate, accompanied by a plume of ash at 4,800 meters asl, drifting to a west and southwest sector over 15 km.The incandescent impulses were reduced to 100-300 meters, generating weak avalanches mainly in the crater contour; some ejections reach the limit of vegetation towards the main barrancas. A special INSIVUMEH bulletin of 18 November reported that at 10.10 local, the fifth eruption 2018 started. It was characterized by a permanent ash plume at 4,900 meters asl, dispersing to the south for 15-25 km, and generating moderate to strong avalanches in the Ceniza and Tanilyua Barrancas, up to the vegetative limit. The incandescent fountain was observed up to 300 meters high above the crater. A lava flow, 2,000 meters long, in the direction of the barranca Ceniza, has a front generating avalanches and ash rising. A possibility exists of the beginning of lava flow in the Taniluya barranca in the next hours, and of pyroclastic flows.Ash falls have been reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, and Finca Paolo Verde.During the night, the explosions generated a plume rising to 5.200 meters in height before dispersing 20-30 km in a westerly and north-easterly direction; the incandescent fountains rose up to 500-600 meters above the crater and the ballistic ejections reached 800 meters in various directions. The lava flow towards the Ceniza gorge reaches a length of 2,500 meters.At the time of the 0h40 report, a pyroclastic flow descended in the direction of the Seca barranca. Comred declared the red alert and activated the Emergency Operations Center-COE-Municipal to coordinate the response actions. National Highway 14 is closed. Self-evacuation is in progress. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that on 18th of November, the activity increased again rising: 8 to 14 explosions, low to moderate, per hour are accompanied by emission of plumes of ash to 4,700 meters asl., drifting on 15-20 km to the southwest and west. Incandescent pulsatile emissions at 150-200 meters are observed, as well as moderate avalanches in the crater contour. A lava flow reaches a length of 1,300 meters in the Ceniza barranca, permanently fed.Ash falls are reported on Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde.INSIVUMEH reported that 7-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 8-12 November. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 8-20 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porveni, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-300 m high and caused avalanches that traveled far, reaching vegetated areas in multiple drainages. Lava flows as long as 1.2 km advanced in the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, though lava-flow activity greatly decreased by 12 November. As of the 9th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity continued; the lava flow in the Ceniza barranca reached a length of 1 200 meters. Avalanches were reported in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas.Low to moderate explosions occurred ranged from 12 to 18 per hour, with ash plumes rising to 4,600-4,700 meters asl, before dispersing over 10-15 km. towards a western sector, accompaznied with fallout of fine particles on this zone, including Sangre de Cristo, Santa Sofia, Panimaché I and II, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir. The explosions were accompanied by outgassing noises for 2 to 5 minutes.INSIVUMEH reported that a new eruptive phase began on November 6 in Fuego, the fourth in 2018.Low-to-moderate steady-state explosions are recorded, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,800 m. asl.,then drifting 20 km westerly and southwesterly, and with shock waves and sounds.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finac Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Incandescences impulses are visible in the crater that rose to about 200-300 meters high, generating avalanches around the crater, impacting the vegetation towards the Seca and Taniluya barrancas, and feeding a 1000 meter long flow, then reaches 1,200 meters in the Ceniza gorge.The effusive activity then continued until the evening, weakening very slightly. As of the 5th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that activity of Fuego increased, with 10 to 15 hourly explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 4,700 meters asl. dispersing 15 km in a westerly and southwesterly direction. Nighttime glow is observed to 200-300 meters above the crater; the explosions generate weak to moderate avalanches, and lava flows 600 meters long towards the Tanilyua and Ceniza barrancas.The ash falls concern Panimaché, El, Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde and San Pedro Yepocapa.t INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 20 October hot lahars descended Fuego's Las Lajas (SE) and Mineral drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter along with branches and tree trunks. The lahars were 20-30 m wide and 2 m deep. During 20-23 October there were 8-15 weak explosions recorded per hour, producing gray ash plumes that rose 750-850 m above the crater rim and drifted 12 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimaché (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Lava fountains rose 100-200 m high. Avalanches of blocks descended the El Jute (SE), Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, with material reaching vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-16 October explosions (8-18 per hour) produced ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 8-12 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, and Panimache I and II (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-200 m high, causing avalanches of material within the crater, though some of the avalanches traveled long distances, reaching vegetated areas. The lava flow on the W flank was still visible but by 14 October no longer active. On 13 October a steaming lahar descended the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reported that from 3.50 am on October 12, a new phase of the eruption began, effusive: fountains of 400 meters above the crater generated a lava flow that reaches 600 meters long towards the west drainages of the volcano. A possibility of pyroclastic flows is considered towards the seca, Las Lajas and Cenizas barrancas. On the evening of October 12, pyroclastic flows are reported in the Barranca Seca, where the lava flow reaches a length of 1,500 meters. Its advance causes a lifting of materials and some avalanches. A pyroclastic flow is also observed in the Barranca Santa Teresa. The eruptive dynamics is maintained with moderate explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 5,000 meters asl, dispersing to the SW, O and SE over 15-20 km. ; incandescent impulses are observed 200-300 meters above the crater. The fallout of ashes concerns Panimache I, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde..INSIVUMEH reported that on October 11, a slight increase in the explosive activity of the Fuego was reported characterized by 10 to 14 hourly explosions, weak to moderate, accompanied by plumes of ash rising to 4,600 meters asl. traveling 15 km to the west and southwest. Incandescent impulses are observed 100-200 meters above the crater, generating the fall of volcanic materials and avalanches towards the Santa Teresa and Las Lajas barrancas. This activity is accompanied by moderate fallout, shock waves and constant outgassing noise.INSIVUMEH reported that on September 29 in the evening an increase of the explosive activity occurred ; tremor and degassing pulses lasting up to 3-4 hours were accompanied by aircraft turbine sounds and block avalanches on the southwestern flank. About Five to nine hourly explosions were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,400 - 4,700 meters.In the evening, 10 to 15 hourly explosions were recorded, weak to moderate, and accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500 meters asl. moving 10 km to the west and southwest, and fallout of volcanic materials that generate small avalanches.Ash falls are reported on San Pedro Yepocapa, Finca Palo Verde, Morelia, and Panimache.The summit is marked by a constant incandescence during the night.INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 and 24-25 September explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted 12 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimache (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). On 25 September hot, steaming lahars descended the El Jute (SE) and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reporterd that on 7 September at 7:31 local time, an avalanche occurred on one of the flanks of Fuego due to a fissure in the upper part of the Barranca Las Lajas, the destabilization of materials accumulated during the eruption of June 3, and preceded by a small ash emission from a vent located lower down the slope.During the last 24 hours about 5 to 12 low to moderate hourly explosions occurred , accompanied by ashes and gas reaching 4,700 meters above sea level, before moving west-southwest 15 km INSIVUMEH reported that heavy rain generated lahars during 29 August-1 September that descended Fuego's El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), Cenizas (SSW), Taniluya (SW), Seca (W), Mineral, Honda, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. The lahars were hot, had a sulfur odor, and carried tree branches and blocks (2-3 m in diameter). On 1 September lahars disrupted roads between San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW) and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and from Finca Palo Verde and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). During 2-4 September explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Avalanches of incandescent material were confined to the crater. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH reported that during 18-21 August explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 850 m above the crater and drifted 12 km NW, W, and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area and down drainages on the flanks. According to CONRED, as of 22 August, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 169, and 256 remained missing. On 17th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that volcanic activity remains moderate with 6 explosions, accompanied by ash plumes at a height of 4,100-4,200 meters asl, drifting to the northwest and west; low avalanches are reported towards the Cenizas barranca.The heavy rains remobilized the ashes and caused a lahar in the barranca Honda. INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 August heavy rain triggered lahars that traveled down the Seca drainage on Fuego's W flank and the Mineral drainage, carrying tree trunks and blocks as large a 2 m in diameter. During 12-14 August weak-to-moderate explosions generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m high, and avalanches of blocks descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Santa Teresa (W) SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), and finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH rported that a strong explosion, accompanied by avalanches around the crater, fallout and shockwaves, occurred on August 8 at 21:20 local. Incandescent materials were ejected at 4,800 m Asl., Evening about 1,100 meters above the summit; the ash plume moved 12 km to the west. This is the first strong explosion recorded in the last six weeks.INSIVUMEH reported that during 29-30 July avalanches of material descended the Cenizas drainage on Fuego's SSW flank. Hot lahars generated by heavy rains on 30 July descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), El Jute (SE), and Cenizas drainages, carrying blocks 2-3 m in diameter and smelling of sulfur. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported relatively quiet conditions at Fuego during 4-9 July characterized mainly by gas emissions and block avalanches on the flanks. During 7-8 July there was about one explosion detected every two hours, producing diffuse ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Cenizas (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, while lahars were present in the El Jute (SE), Las Lajas, Cenizas, Taniluya (SW), Seca, Mineral, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. Seismicity increased on 10 July. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km and drifted 12 km SE, causing ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimaché (8 km SW). According to CONRED, as of 4 July, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 332 remained missing. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that 2-7 weak explosions per hour at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 650 m above the crater rim and drifted W and SW during 27-29 June and 1-3 July. Ashfall was reported on 27 June in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo and Yepocapa. Avalanches of material descended the S, SW, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, El Jute, and Cenizas drainages). INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 20-26 June multiple lahars at Fuego were often hot, steaming, and had a sulfur odor, and were generated from heavy rains and the recent accumulation of pyroclastic-flow deposits from the 3 June events. Lahars remained a significant hazard, and descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Santa Teresa (W), and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. They were 25-45 m wide, as deep as 3 m, and often carried blocks up to 3 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. The agencies warned that because the Las Lajas drainage is full of deposits, lahars can continue to descend that drainage or create new channels in San Miguel Los Lotes (one of the hardest-hit areas). Explosions continued, producingash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde on 22 June. Avalanches of material descended the SE, S, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages). According to CONRED, as of 26 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 remained evacuated. During 16-19 June as many as seven explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km W, SW, and S. Some explosions were heard in areas within a 10-km radius. Avalanches of material descended the Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages during 17-18 June, producing ash plumes, and ashfall in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde. According to CONRED, as of 19 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows remained at 110, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 people had been evacuated. As of the 15th of June, INSIVUMEH reported that following heavy rains hot lahar traveled down in Santa Teresa Barranca and Rio Mineral, a tributary of Rio Pantaleon. Large of 20 to 25 meters and 2 meters high, and carrying fine and pasty materials, blocks of 3 meters in diameter and trunks. At 17:40, a lahar descended the river Ceniza. Other lahars were reported in Taniluya and Las Lajas barrancas, about 30 to 45 meters wide and 3 meters high As of the 13th of June INSIVUMEH reported that a lahar was observed traveling down in the Ceniza gorge; about 25 meters wide and 2 meters high, it carries fine and pasty materials, blocks one to three meters in diameter and tree trunks. Another lahar has taken the Las Lajas barranca, 30-40 meters wide and 3 meters high, characterized by the transport of similar materials.As of the 12th of June INSIVUMEH reported that at 7 am local an increasing of the explosive activity occurred, characterized by columns of ashes between 4,500 and 5,000 meters height asl., dispersed on 15 to 25 km to the northeast . Ashfall is likely to occur in Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja and San Miguel Duena. At 7:35 local time, the observatory reported a pyroclastic flow in the Seca barranca, producing a curtain of ashes that reached 6,000 meters asl before dispersing to the north and north-east. The explosive activity causes avalanches that produce thick columns of ash, which disperse along the same axis.These episodes are likely to impact the main drainages in next hours or days.In addition of the danger created by the pyroclastic flows, there are lahars due to the remobilization of the ashes following the heavy rains. On 11th of June at the end of the afternoon, hot lahars descended the barrancas Las Lajas and El Jute, made of fine and pasty materials, blocks of large diameter up to 3 meters, and trunks and branches; his measurements were 35 to 55 meters wide and 5 meters high. Other lahars have been reported in the Seca and Mineral barrancas, with the risk of overflowing rivers.As of the 8th of June,INSIVUMEH reported lahars in Santa Teresa, Mineral, Taniluyá and Ceniza barrancas, tributaries of the Pantaleón and Achiguate rios; these lahars are hot, emit fumes, and carry fine materials, and rocks 2-3 m in diameter, as well as tree trunks. In parallel, pyroclastic flows are reported in El Jute and Las Lajas drainages, accompanied by co-pyroclastic plumes up to 6,000 meters asl.The latest assessment given to 8 June / 8:30 by the Conred, is 109 dead, 197 missing, and 1,713,617 people affected by the climax and its aftermath. As of the 7th of June, at the beginning of the evening, new pyroclastic flows descended the Las Lajas and El jute drainages, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic cloud rising to 6,000 meters asl.CONRED reported that by 0630 on 6 June a total of 12,089 people had been evacuated, with 3,319 people dispersed in 13 shelters. One bridge and two power networks had been destroyed. According to news sources on 6 June, Guatemala's National Institute of Forensic Sciences stated that 75 people were confirmed to have died and 192 were still missing. Many, possibly thousands, received burns and other injuries. Weather conditions, continuing activity at Fuego, poor air quality, hot pyroclastic flow deposits, and rain made rescue efforts difficult. On Tuesday, an explosion forced relief to stop the research. The disaster has affected, to varying degrees, a total of 1.7 million Guatemalans.Details about volcanic event : the strong eruptive phase occurred at the volcano on Sunday 3rd of June). Lasting for about 16-17 hours until the evening, it generated ash clouds reaching up to 10 km, which drifted into westerly directions for more than 40 km, lava flows descending on the flanks, heavy ash fall in nearby areas and secondary mud flows triggered by strong rainfall. Massive pyroclastic flows - fast-moving turbulent avalanches of gas and hot rock material have claimed lives as well. Information from official side at least 69 victims have been confirmed. All fatalities occurred as result of being engulfed in pyroclastic surges, it seems mainly on the eastern flank.The eruption has abruptly decreased after 18:45 local time and returned to small to moderate intermittent explosions and minor rockfalls. Incandescence is visible at the crater, where fresh lava flows begin to cool. Civil protection has declared the highest alert level RED for the areas of Escuintla, Alotenango, Sacatepéquez, Yepocapa and Chimaltenango, while Escuintla is kept at the second highest, ORANGE. More than 3000 people are reported to have been evacuated and ash fall from the eruption has been affecting an area with a population of more than 1.5 million, roughly 10% of the country's population total. Previously, local news reported that a violent eruption occurred on the evening of Sunday, June 3 (local time), leaving at least 25 people dead and injured several other people after pyroclastic flow entered into Rodeo village. Volcanic ash has reportedly covered nearby villages, including San Pedro Yepocapa and Sangre de Cristo, ashfall has also been reported in Guatemala City. Some 100 people have been evacuated from affected areas. Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales has declared that a national emergency response has been mobilized. La Aurora International airport was closed on Sunday due to ashfall. Further eruptions, evacuations, and transportation disruptions are expected in the coming hours and days. INSIVUMEH reported that beginning at 1400 on 17 May a lahar descended the Seca (Santa Teresa) drainage on Fuego's W flank. The lahar was 25 m wide, 1 m deep, and carried trees and blocks 1.5 m in diameter. During 19-21 May explosions occurred at a rate of 5-8 per hour, and generated ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Some explosions were accompanied by rumbling audible more than 30 km away, and shock waves that vibrated structures in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimache (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material within the Seca, Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages that reached vegetated areas. Ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia, Panimache I and II, and Finca Palo Verde. A lava flow 700-800 m long was active in the Ceniza drainage. Small ash explosions at Fuego on 11 and 12 May rose to 5 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. or approximately 1 km (3,280 ft) above the summit. The ash dispersed quickly to the southwest and was visible on webcams. Activity increased on 14 April and remained elevated through 17 April. Moderate-to-strong explosions were detected at a rate of 6-9 per hour, and sometimes produced shock waves that vibrated houses in Morelia and Panimache. Dense ash plumes rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20 km W and S, though winds also carried the ash to higher altitudes to the SE. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in Santa Sofía, Morelia, Panimache I and II, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde. The rate of explosions increased to 7-10 per hour on 16 April; explosions sometimes caused structures in Panimache, Morelia, La Reina, and Alotenango (8 km ENE) to vibrate. A lava flow traveled 1.3 km down the Seca drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-10 April explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 10-15 km SW and S. Sometimes the explosions were accompanied by weak shock waves. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 200 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the Seca (Santa Teresa, W), Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Trinidad (S) ravines. During 9-10 April ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). (INSIVUMEH) - Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

March 1st, 2024

As of the 29th of February, The extrusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. A visible night-time glow and abundant near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing), rising several hundreds of meters above the crater, indicate the continuing rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilling lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse, which in turn develop into rolling hot weak-to-moderate avalanches and incandescent dome blocks in the W-SW direction along the steep ravines.As of the 7th of February, the extrusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. A visible night-time glow and abundant near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing), rising 300 meters above the crater in the SW direction, indicate the continuing rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilling lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse, which in turn develop into rolling hot weak-to-moderate avalanches and incandescent dome blocks in the W-SW direction along the steep ravines. Previous news 2023 - As of the 27th of December, the extrusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. A visible night-time glow and abundant near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing), rising 600 meters above the crater in the SW direction, indicate the continuing rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilling lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse, which in turn develop into rolling hot weak-to-moderate avalanches in the S direction and incandescent dome blocks in the W-SW direction along a steep ravine.As of the 12th of October, the extrusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. A visible night-time glow and abundant near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing), rising 600 meters above the crater in the SW direction, indicate the continuing rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilling lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse, which in turn develop into rolling hot weak-to-moderate avalanches in the S direction and incandescent dome blocks in the W-SW direction along a steep ravine.As of the 7th of October the extrusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. As of the 4th of October, a visible night-time glow and abundant near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing), rising 600 meters above the crater in the SW direction, indicate the continuing rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilling lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse, which in turn develop into rolling hot weak-to-moderate avalanches in the S direction and incandescent dome blocks in the W-SW direction along a steep ravine.As of the 24th of August the extrusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. A visible night-time glow and near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing) indicate the continuing rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilling lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse, which in turn develop into rolling hot weak-to-moderate avalanches in the S direction and incandescent dome blocks in the W-SW direction along a steep ravine.As of the 19th of July the extrusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues at high levels. A visible night-time glow and near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing), rising about 900 meters above the crater, indicate the continuing rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilling lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse, which in turn develop into rolling hot weak-to-moderate avalanches in the S-SE-E direction and incandescent dome blocks in the W-SW direction along a steep ravine. The explosive activity is characterized by near-constant weak-to-moderate vulcanian-sized eruptions at roughly regular intervals of about 1 to 2 per day. Viscous, but gas-poor magma squeezes through the main conduit in search for the fastest way up to the surface and is being fragmented into grey ash-rich eruption plumes, reaching an average height of about 14,000 ft-15,000 ft (4,3 km-4,6 km).As of the 20th of April, INSIVUMEH reported that the extrusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. A visible night-time glow and near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing) indicate the continuing rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilling lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse, which in turn develop into rolling hot weak-to-moderate avalanches in the S direction and incandescent dome blocks in the W-SW direction along a steep ravine. The explosive activity is characterized by near-constant weak-to-moderate vulcanian-sized eruptions. Viscous, but gas-poor magma squeezes through the main conduit in search for the fastest way up to the surface and is being fragmented into grey ash-rich eruption plumes, reaching an average height of about 14,000 ft-15,000 ft (4,3 km-4,6 km). People are advised to avoid the sticky lava flow due to the strong heat which may cause burns and other serious injuries. The current hazards are also hot avalanches that can become mobilized into hot glowing currents (pyroclastic flows).As of the 29th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that he extrusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues at high levels. A visible night-time glow and near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing) indicate the continuing rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilling lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse, which in turn develop into rolling hot weak-to-moderate avalanches in the S direction and incandescent dome blocks in the W-SW direction along a steep ravine.As of the 10th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that a visible glow and near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor hint continued rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilled lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse which in turn develop into rolling hot avalanches and incandescent dome blocks in W-SW direction along a steep ravine. A near-frequent and heavy gas and water vapor emissions continue to be emitted to about 700 meters above the crater. People are advised to avoid the sticky lava flow due to the strong heat which may cause burns and other serious injuries. The current hazards are also hot avalanches that can become mobilized into hot glowing currents. As of the 1st of February, INSIVUMEH reported that the extrusive activity of the volcano continues at high levels. A visible glow and near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing) hint continued rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilled lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse which in turn develop into rolling hot avalanches and incandescent dome blocks in W-SW direction along a steep ravine. People are advised to avoid the sticky lava flow due to the strong heat which may cause burns and other serious injuries. The current hazards are also hot avalanches that can become mobilized into hot glowing currents (pyroclastic flows). As of the 17th of January, INSIVUMEH reported that the activity of the volcano continues at high levels. A visible glow and near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing) hint continued rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilled lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse which in turn develop into rolling hot avalanches and incandescent dome blocks in W-SW direction along a steep ravine. People are advised to avoid the sticky lava flow due to the strong heat which may cause burns and other serious injuries. The current hazards are also hot avalanches that can become mobilized into pyroclastic flows. INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 3-10 January. Effusion from Caliente cone fed lava flows that descended the San Isidro and El Tambor drainages on the W and SW flanks. Occasional block avalanches from the dome, and from both the ends and sides of the flows, descended the S, SW, and W flanks. The avalanches sometimes generated minor ash plumes that rose along their paths. Almost daily explosions produced gas-and-steam plumes with minor amounts of ash that rose as high as 800 m above the complex and sometimes drifted 5-8 km SW. Ashfall was reported in Las Marias (10 km S) and El Viejo Palmar (11 km S) during 8-9 January. Previous news 2022 - As of the 22nd of December, INSIVUMEH reported that the activity of the volcano continues at high levels. A visible glow and near-constant emissions of gas and water vapor (so-called degassing) hint continued rise of fresh viscous magma accumulating into the Caliente lava dome. Pilled lava material makes the dome partially prone to collapse which in turn develop into rolling hot avalanches and incandescent dome blocks in W-SW direction along a steep ravine.On 6 November INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex transitioned from more extrusive to more explosive. The rate of lava effusion and advancement of the lava flows in the San Isidro and El Tambor drainages on the W and SW flanks had notably decreased. Explosivity had become more intense and audible in the recent weeks and particularly in the previous few days, according to seismic and infrasound data, webcam images, and reports from surrounding residents. Gas emissions had increased, and sulfur dioxide emissions were identified in satellite images during recent days. Gas, ash, and steam plumes rose as high as 500 m above the dome complex. Block avalanches from the dome, along with the ends and sides of the flows, descended the S, SW, and W flanks. Some block collapses generated ash clouds that rose to several hundred meters high. Lahars descended the Cabello de Ángel drainage (a tributary of Nima I on the SE flank) on 3 November, carrying tree trunks, branches, and blocks up to 1 m in diameter. Minor ashfall was reported in Finca San José and La Quina on 5 November.As of the 30th of October, the Santiaguito volcano observatory reports abundant white outgassing at a height of 500 meters, which extends over 4 kilometers to the southwest. During the night, an incandescence was observed in the crater of the Caliente dome, and in the middle and at the front of the lava flow in a west and south-west direction. Weak avalanches of blocks and ash were observed in the middle and at the base of the western lava flow. This caused the uplift of fine ash particles in the volcanic perimeter. As of the 19th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that given the strong expulsion of lava from the Santiaguito volcano, which advances on the bed of the San Isidro river, the municipality of Quetzaltenango has imposed a restriction within a radius of 5 kilometers around the volcano. On the 17th of August, the volcano maintained columns of white vapors of gas, 500 meters high, and avalanches of blocks which descend from the crater in a south-westerly and southerly direction.As of the 8th of August, the volcano observatory repored fumaroles with moderate degassing at low altitude above the Caliente dome, as well as suspended ash in the vicinity of the volcanic complex. Avalanches were observed on the western flank of the Caliente dome, as well as constant collapses in front of the active lava flow in the San Isidro and El Tambor channels. These collapses generate loud sounds due to the fall of rock blocks and raise columns of ash up to 1,000 meters high, which are moved by the wind and generate ash falls on the areas surrounding La Florida, Monte Claro, San Marcos Palajunoj and hill. INSIVUMEH reported that on 27th of July, heavy rainfalls on the volcanic complex Santa María-Santiaguito generated the descent of lahars into the Cabello de Ángel river, a tributary of the Nimá I and Samalá rivers, to the south-southwest of the volcano. This lahar was weak in character, carrying a pasty mixture of water, boulders up to 1 meter in diameter, and finer sediments, as well as tree trunks and branches. The lahar on its way produces vibrations in the ground which are recorded in the seismic stations close to the bed of the river, in this case the STG3. INSIVUMEH reported that a period of high extrusive activity in recent months has built up a blocky lava flow, which begins in the upper part of the southwest flank of the Caliente dome and moves along the San Isidro channel. As of the 5th of July,, this lava flow has an approximate length of 3385 meters. The topology or shape of this lava flow is dominated by unstable stacked blocks, both in its upper part and in its lateral edges and frontal part, which, when collapsing, can frequently cause avalanches and flows pyroclastics with weak to moderate characteristics, conducive to incandescence and the emission of fine ash easily moved by the wind. INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 23-31 May. Incandescence from Caliente crater and the lava flows on the W and SW flanks was visible nightly and during some early mornings. Avalanches of incandescent blocks descended the W, SW, and S flanks of Caliente. The lava flows continued to advance in the San Isidro channel, and produced block avalanches from the ends and sides of the flows that descended the S, SW, and S flanks. Ash from these avalanches fell in areas on and around the volcano. The lava flow was 3.3 km long by 27 May. Cement-like lahars descended the Cabello de Ángel drainage (a tributary of Nimá I on the SE flank) during 27-28 May, carrying tree trunks, branches, and blocks up to 1 m in diameter. As of the 9th of May, INSIVUMEH reported that abundant white outgassing occurred at a height of 700 meters that propagates in a southwesterly direction, incandescence in the crater of the El Caliente dome and in front of the lava flow in a westerly direction and South West. Weak and moderate boulder and ash avalanches continue to be recorded in the middle and front of the lava flow. Suspended ash is reported in the volcanic perimeter and at Finca El Faro and San José. The volcano maintains high activity due to blocky lava extrusion into the Caliente dome in a west-southwest direction and unstable material within the crater, giving a likelihood of moderate to strong pyroclastic flows, with recommendation not to be in the barrancas of the volcano..scientific blog about Santiaguito). The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

August 26th, 2021

INSIVUMEH reported that reported that white-to-blue gas-and-steam emissions rose as high as 600 m above Pacaya's Mackenney crater and drifted as far as 2 km S, SW, and N
during 18-25 August. Seismic stations recorded some weak explosion and degassing events on 18 August.INSIVUMEH reported that gas emissions rose as high as 1.1 km above Pacaya's summit and drifted as far as 1 km S and SW during 10-17 August. Two explosions produced ash plumes that drifted S on 13 August.INSIVUMEH reported that explosions at Pacaya were recorded at 0905, 1340, and 1421 on 4 August, a departure from the low levels of activity observed during the previous four months. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose about 1 km above the summit and drifted 12 km N, causing ashfall in Mesa Altas, Mesa Bajas, and Villa Canales. The report noted that the cinder cone in Mackenney Crater had been destroyed during the previous eruption phase and the crater was about 100 m deep. Cracks were seen around the crater indicating areas of instability at the summit. Steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted as far as 3 km in multiple directions during 5-10 August. No explosions were heard or visually observed, though the seismic network recorded weak explosion signals during 6-7 August. INSIVUMEH reported that the volcano presents the characteristics of a new phase of activity after almost 4 months of low activity. The volcano could have a continuous explosive behavior, with formation of lava flow and eruptive plumes. On August 4, a constant degassing was observed, and in addition there were 3 moderate explosions (9:05 a.m., 1:40 p.m. and 2:21 p.m. local time), which expelled columns of ash at an altitude of 3,500 m, with a displacement towards the north, at a distance of about 12 kilometers, reporting ash fall in the communities of Mesías Altas, Mesías Bajas and Villa Canales. The Mackenney Cone crater has undergone significant changes since the last eruptive phase, having destroyed the cinder cones and lava flows that filled its interior, showing a crater of 100m depth ; ashes emanate from deep. Around the crater there are a few cracks, so the area is considered unstable.
INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-22 June white gas plumes rose as high as 600 m above Pacaya's Mackenney Crater and drifted as far as 5 km NW, W, and SW. Some weak explosions were recorded by the seismic network during 17-18 June. INSIVUMEH reported that ash plumes rose around 500 m above the summit and drifted 5-10 km N, NW, SW, and S during 18-21 and 24-25 May. Some explosions were recorded by the seismic network during 22-23 May; white-and-blue gas plumes rose 300-700 m and drifted 5 km W during 23-24 May.INSIVUMEH reported that during 12-18 May the cone on Pacaya's N flank (near Cerro Chino) continued to be active, feeding lava flows and occasionally ejecting incandescent material as high as 40 m. The lava flow slowly advanced mainly W, though remained about 2.4 km long. The flow also spread laterally and shed incandescent blocks, especially along the flow margins and where the flow travels down steep slopes. Gas-and-ash plumes visible almost daily rose as high as 900 m above the summit and drifted W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in El Rodeo (4 km WSW) during 15-16 May and in El Patrocinio (about 5 km W) during 15-17 May.INSIVUMEH reported that the observation on 7th of May showed of periods of degassing of white and gray color at the Mackenney crater of the Pacaya up to 900 meters above the crater, moving north and northeast. Effusive activity is maintained at the level of the crack on the northwest flank; it feeds a flow which descends the southwest flank for about 2,400 m. INSIVUMEH reported that on 6th of May, the activity remained mainly effusive. A white and bluish fumarole rose from Mackenney crater, moving south. The effusion continues on the new crack of the NE flank; the lava flow descends towards the SW and reaches 2,300 m. long. One of the flows does not move, and another moves slowly. Heavy rains hit Guatemala causing floods, landslides and lahars; A moderate lahar is reported in the Rio Nima and its tributary the Rio Samala, drainages of the Santiaguito. INSIVUMEH reported that a new effusive phase of the Pacaya began on April 29 around 5 a.m. and is maintained, both at the level of the Mackenney crater, with a lava flow towards the south-east 200 meters long, and at the level of a new crack formed this April 29 in the northwest, with a lava flow; at the level of this crack, one observes a continuous degassing and some weak explosions, with noises of train locomotive. This last flow, moving towards the southwest, is only 100 meters from an area called La Brena, affected by the previous flows, and has several ramifications INSIVUMEH analysis 2019 mid 2020 Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone. New Webcam

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COSTA RICA - Irazu volcano

November 6th, 2020

OVSICORI-UNA reported that Irazu's seismic network recorded a significant landslide in the W part of the volcano on 4 November along with a lahar. A small thermal anomaly was detected in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data. OVISCORI reported that the fissured slope of the Irazú volcano, located on the western flank of the Carthaginian colossus, collapsed on the morning of August 26 at a rate that remains to be determined. The event took place at around 4:10 a.m. when officials who were there began to perceive a seismic movement and vibration which, according to their reports, lasted for about a minute and a half. Ovsicori expert reported that just yesterday there were at least 100 small landslides; and that between Monday and Tuesday, the crack in the slope had moved 40 centimeters. The displaced materials are estimated to be several million cubic meters of rocks. The president of the National Emergency Commission (CNE) reported that this event is only alandslide and has not relationship with volcanic activity. The damage is material, and only concerns telecommunications installations that could not be moved. Irazú, one of Costa Rica's most active volcanoes, rises immediately E of the capital city of San José. The massive volcano covers an area of 500 km2 and is vegetated to within a few hundred meters of its broad flat-topped summit crater complex. At least 10 satellitic cones are located on its S flank. No lava flows have been identified since the eruption of the massive Cervantes lava flows from S-flank vents about 14,000 years ago, and all known Holocene eruptions have been explosive. The focus of eruptions at the summit crater complex has migrated to the W towards the historically active crater, which contains a small lake of variable size and color. Although eruptions may have occurred around the time of the Spanish conquest, the first well-documented historical eruption occurred in 1723, and frequent explosive eruptions have occurred since. Ashfall from the last major eruption during 1963-65 caused significant disruption to San José and surrounding areas.

COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

April 18th, 2024

OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing emissions and eruptive activity at Poas during 10-16 April. Vents on the nearly dry crater floor emitted plumes of gas and steam on 10 April and the number of phreatic events began to increase. Starting at around 0600 on 11 April ash was present in emissions rising from Boca C. The plumes rose 500 m and drifted SW and S and
residents in Naranjo (17 km WSW), Palmares (27 km SW), and Atenas (32 km SW) reported a sulfur odor. Eruptive events were not detected in seismic or infrasound data on 13 April. A small explosion at 2025 on 14 April produced a pulse of incandescence and an ash emission that rose less than 300 m. Emissions containing diffuse ash continued at least through the morning of 15 April.During 30 Jan-6 Feb, about 600 eruptions per day have been recorded daily, generating old country rock, indicating interaction between water and heated conduit-rocks rather than magma itself, to about 50-100 meters above the lake. On 4 February, a hydrothermal explosion produced a plume of steam, gas and a mixture of water and sediments to about 200 meters above the lake. On 6 February, a glowing steam was detected in the surveillance camera, related to the combustion of the native sulfur, last identified in 2019.OVSICORI-UNA surveillance webcams continue to monitor phreatic-type explosions from the summit crater lake. Eruptions have been recorded daily, generating old country rock, indicating interaction between water and heated conduit-rocks rather than magma itself, to about 200 meters above the lake. Gas and steam emissions rose above 500 meters above the volcano. Phreatic or hydrothermal explosion is steam-driven only, caused by overheated water flashing to steam. The volcano keeps the volcanic tremor stable.As of the 18th of January 20244, OVSICORI-UNA reported that small phreatic-type explosions continued to be observed over the past week. Eruptions were recorded daily, generating old country rock, indicating interaction between water and heated conduit-rocks rather than magma itself, to about 200 meters above the lake. Gas and steam emissions rose above 500 meters above the volcano. Previous news 2022 - As of the 15th of August, OVSICORI-UNA reported that seismic activity remained low amplitude. Gas ratios remain stable. The temperature of the hyperacidic lake was measured remotely at 32°C on August 13. Convection cells continue to be observed. The fumaroles to the east of the lake are between 60 and 90 degrees Celsius.
OVSICORI-UNA reported that on April 6, 2022 at 2:42 a.m. local time, an eruption was recorded, with an eruptive column that reached 500 meters above the crater (3208 meters above sea level) . Duration of the activity: 3 minutes.The explosive event formed a crater approximately 45 m in diameter in the north wall of the crater, which caused material to be expelled towards the Laguna Caliente area. A mound of pyroclastic rocks detached reaching a height of 4 meters above lake level and extending for 150 meters, until it reached the center of Laguna Caliente. Fumaroles remained active at this location.It is possible that this material is the mixture of a pyroclastic current of density due to the explosion, as well as the landslide that occurred. The affected area is approximately 7,500 m2. The material ejected, as well as the intensity of the explosion, could correspond to a phreatic type explosion, possibly triggered by the increase in pressure and temperature of the gases coming from the interior of the volcano and which could possibly break a plug of sulphur. This coincides with the appearance of sulfur floating in the Laguna Caliente, as well as a change in the color of the lake, which is grayish. The fumaroles on the north and east walls remain very active, as well as the underwater fumaroles. Frequent earthquakes of low frequency and low amplitude are recorded. The H2S/SO2 ratio and the SO2 concentration remain stable. Geodetic monitoring shows the stability of the volcanic edifice.Previous news on March : following a recent visit of local scientists they found hot springs in the active Poás crater. Laguna Caliente is fed by several streams, quite warm, temperatures reaching 90°C and new fumaroles have also appeared. The acidic Poás Lake has risen three meters in the past year and its temperature has risen from 46 to 36°C. This increase in volume is linked to the formation of various fumaroles, especially in the eastern part of the crater. According to scientists, the last time such a phenomenon was recorded was in the late 1990s. As of the 12th of March, OVSICORI-UNA reported that the CO2/SO2 ratio showed a decrease. Convection cells were observed in the lake, some continuous, others sporadic. The SO2 concentration in the view did not exceed 1 ppm. The temperature of the acid lake was measured with the thermographic camera on March 12, and is 40.1°C. As of the 18th of January 2022, OVISCORI-UNA reported that the fumaroles on the north and east walls remain active. Few low frequency and very low amplitude volcanic earthquakes are recorded. During the last 24 hours, 2 proximal volcano-tectonic earthquakes of low magnitude have been recorded. Magmatic gas concentrations remain below detection thresholds. The summit of the volcano continues to experience a slight extension. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. Web camera from OVSICORI-UNA.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

Augut 16th, 2022

Park rangers reported a large crater collapse on 15th of August at around 8:50 a.m., which was not enough to be recorded by the seismic network. The air quality monitoring station located in Coronado has recorded an increase in the concentration of SO2 and fine particles (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0) since August 11th. . Activity Level: Warning (2)OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive degassing has continued at Turrialba without eruptive activity since August 11, 2022. A fumarolic incandescence is observed in the crater. Seismicity is maintained with frequent low frequency, low amplitude events. Geodetic monitoring demonstrates a horizontal contraction of the volcanic edifice. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption occurred on July 17th, 2022 at 7:49 a.m. local time, lasting about 1 min or less. A pulse of ash and gas rose 200 meters above the crater, or 3540 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level). A slight ash fall is reported in the Irazú Volcano National Park.Seismic activity shows no change. The deformation is maintained with a tendency to shrink. Satellites have not detected SO2 in the atmosphere since June 25. OVSICORI-UNA reported that since June 17th, significant degassing of the active crater has been observed, in particular on the SW inner wall. The volcanic edifice is in extension. Fumaroles in the West Crater remain active on June 18. Seismicity with frequent volcanic earthquakes of low frequency and low magnitude. The volcanic building is maintained with a slight deflation. OVSICORI-UNA reported that the Turrialba has emitted gas and steam, and small amounts of ash, since sunrise March 12, 2022; until about 9:30 a.m. before fog obscured it. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a point of incandescence on the SW wall of Turrialba's Crater West was visible on 23 February and was coincident with the area of strongest gas emissions. At 1955 on 27 February an eruption produced a diffuse ash plume that rose 300 m above the summit and drifted NE. Rumbling heard on 28 February was sometimes coincident with minor ash emissions.OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 2/19/2022 at 4:12 a.m. local time, an eruptive episode was recorded, with a column which rises 100 meters above the height of the crater and 3440 meters above the level of the sea. (meters above sea level) (11283.2 feet). Duration of the activity: 1 minute. The winds are blowing west. Ash falls and a smell of sulfur were reported in the Irazú Volcano National Park. After the eruption, passive degassing resumed. The CO2/SO2 ratio showed a significant peak at values ​​of ~50 on February 14 and 15 and then decreased to values ​​of ~20 over the past few days. Another CO2/SO2 peak was observed about 2 hours before the eruption. CO2/SO2 spikes are usually associated with relatively high H2S/SO2 values. On 02/19/2022 at 4:24 p.m. local time, another eruptive episode is recorded at the level of the Turrialba volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 1 minute. The winds blow from the southwest.This eruption was very small in terms of energy released (based on infrasound data). OVSICORI-UNA reported that a small, short-lived (0.5 min) phreatic eruption occurred  at 12:59 p.m. local time on February 6, 2022. An ash plume rose about 100 meters above the summit to the south- Many low-frequency, low-magnitude LP-type earthquakes continue to be recorded. Magmatic gas concentrations remain around normal values ​​according to readings from the MultiGAS gas monitor located near the western crater, which detects SO2 between 1.9 and 11 ppm and CO2/SO2 ratios between 18 and 29. The GPS network does not record any significant deformation of the volcanic edifice. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 24th of January at 7:06 a.m. local time, an eruption was recorded at the level of the Turrialba volcano, with a column that rises 100 meters above the height of the crater and 3440 meters above from sea level. (meters above sea level) (11283.2 feet). Duration of the activity: 2 minutes. The winds blow from the Southwest. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 17th of January at 9:27 p.m. local time, an eruption is recorded on the Turrialba volcano, in Costa Rica, with a plume that rises 1,000 meters above the height of the crater and 4,340 meters above the sea ​​level. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

COSTA RICA - Rincon de la Vieja volcano

October 30th, 2023

As of the 29th of October, the explosive eruption at the volcano continues. The Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica (OVSICORI) issued that three small phreatic eruptions and 23 steam-laden plumes appeared from the volcano over the past week. Phreatic explosions form when the ejecta consist solely of old country rock, indicating interaction between water and heated conduit-rocks rather than magma itself. The seismic instrument continues to record ongoing periods of variable tremor amplitudes ranging between (0.5 Hz-8 Hz) frequencies. In addition, sporadic volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with rock fracturing at depth have been detected. The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements continue to record the edifice's summit uplifted by 2.5 cm since August.As of the 12th of October, the explosive eruption at the volcano continues. OVSICORI issued that twelve phreatic eruptions appeared from the volcano over the past week. Phreatic explosions form when the ejecta consist solely of old country rock, indicating interaction between water and heated conduit-rocks rather than magma itself. The seismic instrument continues to record ongoing periods of variable tremor amplitudes ranging between (0.8 Hz-8 Hz) frequencies. In addition, sporadic volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with rock fracturing at depth have been detected. The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements recorded the edifice's summit and base uplifted.As of the 1st of September, OVSICORI-UNA reported that small phreatic events continued to be recorded at Rincon de la Vieja during 23-29 August. Four small events were recorded during 1900 om 24 August and 0828 on 25 August. The event at 0828 produced a steam-and-gas plume that rose 3 km above the crater rim and drifted NW. Four small events were also recorded during 27-28 August; the event at 0813 on 28 August lasted two minutes and generated a steam-and-gas plume that rose 2.5 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at Level 3, Orange, the third level on a four-level scale.As of the 2nd of June at 9h02 AM OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new eruption occurred on the volcano Rincon de la Vieja with an ejection  of volcanic material that tose to 1500 meters above the crater. This eruption was observed from different locations around the volcano. Due to the wind direction on the morning, it is likely that ashfall will occur in communities north of the volcanoOVSICORI-UNA reported that small phreatic eruptions periodically occurred at Rinco³n de la Vieja during 16-23 May. Four small events occurred during 16-17 May; the last one, recorded at 1255 on 17 May, produced a gas-and-steam plume that rose 700 m above the crater rim. Sulfur dioxide emissions were almost as high as 5,000 tonnes per day on 17 May; emissions averaged around 132 tonnes per day during the previous week. Events were recorded at 1537 on 18 May and at 0727 and 1025 on 19 May. Vigorous gas emissions were visible in the early morning of 20 May and a phreatic event occurred at 1648 that same day. At 1349 a phreatic event generated a plume mostly comprised of steam that rose 1 km above the crater rim.As of the 21st of April, OVSICORI-UNA reported that a powerful phreatic explosion took place at the volcano. The eruption was strong enough to produce a dilute pumice-and-ash flow due to a culmination of a billowing white-to-grey dense ash plume. The pyroclastic flow traveled over the northern flank and reached length of at least 2 km from the summit, a local observer reported. The height of the ash column is unknown and was reported yet neither by the observatory nor the VAAC. People are advised to avoid the area in the north. Previous news 2022 - OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing eruptive activity at Rincon de la Vieja characterized by occasional small phreatic explosions. A small explosion at 0147 on 14 September produced a steam-and-gas plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. Low-frequency tremor began at 0900 on 17 September and was possibly associated with small eruptive events, though they were not visually confirmed. A possible emission was recorded at 0219.OVSICORI-UNA reported that exhalations were recorded and a gas pulse could be observed at 5:42 p.m. on 13th of August associated with the seismic signal. A fragmented tremor is recorded. Visibility conditions are variable, generally limited.The seismicity of the Rincón de la Vieja volcano on July 19th is similar to that of the day before. Geodetic measurements do not show any significant deformation of the volcanic edifice. The tremor which showed a frequency of 4 Hz disappeared around 06:00 today. Cloudiness prevents observation of the crater. South-westerly wind (4 m/s).OSICORI-UNA reported that on June 9th at 12:48 p.m., a small hydrothermal eruption was recorded. The column of gas and water vapor reached a height of 200 meters. Seismicity continued with frequent low-frequency volcanic earthquakes, screw-type earthquakes, and low-frequency, short-duration tremors. No significant deformation of the volcanic edifice is recorded. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 28th of May at 1:25 am local time, an eruption was recorded by infrasound; the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Strong degassing occures in the crater the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a mall eruption was recorded by seismographs and infrasound sensor on May 21, 2022 at 02:51 a.m. The eruption had a duration of 7 minutes and an energy inferred from the infrasound signal of 1400 Joules. Another even smaller eruption lasting 6 minutes was also recorded today at 4:43 a.m., with an energy of 396 Joules. The deformation of the volcanic edifice is stable within the uncertainty of the measurements.On 5 May OVSICORI-UNA reported an average of two daily phreatic explosions during the previous week. The events did not eject material outside of the crater and produced steam plumes that rose no higher than 200 m above the crater rim. A phreatic explosion at 1650 on 6 May produced a steam plume that rose 500 m. A few phreatic explosions and several steam emissions were recorded on 7 May. Several steam emissions were also recorded on 8 May. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 01:56:00 local time on April 26, 2022, an eruption is recorded at the Rincon de la Vieja volcano. The height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 2 minutes. Seismic activity is similar, compared to the day before. At the time of this report, the winds are blowing to the southwest. A discontinuous tremor of variable amplitude and dominant frequency is recorded. A probable low amplitude eruption was detected at 01:56 with no visibility.OVISORI-UNA reported that at 06:18:00 local time on April 25, 2022, an eruptive episode was recorded at the Rincon de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 1 minute.OVSICORI-UNA reported that two eruptive episodes occurred on April 7th, respectively at 11:42 a.m. local and 1:23 p.m. local. The first lasted 1 minute, the second 2 minutes. In both cases, an eruptive column is recorded which rose 500 meters above the crater (2416 meters asl). OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 04/04/2022 at 10:42 a.m. local time, an eruption was recorded at the level of the Rincón de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of activity: 1.5 minutes.OVSICORI-UNA reported that several eruptive events at Rincon de la Vieja were recorded during 22-26 March, though none were visible due to weather conditions. A one-minute-long event was recorded at 0350 on 22 March. A series of pulses occurred over a 20-minute period, at 0140, 0146, and 0159 on 23 March, with additional small events at 1045, 1339, 1939, and 2244. According to the Washington VAAC a possible ash emission was visible in satellite images at 1420 drifting W at an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. OVSICORI-UNA noted that a series of small eruptive events were recorded during 0129-0140 on 25 March. A small eruption with possible two separate pulses was recorded on 26 March.OVSICORI-UNA reported that eruptive events at Rincon de la Vieja were recorded at 0405 on 19 March, 1402 on 20 March, and 0350 on 22 March. The events lasted 1-8 minutes each and no plumes were visible due to weather conditions.OVSICORI-UNA reported that the volcano experienced five eruptions in 8 days, according to reports from Ovsicori. These recent eruptions are of the phreatic type. The last date was February 2 at 6:53 p.m. local time, and the emission of gas, steam and ash continued for 2 minutes. Due to poor visibility, the height of the plume could not be estimated. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on January 27, 2022 at 7:16 a.m. local time, an eruption is recorded at the level of the Rincón de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 1 minute. No ash fall is reported, nor smell of sulfur. A small lahar has been detected. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on January 25, 2022 at 11:40 a.m. Costa Rican time, an explosion was recorded which generated the partial flow of the acid lake on the northern flank. On 2022-01-25 at 11:39 local time, an eruptive column rises 800 meters above the height of the crater and 2716 meters above sea level. (meters above sea level ). Duration of the activity: 1 minute. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 02:25:00 local time on January 23rd, an eruption was recorded at the level of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 1 minute. Seismic activity was similar, compared to the previous day. At the time of this report, the winds are blowing westerly.The eruption generated lahar(s) to the north of the volcano. A very slight 1-2 Hz frequency tremor was detected after the eruption. This signal has gradually disappeared this morning. In recent days, geodetic observations show no significant change. OVSICORI reported that at 10:27:00 p.m. local time on January 20, 2022 (rectified), an eruption was detected by infrasound and seismic signal at the level of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site . After the eruption, no significant tremor is detected. No significant deformation is observed either. Duration of the activity: 2 minutes. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on January 5th, 2022 at 6:33 p.m. local time, an eruption was recorded in the Rincón de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the eruptive plume is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 2 minutes. After the main event, major lahars rolled down the Penjamo, Azufrado and possibly Azul rios. In addition, it appears that other small eruptions have occurred, harmlessly, due to the much lower amplitude. The most important seem to have occurred at 9:08 p.m. and 9:20 p.m., they will be confirmed by a seismologist in the coming days, but there are reports of noises coming from the neighbors of the volcano. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1437 on 1st of January 2022 a small eruption at Rincon de la Vieja produced a plume that rose 50 m above the crater rim. A small eruption was recorded by the seismic network at 0431 on 4 January, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation. The amplitude of the seismic signal was similar to those recorded for events occurring in the previous few weeks.Rincon de la Vieja, a composite stratovolcano in Northwestern Costa Rica forms a NW-trending ridge consisting of several eruptive centers that have coalesced through time. Elevations of the individual cones range from 1670 to 1920 meters and nine craters are readily identified by their topographic expression. Numerous phreatic eruptions have occurred since 1851 (as recently as November, 1995), all from the Active Crater. The last major eruption involving juvenile magma occurred at ~3,500 ybp, producing the Rio Blanco tephra deposit. Ash, pumice, and lithics ejected during this eruption were deposited in a highly asymmetrical dispersal pattern WSW of the Active Crater, indicating strong easterly prevailing tradewinds at the time of the eruption. Historical descriptions of the summit crater morphology suggest that conditions there have changed little over the past century.
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NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

March 15th, 2024

According to the U.S. Embassy in Nicaragua the Parque Nacional Volcan Masaya continued to be closed on 12 March due to an increased potential for explosive activity due to the blocking of the lava lake from landslide deposits in Santiago Crater. A satellite image from 13 March showed a slightly larger thermal anomaly on the NE crater floor compared to an 8 March image. According to a 13 March news article, INETER reported that landslides from the inner SW and NW crater walls were continuing. In a 14 March news article, a resident that lived near the volcano noted that the typical gas emissions seen before the 2 March landslide were no longer observed.According to news articles, INETER reported that gas emissions increased at Masaya's Santiago Crater in February, small landslides occurred from the inner NW crater wall, and the level of the lava lake had slightly increased. The report noted that SINAPRED recommended limits on the number of people and the time spent at the viewing area at the crater rim. A larger landslide occurred on 2 March and covered the active lava lake. A satellite image from 3 March showed a much smaller thermal anomaly on the crater floor compared to a 22 February image. According to an 8 March news article, INETER reported that small landslides continued to occur, originating from the inner SW and NW crater walls; a more notable landslide was recorded at 0900. The lava lakes remained covered with the deposits. Constant gas emissions rose from vents possibly on the crater floor and from fractures on the inner walls, though the gas flux was at lower rate, estimated to be 25-30 percent of the normal values. Seismicity was low with RSAM values around 23. The report noted that the Parque Nacional Volcán Masaya may partially open, though the public was warned to stay 800 m away from Santiago Crater. Previous news 2020 - As of the 1st of December, INETER reported that Low-level eruptive activity of the volcano continues by near-constant ash emissions recorded during the 30 November. The activity at the crater has been mostly small-to-moderate only, but near-constant a lot in frequency of explosions as INETER surveillance camera observed. According to local news, ashes ejection occurred on October 15th, 2019. Samples were collected and recorded in the municipality of Ticuantepe, which, as a result of the change in wind direction, received the ash particles from the volcano. If The winds continued to blow from south-east to north-west the city of Managua could be affected by gases or falls of pyroclastic material. Previous notable news 2017 - The Washington VAAC reported that on 13 May a west-drifting ash emission from Masaya was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot. Previously, based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 21 January a possible emission from Masaya with minor ash content drifted almost 25 km NW.Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 5 January a gas, steam, and ash plume from Masaya drifted W. Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that a steam-and-gas plume from Masaya possibly contained some ash on 3 November. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 28 August a gas plume with possible ash rose from Masaya to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 15 August a possible ash plume from Masaya rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Elevated seismicity and a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images indicated increased activity. In a report posted later that day the Washington VAAC noted that the webcam recorded minor ash emissions. Previously, INETER reported that during 18-19 May RSAM values at Masaya fluctuated between 300 and 700 units which are low-to-moderate values. The lava lake in Santiago Crater continued to strongly circulate and the vent widened through 24 May. INETER reported that between 1700 and 2400 on 3 May volcanic tremor at Masaya increased; RSAM values spiked at 1,000 units and then dropped to 250. Gas emissions at Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels, and the lava lake continued to strongly circulate. On 5 May RSAM values fluctuated between 250 and 500 units which are low-to-moderate values. INETER reported that during 27 April-3 May gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels. Seismic tremor decreased though continued to fluctuate between low to moderate levels. The lava lake continued to strongly circulate. INETER reported that during 20-23 April gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels and RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 22 April the level of the lava lake decreased, though strong lake circulation was reported on 23 April. INETER reported that during 6-12 April the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. (Time-lapse video). Previously on 30 March INETER reported that the lava lake rose in Masaya's Santiago crater and several landslide deposits from the precious few days were visible in the NE crater. RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that tremor continued and the widening of the vent in the SE part of the crater persisted. According to a SINAPRED report on 28 March INETER noted that lava-lake activity at Masaya's Santiago crater was intense and the craters continued to gradually widen. Emissions were at low levels. INETER reported that on 3 March the lava lake on the SW floor of Masaya's Santiago crater was very active. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. Previously, INETER reported that the lava lakes in three vents on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater were active during 20 February-1 March. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. On 23 February small explosions ejected spatter onto the crater floor. During fieldwork volcanologists observed active lava lakes in all three vents on the crater floor, and noted that the inner walls of the crater were being eroded due to the lava lake. A new vent was forming on the SE part of the crater floor. During a second visit on 24 February INETER staff noted that the vents had become larger due to landslides on the crater walls. Small streams of lava sporadically originated from the NE vent. By 1 March the two vents in the SW part of the crater had almost merged. On 17 February INETER reported that the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. During 10-11 February sulfur dioxide emissions at Masaya rose to high levels (1,500 tons per day), and RSAM values were at moderately-high levels due to higher levels of volcanic tremor. This activity coincided with an increase in the size of the lava lake. Gas emissions were at moderate and low levels on 12 and 16 February, respectively. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindiri­ and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage. (GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Telica volcano

March 30th, 2022

Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 29 March ash emissions at Telica rose as high as 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 25 March ash emissions at Telica rose as high as 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.Based on satellite and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that during 21-24 and 27-28 February multiple ash emissions at Telica rose as high as 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km W, WSW, and SW.INETER reported that in the eruptive phase that begins since April 21, 2021, on February 20, 2022 a few episodes of ash explosions occurred, which were deposited on its flanks. These episodes were separated by an outgassing. Mirova reports a moderate thermal anomaly of VRP 34 MW on April 21 at 03:20. Previous news 2021 - INETER reported that at 1650 on 28 October a small explosion from Telica produced an ash plume that rose 150 m above the crater rim and deposited ash on the NW flank. The event was followed by a small series of low-energy explosions that generated ash plumes that rose 300 m high and drifted N and NE. Minor ashfall was reported in Aguas Frias. On October 4, the VAAC Washington reported an ash plume at an altitude of 1,200 meters. INETER reported that at 0525 on 1 September an explosion at Telica produced an ash plume that rose 250 m above the crater rim and drifted N and NW. Emissions periodically continued later that day, without explosions, and caused minor ashfall in areas to the NW, W, and SW including in the communities of Aguas Frias, San Pedro Nuevo, and Las Marias (7 km NNW).INETER reported that at 0500 on 29 June ash-and-gas emissions from Telica rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The Washington VAAC noted that ash was emitted during 2-3 July. A few discrete emissions and ash near the crater were visible in webcam images on 2 July, and possible diffuse ash just W of the crater was seen in satellite images. Plumes likely rose to 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. Another steam-and-ash plume drifted SW and then turned N. On 3 July possible ash plumes rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.INETER reported that a series of 16 small explosions at Telica began at 0508 on 22 May, and produced ash-and-gas emissions that rose 250 m above the crater. Tephra from the plumes fell back down into the crater.INETER reported that volcano recorded gas and ash explosions in the morning of May 8, 2021, according to the images of the webcam.Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of 1061-m-high Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately SE of Telica, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.(GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Momotombo

July 7th, 2020

SINAPRED reported that a seismic swarm at Momotombo began at 0657 on 6 July and by the next day a total of 51 earthquakes had been recorded. The largest event was an M 2.6 located 9 km SE of the volcano, beneath Lake Managua, at a depth of 3 km. INETER noted that the earthquakes were located along a fault and not directly related to the volcano. INETER recorded small explosions on February 26 at Momotombo; the activity started at 13:55 with an increase in gaseous emissions, then small gas explosions at 14:45 and 15:30, the last accompanied by an earthquake of M1.4. The last eruptions dated from December 2015 and January 2016. 2016 eruption reports - INETER reported that three explosions at Momotombo during 5-6 April ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater. During 6-7 April there were 27 small explosions for a total of 438 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. The explosions ejected some incandescent material, and generated ash plumes that rose 200 m and drifted SW. RSAM values were low during 5-12 April. SINAPRED reported that on 2 April explosions at Momotombo produced gas-and-ash plumes and ejected incandescent tephra. On 28 March SINAPRED reported that 38 explosions were detected at Momotombo over a period of 24 hours, which ejected gas-and-ash plumes and incandescent tephra. The strongest event occurred at 1140 on 27 March and generated a plume that rose 1 km. During 2-3 March INETER reported that 53 small explosions at Momotombo generated low-energy gas plumes that rose 300 m above the crater. On 3 March some of the explosions produced ash plumes that drifted W and SW. RSAM values were at low to moderate levels. SINAPRED reported that during 5-6 March there were 78 explosions for a total of 279 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. One of the most significant explosions occurred on 6 March. The next day gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater. INETER reported that during 19 February-1 March explosions at Momotombo were detected daily; 88 explosions were detected during 1 December 2015-1 March 2016. Explosions produced ash plumes, and ejected incandescent material onto the N, NE, E, and SE flanks. Ash plumes rose 1.7-2.3 km above the crater and drifted SW during 21-22 February; gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.8 km on 24 February; an ash plume rose 1 km on 25 February; and a small gas-and-ash plume rose 300 m on 26 February. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the N and NW flanks during 23-24 February. Explosions on 27 February ejected tephra 300 m above the crater. At 0646 on 1 March explosions ejected gas and incandescent tephra; an ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted W and SW. The gas-and-ash emissions lasted 16 minutes, causing the plume to widen and darken the sky. INETER reported that during 16-17 February two explosions at Momotombo were accompanied by tremor, and produced ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The first and largest explosion (recorded at 0344) ejected incandescent tephra 800 m above the crater. RSAM values were at low-to-moderate levels. Based on webcam views and satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 February ash emissions rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and WSW. The next day ash emissions drifted SW. On 21 February ash plumes drifted about 80 km W and 25 km E. INETER reported moderate levels of gas emissions at Momotombo on 10 February; volcanic tremor and gas emissions increased to moderate-to-high levels the next day. An explosion on 12 February produced small ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the N and SE flanks. An explosion at 1305 on 15 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and ejected incandescent tephra onto the N and NE flanks. INETER reported that during 4-5 and 7-8 February both RSAM values at Momotombo were low to moderate and emissions were at moderate levels. INETER reported that during 26-29 January RSAM values at Momotombo were at low to moderate levels, and gas emissions were at moderate levels. Crater incandescence from high-temperature gas emissions was observed at night during 26-27 January. A Strombolian explosion at 0344 on 30 January ejected tephra onto the E, NE, N, and NW flanks, and produced gas emissions. At 0529 on 31 January another explosion also ejected gas, ash, and incandescent material. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas including the communities of Boqueron, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), and La Sabaneta. Moderate levels of gas emissions drifted SW towards Puerto Momotombo.INETER reported that during 20-21 January both RSAM values and emissions at Momotombo were low. Volcanic tremor increased at 0900 on 22 January, causing RSAM values to rise to high levels. There were no changes to emissions. INETER recommended to the public to stay at least 6 km away from the volcano. INETER reported that at 1209 on 12 January a large explosion at Momotombo ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and generated an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater. Tephra was deposited on the E, NE, N, and NW flanks. Ash plumes drifted downwind and caused ashfall in the communities of Flor de Piedra, La Concha (40 SSE), Amatistan, Guacucal (40 km N), La Palma, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), La Sabaneta, Mira Lago, Asentamiento Miramar, Pancasan, Rene Linarte, Raul Cabezas, and Betania. At around 0500 on 15 January strong volcanic tremor was accompanied by small explosions in the crater; ejected ash and incandescent tephra were deposited on the W flank. Seismicity decreased during 16-17 January. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, three gas-and-ash explosions on 2 January, at 1333, 1426, and 1434, excavated the remaining parts of the lava dome which was emplaced about a month ago. An ash plume rose 500 m above the crater, drifted S and SW, and caused ashfall in Puerto Momotombo (9 km WSW). Possible ash plumes from an explosion at 2129 were hidden by darkness. At 0420 on 3 January an explosion ejected lava bombs 2 km away and caused ashfall in La Paz Centro (18 km SW). Lava flows had advanced as far as 2 km down the NE flank. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, activity at Momotombo continued through 10 December. Fieldwork revealed a small, incandescent, circular crater halfway up Momotombo's E flank that was fuming during the morning on 6 December. An explosion on 7 December destroyed part of the crater. On 10 December SINAPRED reported that material had been accumulating in the crater since the beginning of the eruption on 1 December. Seismicity during 9-14 December was low and stable. Based on satellite and webcam observations, and seismic data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Momotombo rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-225 km NW and WNW. INETER reported that series of at least 4 small explosions occurred at the volcano on the morning, at 07:49, 08:17, 08:42, and 08:55 local time on 1st of December. The eruptions, in particular the last and largest one, produced steam and ash plumes that rose up to approx. 1 km from the summit. Light ash fall was observed in the community of El Papalonal and near the Momotombo geothermal plant to the SW of the volcano. Later, during the day, It seems that the volcano continues to erupt and have been intensifying its activity with near-continuous strombolian explosions accompanied with hot incandescent material and a small et slowly lava flows went down from the summit crater on the Northeast flank.Ashfall was reported in nearby communities to the W and SW, including La Concha, Los Arcos, Flor de la Piedra, La Paz Centro, and Leon. Some families in La Paz Centro self-evacuated. This is the first eruptive activity of the volcano in 110 years, the last confirmed eruption of Momotombo occurred in 1905 . Momotombo is a young, 1297-m-high stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows from Momotombo have flowed down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms a 391-m-high island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional larger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after an April 10, 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the southern flank of the volcano. INETER

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

July 7th, 2023

INETER reported that the volcano showed very dramatic activity on 5th of July in the morning morning. An intense explosion took place from the summit vent, sending dense grey ash emissions, lapilli and lava bombs in various directions. The powerful eruption culminated in dilute pumice-and-ash flows caused by a partial eruption plume collapse due to its higher density than the surrounding air. Pyroclastic flows tumbled down up to the base of the edifice, engulfing the vast area of the volcano by the billowing ash plume. The height of the ash column is unknown and was reported yet neither by the local observatory nor the VAAC, but from available imagery seems to rose about 2-3 km above the summit. Previous news 2022 - INETER reported that on June 26th , 2022 around 7:35 a.m. there was an earthquake and then the expulsion of ash and gas from the  volcano. This eruption was visible on the Ineter webcam.Previous news 2021 -The Washington VAAC reported that on 19 March a notable ash cloud from San Cristobal rose at least to 12.2 km (40,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 80 km ENE based on satellite data, ash dispersion models, and weather models. SINAPRED reported that a series of five moderate-to-strong vulcanian-type explosions occurred at the volcano on 9th of March 2021 between 13:06 and 13:32 local time. The strongest eruption at 01:25 local time triggered a dense, dark ash column to an estimated altitude of 8,000 ft (2,400 m) which extended about 17 km to the southwest of the volcano. Ashfall was reported in cities of El Viejo, Chinandega and Chichigalapa. Expected explosions in the near future will not threaten inhabited areas, but volcanological observatory recommends to keep general precautions. Previously, last year INETER reported that a low-energy explosion at San Cristobal was detected by the seismic network at 1550 on 4 March 2019. The event produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP

NICARAGUA - Concepcion volcano

May 20th, 2024

The Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) volcano observatory reported that a new, low-to-moderate-sized eruption took place at the volcano on 16 May. At about 02:20 PM local time, the volcano started to spew abundant grey ash emissions  that reached up to 18,000 ft (5,500 m) elevation extending to the northwest. The explosion (likely) caused light-to-moderate ash fall occurring in several communities in the vicinity of the volcano (Los Ramos, Santa Teresa, La Union, Los Angeles, La Flor, Urbaite, Las Pilas), with a 1-mm-thick tephra layer. The eruption was accompanied by a continuous volcanic tremor.Volcán Concepción is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighboring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepción was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the N flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated. GVN/GVP)

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El SALVADOR - San Miguel volcano

May 29th, 2023

As of the 28th of May, SNET reported that the explosive eruption at the volcano continues at roughly regular intervals. Surveillance cameras of San Salvador's Ministerio de Medio Ambiente observed ash eruptions from the summit crater. The heights of grey ash plumes are unknown as they weren't reported by the VAAC nor the volcano observatory, but from the attached video from 27 May, they seem to rise several hundred meters aboveOn 16 March MARN reported that gas emissions at San Miguel had decreased in the past few days and noted that gas-and-ash plumes were last observed on 9 March.As of the 8th of March SNET reported that the explosive eruption at the volcano continues at roughly regular intervals. Surveillance cameras of San Salvador's Ministerio de Medio Ambiente are being observed ash eruptions from the summit crater. The heights of grey ash plumes are unknown as they weren't reported by the VAAC nor the volcano observatory, but from the attached video from 8 March, they seem to rise several hundred meters above the vent. On 14 January MARN reported that a gradual decrease in activity to low levels had been recorded at San Miguel since 1 December 2022. Sulfur dioxide emissions were below the baseline of 300 tons per day and no deformation was detected. Minor emissions and occasional explosions of gas and ash continued to be recorded by the seismic network and were occasionally visible. At 0817 on 14 January a gas-and-ash emission was seen in webcam images rising just over the crater rim. Previous news 2022. The explosive eruption at the volcano continues on 16th of November 2022. At about 09:30 and 17:18 local time, a low grey ash plumes took place from the summit crater associated with a near-continuous degassing.The symmetrical cone of San Miguel volcano, one of the most active in El Salvador, rises from near sea level to form one of the country's most prominent landmarks. A broad, deep crater that has been frequently modified by historical eruptions (recorded since the early 16th century) caps the truncated summit of the towering volcano, which is also known locally as Chaparrastique. Radial fissures on the flanks of the basaltic volcano have fed a series of fresh lava flows, including several erupted during the 17th-19th centuries that reached beyond the base of the volcano on the N, W, and SE sides. The SE-flank lava flows are the largest and form broad sparsely vegetated lava fields. GVN - (SNET)

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COLOMBIA - Purace volcano

May 6th, 2024

As of the 5th of May, SGC reported that since the declaration of the Orange alert status, a seismic activity related to fracture and fluid movements has exhibited a consistent pattern in terms of the number of events and released energy. The majority of earthquakes stemming from rock fracturing were detected beneath the crater of the volcano and on its eastern flank, occurring at depths ranging from 0.8 to 4 km. The highest magnitude recorded was M 1.6, observed yesterday at 10:50 local time. The seismic activity associated with fluid movement was concentrated around the crater and its northern flank, occurring at depths shallower than 0.8 km. Furthermore, earthquakes linked to the rise, emplacement, or movement of magma have been documented, potentially forming domes or protuberances that may or may not breach the surface. Observations reveal a maximum gas column height of approximately 1,400 m, measured from the volcano's summit, with a dispersion direction towards the west. Soil deformation processes and concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions remain elevated compared to baseline levels. The SGC volcano observatory affirms that the alert level for the volcano remains at Orange, signifying significant changes in monitored parameters. Although fluctuations in seismic activity and degassing levels may occur, this does not indicate a return to normal volcanic activity levels. Transitioning back to a lower alert state (Yellow) requires a sustained period during which all monitored parameters are assessed, identifying trends indicative of increased stability. However, if there is an acceleration in processes suggesting an imminent eruption or an eruption itself, the alert status will be escalated to Red. As of the 7th of January, the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) reported that an increased seismic activity at the volcano has been observed over the past few days. The elevated activity may signal increased fluid movements of gas, water and possibly magma under the surface at about 2 km depth. Surveillance cameras detected a sudden increase of carbon dioxide (SO2) emissions, but it has been decreasing throughout the day and is still declining at the time of this update. Previous news 2022 - Observatorio Vulcanolo³gico y Sismologico de Popayan, Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC), reported that during 13-19 September the number of earthquakes at Purace was slightly higher compared to previous weeks. A seismic swarm was recorded on 15 September. Events were located about 1.5 km SW of Purace crater, at depths of 3-4 km, and were as large as M 1.3. A total of 904 earthquakes were recorded during the week; 296 of those were volcano-tectonic events, 538 were long-period events, 54 were low-energy pulses of tremor, 11 were tornillo-type events, and five were hybrid events. Data from the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) geodetic network indicated continuing inflation. White gas plumes were visible in the Anambio, Mina, Lavas Rojas, Cerro Sombrero, and Curiquinga webcams drifting NW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were as high as 2,021 tonnes per day. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest on a four-color scale).From the analysis and evaluation of the information obtained through the monitoring network of the Puracé volcano - Los Coconucos volcanic chain, during the week of June 7th to 13th, 2022, the SGC. - Popayan volcanological and Seismological Observatory informs us that during this week, the strong occurrence of earthquakes associated with the movement of fluids inside the volcano continues.A total of 1,650 seismic events were analyzed, of which 51 were associated with rock fracturing processes (type VT) and 1,599 with fluid dynamics in volcanic conduits.The geodetic network of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) stations monitoring ground deformation continues to record a process associated with inflation.The sulfur dioxide emission fluxes recorded by the telemetry stations showed a stable behavior, reaching a maximum emitted of 544.25 t/day for June 12.Degassing of the volcanic system is observed, with a white plume oriented preferentially towards the northwest.The activity level remains at III (yellow level), which could progress to higher activity states. Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Popayán, Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC), reported that during 19-25 April the number and magnitudes of earthquakes at Puracé was similar to the previous week. Signals included 72 volcano-tectonic (VT) events, indicating rock fracturing, along with 207 long-period (LP) events and 14 low-energy tremor pulses, indicating fluid movement. Data from the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) geodetic network continued to show inflation on the centimeter scale. Sulfur dioxide emissions were lower than the previous week, with values of 937-992 tonnes per day, and gas plumes drifted NW. During a field visit on 22 April scientists observed no changes to the crack near Puracé and Curiquinga volcanoes, and no visible gas emissions. Additional cracks, oriented NW-SE, were observed, in addition to volcanic ash deposits that were likely emplaced on 29 March.As of the 13th of April, SGC reported that seismicity continued to be elevated until April 4. The earthquakes were of low magnitude, and located about 800 m SE of Puracé and under Curiquinga, at depths of 2 km on average. The number of events signifying increased movement of fluids. The geodetic network GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and DInSAR (Differential Interferometry by Synthetic Aperture Radar) showed inflation at the millimeter scale. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide increased, based on satellite and ground sampling data, and a fumarole on the N flank of Purace intensified and produced a strong smell of sulfur.Significant unrest continued from 5 to 11 April. The seismic network recorded a total of 2,077 earthquakes, consisting of 248 VT events, 1,759 LP events, 37 low-energy TR events and 31 hybrid events. Millimetre-scale inflation persisted, and sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,800 tons per day. As of the 6th of April, SGC reported that during the period evaluated from 29th of March to 4th of April .2022, the levels of seismic activity associated with rock fracturing (VT type) and fluid dynamics (LP type - Long Period and TR - Volcanic Tremor) remained high in recurrence. VT-type seismicity continued to occur mainly 800 m SE of the crater of the Puracé volcano.As of the 30th of March the volcano observatory Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) raised the alert status to "yellow", as an elevated seismic activity has been recorded over the past two days characterized by picking up both in numbers and strength. A swarm of earthquakes became more frequent on 28 March from 20:00 local time and is still ongoing at the time of this update. 479 volcano-tectonic (VT or high-frequency) quakes have been detected with a maximum magnitude of 3.3 that occurred at 12:14 local time today. High-frequency earthquakes are a sign that magma continues to intrude and push its way into deeper rock layers related to rock fracturing. 183 long-period (LP or low-frequency) and 119 tremor events have been detected so far that indicate elevated fluid movements of gas, water and possibly magma intrusions within the volcano. One of the most active volcanoes of Colombia, Puracé consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with a 500-m-wide summit crater that was constructed over a dacitic shield volcano. It lies at the NW end of a volcanic massif opposite Pan de Azúcar stratovolcano, 6 km SE. A NW-SE-trending group of seven cones and craters, Los Coconucos, lies between the two larger edifices. Frequent explosive eruptions in the 19th and 20th centuries have modified the morphology of the summit crater. The largest eruptions occurred in 1849, 1869, and 1885. (GVN/GVP).

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Ruiz

January 5th, 2024

As of the 3rd of January, the increased seismic activity at the volcano continues. Magma continues to fracture rocks at depths that allows it to rise further into deeper rock layers towards the summit.. Earthquakes have been centered mainly at 3 km depth beneath the northwestern part of the Arenas crater. The seismic network registered about 600 earthquakes so far with a maximum magnitude of 3.9 at 11:03 local time yesterday. The quake was widely felt by officials of the Los Nevados National Natural Park and by locals at countryside in the vicinity of the volcano. The thermal anomaly in the crater continues to be identified through satellite images, suggesting rise of magma.As of the 26th of December, SGC reported that an increased seismic activity has been identified at the volcano on 24 December at 02:02 PM local time, earthquakes have been occurring beneath the eastern flank, approx. 5 km distance from the Arenas crater. Magma likely squeezes through deeper rock layers and generates seismic energy by cracking the crust. Volcano-tectonic quakes with a maximum magnitude M 2.5 have been located at depths between 3 and 4 km. Although the increase of earthquakes had continued at low levels, some of the events had been felt by locals in sectors of La Cabaña and the Lagunilla River canyon in the department of Tolima. Furthermore, an elevated seismic activity has been registered in the vicinity of the lava dome in the inner summit crater. The activity intensified at 11:01 PM local time on 24 December, it continued until 07:40 AM the day before, mainly between 04:00 AM and 05:50 AM local time. Previous news - As of the 27th of July, the explosive eruption at the volcano continues. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington reported near-constant vulcanian-type explosions from the summit vent releasing emissions of ash to elevations between 20,000 ft (6,100 m) and 22,000 ft (6,700 m) towards the western, northern and northwestern direction over the past few days. Seismic recordings detected an increased number of earthquakes hinting elevated fluid movements of gas, water and possibly magma under the surface. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been located mainly beneath the northwestern and northeastern slopes of the volcano at depths between 3 and 7 km from the crater. Over the past week, the largest quake happened to occur on 25 July with a magnitude M 1.7. The alert status remains at Yellow.As of the 27th of June, SGC reported that after 89 days since the alert level for the volcano continued at Orange level, the ongoing decreasing trend over the past week return the current status back to Yellow yesterday. The Yellow alert indicates an unstable behavior of the volcano that might increase seismic activity and other related measurements. Despite the declining of the alert status, the institute emphasizes that the volcano is still active and may increase suddenly in monitoring recordings and/or erupt at any time. The seismic activity of the volcano continued at elevated levels since late March as the number of earthquakes increased significantly beneath the southwestern sector of the edifice.As of the 10th of May , SGC reported that the explosive eruption at the volcano continues along with the elevated seismic activity. The Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington reported near-constant explosions at roughly regular intervals one-to-two per day, generating dense grey ash plumes rising to an altitude of approx. 23,000 ft-24,000 ft (7,000 m-7,300 m) in the northeast and northwest direction. Earthquakes had been more frequent under the edifice over the past 24 hours and continue to be located at depths between 1 and 6 km at about 5 km distance from Arenas crater beneath the eastern and southeastern area. Magma continues to squeeze through surrounding rocks and cracks the crust resulting in increased seismic energy. It is inevitable to emphasize that the activity of the volcano may fluctuate and suddenly decrease to lower levels. So far, under current conditions, the alert level for the volcano remains like this for the coming weeks.As of the 26th of April explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 20000 ft (6100 m) altitude or flight level 200 .As of the 24th of April, SGC reported that the elevated seismic activity at the volcano continues. Earthquakes continue to be located at gradually shallower depths between 0.4 and 4 km beneath the south, southeast and east-northeast area of the Arenas crater. Magma continues to squeeze through surrounding rocks and cracks the crust resulting in increased seismic energy and pushing its way into deeper rock layers. On 23 April at 09:20 local time, the strongest M 0.8 volcano-tectonic earthquake at 3.5 km depth was detected.. Meanwhile, vulcanian-type eruptions continue to occur by generating grey ash plumes rising to an altitude of approx. 23,000 ft (7,000 m) in the east-southeast direction. The near-constant degassing accompanies the eruptive activity. It is inevitable to emphasize that the activity of the volcano may fluctuate and suddenly decrease to lower levels. So far, under current conditions, the alert level for the volcano remains like this for the coming weeks.Since thelast update, Nevado Del Ruiz has continued to present daily eruptions of gas and ash ranging in height from 1,100 m to 1,800 m above the crater, observed on 18th of April, in the morning at 7.11 am. The day before, an increase in volcano-tectonic events, associated with rock fracturing within the volcanic system was reported compared to the previous day. These seismic events are shallow, with depths ranging from 0.5 - 4.5 km, low energy, and localized around the crater. As of April 16, there has been an increase in thermal anomalies at the crater floor. This represents the exit of volcanic material from the interior and is indicative of increased volcanic activity. The volcano remains in Orange Alert, the second highest of a four-colour scale, implying an eruption is likely in the coming days to weeks.The explosive eruption at the volcano continues along with the elevated seismic activity. The Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington reported several eruptions yesterday, generating dense grey ash plumes rising to an altitude of approx. 21,000 ft (6,400 m) in the southwest direction. Earthquakes continue to be located at depths between 2 and 4 km at about 2 and 6 km distance from the crater beneath the southwestern area. Magma continues to squeeze through surrounding rocks and cracks the crust resulting in increased seismic energy. It is inevitable to emphasize that the activity of the volcano may fluctuate and suddenly decrease to lower levels. So far, under current conditions, the alert level for the volcano remains like this for the coming weeks.As of the 12th of April, SGC reported that the elevated seismic activity at the volcano continues. Earthquakes continue to be located at depths between 2 and 4 km at about 2 and 6 km distance from the crater beneath the southwestern area. Magma continues to squeeze through surrounding rocks and cracks the crust resulting in increased seismic energy. At 05:03 local time yesterday, the strongest M 1.3 volcano-tectonic earthquake at 3 km depth was detected. According to the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), an eruption released an ash and gas plume to about 7,8 km altitude and drifted southwest and northwest yesterday.As of the 6th of April, SGC reported that the elevated seismic activity at the volcano continues. About 2,600 earthquakes have occurred beneath the southwestern area, of which seven have been located with magnitudes of 2.0 and more, peaking with a maximum magnitude of M 3.9 at 02:16 local time today. This earthquake has become the strongest one at the volcano in monitoring records since 1985. The earthquake swarm has become shallower at depths between 2 and 4 km, indicating magma shifting inside the volcano's conduit and pushing its way into deeper rock layers. On the contrary, the degassing activity slightly decreased yesterday, sending gas and water vapor emissions into the NW and SW direction to 6300 m height.As of the 4th of April, SGC reported that seismic recordings continue to detect the ongoing oscillation of the ground surface, indicating elevated movement of magma through the volcanic conduit. 5,000 earthquakes were registered yesterday, nearly 11,000 events in total since late March. The largest event over the past 24 hours has been measured with magnitude M 2.0 at 20:15 yesterday. The seismic activity continues to be located beneath the southwestern area at depths between 2 and 5 km. According to the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), an eruption released an ash plume up to 6,4 km altitude and drifted southwest the day before. It is inevitable to emphasize that the activity of the volcano may fluctuate and suddenly decrease to lower levels.As of the 1st of April SGC reported an increasing trend of the activity started at the volcano the day before, reflecting a rise of seismic swarms. 8,800 earthquakes have been detected, of which the strongest has been located with a maximum magnitude of 2.6 at 12:36 local time. Seismic recordings have shown continuous ground vibrations, mainly beneath the southwestern area at depths between 2 and 5 km. Magma at shallow depth is presumably able to pressurize and fracture surrounding rocks that allow it to rise further. Elevated movements of gas, water and possibly magma likely generate seismic energy. According to the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), an eruption released an ash plume up to 6,6 km altitude and drifted southwest and southeast. Thus, a decision has been made to rise the alert level to "Orange". It is inevitable to emphasize that the activity of the volcano may fluctuate and suddenly decrease to lower levels.As of the 20th of March a vigorous vulcanian-type explosion appeared at the volcano at 09:02 local time the day before. The explosion generated a dense grey ash column, which reached approx. 26,000 ft (8,000 m) altitude and drifted southwest, the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) reported. The increasingly larger plume from the summit crater could be seen from Caldas, Tolima and Risalda villages by local observers as reported in social media. The alert status remains at Yellow.As of the 5th of March, the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington reported that ash plume heights ranged between 19,000 ft (5,800 m) and 22,000 ft (6,700 m) elevation drifting mostly towards NW direction over the past week. The seismic station registered continuous seismic activity (tremor and long-period/low-frequency earthquakes) hinting elevated fluid movements of gas, water and possibly magma under the surface. A moderate ash fall has been reported in Manizales (Caldas).The Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington reported that ash plume heights ranged between 19,000 ft (5,800 m) and 22,000 ft (6,700 m) elevation drifting mostly towards NW direction over the past week. The seismic station registered continuous seismic activity (tremor and long-period/low-frequency earthquakes) hinting elevated fluid movements of gas, water and possibly magma under the surface. A moderate ash fall has been reported in Manizales (Caldas).SGC reported that the explosive eruption at the volcano continues. The Servicio Geológico Colombiano reported that an eruption took place at 07:10 AM local time on 23 January. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington detected an ash plume that rose to estimated 20,000 ft (6,100 m) altitude and drifted north direction. The seismic station registered continuous seismic activity (tremor and long-period/low-frequency earthquakes) hinting elevated fluid movements of gas, water and possibly magma under the surface. A moderate ash fall has been reported in Manizales (Caldas).SGC reported that at 0706 on 6 January an ash cloud rose from Nevado del Ruiz and drifted NE, causing ashfall in Villahermosa (27 km NE). The ash emission occurred simultaneously with a seismic signal indicated moving fluids within the volcano's conduit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale)..Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption. (GVN/GVP)

COLOMBIE - Cerro Machin

March 26th, 2024

An increased seismic activity has been detected at the volcano since early night of 23 March. Seismic recordings registered more than 150 quakes so far, of which two events were measured with magnitudes of M 4.2 (02:25 local time) and 4.0 (02:30 local time), respectively. Earthquakes were located western and southern of the lava dome at depths between 3 and 4 km. It is worth mentioning that no earthquake activity with a magnitude greater than 4.0 has been measured since December 2022. The alert level for the volcano remains at Yellow.The small Cerro Machín stratovolcano lies at the southern end of the Ruiz-Tolima massif about 20 km WNW of the city of Ibagué. A 3-km-wide caldera is breached to the south and contains three forested dacitic lava domes. Voluminous pyroclastic flows traveled up to 40 km away during eruptions in the mid-to-late Holocene, perhaps associated with formation of the caldera. Late-Holocene eruptions produced dacitic block-and-ash flows that traveled through the breach in the caldera rim to the west and south. The latest known eruption of took place about 800 years ago.(GVN/GVP)

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PERU - Ubinas volcano

March 20th, 2024

IGP reported that lahars on the SE flank of Ubinas descended through the Volcan mayo drainage towards the Ubinas River at 1507 on 13 March and at 1454 on 17 March. The public was warned to stay away from the drainage and to avoid driving on the Querapi-Ubinas-Huarina highway. Previous news 2023 - According to the Washington VAAC an ash puff from Ubinas was identified in a satellite image at 0040 on 11 December rising 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NW. Webcam images at 0620 and 1220 showed continuous steam emissions possibly containing diffuse ash rising as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Steam emissions containing small amounts of ash were visible at 1810. Emissions were no longer visible in satellite and webcam images at 0010 on 12 December. As of the 27th of August, the explosive eruption at the volcano continues. The activity is dominated by near-constant, sometimes vigorous vulcanian-type eruptions. A powerful event occurred from its summit crater on 25 August in late evening. An increasingly spectacular grey ash-rich column rose about 4 km above the vent and drifted northwest. The warning bulletin states that ballistic impacts of volcanic bombs and pyroclastic flows could affect an area of about 4 km distance from the crater.s of the 21st of August explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 20000 ft (6100 m) altitude or flight level 200 and is moving at 10 kts in NE direction.As of the 24th of July, the explosive eruption of the volcano continues at moderate levels, but sporadically produces relatively forceful explosions. Ash emissions rose to estimated altitudes varying between 22,000 ft (6,700 m) and 24,000 ft (7,300 m) over the past three days and drifted to the E-NE of the volcano. Ashfall has been reported in the districts of Ubinas, Chojata and Lloque. The warning bulletin states that ballistic impacts of volcanic bombs and pyroclastic flows could affect an area of about 4 km distance from the crater.As of the 20th of July, the explosive eruption of the volcano continues at moderate levels. Ash emissions rose to estimated altitudes of 20,000 ft (6,100 m) and 26,000 ft (7,900 m) and drifted about 15 km to the W-SW direction of the volcano throughout yesterday. Ashfall has been reported in the districts of Ubinas, Matalaque, Chojata, Lloque, Yunga and San Juan de Tarucani. The seismic station detected approx. 80 volcano-tectonic earthquakes per day during the period between 10 and 16 July, accompanied by rising magma flux inside the volcano's conduits.As of the 17th of July, IGP reported that after a short one-week gap in the eruptive activity at the volcano, an explosive phase returned in the summit crater over the past two days. Several vulcanian-type eruptions continued throughout the day before and the last night. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires detected ash columns, generating pyroclastic material to estimated 24,000 ft (7,300 m) altitude.As of the 3rd of July, the explosive eruption of the volcano continues from the summit crater. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires reported near-constant ash emissions, generated to estimated 18,000 ft-21,000 ft (5,500 m-6,400 m) altitude in the S and SW direction over the past few days.As of the 27th of June, the explosive eruption of the volcano continues from the summit crater. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires reported occasional ash emissions generating to estimated 20,000 ft-23,000 ft (6,100 m-7,000 m) altitude in the NW direction.Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 23000 ft (7000 m) altitude or flight level 230 and is moving at 20 kts in NW direction. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires detected new ash emissions from the volcano over the past three days. According to the VAAC and the latest satellite data from 23 June, dense grey ash plumes rose to an altitude of between 21,000 ft-23,000 ft (6,400 m-7,000 m) and drifted NE, NW and W. The Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that a seismic activity has been increasing since mid-May. This followed a fumarolic activity, accompanied by near-constant emissions of steam-laden plumes which reached approx. 500 meters above the crater.IGP reported that at 1713 on 28 March a moderate-volume lahar descended the Volcánmayo drainage on Ubinas's SE flank. The town of Tonohaya (7 km SSE) is located along the drainage and the town of Ubinas is 2 km E of the drainage. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale)..Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

PERU - Sabancaya volcano

March 20th, 2024

IGP reported that the eruption at Sabancaya continued at moderate levels during 11-17 March with a daily average of 29 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.2 km above the summit and drifted less than 10 km W, SW, and S. Thermal anomalies over the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Slight inflation was detected near the Hualca Hualca sector (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12 km radius.Previous news 2023 - As of the 21st of August, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 24000 ft (7300 m) altitude or flight level 240 .As of the 19th of February explosive activity continued. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 24000 ft (7300 m) altitude or flight level 240 and is moving at 5 kts in NW direction.As of the 14th of February, the Instituto Geofisico de Peru reports that in the last week, Sabancaya has produced 54 volcanic explosions, generating columns of ash and gas up to 1.8 km above the volcano summit. Ash was dispersed to the east, west, southeast, southwest and northwest. The lahar (volcanic mud flow) hazard remains due to the possibility of rain in the coming week.As of the 6th of he Instituto Geofisico de Peru reported that between the 30th of January and 5th of February, 46 explosions were recorded, consisting of a mixture of gas and ash which reached 1.4 km above the volcano summit and drifted west/southeast. Rain is expected in the coming week and there is a possible risk of lahars forming. Lahars are volcanic mudflows, formed when volcanic materials mix with water. They travel downstream, following river pathways.As of the 16th of January, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 24000 ft (7300 m) altitude or flight level 240 . Previous news 2022 - As of the 25th of December, IGP reported that the explosive eruption of the volcano continues at moderate levels and its activity has remained essentially unchanged. The Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) noted that vulcanian-type explosions at regular intervals of 47 per day occurred from the summit crater during 12-18 December. Eruption columns rose to an estimated altitude of 22,000 ft-26,000 ft (6,700 m-7,900 m) and drifted most often S-SE direction. The seismic station registered approx. 331 volcano-tectonic earthquakes accompanied by rising magma flux inside the volcano's conduits.IGP reported moderate levels of activity at Sabancaya during 7-13 November with a daily average of 33 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted S, E, and NE. As many as five thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data.IGP reported moderate levels of activity during 31 October-6 November with a daily average of 30 explosions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted NE, E, and SE. As many as five thermal anomalies originating from the lava dome in the summit crater were identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected near Hualca Hualca (4 km N). The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius.The eruptive activity of Sabancaya was maintained at moderate levels between October 17 and 23, 2022, with an average of 40 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2,900 m. above the top.Between September 26 and October 2, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya, Peru, remained at moderate levels, with an average of 46 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching up to 3,000 meters above sea level. above the top.The Geophysical Institute of Peru reports that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels this week, that is to say with the recording of an average of 50 daily explosions, with columns of ash and gases up to 1.8 km altitude above the summit of the volcano and their consequent dispersion.IGP reported that between August 29 and September 4th, 2022, eruptive activity remained at moderate levels with an average of 58 explosions per day, generating plumes of gas and ash up to 3,000 m. height above the top.I.G.Peru reported a moderate eruptive activity during the week of August 22nd to 28th, 2022, with the occurrence of an average of 48 daily explosions, which are accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching up to at 2,500m. above the top.IGP reported moderate activity  in the week of August 15 to 21, 2022, characterized by a daily average of 33 explosions, generating gas and ash plumes up to 2,600 m. above the top.The eruptive activity remained at moderate levels this week, from August 8th to 14th, 2022, with 25 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,400 m. above the top of the volcano. The IGP detected 366 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids during this week, as well as VT earthquakes, linked to the fracturing of rocks.According to I.G.Peru, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels between July 18 and 24, 2022, with a daily average of 30 explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 1,500 meters above sea level. above the top.I.G.Peru reported, for the week of July 11th to 17th, a moderate eruptive activity at Sabancaya, with an average of 28 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching up to 2,700 meters above the summit. During this period, 260 earthquakes associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids and VT earthquakes, linked to rock fracturing, were recorded. IG reported that between July 4th and July 10th, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels, with a daily average of 20 explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,200 m. above the top.IG reported that eruptive activity of Sabancaya, in Peru, has remained at moderate levels this past week (June 27 to July 3, 2022), with an average of 22 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 2,200 meters above Summit.IG reported that activity remained at moderate levels during the week of June 20th to 26th, 2022, with an average of 18 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,000 meters above the summit.IG reported that eruptive activity remained at moderate levels between June 13th and June 19th, 2022. The IGP reports an average of 17 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 2,0000 m. above the top. IG.Peru reported that between May 23 and 29, 2022, Sabancaya volcano maintained an eruptive activity of moderate level, with an average of 15 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 2,000 m. above the top.According to the I.G.P., the eruptive activity  remained at moderate levels in the week of May 16 to 22, 2022, with an average of 21 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,300 M .above the top.Four thermal anomalies, max. 25 MW, are associated with the presence of a lava dome in the crater. The Geological, Mining and Metallurgical Institute (Ingemmet), through its Volcanological Observatory (OVI), detected the formation of a new lava dome in the active crater of the Sabancaya volcano, Arequipa region, which, according to calculations from optical satellite images, on May 17, it reached an area of ​​more than 25,000 m², which is equivalent to almost four football fields. This new lava dome would be the fifth to form in the active crater of the Sabancaya volcano. For the previous week of May 9th to 15th, 2022, I.G.Peru reported that moderate eruptive activity continued with an average of 54 explosions per day, and plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,500 meters above the summit.As of the 9th of May, IGP reported that last week, the eruptive activity  remained at moderate levels, with an average of 53 daily explosions, and plumes of gas and ash reaching up to 3,000 meters above the summit. The IGP detected 324 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the internal circulation of magmatic fluids, and VT earthquakes, linked to the fragmentation of rocks. IGP reported that eruptive activity continued at moderate levels, between April 25th and May 1st. It is characterized by 40 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,500 meters above the summit. IGP reported that between April 18th and 24th, 2022, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels, with an average of 37 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,300 meters above the summit.During the week of April 11 to 17, the eruptive activity  remained at moderate levels, with an average of 46 daily volcanic explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 3,400 meters above the summit. IGP reported that between April 4 and 10, 2022, Sabancaya maintained moderate eruptive activity, with an average of 52 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas 2,500 meters above the summit.I.G.Peru reported that activity  between March 28 and April 3, 2022t remained at moderate levels, with an average of 41 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 2,000 meters above the summit.IGP reported that between March 21 and 27, 2022, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels, with a daily average of 29 explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,200 meters above the summit.IGP reported that during the week of March 7th to 13th, 2022, Sabancaya was the site of moderate level activity, with an average of 29 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,000 m. above the volcano. The I.G.P. detected during this period 139 earthquakes of volcanic origin, in connection with the internal circulation of magmatic fluids. VT earthquakes, linked to rock fracturing, occur north of Sabancaya. According to I.G.Peru, the activity  remained at moderate levels during the period from February 21 to 27, 2022. An average of 35 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash, reaching up to 2,500 meters above the summit. I.G.Peru reported that activity remained at moderate levels between February 14 and 20, 2022; An average of 23 daily volcanic explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 1,700 m. above the summit, were observed.IGP reported that from February 7 to 13, 2022, that activity  remained at moderate levels, with an average of 15 explosions per day, and plumes of ash and gas reaching a height of 1,700 meters above the summit. During this period, 122 volcanic earthquakes associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids were detected. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes, related to rock fracturing, occurred mainly to the west of the volcano, with max. of 2.7. IGP reported that eruptive activity was maintained, between the end of January and February 6, 2022, at moderate levels, with an average of 25 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 1,700 meters above the summit.IGP reported that the week of January 24 to 30, 2022 was characterized by moderate eruptive activity, with an average of 28 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 2,500 meters above the summit. During this period, the IGP detected 275 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids. The VT earthquakes, in connection with the fracturing of rocks, remain localized to the west of the volcano, of magnitude up to M2.9. No significant deformation anomalies. IGP reported that activity remained moderate in Sabancaya in the week of January 10 to 16, 2022. It was characterized by an average of 41 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching a height of more than 2,000 meters above the summit. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels between December 27, 2021 and January 2, 2022, with an average of 32 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2,800 m. above the summit of the volcano and their consecutive dispersion. Previous news 2021 - IGP reported that during the period from December 6 to 12, 2021, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya was maintained at moderate levels, with an average of 85 daily explosions, accompanied by ash plumes reaching 2,200 meters above Summit. During this period, the observatory detected 831 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal fluids. IGP reported that eruptive activity remained at moderate levels between November 22 and 28, 2021, with an average of 73 explosions per day, and plumes of ash and gas up to 2,000 meters above the summit of the volcano. During this period, I.G. Peru detected 660 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids; VT earthquakes had Ms between 1.9 and 3.7. No significant deformation anomalies, and 2 thermal anomalies, with a max. of VRP 16 MW.The volcanic alert level remains at Naranja, with an inaccessible area of ​​12 km in radius. IGP reported that between November 8 and 14, the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with an average of 67 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,500 m. above the summit. During this period, I.G. Peru detected and analyzed 645 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids. The VT earthquakes linked to the fracturing of rocks remain mainly located north of the volcano, with magnitudes between 2.3 and 3.4. No significant deformation. Six thermal anomalies, with a max. of 20 MW, are observed in relation to the presence of a surface lava body in the crater. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels between November 2 and 7, 2021, with an average of 64 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,500 meters above the summit.IGP reported that the eruptive activity of Sabancaya was maintained, between October 25 and November 1, at moderate levels, with an average of 50 explosions per day, accompanied by pa, gas aches and ash at 3,000 meters above the sea. Mountain peak.IGP reported that the volcano maintained moderate eruptive activity between October 18 and 24, with an average of 34 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 3,500 m. above the summit. During this period, 843 earthquakes associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids were detected. The VT earthquakes, in connection with the fracturing of rocks, concern the north of Sabancaya, with M 2.0-3.5. No significant deformation. Seven thermal anomalies, of max. at 4MW were detected by satellite, in connection with a lava body on the surface of the crater. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels during the week of October 18-24, with an average of 34 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 3,500 m. above the summit. The detection of 843 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal fluids is mentioned by the IGPeru. VT earthquakes, linked to the fragmentation of rocks, from M2.2 to 3.5, are are produced north of the volcano.No significant deformations; seven thermal anomalies were detected, with a max. of 4MW.The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, with a 12 km inaccessible area around the crater. The explosive eruption  continued at moderate levels, with an average of 27 explosions per day between October 4 and 10. The plumes of gas and ash reached an estimated altitude of 2,000 m., Drifting according to the winds over all sectors. Seismicity is characterized by approx. 754 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than M 3.5, accompanying internal magmatic movements. Lahars (mudslides) could also occur if heavy rains remobilize the fresh ash deposits.The alert remains in Naranja, accompanied by a forbidden zone of 12 km radius around the crater.IGP reported that activity was maintained between September 20 and 26 at moderate levels, with 29 explosions per day, accompanied by ash plumes reaching 2,000 meters above the volcano. The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, along with the non-accessible area of ​​12 km radius. During the week of September 6 to 12, the eruptive activity remained at a moderate level, with an average of 31 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 4,000 meters above the summit.The IGP recorded and analyzed 1,326 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids. The VT earthquakes occurred mainly to the north and north-east of the volcano, with a magnitude between M2.5 and M3.5.The deformation does not show any significant anomalies. Six thermal anomalies were detected by Mirova, with a max. of 56 MW, associated with the presence of a lava body on the surface of the crater. IGP reported that during the week of August 23-30, Sabancaya maintained moderate-level activity, with an average of 36 explosions per day, accompanied by ash and gas plumes reaching 3,500 m. above the summit.I.G.P. recorded and analyzed 1,198 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids.No significant deformation anomalies.Mirova detected 10 thermal anomalies, with a max. of 27 MW VRP, associated with the presence of a surface lava body in the crater.The alert level is maintained in Naranja, with an inaccessible area of 12 km in radius. IGP reported that between August 16 and 22, the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with an average of 33 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching up to 2,900 m. above the summit. During the week, 822 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids were detected and analyzed. VT earthquakes, linked to rock fracturing, mainly concern a large northern sector, with magnitudes from 2.5 to 3.3. No significant deformation anomalies. Six thermal anomalies, of VRP max. of 9 MW, are associated with the presence of a lava body in the crater. The volcanic alert level remains at Naranja, with an inaccessible area of ​​12 km radius. IGP reported that activity remained moderate between August 9 and 15, 2021, with an average of 29 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 3,000 meters above the summit. During this week, I.G. Peru detected and analyzed 826 earthquakes of volcanic origin linked to the circulation of internal magmatic fluids. The VT earthquakes remain localized to the north and northwest of the volcano. The deformation does not present any significant anomalies. Four thermal anomalies, with a max. de11 MW were identified by Mirova, associated with the presence of a surface lava body in the crater..Sabancaya, located on the saddle between 6288-m-high Ampato and 6025-m-high Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three volcanoes, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. Both Nevado Ampato and Nevado Sabancaya are only slightly affected by glacial erosion and consist of a series of lava domes aligned along a NW-SW trend. The name of 5967-m-high Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua Indian language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750. (GVN/GVP)

PERU - Misti volcano

March 14th, 2020

A lahar was reported by the Instituto Geofisico this March 13th, 2020 at 4:30 p.m. on the southeast sector of the El Misti volcano; of moderate volume, it lasted about 15 minutes and borrowed the southeast quebradas, in the districts of Chiguata and Paucarpata. Previous data 2014 - Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) reported that, during the last 12 months, seismicity at El Misti was dominated by volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. Two seismic swarms (more than 100 events per day) occurred during the last three months, on 19 May and 3 June. An increase in tremor was noted in April, although the total duration did not exceed 10 minutes and was generally low-amplitude. Long-period seismicity was not significant. In the last 15 days, seismicity increased slightly and tremor was recorded daily. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismicity at El Misti increased during January, and a seismic swarm consisting of 119 volcano-tectonic events was detected during 14-15 January. Despite the increase, activity remained at a low level. El Misti, Peru's most well-known volcano, is a symmetrical andesitic stratovolcano with nested summit craters that towers above the city of Arequipa. The modern symmetrical cone, constructed within a small 1.5 x 2 km wide summit caldera that formed between about 13,700 and 11,300 years ago, caps older Pleistocene volcanoes that underwent caldera collapse about 50,000 years ago. A large scoria cone has grown with the 830-m-wide outer summit crater of El Misti. At least 20 tephra-fall deposits and numerous pyroclastic-flow deposits have been documented during the past 50,000 years, including a pyroclastic flow that traveled 12 km to the south about 2000 years ago. El Misti's most recent activity has been dominantly pyroclastic, and strong winds have formed a parabolic dune field of volcanic ash extending up to 20 km downwind. An eruption in the 15th century affected Inca inhabitants living near the volcano. Some reports of historical eruptions may represent in creased fumarolic activity. Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and (GVN/GVP)

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CHILE-ARGENTINA - Copahue volcano

November 18th, 2022

A new eruption started at the volcano yesterday, 16th of November. The Servicio Geológico Minero Argentino (SEGEMAR) reported about the new eruptive activity that has generated a continuous grey ash column dispersing southeastern direction. Volcanic ash rose to about 985 ft (300 meters) altitude, leaving fresh ash deposit tracks on the snow cover and it even seems to disable a local airport where ashfall covered airplanes and the airport area, including the runway. An incandescent is being observed in a night-time webcam. The alert status remains at Green. Previous news 2021 - SERNAGEOMIN reported that the surface activity in the Copahue volcano on August 9, 2021 was characterized by water vapor and gas emissions. In the evening, incandescence is visible in the El Agrio crater, as are pulsatile gas emissions. On 08/09/21, TROPOMI detected a strong SO2 signal at a distance of 5.9 km from the Copahue, with 68.25 DU of SO2 at an altitude of about 2 km. Estimated mass within a radius of 300 km: 15.3 kts. SERNAGEOMIN and SEGEMAR reported increased activity at Copahue, starting with minor and sporadic increases in tremors first detected in late May. From June 30 to July 2, the tremors increased and the volume of water in the crater lake decreased significantly. Coincidentally, the crater's glow was visible in nighttime webcam views, and gas emissions increased. Residents reported smells of volcanic gas. The increase in gas and vapor emissions between 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. on July 2 contained minor amounts of ash which left visible deposits on the SE and ENE flanks. The alert level remained at green (the lowest level on a four-color scale). SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 1:56 a.m. on Thursday, February 18, a VT earthquake associated with rock fracturing, magnitude 3.4 (Ml), was recorded at a depth of 5.4 kilometers near the Copahue volcano, in the Biobío region. The alert level remains " Verde ". As of the 11th of January, SERNAGEOMIN reported that surface activity of the volcano results in emissions of gas and particulate material of power and dispersion within the standards of the current level. The deformation measurements do not show any noticeable changes in relation to the internal activity of the volcanic system. The sulfur dioxide emissions do not present an anomaly. Two thermal anomalies were noted on January 10, 2021 at 11:45 a.m. / VRP 11MW and at 3:55 p.m. / VRP 18MW, by Mirova. The alert level remains green. Previous news 2020 - SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 November activity at Copahue decreased to low levels. Passive gas emissions generally rose 200-300 m above the vent, though on 15 November they rose 760 m. The report also noted no changes to deformation, low levels of sulfur dioxide emissions, low seismicity, partial restoration of the crater lake, and the absence of nighttime crater incandescence since late October. The Alert Level was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) on 15 November. ONEMI cancelled the Yellow Alert for the Alto Biobio municipality, but declared a Preventive Early Warning ensuring continued surveillance of the area and coordination within the Civil Protection System. As of the 2nd of November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity of the volcano continues at low levels characterized by continuing ash emissions from the crater. Emissions of steam, gases with minor ash content occurred and reached approx. 10,000 ft (3,048 m) altitude. Seismicity continues at low levels. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on October 23, a plume of gas, lightly loaded with ash, blown by the winds rose above the village and Lake Caviahue.According to Sernageomin, the seismic activity of the Copahue remains at a low level, but there are transient increases in the amplitude of the tremor, in relation to the emissions of particulate materials, suggesting the interaction between the magma and the superficial hydrothermal system. On the satellite images, a large area of ​​ash deposits was visible estimated between 6-7 km. In diameter, mainly in the proximal area of ​​the crater. As of the 28th of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the volcano continues its activity of gas emissions occasionally laden with ash. Night incandescence and these emissions testify to an instability of the volcanic and hydrothermal system. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity remained characterized by continuous emissions of gray ash. As of August 5th, the ash plume rises above the summit, and the snows are colored by the fallout of ash and particles. The seismic activity shows low levels, with occasional variations in the amplitude of the continuous tremor. The technical alert remains in Amarilla / change in behavior of volcanic activity; the possible assignment area is set at 1,000 meters radius around the crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity of Copahue remained essentially unchanged, and characterized by continuous emissions of gray ash. On August 31, the ash plume is observed 500 meters above the summit, and the snow is colored by the fallout of ash and particles. The seismic activity shows low levels, with occasional variations in the amplitude of the continuous tremor. SERNAGEMIN reported that the monitoring stations recorded on August 6 at 4:25 am local a change in activity, marked by the emission of more colored gas, due to the particle load, accompanied by a "subtle" increase in the tremor and a displacement. reduced. The plume reached a height of max. 1,000 meters above the point of emission and dispersed in a northeastern direction. The emission lasted until 6:50 am local, then decreased to return to a usual white degassing.Volcan Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Rio Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Copahue since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Lascar volcano

February 23rd, 2023

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 15-21 February seismicity at Lascar continued to be dominated by volcano-tectonic signals with smaller numbers of both long-period and tornillo-type events. Daily whitish gas emissions were mostly diffuse, rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim, and drifted mainly E, SE, and W. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low, no notable
deformation was detected, and no thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and SENAPRED warned the public to stay at least 10 km away from the crater. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for San Pedro de Atacama (70 km NW).As of the 1st of February, satellite observations from 30 January, analyzed by Skysat from the European Space Agency, confirmed a new lava dome within the summit crater. The actively growing area is localized in the southeastern part of the crater and had not been observed during the previous months. It now appears as a cake-shaped lava dome. The current dome diameters are about 81x93 meters (5,332 square meters). The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Orange.SERNAGEOMIN reported that after the 19 December 2022 eruption, activity levels had returned to baseline. During 1-15 January sulfur dioxide emissions detected by a Differential Absorption Optical Spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument located 6 km ESE of the crater measured an average value of around 483 tonnes per day, with a maximum value of 881 tonnes per day on 13 January. These values were at normal levels. Occasional low-level thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images and corresponded to passive degassing from the vents in the summit crater. The maximum height of white gas plumes was 1.4 km above the crater rim, recorded on 11 January. On 19 January the Alert Level was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay at least 700 m away from the crater. ONEMI reported that a Preventive Early Warning was declared for San Pedro de Atacama (70 km NW). Previous news 2022 - After the recent vigorous eruption from the volcano, both observatories responsible for observing the activity, raised the Volcanic Alert Level to Level 2. Based on the previous behavior of the volcano, it is not ruled out the occurrence of other eruptions. SERNAGEOMIN reported that .A new and powerful eruption took place from the volcano ON Saturday 10th of December. The El Servicio Geológico Minero Argentino (SEGEMAR) and the Observatorio Argentino de Vigilancia Volcánica (OAVV) observed at 12:36 PM local time larger vulcanian-type explosion. An increasingly rising grey ash plume was seen by local observers from several spots around Antofagasta region. The ash column, detected by the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires as well, rose 8,500 ft (2,6 km) above the summit and drifted southwest. The explosive activity generated small-sized pyroclastic flows. It came with a detected long-period earthquake precursor, registered by the seismic network. A spewed ash has affected the territory of the Chilean side, not the Argentinian. Explosive activity continued on Sunday 11th of December. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 37000 ft (11300 m) altitude or flight level 370 .Láscar is the most active volcano of the northern Chilean Andes. The andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano contains six overlapping summit craters. Prominent lava flows descend its NW flanks. An older, higher stratovolcano 5 km E, Volcán Aguas Calientes, displays a well-developed summit crater and a probable Holocene lava flow near its summit (de Silva and Francis, 1991). Láscar consists of two major edifices; activity began at the eastern volcano and then shifted to the western cone. The largest eruption took place about 26,500 years ago, and following the eruption of the Tumbres scoria flow about 9000 years ago, activity shifted back to the eastern edifice, where three overlapping craters were formed. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the mid-19th century, along with periodic larger eruptions that produced ashfall hundreds of kilometers away. The largest historical eruption took place in 1993, producing pyroclastic flows to 8.5 km NW of the summit and ashfall in Buenos Aires.
(GVN/GVP)

CHILE- ARGENTINA border - Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcano

April 30th, 2024

As of the 28th of April, tThe Argentine Mining Geological Service (SEGEMAR) reported that the alert status for the volcanic complex has been elevated to YELLOW on 26 April due to an increased ground deformation. Based on data collected from GNSS stations near the volcanic complex and analysis of RADAR satellite images using InSAR technology, an active inflation zone has been identified since 2012. Its maximum deformation is approximately 6 km west-northeast of the emission center linked to the 2011 eruption. Vertical rise rates have increased during the initial months of this year, peaking at an average of 2.4 cm per month, the highest rates recorded since monitoring began. The accumulated vertical displacement at the GNSS station located 3 km from the maximum inflation zone now stands at 42 cm. Moreover, since mid-2020, there has been a rise in high-magnitude volcano-tectonic (VT) and hybrid (HB) seismic activity (M≥3.0), primarily linked to a surface source near the 2011 eruption center. However, the seismic activity related to internal fluid movement within the volcano remains low.
Simultaneously, gas emissions and surface areas registering temperatures close to 90°C have been observed in the vicinity of the emission point of the 2011 eruption. These phenomena are likely associated with the presence of a shallow magmatic body left over from the previous eruption.
The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (PCCVC) is a large NW-SE-trending late-Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic-to-rhyolitic transverse volcanic chain SE of Lago Ranco. The 1799-m-high Pleistocene Cordillera Nevada caldera lies at the NW end, separated from Puyehue stratovolcano at the SE end by the Cordón Caulle fissure complex. The Pleistocene Mencheca volcano with Holocene flank cones lies NE of Puyehue. The basaltic-to-rhyolitic Puyehue volcano is the most geochemically diverse of the PCCVC. The flat-topped, 2236-m-high volcano was constructed above a 5-km-wide caldera and is capped by a 2.4-km-wide Holocene summit caldera. Lava flows and domes of mostly rhyolitic composition are found on the E flank. Historical eruptions originally attributed to Puyehue, including major eruptions in 1921-22 and 1960, are now known to be from the Cordón Caulle rift zone. The Cordón Caulle geothermal area, occupying a 6 x 13 km wide volcano-tectonic depression, is the largest active geothermal area of the southern Andes volcanic zone. (GVN-GVP)

CHILE - Nevado de Chillan

January 12th, 2023

On 10 January SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level for Nevados de Chila¡n to Green, the lowest level on a four-color scale. No activity at the surface had been observed since mid-October 2022; other data reflected ongoing internal processes, though recently the activity had been lower and gradually returning to background levels. The report reminded residents not
to approach the crater within 500 m. According to ONEMI, Sistema Nacional de Prevención y Respuesta ante Desastres (SINAPRED) declared Preventive Early Warning for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco.Previous news 2022 - SERNAGEOMIN recorded at the Nevados de Chillan volcanic complex on October 16th at 4:13 p.m. local time an LP earthquake associated with internal fluid dynamics.An explosion, with a high pyroclast load, was accompanied by a plume higher than 400 meters (but undetermined) dispersing towards the SE. A pyroclastic flow developed on the NNE slope, over 500 meters from the active crater.
SERNAGEOMIN recorded on October 2nd at 4:30 p.m. an LP earthquake associated with internal fluid dynamics and an explosion, accompanied by a plume of ash and gas. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Nevados de Chillán volcanic complex presented an eruptive episode during the morning of Monday 29th of August. The column of gas and ash was visible several kilometers away. On 11 August SERNAGEOMIN reported that the lava dome on the floor of Nevados de Chilân's Nicanor Crater had grown taller in the previous few days based on webcam views. The portion of the dome that was visible with the webcam was reddish and rocky. The report noted that an increase in sulfur dioxide emissions and more intense explosions had been detected since 18 July. Similarly, an increase in the intensity and occurrence of thermal anomalies in the crater had been noted since 18 July, though anomalies had further intensified during the recent period of dome extrusion. An explosion at 1041 on 10 August was followed by the most intense thermal anomaly recorded during the last month. SERNAGEOMIN reported that a significant above-average eruption occurred at about 22:47 local time on 31st of March . A vigorous explosion following a partial eruption column collapse resulted in culminated pumice-and-ash flows around the summit, so-called Soufrière-type flow. These currents are not necessarily related to lava domes, but to collapse of vulcanian eruption plumes due to higher pyroclastic material density than ambient air. A tall and dense ash plume rose 5,577 ft (1,700 m) above the summit and drifted north.SERNAGEOMIN reported that lava in Nevados de Chilan's Nicanor Crater was observed in satellite images on 1 March and coincided with elevated thermal temperatures also identified in satellite images. A higher resolution satellite image acquired on 15 March showed the extrusive lava feature in more detail; it was about 33 x 57 m elongated E-W, and had irregular edges. The emplacement of the lava was contemporaneous with nighttime crater incandescence and moderate explosive activity. Steam plumes with occasional tephra content rose to heights less than 1.5 km above the crater rim. Seismic activity had steadily declined since January. During the first half of March sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 454 tons per day, peaking at an anomalously high value of 2,348 tons per day on 13 March. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater.SERNAGEOMIN reported that Vulcanian activity at the volcano continues. The explosive eruption generated a small pumice-and-ash flow (gravity-driven mass flow caused by partially eruption column collapse) on 13 February that traveled over the slope reaching length of 1.8 km.SERNAGEOMIN reported that since December 3, 2021, a significant increase in failure seismicity (VT earthquakes) has been observed in Nevados de Chillan. It continues on 6th of December with several VT earthquakes reported to date. Volcanic activity continues in a phase of low fluid seismic energy, but with sporadic explosive events, with a greater presence of particulate matter. A vulcanian explosion was recorded on January 6, 2022 at 7:44 p.m. The ash plume grew to a height of 2,200 meters.The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, 3212-m-high Cerro Blanco (Volcan Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group, and 3089-m-high Volcan Viejo (Volcan Chillan), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcan Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcan Viejo in altitude. The Volcan Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcan Nuevo between 1973 and 1986, eventually exceeding its height by 20 m. (GVN/GVP)

Chile - Villarica

May 20th, 2024

As of the 18th of May, the surveillance cameras from the Argentine Mining Geological Service (SEGEMAR) recorded a brief episode of ash emissions from the volcano. At approximately 10:11 local time, a small dark brown ash plume rose 340 meters above the crater vent before quickly dispersing towards the east-southeast. The vivid summit lava-filled pond remains active, hinting the continuous delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (through cooling and mild emissions during degassing). The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Orange with 500-meter exclusion zone around the main crater in place.As of the 4th of March, the explosive eruption at the volcano continues at moderate levels. Continuous bright emissions of steam and gas are emitted from the summit vent associated with minor strombolian-style explosions generating glowing lava bombs thrown within the crater area. The vivid summit lava-filled pond remains active, hinting the continuous delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (through cooling and mild emissions during degassing). The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Orange with 500-meter exclusion zone around the main crater in place.As of the 23rd of January, the explosive eruption at the volcano continues at moderate levels. Continuous bright emissions of steam and gas are emitted from the summit vent associated with minor strombolian-style explosions generating glowing lava bombs thrown within the crater area. The vivid summit lava-filled pond remains active, hinting the continuous delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (through cooling and mild emissions during degassing).Previous news 2023 - As of the 10th of December, the seismic station of the local volcano observatory the Argentine Volcanic Surveillance Observatory (OAVV) reported an earthquake in the vicinity of the volcano on 9 December. At 08:09 PM local time, the long-period quake was related likely to fluid movements of gas, water and possibly magma under the edifice. The event was associated with pulses of ash emissions rising about 120 meters above the summit vent. As of the 3rd of December, vigorous strombolian activity appeared at the volcano during the night. Lava fountains blasted to perhaps 80 meters in height, even some lava jets surpassed 100 meters above the vent. The event was associated with glowing emissions of water vapor, gases and ash. Resulting from the cloud-free satellite image on 26 November, upper-to-mid snow-ice-covered southeastern slopes of the edifice are being tephra-affected, resulting from periods of ash emissions. Two lava-filled pit craters (approx. 80 meters deep) continue to be active at stable conditions, suggesting a delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (through cooling and mild emissions during degassing).As of the 14th of November, strombolian activity at the volcano continues at low levels. Bright emissions of steam, gas and a small amount of ash are emitted from the summit vent associated with glowing ejecta throwing within the crater area. The vivid summit lava-filled pond remains active, hinting the continuous delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (through cooling and mild emissions during degassing). The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Orange with 500-meter exclusion zone around the main crater in place.As of the 5th of November, It's been almost two weeks since the activity at the volcano decreased and still continues at moderate levels. Passive, incandescence emissions of steam, gas and a small amount of ash are emitted from the summit vent. As confirmed by the latest satellite image, the vivid summit lava-filled pond remains active, hinting the continuous delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (through cooling and mild emissions during degassing). Despite the relative tranquil phase, a mild strombolian spattering eruption occurred from the main crater on 3 November. The eruption lasted about 15 seconds. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Orange with 500-meter exclusion zone around the main crater in place.As of the 23rd of October, te intense strombolian activity (lava fountains) at the volcano has lowered over the past ten days. Gas-water vapor emissions with small amounts of ash and occasional glowing lava bombs dominate the current behavior. The near-constant degassing is associated with the regular night-time glow indicating two active pit fresh lava-filled craters within the summit vent.As of the 17th of October; the explosive activity at the volcano remains essentially unchanged since the previous update. Vigorous eruptive episodes (likely to be classified as paroxysm) have continued from the summit vent over the past 24 hours. Dome-shaped fountains were reaching heights of 80-100 meters above the crater in the night of 15 October. Some of plastic incandescent lava clots landed off the crater terrace. A vivid gas-steam plume containing some amount of ash accompanied the eruption. Two pit lava-filled craters (approx. 80 meters deep) continue to be active at stable conditions, suggesting a delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (through cooling and mild emissions during degassing). The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Orange with 500-meter exclusion zone around the main crater in place.As of the 15th of October, the explosive eruption at the volcano continues. Strombolian-sized explosions remain restrained within the summit crater, defined by glowing scoria bombs and fine ash emissions. Ejected pyroclastic incandescent material is being thrown to an approx. height of 50 to 60 meters above the vent. Two pit lava-filled craters (approx. 80 meters deep) continue to be active at stable conditions, suggesting a delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (through cooling and mild emissions during degassing). The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Orange with 500-meter exclusion zone around the main crater in place.As of the 12th of October, the heightened activity at the volcano continues. The Proyecto Observación Villarrica (POVI) reported that a powerful fountaining activity returned to the volcano's summit crater last night. Impressive lava fountains blasted to perhaps a few 100 meters height, even some lava jets surpassed 125 meters above the vent. From recent cloud-free satellite images (see the attached timelapse), upper-to-mid snow-ice-covered slopes of the edifice are being tephra-affected, resulting from previous periods of dense ash emissions.As of the 1st of October, the elevated activity at the volcano continues. Fine ash emissions have increased over the past 48 hours, generating tephra covering the upper-to-middle snowy part of the edifice. A continuous small ash column rose about 110 meters above the crater. Near-constant strombolian eruptions continue to take place from the summit vent, characterized by ejecting glowing scoria bombs thrown at approx. height of 60 meters above the vent, some lava jets surpassed 80 meters. Two pit lava-filled craters (approx. 80 meters deep) continue to be active at stable conditions, suggesting a delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (through cooling and mild emissions during degassing).As of the 28th of September, the activity of the volcano remains elevated. The seismic instrument continues to monitor the sustained ground vibration (so-called tremor), hinting a constant arriving of magma into the system, a tell-tale sign of delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss. The recently recorded tremor lasted approx. 6,5 hours with mean RSAM values of 1.7 µm/s. As of the 27th of September, the heightened levels at the volcano persisted. Seismic recordings of the volcano observatory Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) continue to monitor ongoing ground vibrations (so-called tremor), indicating shifting of a new batch of magma inside the volcano's feeder pipe. The average value of RSAM reached a maximum value of 1.85 um/sec. In addition, monitoring stations recorded two volcano-tectonic and 181 low-frequency earthquakes between 25-26 September. During 25-26 overnight, sporadic spattering activity was observed from the summit vent, represented by glowing, juvenile lapilli-to-bomb-sized scoria fragments that rose about 80 meters above the vent. Sustained black-colored ash emissions continued yesterday morning, ranging between 06:39 and 08:20 local time. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Orange with 500-meter exclusion zone around the main crater in place.As of the 25th of September, strombolian activity continues at the volcano. Mostly mild but near-continuous explosions from the summit vent were observed on the night of 24/25 September, ejecting incandescent lapilli-to-bomb-sized scoria fragments to an approx. height of 40 meters above the vent. Some of glowing lava spatter material was thrown up to 120 meters above the crater, the Proyecto Observación Villarrica (POVI) reported. On 23 September, an overflight was carried out to observe the inner crater. It seems two lava pit craters (approx. 80 meters deep) continue to be active at stable conditions, suggesting a delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (through cooling and mild emissions during degassing).As of the 24th of September, the explosive eruption at the volcano continues. The Argentine Mining Geological Service (SEGEMAR) and the Chilean National Geology and Mining Service (SERNAGEOMIN) detected a slight increase in seismic activity at 14:00 local time yesterday. Seismic stations monitored tremor-type signals associated with movement of magma through the volcanic conduit. Minor strombolian-sized explosions continue to be active at the summit vent, with glowing ejecta thrown onto the upper sector of the crater and fine ash emissions. The small lava pond within the summit crater continues to be active, characterized by a delicate equilibrium between incoming and consumption of magma.As of the 21st of September, the volcano remains active. On 20th of September at about 09:14 local time, a low-level grey-to-brown bursting of ash and gas emissions occurred at the asummit vent. Emissions were confined to the crater and rose to only approx. 50 meters above the vent. The Argentine Volcanic Surveillance Observatory (OAVV) recorded a long-period earthquake during the eruption.As of the 19th of September, the activity of the volcano continues at stable levels. The latest image from a local observer depicts night-time glowing steam and gas emissions with small amounts of ash. This confirms the small lava pond within the summit crater continues to be active, characterized by a delicate equilibrium between incoming and consumption of magma. The gas-ash plume rose about 120 meters above the vent.As of the 5th of September, the intense strombolian activity from the volcano's summit vent is ongoing. It has continued throughout the last night by ejecting hot, juvenile and plastic lava clots landing onto the upper western flank accompanied by steam emissions. Some lava jets surpassed 60 meters height. . The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Yellow with 500-meters exclusion zone around the main crater in place. As of the 4th of September SERNAGEOMIN reported that strombolian activity started to occur at the volcano last night. At about 21:30 local time, small lava fountains were visible from the summit vent, ejecting hot fluid lava spatter to several dozens of meters height. The event was associated with glowing emissions of water vapor, gases and ash. Strombolian activity followed the increased levels at the volcano over the past 48 hours, characterized by new short-lived pulses of ash emissions and long-period (low-frequency) earthquakes. Such event appeared on 26 March last time, and the latest activity could be a beginning of a new series of paroxysms in the coming days, weeks or so. As of the 3rd of September, the Argentine Mining Geological Service (SEGEMAR) reported that new ash emissions occurred from the summit vent yesterday. At 05:43 PM, the monitoring instrument in the volcano's vicinity registered a long-period (low-frequency) earthquake. The quake has been presumably associated with elevated fluid movements gas, water and possibly magma under the edifice. The elevated activity resulted in a short-lived pulse of a minor amount of ash emissions from the crater. The small ash plume rose about 180 meters above the vent and dissipated to the SE.According to Corporación Ciudadana Red Nacional de Emergencia incandescence was reflected by gas-and-steam plumes on 16 July. The Volcanic Alert level remained at Yellow (the second highest on a four-level scale) according to SERNAGEOMIN. SENAPRED maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and Panguipulli, and SINAPRED maintained an exclusion zone of 500 m from the crater.As of the 14th of July SERNAGEOMIN reported that the volcano entered the eruptive stage over the past several hours. A series of continuing pulses of abundant emissions of gas, water and some amounts of ash occurred yesterday afternoon. Ash emissions drifted east, where they deposited on the upper flank area. This might be an indicator of a new series of paroxysms (lava-fountaining episodes) in the coming days, which is nothing unusual on the volcano taking place in certain stages.The activity remains essentially unchanged at elevated levels. Another lava-fountaining episode (classified as paroxysm) occurred from the two-vent summit crater on the night of 26 March. The height exceeded by lava jets surpassed 100 meters, approx. 120 meters in maximum. According to the Proyecto Observación Villarrica (POVI), the active summit vents diameter finds measured to be about 13 meters. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Yellow with 500 meters exclusion zone around the main crater in place.As of the 24th of march, the volcano's activity is characterized by near-frequent strong eruptive episodes (so-called paroxysm) over the past few days. Bursting lava fountaining could be seen from the two-vent summit crater, surpassing perhaps a few 100 meters height.. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Yellow with 500 meters exclusion zone around the main crater in place. Intense strombolian activity returned to the main crater a few days ago after roughly one-month relative calm period. As of the 19th of March the volcano showed intense strombolian activity again last night. After roughly one month since the last strong eruptive episode (so-called paroxysm) occurred, a vigorous lava-fountaining phase returned back to the summit vent. Lava jets surpassed 100 meters height by ejecting hot, juvenile and plastic lava clots that landed onto the upper slopes and/or crater area accompanied by steam emissions. Sounds were heard up to 8 km from the crater. Besides, near-frequent passive ash emissions continue to release from the crater. Grey ash columns rose about 300 meters above the crater and drifted northeast.The activity of the volcano has slowed down over the past two weeks and it seems to have shown signs of weakening. However, in the early morning of 13 March, a short-term pulsating strombolian activity returned to the summit crater associated with a near-constant glowing. The seismic activity continued at fluctuating intensity, but remains well above generally average levels. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Yellow with 500 meters exclusion zone around the main crater in place.The Servicio Geológico Minero Argentino (SEGEMAR) reported that ash-eruptive pulses took place from the volcano's summit vent on 27th of February. Near-constant ash plumes, detected at 10:56 and 13:01 local time, continued from the crater characterized as "only" venting or passive emissions of small to moderate ash. Ash columns rose 300 meters above the crater and drifted northeast. The seismic network registered a long-period (low-frequency) earthquake associated with events. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Yellow with 500 meters exclusion zone around the main crater in place. As of the 21st of February, the intense strombolian activity at the volcano continues. After nearly about 24 hours since Tuesday's two-vent paroxysm, another such episode of vigorous lava fountaining from the volcano's summit crater occurred last night. The strong phase, starting at 20:30 local time, sustained almost 10 hours. The height reached by some lava jets surpassed 80 meters throwing hot, fresh and incandescent ejecta which showered the upper eastern slopes of the edifice in the form of glowing avalanches. A width of lava fountains spanned about 150 meters. Given the past paroxysms that happened so far, Villarrica's tendency seems to produce such events in series at roughly regular intervals of approx. 17-24 hours or so.Strombolian activity continues at Villarrica. on 9th of February in the morning, P.O.V.I reported the highest lava fountain at Villarrica since January 27th (when ash emissions were observed). The fire fountain reached around 50 m, 20 m greater than the fountain observed yesterday. The volcano remains in yellow alert.As of the 7th of February, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the elevated strombolian activity continues. The mild short-term lava-fountaining episode (likely to be classified as paroxysm ) was at the progress at the volcano's summit crater on the night of 6 February. Incandescent lava jets, about 30 meters tall, were able to catch by local observers from Lod Nevados. Hot, juvenile and plastic scoria was reported landing onto the crater terrace area. Preceded the paroxysm, three explosions occurred at the volcano in the time range between 07:40 and 07:42 PM local time.As of the 2nd of Februry, SERNAGEOMIN reported that after roughly five days with "only" ash-venting period, a vigorous lava-fountaining episode (so-called paroxysm) returned back to the summit crater on 1st of February in the morning. Hot, fresh and incandescent clasts were seen ejecting from the vent onto the upper western slopes of the edifice accompanied by vividly illuminating steam emissions. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Yellow with 500 meters exclusion zone around the main crater in place.A new series of ash emissions occurred at the volcano yesterday. Just after noon, a small grey ash column was seen rising about 140 meters above the vent followed 3 eruptive pulses lasting about 90 seconds. Another series of eruptive pulses (6) took place in the evening that day. In the night from 26 to 27 January, a small, about 50 meters tall short-lived lava fountain shot into the sky from the crater.As of the 26th of January, the intense strombolian activity at the volcano continues. It's been picking up at about 09:00 PM local time last, which in turn into another vigorous lava-fountaining episode (paroxysm). The phase ended up at 05:30 AM local time this morning. The height reached by some lava jets surpassed 120 meters throwing hot, fresh and incandescent ejecta onto the upper slopes of the edifice. Sounds were being heard from Coñaripe, about 17 km in distance from the top of the volcano.As of the 19th of January, strombolian activity at the volcano continues to be elevated. Another lava-fountaining episode (paroxysm) appeared from the summit vent, vigorous lava jets reached perhaps 100 m in height, throwing hot, fresh and incandescent ejecta on the upper western-southwestern slopes of the edifice.As of the 17th of January, strombolian activity at the volcano continues to be elevated. Lava-fountaining episodes (classified as paroxysm) continue from the summit vent at roughly regular intervals reaching approx. 70-100 meters in height. In addition, ash emissions were monitored at 12:28 PM local time yesterday rising about 80 meters above the crater. The Volcanic Alert Level remains at Yellow with 500 meters exclusion zone around the main crater in place.As of the 15th of January, the intense fountaining activity continues. A strong eruptive episode (so-called paroxysm) took place from the summit vent, starting at 21:30 local time last night up to 06:00 local time this morning. About 70 lava fountains were being monitored during the period, of which the most vigorous one's heights reached lava jets surpassed 150 meters. According to locals, vibrations on windows were reported about 8 km distance from the volcano. Given the past paroxysms that happened so far, Villarrica's tendency seems to produce such events in series at roughly regular intervals of approx. 24 hours.As of the 14th of January, the heightened strombolian activity at the volcano continues. The seismic manner accelerated few minutes after midnight at 0:11 local time resulted in an increased frequency of lava fountains from the summit vent. The paroxysm episode shot glowing hot, juvenile lava fragments up to perhaps a few 100-150 meters above the crater. The European ESA's Copernicus programme provided a satellite image from Sentinel-5P containing SO2 concentrations from the volcano.As of the 13th of January, SERNAGEOMIN reported tha after about 6 hours since Wednesday's paroxysm in the night, another such episode of vigorous lava fountaining from the volcano's summit crater occurred last night. The phase appeared to be stronger than the previous one, erupting vigorous lava fountains up to perhaps a 125 m height with hot, plastic glowing ejecta thrown on the upper eastern slope of the edifice. After the eruption, a small amount of ash and lapilli set in has been recognized on the slopes, the most likely explained reason for this is a sudden onset of degassing carrying fresh fragmented pyroclastic material and/or older lava rocks in the summit craters or inside the vent. The Villarrica's tendency to produce such events in series at roughly regular intervals has continued over the past months.Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Buenos Aires (VAAC) reported that The elevated strombolian activity continues. The mild short-term lava-fountaining episode is now in progress at the volcano's summit crater, likely to be classified as paroxysm. The seismic instruments, located about 14 km by air distance from the top, detected long-period/low-frequency earthquakes associated with this activity.SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 1307 on 1 January a long-period earthquake was recorded but weather clouds prevented visual confirmation of possible emissions. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned that material could be ejected within 500 m of the crater. ONEMI maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucon (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli. Strombolian activity has been picking up at the summit vent during the night from 30 to 31 December. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Laguna del Maule

April 5th, 2023

As of the 3rd of April, the Argentine Mining Geological Service (SEGEMAR) and the Argentine Observatory for Volcanic Surveillance (OAVV) raised the Volcanic Alert Level to "Yellow", as an increase of seismic activity has been registered since 30 March. The seismic station has detected approx. 10,000 volcano-tectonic earthquakes with local magnitudes M 2.5, 2.8 and 2.9 at depths between 4.5 and 8 km and arranged in a northeast-southeast trending linear area located about 10 km southwest of the lagoon center. The increase in the seismic activity is likely a sign that magma continues to intrude and push its way into deeper rock layers by cracking the crust. Injections and migration under the surface is also supported by a recorded ground deformation of the surface. The ground has been bulged by 1.5 cm per month so far. Following this scenario, an impending eruption is ruled out, although the volcanic complex remains above its normal activity. Keep in mind, even though the number of events and seismicity evolution has been taking place the longest since its monitoring beginning in 2012, the magnitudes calculated up to now have been of low energy and located on this specific sector .Previous news 2022 - SERNAGEOMIN monitoring stations, installed near the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, have recorded a seismic swarm since October 1st at 10:06 p.m. local time, which has 330 volcano-tectonic events (VT) associated with the fracturing of rocks at the time of the report on October 2nd at 8 a.m. local time. still in progress. The characteristics of the strongest earthquake: ML 0.2 – depth 2.9 km. The episode being low energy, the technical alert remained green. SERNAGEOMIN monitoring stations, located near the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, recorded on Saturday 7th of May at 10:34 p.m., a seismic swarm of 650 volcano-tectonic events (VT) associated with rock fracturing. The green alert is maintained.The 15 x 25 km wide Laguna del Maule caldera contains a cluster of small stratovolcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age. The caldera lies mostly on the Chilean side of the border, but partially extends into Argentina. Fourteen Pleistocene basaltic lava flows were erupted down the upper part of the Maule river valley. A cluster of Pleistocene cinder cones was constructed on the NW side of the Maule lake, which occupies part of the northern portion of the caldera. The latest activity produced an explosion crater on the E side of the lake and a series of Holocene rhyolitic lava domes and blocky lava flows that surround it. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Callaqui volcano

January 28th, 2022

SERNAGEOMIN reported the appearance of nocturnal incandescence in the southwestern sector of the crater of the Callaqui volcano, at 9:55 p.m. local time on January 26, 2022.It is interpreted as a sign of an increase in temperature of uninterrupted emissions. On the day of January 27, the degassing is observed with great intensity, coinciding with the incandescent focus, reaching a height of 380 meters usually recorded. The volcanic technical alert is maintained for the moment at Green.The Callaqui volcano is a volcanic center located in the Biobío region whose volcanic edifice was built by successive fissure eruptions. The oldest volcanic units have been dated to around 500,000 years old, while later units cover a wide range in the Late Pleistocene-Holocene. Morphologically, the Callaqui volcano is an elongated center in a NE-SW direction due to the presence of notable dyke complexes and chains of pyroclastic cones of this orientation. The magmas emitted by the Callaqui volcano are mainly basalts and basaltic andesites occurring mainly during Hawaiian and Strombolian eruptions.

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Japan - Suwanosejima volcano

March 20th, 2024

MA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 11-18 March. Crater incandescence was observed in webcam images nightly and large blocks were sometimes ejected up to 600 m from the vent. An explosion at 0501 on 18 March generated an ash plume that rose 900 m above the crater rim and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.As of the 16th of January, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 4000 ft (1200 m) altitude or flight level 040 and is moving at 10 kts in W direction.As of the 13th of January, JMA reported that a new heat anomaly has been identified in the latest thermal satellite image of the volcano. The glow in the crater might suggest that the volcano has been entering into a new eruptive sequence. Southerly dissipating dense ash emissions and mainly incandescence in the inner crater indicate an arrival of a new magma flux towards the surface. The last detected heat radiation in the crater was in late September; since then, only non-juvenile magma-related vulcanian-type explosions have been taking place, meaning no new material is involved; the pyroclastic ejecta solely consisting of older lava, usually solid lava plugs stuck in volcano's conduit. Ash plume rose about 1-2 km above the crater and extended in various directions. Previous news 2023 - JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 4-11 December and crater incandescence was visible nightly. No explosions were detected, though ash plumes rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater. JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 13-20 November and crater incandescence was visible nightly. No explosions were detected, though ash plumes rose at least 1 km above the crater rim and drifted mainly SE on 14, 16, and 20 November. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW); dates were not specified. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.As of the 19th of October, JMA reported that he explosive eruption from the volcano contnues. Vulcanian-sized explosions continue to take place from the Otake crater, generating pyroclastic material in the form of lava bombs and dense grey-to-black ash emissions. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) detected ash plumes that rose to an estimated 1,9 km-2.5 km altitude and extended into various directions. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reported that lava bombs were being thrown to an approx. distance of about 40 meters from the main crater over the past week. Fresh ashfall deposits were reported in the Toshima village, located 3.5 km S-SW of the volcano. The night-time glow associated with gas and steam emissions continues to be observed from the summit vent, hinting rise of fresh magma. The warning bulletin states that ballistic impacts of volcanic bombs could affect an area of about 1 km distance from the main crater. JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 18-25 September. Eruptive events produced plumes that rose as high as 1.9 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 300 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.As of the 19th of September, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 10000 ft (3000 m) altitude or flight level 100 and is moving at 10 kts in N direction.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 21-28 August. Eruptive events produced volcanic plumes that rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and produced ashfall in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). Events at 0544, 0742, 0824, 1424, and 1704 on 25 August produced ash plumes that rose 1.1-1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted NE, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 15-22 May. Incandescence was visible nightly, and seismicity remained elevated during 15-19 May. On 16 May an ash plume rose 1.8 km above the crater rim and caused ashfall in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). On 17 May, an ash plume rose to 1.1 km and drifted NW. Four eruptive events were observed during 21-23 May. On 21 May an eruptive event ejected volcanic blocks up to 200 m from the crater and produced an ash plume that rose 1.8 km above the crater and drifted E. On 22 May an ash plume rose to 1 km above the crater and drifted SE. Two eruptive events on 23 May generated ash plumes that rose 600 m above the crater and drifted SE and S. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale) and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.As of the 9th of May, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 5000 ft (1500 m) altitude or flight level 050 and is moving at 20 kts in S direction.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 24 April-1 May. No explosions were recorded, but eruptive activity produced periodic ash plumes, and during 28 April-1 May blocks were ejected as far as 200 m from the vent. On 28 April at 0643 an ash-and-gas plume rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale) and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. As of the 26th explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 5000 ft (1500 m) altitude or flight level 050 and is moving at 20 kts in SE direction.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 27 March-3 April. Two eruption events on 31 March and 3 April ejected large volcanic blocks 300-400 m from the crater and the accompanying eruption plumes rose 1.7-2 km above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level was raised from 2 to 3 on 5 March and remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale) and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 13-20 March. A total of 20 explosions were recorded, sending ash plumes as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and ejecting large blocks as far as 500 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was visible at night. Occasional ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and residents were warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.As of the 8th of March, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 8000 ft (2400 m) altitude or flight level 080 and is moving at 15 kts in NE direction. JMA reported that the number of explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater began to increase on 2 February and further increased on 2 March. Activity intensified and a total of 25 explosions were recorded during 1-5 March. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and large blocks were ejected as far as 500 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was visible at night. Occasional ashfall and rumbling noises were reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). Since large blocks could be ejected further than the restricted zone of 1 km, JMA raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a 5-level scale) at 0640 on 5 March and warned the public to stay 2 km away from the crater. The explosive eruption of the volcano continues at roughly regular intervals of 2 to 3 per day.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 13-20 February. Occasional ashfall and rumbling noises were reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The number of explosions per day increased on 13 February and then gradually decreased beginning on 16 February; a total of about 24 explosions occurred during the week. At 2131 on 15 February an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 1.3 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks as far as 900 m SE. An explosion around an hour later, at 2237, ejected large blocks as far as 700 m SE. During 18-20 February explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks as far as 400 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and residents were warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 16-23 January. No explosions were recorded, though eruption plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected as far as 300 m from the vent. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW).JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 9-16 January. No explosions were recorded, though during 9-13 January eruption plumes rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected as far as 300 m from the vent. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). Eruption plumes rose as high has 700 m during 13-16 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.As of the 4th of January, JMA reported that the explosive eruption of the volcano continues. According to the JMA local observatory, vulcanian-type explosion sent an ash column to 1,8 km height towards the southeast. Blocks were ejected 200 meters distance from the Ontake summit crater. The volcanic-seismic tremor accompanied the event. The warning bulletin states that ballistic impacts of volcanic bombs could affect an area of about 2 km distance from the main crater.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 19-26 December. No explosions were recorded. Eruption plumes rose at least 1 km above the crater rim and disappeared into weather clouds, and blocks were ejected as far as 30 m from the vent. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW) during 23-26 December. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 5-12 December and crater incandescence was visible nightly. No explosions were recorded. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim and blocks were ejected as far as 200 m from the vent. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that a new explosive activity occurred on the 23rd of November at 11:40 PM generating a large volcanic plume extended toward South. . JMA reported that a new explosive event occurred on 15th of November at 6:56 AM. The volcanic plume extended toward Southeast. JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 31 October-7 November and crater incandescence was visible nightly. An explosion at 0137 on 4 November produced an eruption plume that rose 2.4 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 200 m from the vent. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater. Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 5000 ft (1500 m) altitude or flight level 050 and is moving at 15 kts in SE direction.JMA reported that Suwanosejima's Ontake crater eruption continued from October 17th-24th. The incandescence of the crater was visible at night. A total of 119 explosions from October 17th–21st produced eruption plumes that rose up to 2 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks up to 800 m from the vent. Occasional rumbling and ash fall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). Only one explosion was reported from October 21 to 24. Plumes rose up to 1.5 km and boulders were ejected up to 200 m from the vent. Ash falls were reported in the village of Toshima. There were 7 explosions on September 29 and 5 on September 30 until 3:00 p.m. In addition, large volcanic blocks are sometimes observed reaching about 500m from the center of the crater. The volcanic plume accompanying the eruption rose up to 1,500m above the crater rim and a glowing glow was observed at night. According to the Fukuoka District/Toshima Village Meteorological Observatory, about 5 km south-southwest of Mitake Crater, rumbling and falling tephra have been confirmed. At 0036 and 17:51 on September 29, a large volcanic earthquake occurred and an earthquake intensity of 1 was observed with the epicenter on the west side of Suwanosejima. The volcano has been erupting since September 24, with volcanic activity increasing from September 26. Authorities recorded 25 eruptions from September 24-28. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) warned of new pyroclastic activity up to 2 km (1.2 miles) from the Otake and Mitake craters, as well as volcanic ash on the leeward side of the volcano. As of September 29, no damage had been reported at the village of Toshima, Kagoshima Prefecture, located about 4 km (2.5 miles) from the craters. JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 12-19 September. A total of 11 explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 600 m from the vent. Volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.The eruption on Suwanosjima continues, with an explosion on August 28th at 2:36 p.m. local time at Mitake crater; it was accompanied by a plume of gas 1,100 meters above the crater, before dispersing to the southwest.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 15-22 August. There were six explosions, producing eruption plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim and ejecting large blocks 600 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was observed nightly, and volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that on August 7th, at 00:12 an explosion, accompanied by a plume of ash and gas at 1,700 meters, and another, with a plume more than 2,000 meters above the crater. The eruptive columns are reported rising straight above the crater.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 27 June-4 July and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Emissions rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and tephra was ejected 200-600 m from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 13-20 June. Crater incandescence was visible at night. Emissions rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and material was ejected as far as 300 m from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.Explosive activity continues at Suwanosejima. On 3rd of June an ash plume was reported at 1,600 m. above the crater, drifting southwest. The JMA reported 13 explosions between May 30 and June 3 / 3 p.m., accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 1,600 m. above the crater, as well as large bombs at 300 m. from the center of the crater. JMA reported that eruptive activity continues. The episode which occurred on May 22d at 01:47 local time (21 16:47 UTC) was accompanied by a plume at 1,600 meters above the crater, the highest altitude since the start of the eruption. An ash fall is reported on the village of Toshima, 5 km away. JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 2-9 May. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim; no explosions were recorded. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible during 2-6 May and ash fell in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 25 April-2 May. Eruption plumes rose as high as 800 m above the crater rim and crater incandescence was occasionally visible. One explosion, recorded in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW), generated an ash plume that rose 1.3 km and into weather clouds. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 11-18 April. One explosion produced an eruption plume that rose as high as 2.7 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW) and in other areas as far as 5 km away. No explosions were recorded during 15-18 April, though emissions rose 1.1 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 4-8 April. Two explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 3.3 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 500 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). No eruptive activity was noted during 9-11 April, though emissions rose 700 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. As of the 4th of April, JMA reported that active eruptive activity continues from Otake crater. The number of explosions increased to 34 times per day, then 76 times per day, and up to 122 times during the last observation period. The eruptive plume rose a maximum of 2,800 m above the crater rim. The ash falls were confirmed 5 km away, on the village of Toshima. The large volcanic bombs disperse on a trajectory up to about 900 m from the center of the crater. Volcanic tremors occurred throughout the period, and inflation is measured. JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 21-28 March. As many as 42 explosions were recorded, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption plumes rose as high as 2.3 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 800 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 14-21 March. As many as 27 explosions were recorded, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.9 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks 300-500 m away from the crater. Ashfall was reported as far as 5 km away, including in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW) during 18-21 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. A new eruptive episode occurred at Suwanosejima (Mitake crater) at 10:01 p.m. on March 16, 2022, and the eruption plume rose 1,400 m above the crater rim. Volcanic ash was carried east from the crater, and within an hour there was a fairly large amount of ash falling in Toshima village. The eruptive phase continues. As of the 11th of March, JMA reported that active eruptive activity continues at Otake crater on Suwanosejima. The eruptive plume accompanying the episodes rose to a maximum of 1,700 m above the crater rim. The large volcanic bombs disperse up to about 400 m from the center of the crater. Volcanic earthquakes occurred throughout the period.JMA reported that eruption plumes at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater rose as high as 2.4 km during 28 February-7 March and blocks were ejected as far as 800 m from the crater. Three explosions were recorded and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Ashfall was reported in areas as far as 5 km from the vent including in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that active eruptive activity continues at Otake crater on Suwanosejima. Eight explosions occurred during the period from February 25 to February 28, 2022 / 3:00 p.m. local time. The eruptive plume rose 2200m above the crater rim. The large volcanic bombs reached about 400m from the center of the crater, and they can reach a range of about 2 km from the vent. According to the Suwanosejima branch of the Toshima Village Office, located south-southwest of the Mitake 3 crater. Ash fall was confirmed at 5 km. JMA reported that five explosions were recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 7-14 February. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 300-400 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW) during 11-14 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that explosive activity continues, with this January 25, 2022 at 6:17 p.m. local time an explosion, accompanied by a plume of ash at 1,200 m. or more above the Mitake crater. The dispersion of the ashes was made towards the south.JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible nightly during 3-10 January and 368 explosions were recorded. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected material up to 1.1 km away from the crater. Eruption sounds were heard in Toshima village (4 km SSW) and ash fell there during 7-10 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible nightly during 27 December 2021 to 3 January 2022. The number of explosions totaled 124. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and ejected material up to 1.1 km distance from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. Previous news eruption 2021 - JMA reported that between December 24 and 27, 2021, the number of explosions at Ontake Crater on Suwanosejima increased, with a provisional figure of 361 episodes. The projections reached up to 1,500 meters above the crater rim, and large bombs were thrown up to 800 meters from the center of the crater. Deformations have marked the western flank since November 22, and also concern the western flank since December 18. The alert level is 3 / entry restrictions on the volcano. As of December 16th, the JMA reported an explosion, accompanied by a white plume at 400 m. above Mitake crater, drifting west. LeVAAC Tokyo issued a northeastbound volcanic ash advisory on December 15 at 6:05 p.m and ash could reach Kyushu. JMA reported that during 29 November-6 December about 47 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks 600-700 m away from the crater. Plumes from non-explosive events rose as high has 2.3 km. Crater incandescence was visible nightly and ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that plumes from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater rose 180-200 m above the crater rim during 15-22 November. Large blocks were ejected 300 m from the crater and were deposited in a ballistic pattern during 15-19 November, and ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that seven explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater were recorded during 1-8 November. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected material 300-600 m from the carter. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW) during 1-5 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. JMA reported that aan eruptive episode occurred in Suwanosejima, at Mitake crater on October 31, 2021 at 08:10 local time. The white plume rose straight to 2,400 meters above the craterJMA reported that a new eruption occurred at Suwanosejima (Mitake Crater) at 1:17 p.m. on October 26, and the eruption plume rose 3,300 m above the crater rim. Volcanic ash flowed south from the crater, and within an hour there was a large amount of ash in the village of Toshima. In the beach from the crater about 5 km to the south, there is a risk that small fountains will be blown away by the wind. As of the 18th of October, JMA reported that eruptive activity continues. Four explosions occurred, accompanied by an ash plume which rose to 2,700 m. altitude. Pyroclasts are scattered up to about 500m from the center of the crater. Ashfall is confirmed at Toshima, about 4 km SW of the crater. The volcanic tremors mainly occurred with the eruption. On the inclinometer of the Nabetao station, slight variations to the west are detected. JMA reported that 52 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim during 4-11 October. Large volcanic bombs were ejected as far as 1.1 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that 129 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim during 27 September-4 October. Large volcanic bombs were ejected as far as1 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. JMA reported that the number of explosions per day at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater had increased on 16 September and remaine elevated through 27September. A total of 105 explosions were recorded during 20-27 September. Eruption plumes mainly rose as high as 2.9 km above the crater rim and material was ejected as far as 800 m away from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Notably, an explosion at 2349 on 20 September ejected material as far as 1.2 km SE. At 0711 on 26 September an eruptive event produced a plume that rose 5.4 km; weather clouds prevented confirmation of ejected bombs, but a large amount of ash fell in Toshima village. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.On September 27 at 9 p.m., the JMA announced the incandescence accompanying an eruption 700 meters above Mitake crater. JMA reported that the number of daily explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater increased on 16 September and remained elevated through 20 September. Eruption plumes rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and material was generally ejected 300 m away from the crater. Notably, explosions at 2014 on 16 September and at 0212 on 17 September ejected material almost 1 km S and SE, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that four explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 3.3 km above the crater rim during 3-10 September. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 500 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that three explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 4.8 km above the crater rim during 27 August-3 September. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 700 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly and ashfall was often reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that a new eruptive episode occurred at 9:22 p.m. on August 30, and the eruption plume rose 2,800 m above the crater rim. The volcanic ash drifted towards the southwest of the crater, and within an hour there was a fairly large amount of ash in the village of Toshima,Another eruptive episode occurred at 10:22 a.m. on August 31, and the plume rose 1,800 m above the crater rim. Volcanic ash was carried westward from the crater, and at 4:00 p.m. on the 31st, there was a small ashfall in Toshima Village, and Kagoshima Prefecture. JMA reported that a new eruption occurred at Suwanosejima (Mount Ontake Crater) at 12:31 p.m. on August 28, and smoke from the eruption rose 4,800 m above the crater rim. The ashes scattered north, and a large amount fell on the village of Toshima. An area 2 km north of the volcano is considered at risk. As of the 27th of August, JMA reported that volcanic activity continues at high levels. Moderate to strong vulcanian explosions are again in progress at the crater at the top of On-take volcano NE.Similar activity occurred in early August as a series of violent eruptions sent ash up to 3 km above sea level. A spectacular ash plume rising to 2,600 m. above the summit could be observed around 9:10 a.m. local time today and dispersed in a northwesterly direction, in accordance with the ash scattering advisory issued by VAAC Tokyo. Explosions generated pyroclastic bombs and blocks ejected up to 400 meters from the crater. An almost constant glow is visible at the summit at night, detected by surveillance cameras. JMA eported that explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake crater were detected on 19, 20, and 21 August. The first explosion at 0137 on 19 August produced an ashJMA reportede that a strong eruptive episode occurred at Suwanosejima (Mitake crater), in the Ryukyu arc, at 1:37 a.m. on August 19, and the plume of the eruption rose 3,000 m above the edge of the crater, crossed by lightning. Volcanic ash was observed northeast of the crater and at 8 a.m. on the 19th there was a fairly large amount of ash in the village of Toshima. They should reach the city of Nishinoomote, Kojima prefecture. Slightly large quantity Kagoshima Prefecture: Toshima Village Small quantity Kagoshima Prefecture: Yakushima Town, Nishinoomote Town, Nakatane Town. another explosion at 1613 that generated an ash plume 2.2 km above the crater and drifted N. A small amount of ashfall was reported in Yakushima, Nishinoomote, and Nakatane. A third explosion at 2059 that day produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km above the crater and drifted N; ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Explosions at 0628 and 0713 on 20 August generated ash plumes that rose 2.5-3 km above the crater and drifted N, resulting in ashfall in Toshima village, with smaller amounts of ash in Yakushima, Mishima, Ibusuki, Minamikyushu, and Makurazaki. On 21 August at 0617 an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 3.2 km above the crater and drifted N. A large amount of ashfall (over 1 mm) was reported in Toshima village and smaller amounts (less than 0.1 mm) were reported in Makurazaki, Minamisatsuma, Minamikyushu, Kagoshima, Ibusuki, and Hioki. A second explosion followed at 0906 that produced an ash plume 3.2 km above the crater that drifted N.  As of the 9th of August, JMA reported that volcano activity continues at moderately high levels, with moderate to strong explosions at the summit crater of On-take (Otake) NE of Suwanosejima. The volcano sent pyroclastic material to about 1,700 m. above the crater. The volcanic ash is scattered in various directions, particularly to the west. Explosions generated pyroclastic bombs and blocks ejected up to 500 meters from the crater. An almost constant glow is visible from the summit crater at night detected by surveillance cameras. Short-term electronic tilt monitoring recorded ground deformation on the western flank on July 15. The JMA indicates that the ballistic impacts of the volcanic bombs could affect an area approximately 1 km away from the main crater. As of the 29th of July JMA reported an explosion at 4:46 p.m., with a plume at 3,300 m. above the crater. An explosion at 5:16 p.m. was accompanied by a plume at 1,100 m. above the crater. Another, at 10:27 p.m. was accompanied by a plume at 2,900 m. above the rim of the crater; the ashes fell on the northwest of the volcano, including a large quantity on the village of Toshima. On the morning of the 29th, the eruption alert level was lowered from 3 to 2 / with restrictions in the crater area. However, large volcanic bombs are likely to fall within a radius of about 1 km from the crater. The activity continues. JMA reported that explosions continued at the Ontake crater of Suwanosejima from July 19 to 26, as well as visible incandescence on certain nights at the crater. There were 31 explosions recorded on July 22, after two days without an explosion. An explosion at 3 p.m. on July 23 produced an ash plume that rose 1.6 km and ejected bombs 200 m. The eruption plumes from July 23 to 26 reached 2.3 km; it was not known if any bombs had been thrown from the crater due to the weather conditions. The alert level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km from the crater. JMA reported that a new explosion occurred at Suwanosejima at 7:58 a.m. on July 17, and the eruptive plume rose 3,400 m above the crater rim. Volcanic ash disperses northwest of the crater and a large amount of ash fell on the village of Toshima In addition, in the area from the crater about 4 km to the north, small volcanic bombs are blown away.JMA reported that on July 15 at 1:56 p.m. local time, an explosion was accompanied by a plume of gas and ash 2,200 meters above the Ontake. The alert level remains at 3, with a danger zone of 2 km radius. JMA reported that on July 12 a plume of gas and ash at 3,000 meters rose above the active crater, and on July 14 at 2:18 p.m., a plume at 2,800 meters above the crater.The ashes are scattered northwest of the crater, with falls over the village of Toshima. JMA reported that surveillance cameras from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) observed a volcanic-type explosion at 11:44 a.m. local time on July 11. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 6,900 feet (2,100 m). Volcanic ash has scattered northeast of the crater, and within an hour a fairly large amount of ash is reported in Toshima village, as is ashfall in Kagoshima Prefecture. An almost constant glow in the Ontake crater suggests that the flow of magma is increasing inside the building. The explosions continue to generate pyroclastic bombs and boulders which are ejected up to 800 meters from the crater towards the northwest. JMA reported that 35 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim during 28 June-5 July. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 400 m from the crater and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption sounds were heard in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that Ontake Crater, eruptive activity has become more active as the eruptions are repeated over a long period of time. The volcanic alert level went from 2 to 3 (mountain entry regulation), with a danger notice within a radius of 2 km. due to projections of volcanic bombs. The explosions have multiplied since the 20th at the Otake crater: ... 9 times on the 20th, 10 times on the 21st, 15 times on the 22nd, 8 times on the 23rd. On June 24th at 3:00 pm, the observatory counted 6 explosions (provisional number) . At 10:54 p.m. on June 21 and 12:04 a.m. on June 22, the explosions ejected ballistic projectiles. Large volcanic bombs scattered about 900 m. from the crater in the northwest and southeast directions, respectively. On top of that, multiple volcanic bombs were scattered from the crater several hundred meters away. A new explosion occurred at 10:54 p.m. on 06/21/2021 from Ontake crater. Volcanic bombs were emitted, the largest reached 900 m. northwest of the crater.On June 22, the explosions became more frequent: 5 explosions were counted between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m., accompanied by an ash plume up to 1,200 m above the crater.The alert level is at 2 / regulation of the crater area. The activity on Suwanosjima has been the subject of numerous notices from the VAAC Tokyo since the beginning of June.JMA reported that 15 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim during 11-18 June. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 500 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater. JMA reported that 28 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim during 4-11 June. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 500 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that on June 7 at 2:38 pm, an explosion accompanied by a plume entering the clouds at an altitude of 1,500 meters; the plume is heading northeast. JMA reported that 47 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.1 km above the crater rim during 21-28 May. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 700 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim during 14-21 May. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 300 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible overnight during 18-19 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that six explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim during 7-14 May. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 400 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that 45 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim during 23-30 April. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 400 m from the crater. Nighttime crater incandescence was visible during 24-25 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater. Continuous Vulcanian activity continues characterized by occasional ash emissions from the Ontake Summit Crater. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reported eruption plumes that rose up to 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs up to 600 m from the crater. The incandescence of the crater was visible at night on satellite images. The alert level remained at 2 (on a scale of 5).JMA reported that incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible at night during 9-16 April. Seven explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 400 m away. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater. JMA reported that incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible at night during 5-9 April. Four explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 600 m away. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW) during 8-9 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that during 30-31 March large volcanic bombs were ejected at least 41 times from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater as high as 800 m above the crater rim and to distances as far as 1 km. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale) at 0330 on 31 March and the public was warned to stay outside a 2 km radius of the crater. The increased activity prompted an overflight that same day where scientists confirmed several hundred high-temperature bomb deposits with a thermal camera within a 1 km radius. Explosions at 2205 on 30 March and 0257 on 31 March ejected bombs onto the S and SE flanks, respectively. Grayish-white emissions rose from the crater. After 1500 eruption plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim. The number of explosions decreased; two per day were recorded during 1-2 April and one was recorded on 3 April. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 5 April and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that the seismic network for Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater detected a total of 17 explosions during 19-26 March. These events produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim, drifting S, W, and SW, and ejected bombs as far as 500 m away from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. On 30 March at least 18 explosions were detected, generating ash  plumes that rose 600-1,500 m above the crater drifting E, SE, and NE and ejecting material as far as 800 m S of the crater. On 31 March the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that the seismic network for Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater detected a total of 11 explosions during 12-19 March. These events produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs up to 700 m away from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows

JAPAN - Kirishimayama volcano group - (Kyushu)

July 23rd, 2023

JMA reported that during 10-17 July data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) indicated continuing minor inflation at shallow depths beneath Ioyama, located on the NW flank of the Karakuni-dake stratovolcano in the Kirishimayama volcano group. A few shallow volcanic earthquakes were recorded. Vigorous fumarolic activity was visible at the fumarolic are on the S side of Ioyama. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale) and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from Ioyama. Previous news 2022 - JMA reported an increase in volcanic earthquakes just below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe Peak, a stratovolcano in the Kirishimayama group of volcanoes). A total of 17 events were recorded from March 1-2, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on March 2. No changes were observed on the volcano during a field visit the same day. Volcanic earthquakes persisted, with 5 to 12 events per day recorded until March 7. Emissions had not risen more than 30 m above the crater rim since January 1, and fumarolic plumes continued to rise within 100 m of a fissure on the western flank. During a field survey conducted on March 4 at the base of the volcano, sulfur dioxide emissions were below the detectable limit and no changes in hot springs in the area were observed. Previous news 2021 - As of the 2nd of February, JMA reported an increase in seismicity with the epicenter below the crater, with 107 in the past 10 days of volcanic earthquakes. No changes in inclinometer observations, but continuous GNSS observation shows an accumulation of magma in the deep part of Kirishima. A small white plume, about sixty meters high, surmounts the crater. The alert level is at 2 / do not approach the crater. Previous news 2020 - JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group) began to increase on 18 December and remained elevated. A total of 300 earthquakes were located beneath the summit crater during 16-25 December. No changes were detected in deformation and emission data. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on 25 December, and the public was warned to exercise caution within a 2-km radius of the crater. JMA noted that no eruption had occurred at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group) since 28 June 2018. Volcanic earthquakes with hypocenters just below Shinmoedake had increased around 17 November 2019, fluctuated afterwards, and then began a decreasing trend in mid-October 2020. Sulfur dioxide levels were generally low, deformation data showed no changes, and both fumarolic and geothermal area activity remained stable. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) on 11 December. JMA raised alert on January 2, 2020 at 10:40 p.m. JST to level 2 / do not approach the crater; The change is due to a series of volcanic earthquakes recorded from 4 p.m. on January 1, with their epicenter just below the crater. Kirishimayama is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene dominantly andesitic group consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1700-m-high Karakunidake being the highest. Onamiike and Miike, the two largest maars, are located SW of Karakunidake and at its far eastern end, respectively. Holocene eruptions have been concentrated along an E-W line of vents from Miike to Ohachi, and at Shinmoedake to the NE. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 8th century. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Aso volcano (Kyushu)

February 1st, 2023

As of the 31st of January, the seismic network of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) registered periods of highly increased amplitude tremor at the volcano starting at noon yesterday. At about 12:20 PM local time, a one-minute seismic signal with an amplitude of 2.5 micrometers has been detected in a N-S pattern located on the western flank of the volcano. Later on, after 03:00 PM local time, the 2.5 micrometers amplitude was being exceeded to higher values. A gas and steam plume, rising about 300 meters above the crater, contained 800 tonnes of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions monitored on 19 Jan. Given the current evolving state of the volcano, explosive eruption is not ruled out and may occur suddenly. Previous news 2022 - JMA reported that after Aso's alert level was raised to 3 (restrictions near the volcano) on February 24, an overflight at an altitude of about 3,000 meters on February 25 at 10 a.m. by a researcher from the National Institute of Research for Earth Sciences and Disaster Prevention shows a consistent gas and vapor plume. A danger zone is defined with a radius of approximately 2 km around the Nakadake crater n°1, due to the large volcanic stones and possible pyroclastic flows in the event of an eruption. JMA reported that the amplitude of volcanic tremors increased from about 05:00 on February 24th, 2022. A white plume rose from the highest crater at 700m above the edge. Previous news 2021 - JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asosan to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) at 1100 on 18 November and decreased the restricted area to a radius of 1 km, noting that no eruptions had been recorded since the 21 October eruption. The sulfur dioxide emission rate remained elevated in November and was 2,100 tons per day on 16 November. The amplitudes of volcanic microtremors fluctuated for a period after the eruption, though they were generally small beginning on 1 November. JMA reported that on October 20, a strong phreatic explosion occurred at Nakadake Crater at around 11:43 a.m. local time. During a phase of intense vapor emissions, an explosion suddenly occurred, with the emission of a large column of ash several kilometers high, as well as a dense circular base wave close to the ground - base surge - which has almost reached the visitor center. Large ballistic projectiles can be seen ejected from the center of the explosion and also landing several hundred meters away. Tropomi has detected a Sulfur Dioxide signal with 3.54 DU of SO2. Tours of the crater have been canceled and the park has been closed under security restrictions. The warning bulletin states that ballistic impacts from volcanic bombs and pyroclastic flows could affect an area about 1 km from the main crater. Alert is at level 2 / do not approach the crater. JMA reported that Mount ASO erupted early on October 14, 2021. The explosion occurred in the volcano from its Nakadake crater at 4:43 a.m. local time on the morning, according to the JMA. A column of gas vapor containing a quantity of ash rose 600 meters (1,900 feet) above the crater. The event was preceded by a gradual increase in the volcanic tremor starting at 3:30 p.m. local time yesterday. It reached a sharp peak of tremor during the eruption, then decreased again to medium-low values. According to the webcam images, it seems likely to be a phreatic or hydrothermal explosion, although this detail has yet to be confirmed by the volcano observatory. JMA reported that volcanic tremor amplitude increased at Asoson at around 2100 on 2 May 2021 prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) at 2255. The public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low, at 200 tons per day on 3 May, and white steam plumes rose as high as 300 m above the crater rim. The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. (GVP/GVN)

JAPAN - Asama volcan (Honshu)

April 5th, 2023

JMA reported that inflation on Asamayama's W flank persisted during 29 March-4 April, and the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes continued to increase. There were 95 events on 29 March, 91 on 30 March, 94 on 31 March, 77 on 1 April, 68 on 2 April, 104 on 3 April, and 149 on 4 April. Sulfur dioxide measurements were 1,600 tons per day on 29 March, which had
increased compared to the previous measurement of 100 tons per day on 17 March. On 3 April the sulfur dioxide concentration was 1,000 tons per day. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-5) and warned the public to be aware of large volcanic blocks and pyroclastic flows within 2 km of the crater. Previous news 2021 - On 6 August JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asamayama to 1 (on a scale of 1-5), noting that the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes had been decreasing, sulfur dioxide gas emissions had been low, and deformation on the W flank had stabilized. JMA reminded the public to stay 500 m away from the crater.On 23 March JMA raised the Alert Level for Asamayama to 2 (on a scale of 1-5), noting slight inflation on the W side of the volcano since 15 March and an increase in the number of daily volcanic earthquakes that have occurred since 20 March (36 recorded on 20 March and increasing to 77 events by 1500 on 23 March). After 23 March the number of daily volcanic earthquakes began to fluctuate, decreasing to 15 on 28 March and then 23 by 1500 on 29 March. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 800 tons per day (t/d) on 22 March, 400 t/d on 24 March, and 700 t/d on 25 March, compared to the previous measurement of 200 t/d on 25 February.On 5 February JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asama to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) noting that no deformation or crater incandescence had been detected since late November 2020, sulfur dioxide emissions had trended downward beginning in December, volcanic earthquakes were recorded only occasionally since mid-December, and the number of small-amplitude volcanic tremors were recorded occasionally and had not increased.
Asamayama, Honshu's most active volcano, overlooks the resort town of Karuizawa, 140 km NW of Tokyo. The volcano is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan volcanic arcs. The modern Maekake cone forms the summit and is situated east of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofuyama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic shield volcano was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the east flank. Maekake, capped by the Kamayama pyroclastic cone that forms the present summit, is probably only a few thousand years old and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century CE. Maekake has had several major plinian eruptions, the last two of which occurred in 1108 (Asamayama's largest Holocene eruption) and 1783 CE. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Kuchinoerebujima ( Ryu-Kyu islands)

July 20th, 2023

JMA reported that shallow volcanic earthquakes at Kuchinoerabujima had been frequent since starting in late June, with most epicenters located near Furudake Crater, and some near Shindake Crater (just N of Furudake). Both the number and magnitude of the volcanic earthquakes increased on 9 June and remained elevated through 19 July; there were 285 events on 13 July, 241 on 14 July, 200 on 15 July, 104 on 16 July, 85 on 17 July, and 72 by 1500 on 18 July. The public was warned to stay 2 km away from Furudake. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reported that a seismic activity at the volcano has been increasing since 17 June and is still continuing at the time of this update. Approx. 100 earthquakes have occurred beneath the Shindake and Furudake crater within the past 10 days. The warning bulletin states that ballistic impacts of volcanic bombs could affect an area of about 1 km distance from the Shindake crater. In addition, there is a 2 km exclusion zone around the Shindake crater for pyroclastic flows. Therefore, a decision has been made to rise the alert level to Level 2.Previous news 2021 - JMA reported that deformation data at Kuchinoerabujima had shown a deflationary trend since February and the number of volcanic earthquakes had been decreasing since May. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on 5 July, and JMA reminded the public to stay 1 km away from Shindake Crater in general and 2 km away from the W flank.JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes located at shallow depths beneath Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater increased on 21 February and remained elevated. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5) on 28 February. No other monitoring data showed upward trends and no surficial changes were visible; sulfur dioxide emissions remained low at 60 tons per day on 24 February.JMA lowered the Alert Level for Kuchinoerabujima to 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-5) on 19 January, noting downward trends in activity data since mid-2020. Specifically, after May 2020 no volcanic earthquakes were detected, inflation slowed to baseline levels, and sulfur dioxide emissions began decreasing though remained slightly high. Additionally, crater incandescence had not been visible after July and no eruptions were recorded after August 2020. Previous news 2020 - JMA reported that t activity continued at the Shindake crater of Kuchinoerabujima, with an eruption that occurred at 11:05 a.m. on April 29, characterized by a plume of ash and gas 1,000 meters above the crater. The plume flows north, then northeast.JMA reported that very small eruptions are still occuring intermittently in the crater of Shindake. On April 24 at 11:15 p.m., a plume was reported 300 meters above the crater. No volcanic block collapse or pyroclastic flow was observed. A field study from April 21-23 revealed a crack on the west side of the Shindake crater, where a slight increase in temperature in the nearby geothermal field was reported. JMA also reported an increase in activity level on April 24. JMA reported that during 13-20 April very small eruptive events at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater produced grayish-white plumes that rose 600 m above the crater rim. An event at 0147 on 20 April generated a grayish-white plume that rose 800 m and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that currently on level 3 alert, activity continued, with the emission of a white-gray plume on April 16 at around 3 p.m. local. The activity was in progress. Previously, JMA reported that activity continues, according to the JMA with plumes of gas and ash observed this April 6 at 8:10 a.m. JST, from a height of 400 meters, and at 3 p.m. JST, with a plume reaching 700 meters. Ash and lapilli falls are expected. The alert level is 3 / do not approach the volcano. As of the 23rd of March, JMA recorded a white plume 400 meters above the crater of the volcano. Seismicity is characterized by increasing volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the number of which reaches 25 / day. Sulfur dioxide emissions are around 1,300 tonnes / day. The latest bulletin of March 23 also reported bombs and pyroclastic flows likely to affect an area up to 2 km from the crater. JMA reported that very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater during 20-21 February generated whitish plumes that rose 200 m above the crater rim. No changes were observed during field visits on those two days. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 400-600 tons per day during 20-23 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that at 1211 on 13 February a very small eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced a grayish white plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that a small explosion occurred on February 9 at 9:50 a.m. local, with an ash plume rising 500 meters above the crater, before dispersing to the southeast.As of the 4th of February, JMA reported that a pyroclastic flow extending for about 900 meters was observed on the southwest side of Mount Shindake, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic plume 626 meters high, on Kuchinoerabu Island, in the Kagoshima prefecture. However, it did not reach the residential areas and no injuries or damage to the residences were confirmed, according to the local government. The height of the ash plume could not be assessed by the VAAC due to the cloud cover. According to JMA, the eruption occurred around 5.30 a.m. on February 3, 2020. Large deposits of ash were found scattered in areas about 600 meters from the crater. Very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima on 20, 23, and 24 January produced grayish-white plumes that rose 500 m above the crater rim. Ashfall 2 km NE of the crater was confirmed during aerial observations on 23 January. The number of volcanic earthquakes increased during 25-26 January. An eruptive event was recorded at 0148 on 27 January, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation; volcanic tremor, changes in tilt data, and infrasound signals accompanied the event. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were 200-1,000 tons per day during 20-27 January; JMA characterized emissions of 600-1,000 tons per day as high. JMA reported trhat white plumes from Kuchinoerabujima rose 600 m above the crater rim during 14-17 January. Minor eruptive activity from 1659 on 17 January through 1030 on 20 January generated grayish-white plumes that rose 300 m. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 800 and 1,600 tons per day on 15 and 16 January, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). VAAC Tokyo reported that an eruption took place on January 11th at 3:05 p.m. and continued at 3:30 p.m., producing a thick plume of ash and gas rising to 2,000 meters before entering the clouds. The ash is dispersed in an eastern sector.The alert level is 3 / "do not approach the crater" since 28th of October.2019. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km west of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. The youngest cone, centrally-located Shintake, formed after the NW side of Furutake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shintake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furutake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shintake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions. (GVN/GVP) - NHK webcam

JAPAN - KikaÏ - Satsuma Iwo-jima

April 5th, 2023

JMA reported that minor eruptive activity was recorded at Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai's NW caldera rim, during 27 March-3 April. White gas-and-steam plumes rose 700 m above the crater rim. Surveillance cameras observed nightly incandescence. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 500 m away from the crater. Kikai is a mostly submerged, 19-km-wide caldera near the northern end of the Ryukyu Islands south of Kyushu. It was the source of one of the world's largest Holocene eruptions about 6,300 years ago when rhyolitic pyroclastic flows traveled across the sea for a total distance of 100 km to southern Kyushu, and ashfall reached the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. The eruption devastated southern and central Kyushu, which remained uninhabited for several centuries. Post-caldera eruptions formed Iodake lava dome and Inamuradake scoria cone, as well as submarine lava domes. Historical eruptions have occurred at or near Satsuma-Iojima (also known as Tokara-Iojima), a small 3 x 6 km island forming part of the NW caldera rim. Showa-Iojima lava dome (also known as Iojima-Shinto), a small island 2 km E of Tokara-Iojima, was formed during submarine eruptions in 1934 and 1935. Mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during the past few decades from Iodake, a rhyolitic lava dome at the eastern end of Tokara-Iojima. (GVN/GVP)

Japan - Kaitoku seamount ( Volcano Island - Bonin arc)

January 8th, 2023

Discolored water around the Kaitoku Seamount was visible in 1 and 6 January 2023 Sentinel satellite images. Concentric circles of discolored water radiated out from the vent area and a plume drifted W. The plume of discolored water extended S in the 6 January image. Previously, As of the 23rd of November 2022, according to satellite image It appears that activity intensified tthis day. Seawater discolourations have been observed since August 2022. Kaitoku is a three-peaked submarine volcano 130 km NNW of Kita-Iojima. A submarine eruption was observed in 1984. A submarine eruption had previously been reported in 1543 from a point about 40 km to the SW, which the Japan Meteorological Agency attributes to Kaitoku.

Japan - Iwojima (Ioto) - Volcano Islands

March 20th, 2024

As of the 20rd of March, the Japan Coast Guard conducted an overflight of Ioto (Iwo-jima) on 13 February and observed no eruptive activity. A remnant part of the island remained that was about 25 m wide and 10 m high and in the shape of an arch. White fumarolic activity occurred at the S end of the island and hot water over the main vent area was observed. Eruptive activity in an area adjacent to the island was observed during an overflight on 16 March. A video posted with the report showed a roughly circular area of disturbed whitish water with several steaming rocks located around the margins. The report urged nearby ships to use caution in the area. Previous news 2022 - As of the 6th of December, JMA reported that the explosive eruption at the new volcanic island resumes. Minor surtseyan explosions continue to take place at the eruption site and gradually shape the island. The newly formed island has been growing as ejected tephra, mainly comprised of dark black masses of lava bombs and previously lava flows, enlarges the area island by piling lava material mostly to the north side. However, the morphology of the island undergoes strong ocean wave erosion as the edifice solely consists of loose, juvenile lava material so far, meaning it is highly prone to collapse into water. As of the 28th of November,the explosive activity from the new cinder cone continues. The newly formed island has been growing as ejected tephra, mainly comprised of dark black masses of lava bombs and previously lava flows, enlarges the area island by piling lava material mostly to the north side. However, the morphology of the island undergoes strong ocean wave erosion as the edifice solely consists of loose, juvenile lava material so far, meaning it is highly prone to collapse into water. From the latest satellite imagery, acquired today by the Sentinel-2 satellite, the island is currently V-like shaped, of which the right elongated "branch" extends northward, whereas the left arm expands northwest.The explosive activity at the eruption site continues. It seems that the origin hydrovolcanic activity, involving extraneous water, transited into the conventional, only magmatic explosions as they occur mainly on a new island surface. Vigorous vulcanian explosions continue to eject hot, juvenile, and plastic black-colored scoria fragments and form a new cinder cone by piling new ejecta. Dark black fine ash and white steam emissions accompany the activity. The pumice raft continues to be observed floating towards the other side of the island, indicating a small amount of lighter pumice presented in the ash. This might represent a batch of fresh magma that drives explosions. According to the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the eruption site was affirmed at roughly the same location as happened in July-August, October and December last year. Over the past years, the volcanic activity at the volcano has caused the island to rise, actually some spots have risen more than 10 meters over the past ten years.A new phreatomagmatic eruption took place at the volcano on 30 October. The eruption occurred approximately at 1 km off the coast of Okinahama Beach, located on the south of the island. From aerial footage, a mixture of dark black volcanic ash, lapilli, bombs and seawater were being thrown to a height of 20-30 meters every few minutes. A certain amount of lighter pumice was also present in the ash, probably representing a batch of fresh magma that had driven the explosion. A pumice raft has been observed floating towards the other side of the island. According to the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the eruption site was affirmed at roughly the same location as happened in July-August, October and December last year. Over the past years, the volcanic activity at the volcano has caused the island to rise, actually some spots have risen more than 10 meters over the past ten years.Previous news 2022. According to JMA news, a small underwater eruption is ongoing offshore of Iwo Jima. The eruption had started before 15th of July. An island might be formed but disappeared for now. Venting of steam and intermittent water dome formations were observed by fishermen. Satellite imageries today indicate the formation of small dark-coloured pumice rafts. Researchers are already in Iwo Jima. Details are to be released in the coming days. Loto in the central Volcano Islands portion of the Izu-Marianas arc lies within a 9-km-wide submarine caldera. Ioto, Iwojima, and Iojima are among many transliterations of the name. The volcano is also known as Ogasawara-Iojima to distinguish it from several other "Sulfur Island" volcanoes in Japan. The triangular, low-elevation, 8-km-long island narrows toward its SW tip and has produced trachyandesitic and trachytic rocks that are more alkalic than those of other Izu-Marianas arc volcanoes. The island has undergone dramatic uplift for at least the past 700 years accompanying resurgent doming of the caldera. A shoreline landed upon by Captain Cook's surveying crew in 1779 is now 40 m above sea level. The Motoyama plateau on the NE half of the island consists of submarine tuffs overlain by coral deposits and forms the island's high point. Many fumaroles are oriented along a NE-SW zone cutting through Motoyama. Numerous historical phreatic eruptions, many from vents on the west and NW sides of the island, have accompanied the remarkable uplift.

JAPAN -Kita Loto - Funka Asane - (Izu - Marianas arc)

october 31st, 2023

According to a news source, an eruption at Ioto (Iwo-jima) occurred at a vent located about 1 km off the coast of Okinahama, on the SE side the island. During an overflight on 30 October observers recorded explosions every few minutes that ejected dark material about 20 m above the ocean. Ejecta from the vent built a black-colored island and floating pumice was
present around the island.As of the 30th of March 2023, JMA reported that a submarine eruption occurred at Funka Asane, a submarine vent 4-5 km NW of Kita-Ioto, at around 1800 on 27 March based on satellite images. Previous news 2022 - The JMA reported that following observation from a wheather satellite recorded volcanic material erupting from the Funka Asane (Kita-Ioto) area in the Ogasawara Islands around 6 p.m. on Sunday, March 27, 2022. Funka Asane is located north of the island of Ioto, also known as Iwojima, and 130 km from the underwater volcano Fukutoku The column stood about 5,500 meters above sea level. An image taken by the satellite shows it swelling to the northeast above the waters. The eruptions continued thereafter. The volcanic plumes reached 7,000 meters above sea level around 11:30 p.m. on Sunday 27.03 and 2:20 a.m. on Monday 28.03. - No historical eruptions have occurred from the deeply eroded Kita-Ioto stratovolcano, which forms a steep-sided basaltic cone rising about 800 m above the sea. However, eruptions have been recorded since the 18th century from Funka Asane, a submarine vent 4-5 km NW of the island. Kita-Ioto is the northernmost of the Kazan Retto (Volcano Islands), located in the middle of the Izu-Marianas arc.GVN/GVP).

JAPAN - Azuma volcano (Kyushu)

March 29th, 2022

The Japan Meteorological Agency's seismic instruments (JMA) recorded an internal volcanic tremor at the volcano at 06:11 local time on 29th of March. Compared to the latest detected tremors so far, the duration is short with a large amplitude. Earthquakes have picked up in numbers at shallow level beneath the Oana crater. The electronic tiltmeter detected a slight inflation (uplift) on the western-northwestern flank, but it stagnates for now. The Azumayama volcanic group consists of a cluster of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones. The andesitic and basaltic complex was constructed in two E-W rows above a relatively high basement of Tertiary sedimentary rocks and granodiorites west of Fukushima city. Volcanic activity has migrated to the east, with the Higashi-Azuma volcano group being the youngest. The symmetrical Azuma-Kofuji crater and a nearby fumarolic area on the flank of Issaikyo volcano are popular tourist destinations. The Azumayama complex contains several crater lakes, including Goshikinuma and Okenuma. Historical eruptions, mostly small phreatic explosions, have been restricted to Issaikyo volcano at the northern end of the Higashiyama group. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano (Kyushu)

April 17th, 2024

MA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 8-15 April with nighttime crater incandescence. An explosion at 2137 on 10 April produced an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 1.2 km from the vent. Sulfur dioxide emissions were extremely high, averaging 4,300 tons per day on 12 April. Very small eruptive events occasionally occurred during 12-15 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters. JMA reported ongoing eruptive activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 11-18 March with nighttime crater incandescence. Sulfur dioxide emissions were extremely high, averaging 3,100 tons per day on 12 March. During an overflight on 13 March emissions obscured views of Minamidake Crater, though observers noted no changes at the either the Showa Crater geothermal area or around the flanks of both craters. An explosion at 0536 on 13 March produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted S and ejected large blocks 300-500 m from the vent. Eruptive events at 1345 on 13 March and at 0450 and 0538 on 15 March generated ash plumes that rose 1-2.9 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. An ash plume from an explosion at 2158 on 16 March rose 600 m above the crater rim and drifted NE; large blocks were ejected 600-900 m from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.As of the 15th of February, JMA reported that the explosive eruption of the volcano continues. A fresh magma-driven vulcanian-sized explosion took place from the crater late afternoon yesterday. The eruption produced incandescent lapilli and lava bombs that were being thrown several dozens of meters above the vent. A black, abundant ash column rose up to 14,000 ft (4,300 meters) and drifted east. In addition, the event was accompanied by a volcanic lightning. Previous news 2023 - JMA reported ongoing activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 4-11 December, with incandescence at the crater observed nightly. Small eruptive events were recorded during 4-8 December. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high, averaging 2,900 tons per day on 8 December. Explosions at 1028 and 1533 on 10 December produced ash plumes that rose 1.5-1.8 km above the crater rim and drifted N. An eruptive event at 1748 on that same day produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters. JMA reported ongoing activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 23-30 October, with incandescence at the crater observed nightly. An eruptive period was recorded during 0346-0430 on 24 October; at 0346 a notable ash plume rose as high as 3.4 km above the crater rim and drifted E and ejected large blocks 1-1.3 km from the crater rim. At 0416 an ash plume rose 2.1 km above the crater rim and drifted E. A large amount of ashfall, likely from those events, was observed in Kurokami Town during a field survey later that day. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high on 25 October, averaging 2,200 tons per day. During an aerial observation on 25 October scientists noted that the N side of Showa Crater had slightly enlarged compared to the previous observations on 8 March. A high-temperature geothermal area on the Minamidake Crater floor was also visible. Periods of inflation were recorded in deformation data during 0000-1400 on 26 October and 0100-1600 on 28 October. An eruptive event at 0116 on 30 October produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.As of the 17th of October, JMA reported that the volcano has shown relatively dramatic activity over the past few days. A powerful explosion took place from the volcano's Minamidake summit crater on 16th of October in the morning, generating a billowing dense grey ash plume that reached up to 12,000 ft (3,700 m) altitude and drifted southeast. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reported that glowing lava bombs and blocks were ejected about 1 km distance from the crater. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions continue to emit from both Showa and Minamidake craters at elevated levels. JMA reported ongoing activity at Minamidake Crater (Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 18-25 September and incandescence at the crater was observed nightly. Very small eruptive events were recorded during the week. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,800 tons per day on 19 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from both craters.JMA reported ongoing activity at both Minamidake Crater and Showa Crater (Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 14-21 August. Very small eruptive events occasionally occurred at Minamidake and nighttime incandescence was observed at that same crater. A very small eruptive event was recorded at Showa on 17 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from bothAs of the 18 th of July, JMA reported that the explosive eruption of the volcano continues. A powerful vulcanian-sized explosion occurred at the volcano from its Minamidake crater yesterday. The eruption spewed a dense grey ash plume, which reached approx. 5,000 ft (1,500 m) altitude and sent lava bombs only about 40 meters away from the crater. Magma is being stored in magma chamber within the Aira caldera where continues to accumulate in the long-term period. The Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of SakuraJima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

Japan - Fukutoku-Oka-no-ba submarine volcano

March 17th, 2022

Japan Coast Guard carried out aerial observation on March 15, 2022, and confirmed hot water outlet is given by a zone of turbulent discoloration. The trachyandesitic volcano is part of an elongated edifice with two major topographic highs oriented NNO-SE. Previous news 2021 - The Japan Coast Guard reported that during a 27 December overflight of Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba, observers noted that the island formed in mid-August had become smaller since 14 December, and had almost eroded below the ocean surface. No eruptive activity was observed, though brownish water spouted from the E end of the island. Yellowish-green water and a string of floating pumice, 400 m long, was circulating 5 km E. Discolored water was visible around almost the entire coast of Minami-Ioto (5 km SSW). The Japanese Coast Guard's Maritime Information Service observed the surroundings of Fukutoku-Okanoba on November 11 during an overflight.Compared to the observation results of November 1, the Niijima plateau has shrunk slightly. A white fumarole rising from the northern end of Niijima has been confirmed. In addition, a small white circular bubble-like gush was observed on the sea surface on the north side of Niijima.Dark yellow-green discolored water was observed in an area approximately 3 km in diameter centered on Fukutoku-Okanoba. About 20 km southeast of Fukutoku-Okanoba, yellow-green discolored water with a diameter of about 2 km and floating material believed to be pumice was observed.The Japan Coast Guard reported that floating pumice from the mid-August Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba eruption had arrived at coastlines more than 1,000 kilometers away in early October. The pumice first arrived at Kitadaito Island (1,035 km W) on 8 October. In late October pumice circled Okinawa and Maejima islands (1,422 km W) and several ports in the Kagoshima prefecture (1,322 NW). The pumice damaged hundreds of boats and ships, clogged harbors, and impacted the fishing and tourism industries in several areas. Several local governments began the process of removing the pumice from the water.The island of Fukutoku-Okanoba, formed after the eruption of August 13, 2021, has been suffering from a marine erosion forest. An overflight on October 12 by the Japan Coast Guards allows to see the current state of West Niijima and the areas of discolored water, which testify to an activity in progress.Pumice stones are found several hundred kilometers from the eruptive site, in the Ogasawara Islands.The Japanese Coast Guard reported that during an overflight of Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba on September 12, observers noted that the West Island was unchanged, while the East side had been completely eroded and submerged. The yellow-green to yellow-brown discolored water extended from the ventilation zone to the SW, S and SE, suggesting continued eruptive activity. Another area of ​​discolored water was approximately 2 km in diameter and was about 2 km ENE of the volcano, attesting to still ongoing activity. The discolored water prompted JMA to issue a navigation warning to nearby vessels.An overview of the eruptive site of Fukutoku Okanoba on August 26, 2021 by the Japanese coast guard shows a strong erosion of the eastern crescent of Niijima. Niijima on the west side has not changed significantly and remains as land for some time. A gray substance that appears to be volcanic ash erupts from the center of the crater, causing a brownish-brown color. The colored waters are also distributed on a large scale and active volcanic activity is still ongoing.The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan analyzed satellite images observed by the NASA / US Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat-8 earth observation satellite at 10:00 a.m. (Japan time) on the 17th, and the shape of Niijima / Fukutoku Okanoba.The West Island measures 2.5 km for an area of ​​0.3 km²; the eastern crescent measures 1.5 km for an area of ​​0.1 km². They can see an erosion on the east side, with an advantage for the west side, compared to the first photos. As of the 18th of August, JMA reported that following the phreatomagmatic eruption of August 13, 2021 (see previous news), an island was formed; it is crescent-shaped with a bay pierced above the underwater vent, and is composed of unstable materials, ashes and blocks. The sustainability of this new island will depend on future activity: if lava flows are produced which will seal the first materials, its probable survival is likely to increase. The Niijima, formed with a diameter of about 1 km, is already changing due to marine erosion.The danger in the immediate vicinity is linked to the production of volcanic bombs, or even to a possible base surge. The ash emitted at the start of the eruption disrupted aviation, but this activity has stopped for the moment. Fukutoku-Oka-no-ba is an underwater volcano located 5 km NE of the pyramidal island of Minami-Ioto. Water discoloration is frequently observed from the volcano and several ephemeral islands formed in the 20th century. The first of these formed Shin-Ioto ("New Sulfur Island") in 1904, and the most recent island was formed in 1986. The volcano is part of an elongated edifice with two high oriented topographic peaks. NNW-SSE, and is a trachyandesite volcano geochemically similar to Ioto. The last eruption dates from February 3, 2010 to April 8, 2010 (GVN/GVP)

Japan - Nishinoshima volcano - Izu Island

October 9th, 2023

As of the 6th of October, the Japan Coast Guard (JCG) published a new series of aerial images of the volcano a couple of days ago. An explosive eruption occurred from the volcano during an aerial survey on 4 October associated with ongoing abundant gas-steam-laden plumes (degassing). The ash plume rose to above 1,500 meters above the crater. This could mean a likelihood of either a new batch of magma or non-juvenile fragments of solid lava within the conduit. Dark brown-reddish to green discolored water continues to occur around the entire edifice.New aerial images of the current volcano activity from 20 September by the Japan Coast Guard (JCG) were published today. The behavior remains inherently unchanged, characterized by the near-frequent strong degassing, i.e. the continuing venting of gas and steam from the summit crater. This also confirms a satellite image from the ESA Copernicus mission acquired by the Sentinel-2 satellite on 13 September.As of the 10th of July, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 5000 ft (1500 m) altitude or flight level 050 and is moving at 10 kts in N direction.New aerial images of the current volcano activity from 14 April by the Japan Coast Guard (JCG) were published on 28th of April. The behavior remains inherently unchanged, characterized by the near-frequent strong degassing, i.e. the continuing venting of gas and steam from the summit crater. The gas plume continued to rise about 1,900 m above the crater and drifted north during the investigation flight research. This also confirms an image from the ESA Copernicus mission acquired by the Sentinel-2 satellite.Previous aerial images of the current volcano activity have been captured by the Japan Coast Guard (JCG) on 25 January. From available pictures, the activity seems to have increased a bit since the last update. Passive dense grey ash emissions have appeared from the main vent accompanied by near-frequent degassing. Previous news 2022 - JMA reported that the eruption  continues with on October 8th a massive emission of ash in the atmosphere; the ash plume was noted with the Sentinel-2 image of the day. On October 9 around 8:20 p.m. (11:20 UTC), the JMA reported an eruptive episode, accompanied by a colored plume at 2,900 meters asl., drifting northwest. JMA reported that the volcano is still of an ongoing eruptive phase. Images taken by the Sentinel2 and Landsat-8.9 satellites show activity since September 23. According to JMA and Tokyo's VAAC, an eruption at Nishinoshima produced ash plumes that reached 1.8 to 2.6 km (6,000 to 8,500 feet) above sea level and drifted toward east and west from October 1 to 4. Multi-satellite views of the eruption show a main plume, extending 400 km, with thick haze extending further. As of the 28th of September, a small activity was visible at Nishinoshima, noticeable with Sentinel-2 L2A imagery, with a white plume spreading tens of kilometers to the west and gassy discolored waters. Mirova detected weak thermal anomalies on September 28th, 2022, of VRP 1 and 2 MW. New aerial images of the current volcano activity have been shown by the Japan Coast Guard (JCG) on 17th of May. No significant changes occurred since the last observations on 18 April 2022 have been observed, the volcano continues with little or no activity as emissions of water vapor and gases are venting from the craterAn overflight by the Japan Coast Guards using an aircraft from the Haneda base on March 29, shows intense degassing at all the cracks in the lava field, which hide the crater. This activity seems to be linked to a rise in magma.An overflight was carried out by the Japan Coast Guards on March 14, 2022. Observation showed gas and steam emissions and high temperatures persisted in the summit crater and reported that the sulfur deposits on the rims and inner walls of the crater. A brownish to yellowish discoloration is visible in the water along the coasts of the island, and extends into the surrounding area. Previous news 2021 - As of the 15th of August, JMA reported that Explosive activity has resumed and continues in Nishino-shima. VAAC Tokyo has warned of a volcanic ash plume rising to an estimated altitude of 2100 m., or flight level 070 and moving at 10 kts in the NE direction. JMA reported that ash plumes from Nishinoshima in the Ogasawara Islands were visible on satellite images on August 14, rising about 1,900 meters and drifting north. The Japanese Coast Guard carried out an overflight the next day and did not observe any eruptive activity or new deposits the day before. The central crater is well open and occupies a large part of the island. Previous news 2020 - An overflight of Nishinoshima was carried out on November 24th in the afternoon. No emission was confirmed, on the other hand the inner wall of the cone exhibited high temperatures, and vapor emissions were observed in several places of the inner wall and on the edge of the crater. Discolored waters are distributed from the west shore to the east shore. In the south of the island, there is a quantity of acidic and brown water. Experts have reported a recent change in the composition of volcanic ash emitted by Nishinoshima. The magma seems to come from a greater depth, and future developments could include a collapse of the central cone, leading to subsidence of the whole island, and a possible tsunami. The large volumes of lava emitted made the island grow by 40%, increasing it from 2.89 km² in May 2019 to 4.1 km² in August 2020, based on satellite images. There was also a change in the mode of eruption. Nishinoshima was only emitting lava until June, but began discharging large volumes of ash in late July, covering the entire island under several meters of this brown ash. Ash analysis in July showed that its silica dioxide content has dropped from 60 to 55%. The magnesium and calcium content has increased, resulting in a greater density of magma. An overflight of Nishinoshima was carried out by the Japan Coast Guards on August 19 between 1:25 p.m. and 2:15 p.m. Despite the veil of clouds, it was possible to observe a consequent widening of the crater of the pyroclastic cone, already partly noticed on the satellite images of August 14 ; a strong diffusion on the infrared images testifies to the activity in the crater, and on a large delta at the edge of the sea .Degassing generates a rather white plume, generous but not very high confirmed by the satellite images, on which the ash clouds are not identifiable.JMA reported that a small explosion occurred on August 16 in Nishinoshima, visible in a NASA image. The VAAC Tokyo reported the continuation of the ash emissions, up to an altitude of flight 130. GSI has uploaded the SAR intensity images of the Daichi-2 satellite taken of Nishinoshima between July 31 and August 14, 2020. The interference zones were considerably reduced over almost the entire surface of the island, covered with ash. The image taken on August 14 showed an expansion of the pyroclastic cone crater. On August 15, gas and ash emissions continue, with the emission of a plume in a southwesterly direction, dissipating in a western sector. JMA reported that explosive activity continues, with an ash plume estimated at an altitude of 4,000 meters / alt. Flight 130, by VAAC Tokyo. On August 11, Nishinoshima was at the center of the cyclonic system formed in southern Japan by Tropical Storm SIX, weakened into a tropical depression while it carried the plume of ash and sulphate aerosols emitted by the current eruption.JMA reported a colorful plume at 3,800 meters asl. on Nishinoshima, south-eastbound, on August 9 at 2:20 p.m. local time. The eruption continues and a strong signal of sulfur dioxide is reported by Tropomi. JMA reported that activity of Nishinoshima continues, with ash emissions, reported by the VAAC Tokyo, partially obscured in its western part by clouds. A strong sulfur dioxide signal is noted by Tropomi. The Taiwan News reports that volcanic dust from an eruption on the Japanese island of Nishinoshima was responsible for a sudden deterioration in air quality on Taiwan's sparsely populated East Coast on Thursday evening (August 6), according to Taiwan News. meteorological experts. JMA reported that activity remained on Nishinoshima, where VAAC Tokyo reported ash plumes reaching up to 5,800 meters in early August. Their dispersion takes place in multiple directions. The Sentinel-5P / Tropomi Satellite still reports strong signals of sulfur dioxide around Nishinoshima, with this August 06, 98.45Du of SO2 at an altitude of 6 km. JMA reported for this August 4 that Sentinel-5P / Tropomi recorded 20.88 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 10 km. AIRES has analyzed these SO2 emissions over the last 40 days and estimates them between 50 and 100 kilotons per day, or about 2-4% of the annually global anthropogenic SO2 emissions. JMA reported that on July 30th, an observation was made of the gray plume emanating from the crater which reached a height of about 3,000 meters, passing through thin clouds in the sky and progressing south from the aircraft. Until now, the rugged black lava has spread over the surface of the island, but during the day it is covered in brown volcanic ash several meters thick. Scoria hill seems to remain in its old configuration (Video). AIRES analyzed the plumes emitted by the volcano, and noticed differences in spectrum between the Himawari & Modis photos of July 8 and July 30, 2020, suggesting changes and a higher silicate content. Previously, JMA reported that the activity continued on July 30th with at 9 p.m. a new eruption, accompanied by an ash plume at 5,300 meters above the crater. The dispersal was to the south, then to the west. JMA reported that on July 27th, the plume was drifting NW, then N according to VAAC Tokyo and Nasa Worldview images. An area of ​​water discoloration extends NE for a few kilometers. JMA reported that the eruptive activity continued on Nishinoshima with on July 25, 2020 at 3 p.m. a plume of brown ash at 4,400 meters above the crater, drifting north. On the Nasa worldview satellite image a discoloration of the water was visible. Sentinel-5P / Tropomi detected a strong sulfur dioxide signal near Nishinoshima, with 24.16DU of SO2 at an altitude of 8.12 km. Based on satellite data and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-21 July ash plumes rose to 3.7-6.4 km (12,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E. Satellite data showed a sulfur dioxide plume reaching the western USA on 18 July, after traveling over 9,000 km from Nishinoshima. JMA scientists observed Nishinoshima from a ship on 11 July. They reported that a large amount of ash was emitted from the summit crater; plumes rose about 1.7 km and drifted W, dropping ash into the sea. Deposits of large blocks at the foot of the cone were visible. Lava fountains that rose 200 m above the crater were observable at night, along with lightning in the ash plumes. The cone had grown to about 200 m, about 40 m higher than an estimate on 1 December 2019. The report stated that ships should stay at least 2.5 km away from the cone. VAAC Tokyo and Mirova reported that a slight thermal anomaly remained , but has decreased considerably since July 10th, when it was noted at VRP 1340 at 473 MW, against VRP 91 at 8 MW on July 11th. The extension of the plume is centered around the island, with a moderate drift towards the northeast. Eruptive activity is still continuing with an ash plume and sulfur dioxide emissions, seen by satellites, and reported by the VAAC Tokyo. Mirova always reported high to very high thermal anomalies between July 8th and 10th, between VRP 304 and 1811 MW. As of the 8th of July, Thermal anomalies always remain very high to high according to Mirova. External activity is characterized by the emission of ash plumes and vapors / gases as in the previous days. On the Sentinel-5P / tropomi satellite images, a strong sulfur dioxide signal can be detected, with 16.84 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 9.73 km.VAAC Tokyo continues to issue ash dispersal notices (According to VAAC. 1FL = 100 feet = 30.5 meters). JMA reported on July 4, 2020 at 3 p.m. a plume of gas and ash rose to 7,100 meters asl., drifting towards the west. Satellite images showed a strong sulfur dioxide signal which can be detected, with 16.04 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 8.02 km. The thermal anomalies noted by Mirova have remained intense in recent days. The JMA announced on July 4 a volcanic plume of 8,300 meters high in Nishinoshima, against the more than 3,400 meters observed by the Japan Coast guards on June 29.In the SAR intensity image of July 3, changes in the topography, which would be caused by lava, etc., were observed on the southwest and west sides of the pyroclastic cone, and the coastline changes on the south-west side of Nishinoshima.In addition, the diameter of the pyroclastic cone increased approximately 1.5 times from June 19, and topographic changes on the southern slope are visible. From the north side to the east side of the pyroclastic cone, there is a decrease in the intensity of reflection, which would be due to the fall of the ashes. NASA images show that SO2 emission from the Nishinoshima volcano eruption still cover much of the North Pacific on July 3. Part of the SO2 has dispersed through the Aleutian Islands and Alaska to the Chukchi and the seas of eastern Siberia, above 70 ° North.An overflight of the island by the Japan Coast Guards on June 29 revealed an activity that remained significant, with explosions of incandescent materials, a plume of black ash rising to more than 3,400 meters, and significant modifications at the top and on the southwest flank of the slag cone / Scoria hill. Following the current activity, part of the cone has collapsed and oxidized projections are visible along the coast. In addition, the lava now flows to the southwest.VAAC Tokyo reports this June 26th at 12h Z that ash emissions continue in Nishinoshima. Confirmed at an eastward flight altitude of 100 / Himawari-8 satellite data. A strong sulfur dioxide signal was detected on June 26 from 38.72 DU of SO2 at an altitude of 7.1 km northeast, via Sentinel- 5P / Tropomi. Activity on Nishinoshima remains significant; very high thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova between VRP 1437 and 2479 MW on June 24, 202. VAAC Tokyo has issued a new ash dispersion advisory to the northeast. The ongoing activity on Nishinoshima continues, more intense in June than in May. Thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova and Himawari-8, described as high to very high from June 21 to 23. On June 16, an ash cloud was observed heading east. On June 21 and 22, a plume of sulfur dioxide was spotted by Sentinel - 5P / Tropomi, associated with the effusive eruption. It extended in the troposphere over 5,000 km on June 22. The effusive activity modifies the morphology of the island, as indicated by the SAR images put online by GSI. VAAC Tokyo reported that on June 16, with a brown-black plume emitted at about 2,000 meters, doubled with plumes of gas and vapor emitted by lava flows and their entry into the sea. JMA reported that the activity of Nishinoshima does not weaken, with many high thermal anomalies on June 11 and 12, 2020, listed between 46 and 578 MW. The last overview by the Japan Coast Guards on June 7 shows an intense gas and ash emission activity at the crater of the pyroclastic cone, as well as the plumes of gas and vapor emitted by the arrival of lava at sea. An overview was conducted by the Japan Coast Guards on May 18, 2020. When approaching the island, the summit activity was accompanied with degassing due to the arrival of lava at sea.Strombolian explosions produced a plume of ash, and ejected materials on the blanks of the pyroclastic cone. On the thermal image, It was possible to see that the lava flowing from the effusive vent on the southwest flank of the cone is divided into two arms, one of which formed a delta at the entrance to the sea. Activity appears to be continuous, slightly up on April 29, 2020 overview The japonaise Coast Guard carried out an overview by the Japan Coast Guards on April 29, 2020. The surface of the slag cone has been renewed and deposits of sulfur can be seen in places on the northeast surface of the cone. Although it cannot be seen from the front of the image, it appears that the collapsed crater southwest of the summit that appeared on April 19 has been buried again. Between April 29 and the previous sighting on April 19, there was obviously a good activity. Thermal images are also interesting. Although the exit is the same, you can see the lava flow move clockwise through the pyroclastic cone and head south. A beautiful fan of lava in the north direction, and a flow to the east coast consists of three arms. The Japanese Coast Guard flew over Nishinoshima (Ogasawara Islands) on March 9, confirming that the gray plume emitted reached an altitude of about 1,000 meters. The lava flows on the northeast flank of the crater for about 1 km to the north shore before flowing into the sea, where a plume of gas and vapor was visible. Mirova has noted thermal anomalies, when the cloud cover does not prevent measurements, between 79 and 314 MW, for the period from 09 to 11.03.2020. As of the 3rd of March, GSI site reported topographic changes due to lava were observed on the north and east sides of the pyroclastic cone, and changes in the coastline are observed on the side North of the island. In addition, a new topographic change was observed on the southwest side of the pyroclastic cone, which would be caused by lava. The thermal anomalies transmitted by Mirova between February 29 and March 2 range from 47 MW on March 1 / 4:15 a.m. and 338 MW on March 2 / 12:45 p.m. As of the 17th of February, JMA reported that the activity that resumed since December 20, 2019, continued actively with thermal anomaliestnoted by Mirova and SAR images testifying to flows which enlarge its surface.Eruptive activity continues on Nishinoshima, with thermal anomalies noted by Mirova, and reaching 425 MW on February 2 at 3:50 a.m. Regular GSI reports show the topographic changes caused by lava flows from the northeast to the east of the island between January 17 and 31. On January 26, 2020, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 captured this image of a plume of ash and vapor emanating from volcanic island of Nishinoshima. In this image, the infrared data is superimposed on a natural color image to highlight the active flows of the volcano. According to the Global Volcanism Program, the lava flows traveled northeast and entered the ocean, generating plumes of vapor near the shore. The Japan Coast Guards reported a continued increase in emissions from January 15 to 21 from the central crater. The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima conducted from 1335 to 1412 on 17 January surveyors observed continuous gray emissions rising from the central crater of the pyroclastic cone to 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E and NE. The central crater was open to the ENE; lava flows traveled NE and entered the ocean, producing steam plumes at the coastline. GSI reported that Synthetic Aperture / SAR Radar images on board the Japanese satellite DAICHI-2 (ALOS-2) provided by the GSI, show changes in the coastline to the NNE of Nishinoshima Island (Ogasawara Islands), between 3 and January 17, 2020, in connection with a lava flow from the cone.The thermal anomalies reported by Mirova oscillated between 7 and 268 MW on January 15-17, 2020 (note that they can be masked by cloud cover and interpreted accordingly). The eruptive episodes therefore continue well, with relative enlargement of the emerged part.According to recent news he morphological evolution of the cone and the contours of the island continues.The GSI reported a modification on both the NW and SSE coast on December 20, 2019, and a significant increasing on the NNE side on January 3, based on ALOS-2 satellite images.Moderate to high thermal anomalies were observed by Mirova.The small island of Nishinoshima was enlarged when several new islands coalesced during an eruption in 1973-74. Another eruption that began offshore in 2013 completely covered the previous exposed surface and enlarged the island again. Water discoloration has been observed on several occasions since. The island is the summit of a massive submarine volcano that has prominent satellitic peaks to the S, W, and NE. The summit of the southern cone rises to within 214 m of the sea surface 9 km SSE. (GVN/GVP)

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Suwanosejima volcano (Japan)

USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

June 14th, 2024

As of the 14th of June , HVO reported that the eruption that began on Monday, June 3, southwest of Kaluapele (Kīlauea caldera) within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park has ended. Incandescence from the fissure vents is no longer visible in nighttime webcam images. Volcanic gas emissions at the eruption site have decreased significantly and are approaching background levels. Earthquake counts in the summit region remain slightly elevated, while tremor has dropped to background levels. Inflationary ground deformation of the summit continues. Although the eruption has ended, renewed pulses of seismicity and deformation could result in new eruptive episodes within the area or elsewhere within the summit region.USGS webcams and Keck Observatory webcams determined that the eruption began at 12:30 a.m. June 3. Effusion at the vents remained active until approximately 9:00 a.m., though lava flows were moving sluggishly until about noon on June 3. Numerous large ground cracks formed in the vicinity of the eruption extending westward to within 540 yards (500 meters) of Maunaiki. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of 12,000-15,000 t/d were measured on June 3, and 5,500 t/d on June 4. The seismic activity beneath the upper East Rift Zone and the summit caldera south of Halemaʻumaʻu reactivated over the past 48 hours. The seismic network registered about 230 earthquakes, of which 140 were located in the upper East Rift Zone in the zone spreading from Keanakākoʻi crater to the intersection with Hilina Pali Road. The remaining 90 events were centred in the southern part of the Halemaʻumaʻu crater. Earthquakes were located at depths between 2-4 km (1.2-3.1 miles) with magnitudes below M 2.0 with a few events with M 2.5.As of the 6th of May, IMO reported that following the strong unrest period at the volcano over the past week, the intentse seismic activity halted beneath the upper East Rift Zone. The number of earthquakes waned to about 18 events over the past 24 hours compared to over 350 per day at the spike in the tremor. Earthquakes continue to be detected at depths between 2-3 km (1.2-1.9 miles) beneath the surface. Most earthquakes were recorded with a magnitude less than M 1, excluding the strongest M 2.3 quake in the past 24 hours.As of the 4th of February, the seismic activity and ground deformation at the volcano have significantly decreased. Over the past 24 hours, the earthquake frequency between the summit area and the southwest region along the Koa'e fault system has slowed down. Magma injection into this area appears to have stalled, and the likelihood of an eruption has decreased. Therefore, the HVO lowered the alert level for the volcano to Yellow.As of the 2nd of February, HVO reported that the seismic activity has calmed down. The swarm of earthquakes has been occurring about 8-11 km southwest of the caldera at depths between 1-4 km, in the vicinity of Pu'ukoa'e. The frequency of quake incidences is approx. 25-30 per hour. During 07:00-10:00 AM local time yesterday, about 70 quakes have been detected with magnitudes ranging between M 1-3. Some events are strong enough to be felt by local communities.As of the 1st of february, the activity beneath the volcano's summit has been picking up and energizing over the past hours and is still continuing. The summit area is being pressurized. The elevated seismic activity is confined to the summit region only, no unusual activity has been detected in the Southwest Rift Zone. Earthquakes have been more frequent under the caldera in the south early this morning but have fluctuated in intensity throughout the day and remain high in general. Since 03:00 AMP local time, the number of quakes has been varying between 25-40/hour at a 1.5-3 km depth. Quakes have shifted in clusters between the area just south of Halema'uma'u and the region southwest of the outer caldera boundary. Previous news 2023 - As of the 24th of October, HVO reported that n elevated seismic unrest has been continuing beneath the volcano's Southwest Rift connector over the past hours. The tremor) have been monitored throughout nearly the entire island from approx. 02:20 PM to 03:00 PM with a peaked event at the summit. No significant changes in ground deformation have occurred during the tremor period. The unrest may continue with waxed-waned sequences relating to magma flux. The alert level for the volcano remains at Yellow.As of the 14th of October, HVO reported that a new InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensing revealed a ground uplift beneath the southwestern area of the volcano from 24 Sept-10 Oct, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reported. The surface has been bulged by approx. 10 cm (4 inches). The attached map shows coloured fringes representing 1.5 cm (0.6 in) of the ground inflation of each colour cycle. Tiltmeters and GPS stations indicate that most of the deformation occurred since the beginning of October with lower rates over the past day. Inflation of the ground surface in volcanic areas results from stress changes in the crust due to the accumulation of magma or the exsolution of gas inside reservoirs or due to the propagation of magma through intrusions or conduits. Moreover, an elevated seismic activity has continued over the past week, propagating in the southwest linear area along the Southwest Rift connector. The SWR connector is considered to be a feeder pipe for magma into the Southwest Rift Zone. There have been about 1200 earthquakes since 4 October, mostly at depths between 1-5 km with magnitudes smaller than M 1. The largest event so far was recorded with magnitude M 2.8. Over the past 24 hours, the seismic activity has significantly decreased. Scientists concluded that the current elevated seismicity and inflation may represent a magma injection to the Southwest Rift connector and might eventually rise further upward to the surface. The Kīlauea summit eruption that began on September 10th stopped September 16th, and is unlikely to restart. No unusual activity has been noted along Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone or Southwest Rift Zone. Previously, HVO reported that a new eruption began in Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater on 10 September following a period of increased seismicity. Seismicity increased on 22 August; most of the earthquakes were located at depths of 2-3 km and were all smaller than M2. About 150 occurred during 9-10 September. Tiltmeter and Global Positioning System (GPS) data showed inflation in the S portion of the crater. At 0252 on 10 September HVO raised the Volcano Alert Level to Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the third level on a four-color scale) due to increased earthquake activity and changes in ground deformation that indicated magma moving towards the surface. An eruption commenced at about 1515 in the E part of the caldera based on field reports and webcam images. Fissures opened on the crater floor and produced lava fountains and flows. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code were raised to Warning and Red, respectively. Gas-and-steam plumes rose from the fissures and drifted downwind. By 1900 the line of fissures was about 1.4 km long and extended into the E wall of the down-dropped block. Multiple active fountains were about 20-25 m high; fountains at the initial eruption onset were an estimated 50 m. At 0810 on 11 September the Volcano Alert Level was lowered back to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was lowered back to Orange because the style of eruption and fissure location had stabilized, the initial extremely high effusion rates had declined (but remained at high levels), and no infrastructure was threatened. The eruption plume, mainly comprised of sulfur dioxide and particulates, rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and had become less dense. Lava erupted from fissures on the down-dropped block flowed W towards Halema`uma`u, covering much of the surface with active lava as deep as about 2.5 m. During 11-12 September easternmost vents on the down-dropped block and the westernmost vents in Halema`uma`u became inactive; the active vents were E-W-trending and spanned a distance of about 750 m. Channelized lava flows traveled N and W onto the Halema`uma`u Crater floor, burying the E rim of the crater and most of the crater floor; higher older lava flows prevented movement onto the SW part of the floor. Lava fountaining continued, rising as high as 15 m by the morning of 12 September. A laser rangefinder pointed at the W portion of the crater recorded almost 5 m of uplift from the magmatic intrusion beneath the caldera since the onset of the eruption.As of the 24th of August, the elevated seismic unrest at the volcano continues. A swarm of small (mean values of M 2.0 mostly), but intense earthquakes have been occurring beneath the southern flank of the Kilauea caldera over the past two days, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) reported. Most of earthquakes have been located at depth of 2-3 km below the surface. Ground deformation summit tiltmeter recordings indicate the ongoing inflationary trend over the past day with some variations. The summit area is being increasingly pressurized. Similar episodes of earthquake and ground deformation activity occurred in November 2020 and August 2021, prior to eruptions in December 2020 and September 2021.As of the 14th of August, HVO reported that an elevated seismic unrest has been monitored and is now in progress at the volcano's summit region. The number of earthquakes has increased from about 20 events per day to over 40 per day over the past week. The earthquake swarm intensified on 13 August by reaching its peak so far as 100 quakes occurred that day, of which M 4.3 event was widely felt on the Island of Hawaiʻi. Although most of earthquakes didn't exceed M 2.0, their location has been detected at shallow depths between 0-2 km beneath Kaluapele (Kīlauea caldera, including Halemaʻumaʻu). They arranged in a northeast linear area towards the Iki crater and along the southern end of the caldera.HVO reported that the effusive eruption within the Halemaʻumaʻu crater has been interrupted on 20th of June The lava supply from the SW cinder cone in the crater wall to the southwestern lava lake has ceased or at least decreased at about 16:00 local time this afternoon. Up to this change, the vent activity had been mainly vigorous. The lava lake circulation has slowed down, and its surface has dropped by several meters. Some remaining lava flows continue to shift on the crater floor. This may continue like this within the upcoming hours to days until the lava proceeds to cool. Together with the waned activity, the volcanic-seismic tremor started to decrease at about 16:00 local time this afternoon.As of the 9th of June HVO observatory lowered the volcano's alert level from WARNING to WATCH as the average effusion rate has waned over the past hours and no infrastructure is being threatened. The ongoing eruption does not pose any particular hazardous ash emissions into the atmosphere outside of the area within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Despite the upper mentioned fact, the eruption is expected to continue and remains confined within the Halema'uma'u crater. An average effusion rate of approx. 150 m3/sec is estimated for initial 24 hours, based on the lava lake level rising. However, this measurement might be skewed and doesn't account for vesiculated lava and variations in topography across the surface of the crater floor.As of the 8th of June, the effusive eruption is still continuing at the time of this update and remains confined within the Halema'uma'u crater. There are no indications of the lava shifting out of the summit region so far. The eruptive area seems to consist of two-to-three lava fountain clusters and several independent ones characterized by the continuous spattering ejecting hot, fresh and plastic lava clots and lava flows. Fountain heights decreased after the eruption onset, at about 03:00 PM local time, surpassing 4-9 meters. Previous news - A new eruption has started in the summit caldera of Kilauea volcano. A few hours ago, at approximately 4:44 a.m. local time on June 7, 2023, fissures opened on the floor of Halema'uma'u crater producing lava fountains and flows that now are covering the crater floor. The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory raised Kīlauea's volcano alert level from WATCH to WARNING and its aviation color code from ORANGE to RED as this eruption and associated hazards are evaluated According to the HVO bulletin the opening phases of eruptions are dynamic. Webcam imagery shows fissures at the base of Halemaʻumaʻu crater generating lava flows on the surface of the crater floor. The activity is confined to Halemaʻumaʻu and the hazards will be reassessed as the eruption progresses. As of the 7th of March, HVO reported that effusive eruption at the volcano has stopped and the lava is no longer active on the Halemaʻumaʻu crater floor. Small lava spill-outs appeared to flow in the footprint of the inactive 2021-2022 western lava lake yesterday morning. The ooze-out activity waned in the afternoon. Surveillance data indicate that no new batch of lava is being stored under the crusted crater floor. On the other hand, there is a likelihood of previously accumulated lava which may feed further lava outputs at the surface. Several hornitos on the crater floor are still glowing at night, but they don't spatter any lava. As of the 21st of February, HVO reported that the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues to be greatly diminished over the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. No significant changes have been observed in either rift zone.As of the 19th of February, HVO reported that eruption of lava in three locations of Halemaʻumaʻu crater floor is greatly diminished over the past 24 hours. The eastern lake and central lakes are no longer erupting. The western lake in the basin of the 2021–2022 lava lake remains active but at a greatly reduced level.  Very little lava is circulating within the lake, which is mostly crusted over with intermittent crustal overturns.  The reduction in activity is related to the larger deflationary tilt drop that began in the early morning of February 17.  Activity in the eastern and central lakes began to diminish in the late afternoon of February 17th and both were inactive on the 18th.  Activity at the western lake diminished throughout the past 24 hours and the lake is now mostly crusted over and down about 10 m.  Surface eruptive activity is expected to resume when the summit re-inflates to the level preceding the strong deflation.  As of the 16th of February the effusive eruption is still confined within the Halemaʻumaʻu crater floor and has continued with minor changes over the past few days. The crater surface appeared to shift significantly this week as the eastern lava lake diminished its output and on the other side, the central pond became more intense again.As of the 13th of February, the effusive eruption within the Halemaʻumaʻu crater floor seems stable and has remained essentially unchanged since the last update. The activity is restrained to three and/or four eruption locations.As of the 10th of February, HVO reported that the effusive eruption within the Halemaʻumaʻu crater floor continues with minor changes.The eastern lava lake remains at stable conditions, suggesting a delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (so-called drainback). The lake is being fed by the still-persistent lava fountain about 1-2 meters tall.. The crater floor also contains a smaller central lava pond, generating several small-to-large overflows, which in turn gradually build a small lava shield around the small pit. The pond is being occupied by an intermittent fountaining activity. The 2021-2022 western lava lake remains active and appears to be joined through a lava tube within the crusted crater floor to the eastern activity. No overflows observed so far.As of the 2nd of February, HVO reported that the effusive eruption within the Halemaʻumaʻu crater continues with little changes as it's being seen waned over the past two days. The eastern lava lake started to crust itself during the morning of 1 February and formed a narrow bridge-like crust section through the center of the lake (so-called isthmus) separating it into the northern and southern parts. This phenomenon is well visible in the latest Sentinel-2 satellite image from 1 Feb portraying two smaller glowing yellow patches of lava. The two active areas in the eastern lava lake were about 25 acres in size measured on 17 January where each one showed independent and opposite surface convection movements from levees towards the isthmus direction. The lava spattering in the southern part of the eastern lava lake disappeared from view for 45 minutes at 11:15 PM local time on 1 February, but it returned back at midnight. At about 01:00 AM local time, the lava surface from the southern part invaded the whole eastern lava lake including levees boundaries and the isthmus and returned to the original single lava lake at about 04:00 AM yesterday morning. It currently continues at stable conditions again, suggesting that there is a delicate equilibrium between heat and magma supply and loss (through cooling and mild emissions during degassing).As of the 24th of January, HVO reported that the effusive eruption at the volcano continues. Both lava lakes, the large one in the eastern half of the crater and 2021-2022 western, smaller one, continue to be active within the Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The eastern lava lake is currently well-defined by its levee boundaries, though there are periods of frequent overflows. .As of the 22nd of January, HVO reported that eruption of lava in the eastern portion of Halemaʻumaʻu crater floor continued over the past 24 hours. Activity is concentrated in a large lava lake in the eastern half of the crater, as well as a smaller lake to the west, in the basin of the 2021–2022 lava lake. The eastern lava lake has one dominant fountain, measured at 6-7 meters (yards) high and an area of approximately 30 acres (12 hectares) as of January 10.  The surface area did not change much over the past 24 hours, though a series of short-lived overflows occurred onto the crater floor yesterday evening. The flux of SO2 emissions reached to a 3,000 tonnes on 20 January. As of the 16th of January, HVO reported that the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. (lava lake video) . No significant changes have been observed at the summit or in either rift zone. As of the 10th of January, HVO reported that eruption of lava from vents on the central eastern portion of Halemaʻumaʻu crater floor continued over the past 24 hours. Activity is concentrated in the eastern half of the crater and within the basin in the western half of the crater that was the focus of activity in 2021–2022. The active lava area in the eastern half of the crater has one dominent fountain, and the active area has shrunk over the past 24 hours.As of the 9th of January, HVO reported that the effusive eruption within Halemaʻumaʻu crater has slightly slowed down over the past 24 hours. Small, sustained lava fountains continue to feed the lava spreading into the newly formed lava lake, currently concentrated in the eastern half of the crater. The flux of SO2 emissions reached to a 4,000 tonnes on 8 January.As of the 6th of January, the new effusive eruption, beginning yesterday, continues. Multiple lava fountains, about 10 meters tall, continue to be produced from the fissure vent located in the central-eastern part of Halema'uma'u crater floor. Some lava jets surpassed 30 meters high at 07:45 PM local time yesterday and several ones exceeded 50 meters during the onset of the eruption. Lava flows have covered up about 300 acres of the crater floor with 10 meters depth so far. An initial pre-eruption inflation pattern switched to a deflation phase around 05:00 PM local time yesterday reflecting continuing and smooth magma intrusion, supported also by a resuming seismic tremor. HVO reported that a new eruption started at Kilauea in the afternoon of 5 January. At approx. 04:34 PM local time, the HVO surveillance cameras detected a glow within Halemaʻumaʻu crater. Later on, a new eruptive fissure started to appear and erupt small lava fountains generating lava flows where they have been slowly spreading into various directions and gradually covering the solidified crater floor. Typical slabs of dark, solidified crust have continued to shift on the lava field surface, accompanied by typical bright orange lava glow between them.As of the 30th of December the HVO reported that a swarm of small earthquakes occurred beneath Kilauea caldera at about 06:00 PM local time yesterday. The seismic station registered about 25 quakes with magnitudes less than M 2.0 between 06:00 and 09:00 PM local time. The activity has slowed down a bit, but may pick up again. There is no indication that resumption of eruptive activity is imminent and there are no signs of significant activity in either of Kīlaueaʻs rift zones. As of the 20th of December, HVO reported that the effusive eruption within the Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake ended. The lava flow stopped to be active from the western fissure vent and gradually continues to form slabs of dark, solidified crust of the lava lake surface. The period of passive overturns and the exposing of the new lava at the surface occurred between 14-15 December. A smaller overturn event occurred on December 17 and another small event started around midnight and continues this morning on December 20th. The volcanic tremor has not shown significant variations.As of the 15th of December, HVO reported that eruptive activity has not resumed at the summit of Kīlauea; the volcano alert level and aviation color code remains at YELLOW/ADVISORY.  A passive overturn of the Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake began just before noon and continued until about 4 p.m. HST, December 14, exposing new lava at the surface of the lake. There has been no resumption of seismic tremor (indicative of fluid movement), strong degassing, or supply of lava from the west vent that would be associated with re-activation of the eruption. Seismicity and deformation patterns remain low but  unsettled.  Potential remains for resumption of this eruption or initiation of a new eruption at or near the summit of Kīlauea. As of the 7th of December, HVO reported that the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. No significant changes have been observed at the summit or in either rift zone.As of the 25th of November, HVO reported that effusive eruption at the volcano continues without any significant changes. The lava flow from the western vent continues to supply to the Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake along the southern, northeastern, and northwestern rim of the crater floor. Electronic tilt monitoring registered a summit inflation over the past 24 hours. From available monitoring data measuring the lava lake depth, it seems to have a decreasing trend with fluctuating variations over the past week.As of the 21st of November, HVO reported that the eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. No significant changes were observed at the summit or in either fault zone.As of the 24th of October, HVO reported that the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. No significant changes have been observed at the summit or in either rift zone. As of the 17th of October, HVO reported that the eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. No significant changes were observed at the summit or in either fault zone. Lava eruption from the west vent into the active lava lake and on the crater floor has continued over the past 24 hours, with the active portion of the lava lake stable.As of the 8th of October, HVO reported that he summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. No significant changes have been observed at the summit or in either rift zone.As of the 2nd of October, HVO reported that the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. No significant changes have been observed at the summit or in either rift zone.HVO reported that the eruption continued on 26th of September. The active part of the lava lake has remained stable over the past 24 hours. Flyby measurements from September 12, 2022 indicated that the crater floor had experienced a total elevation of about 143 meters and 111 million cubic meters of lava had been emitted since this eruption began on September 29, 2021.As of the 22nd of September, HVO reported that increased seismicity, ground deformation, and surface lava flows at Kīlauea's summit occurred between 3 p.m. and 6 p.m. HST on September 20. All activity was restricted to the summit region and there is no indication of activity migrating into either rift zone. Beginning at 3:00 p.m., seismic activity below the summit of Kīlauea Volcano began to increase, followed by summit inflation beginning around 4:20 p.m., coinciding with a 7-meter drop in the level of the lava lake. The crater floor surrounding the lava lake also subsided several meters at 4:30 p.m. New surface lava eruptions occurred on the western and northern margins of the crater floor. Seismic activity returned to near-bottom levels from 6 p.m.As of the 6th of September, HVO reported that the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. No significant changes have been observed at the summit or in either rift zone.As of the 30th of August, HVO reported that lava eruption from the west vent into the active lava lake and floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater has continued over the past 24 hours. The active part of the lava lake showed continued surface activity. Surface activity, outside the lava lake, sometimes occurs from eruptions along the crater margins.As of the 23rd of August, HVO reported that the eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. No significant changes were observed at the summit or in either fault zone.As of the 15th of August, HVO reported that lava eruption from the west vent into Kilauea's active lava lake, and on the crater floor has continued over the past 24 hours.The active part of the lava lake showed continued surface activity. Surface activity, outside the lava lake, occurs from eruptions along the crater margins on the northeast, east, south, and west sides. As of the 7th of August, HVO reported that over the past week, lava has continued to erupt from the western vent of Halema'uma'u Crater. All of the lava is confined within Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high and were last measured at around 1,900 tonnes per day (tpd) on August 1. As of the 1st of August, HVO reported that the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater and current data indicate that this scenario is likely to continue. No significant changes have been noted at the summit or in either rift zone.As of the 22nd of July, HVO reported that lava eruption from the western Halema'uma'u vent into the active lava lake has continued over the past 24 hours. The lava level of the active surface of the lake remained at the level of the boundary dykes. Seeps were active along the northern rim of the crater floor as of about 4:00 p.m. HST yesterday afternoon and are continuing at this time. Measurements from an overflight on July 19, 2022 indicated that the crater floor has risen about 133 meters in total and 98 million cubic meters of lava have been shed since this eruption began on September 29, 2021. Summit tiltmeters started a deflationary trend around 9am HST yesterday morning and are transitioning to a flat trend now. A sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate of approximately 1,300 tonnes per day (t/d) was measured on July 21, 2022. The summit tremor is stable for the long-term baseline of this eruption. As of the 16th of July, HVO reported that over the past week, lava has continued to erupt from the western vent of Halema'uma'u Crater. All lava is confined within Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high and were last measured at around 1,300 tonnes per day (tpd) on July 11.As of the 7th of July, HVO reported that eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and current data indicates that this scenario is likely to continue. No significant changes were noted at the summit or in either fault zone.As of the 2nd of July, HVO reported that Lava eruption from the western  Halema'uma'u vent into the active lava lake at Kilauea's summit has continued over the past 24 hours, with weak seeps along the northern crater floor. The height of the lava lake fluctuated yesterday with changes in summit tilt and is currently on a downward trend.As of the 27th of June, HVO reported that eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater. Lava eruption from the West Halemaʻumaʻu vent into the active lava lake and seeps on the crater floor have continued over the past 24 hours. Lava seepage activity continued along the eastern and southern edges of the crater floor. Flyby measurements on June 17, 2022 indicated that the crater floor had experienced a total elevation of about 120 meters (394 feet) and that 93 million cubic meters (24 billion gallons) of lava had been effused since the start. of this eruption in September. 29, 2021. As of the 18th of June, HVO reported that eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and current data indicates that this scenario is likely to continue.As of the 13th of June the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and current data indicate that this scenario is likely to continue. No significant changes have been noted at summit or in the East Rift Zone.As of the 2nd of June, HVO reported that lava eruption from the western vent in the active Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake and seeps on the crater floor have continued over the past 24 hours. The active lava lake has shown continued surface activity, although the level of the active lake has dropped 5 meters (16 feet) since the day before afternoon. Lava seepage activity occurred along the eastern, northeast, northwest, western, and southern edges of the crater floor. As of the 27th of May, HVO reported that lava eruption from the western vent of Halema'uma'u into the active lava lake and crater floor has continued over the past 24 hours.The active lava lake showed continued surface activity, with the lake level remaining relatively high, with some minor level fluctuations. Lava seep activity continues with nearly continuous seeps along the western and northwest edges of the lava lake. Flyby measurements on May 10, 2022 indicated that the crater floor had seen a total elevation of about 106 meters (348 feet) and that 77 million cubic meters (20 billion gallons) of lava had been effused since the start. of this eruption on September 29. , 2021. Summit tiltmeters returned to long-term trends overnight. A sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate of approximately 2,300 tonnes per day (t/d) was measured on May 22, 2022. As of the 17th of May ,HVO reported that he summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and current data indicate that this scenario is likely to continue. No significant changes have been noted in the summit or East Rift Zone.As of the 7th of May, HVO reported that the effusive activity within Halemaʻumaʻu crater continues at stable levels. The lava continued to effuse over the past 24 hours near the northwestern margin of the crater floor at reduced levels compared to previous days. A new lava flow started to spill out from the western fissure vent onto the crater floor around 07:00 local time this morning, but it seems to have stopped already.As of the 5th of May, HVO reported that eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent activity has been confined to the crater and current data indicates that this scenario is likely to continue.As of the 26th of April, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hours. All recent activity has been confined to the crater and current data indicate that this scenario is likely to continue. No significant changes have been noted in the summit or East Rift Zone.As of the 24th of April, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake and in sporadic breakouts. Tilt is currently steady after showing a deflationary trend through the night and breakout activity is minimal. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening. As of the 21st of April, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake and in sporadic breakouts. Summit tilt is very slightly inflationary, but still indicates that the summit is in the deflationary phase of a summit Deflation-Inflation event. As such, lava flow activity (breakouts) on the surface of the crater will likely be minimal until summit tiltmeters indicate significant inflation has resumed. Nonetheless, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 20th of April the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake. Tilt is on a deflationary trend. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 18th of April, The summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake, and lava is flowing on the crater floor from the west vent region. In addition, lava is flowing from breakouts along the margins of the crater: north to the northeast, and a smaller one to the south. Tilt is currently on a flat trend. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening. As of the 16th of April, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake, and lava is flowing on the crater floor from the west vent, and from breakouts along the northeast, east, and southern portions of the crater. Tilt is currently on a flat trend. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 13th of April HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake and tilt continues to show an inflationary trend. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 9th of April, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake and tilt has changed to an inflationary trend since this morning. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 8th of April, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. The level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u has dropped by several meters since 6:00 p.m. yesterday, in association with summit deflation and a decline in volcanic tremor. However, the lake surface has continued to circulate today. This activity resembles that of other summit deflationary periods in recent weeks, so lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening. As of the 7th of April, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Summit tremor remains elevated and steady. The level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u crater has not changed significantly. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 6th of April HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Summit tilt flattened around midday and remains stable. Summit tremor remains elevated and steady. The level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u crater has not changed significantly. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 2nd of April HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Starting at approximately 10:00 am HST today, summit tilt began a small deflationary trend. The deflationary tilt signal continues at the time of this report, but the rate is starting to slow down and may flatten out or reverse overnight. Summit tremor remains elevated and steady and the level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u crater has not dropped significantly. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 31st, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has remained nearly constant since the HVO Daily Update issued this morning. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 25th of March, HVO reported that eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent activity has been confined to the crater, and there is no indication of migrating activity elsewhere on Kīlauea. Eruption of lava from the west vent into the active lava lake (approximately 2.5% of the crater floor area) and on the crater floor has continued over the past 24 hours. There were also numerous sustained seeps along the margins of the crater floor. The summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has remained nearly constant since the HVO Daily Update issued t21th of March in the morning. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.Since the HVO Daily Update issued on the morning 20th of March, the summit of Kīlauea is neither deflating nor inflating, and summit tremor remains above background levels. Lava continues to enter and circulate within the main area of the active lava lake within Halemaʻumaʻu crater. Based on previous observations over the last week, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening, but activity will likely be less dynamic than last night.The inflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano that was mentioned on 19th in the morning’s HVO Daily Update has slowed down, while summit tremor has increased. The level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u crater has greatly increased since this morning. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 18th of March, HVO reported that deflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano resumed around 9:30 a.m. H.S.T. this morning, and now appears to be neither deflating nor inflating. Summit tremor has also decreased but is fluctuating on short time scales. The level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u crater has dropped significantly, although lava continues to enter and circulate within the main area of the active lava lake. Based on previous observations over the last week, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening, but activity will likely be less rigorous than earlier this week.As of the 15th of March, since this morning's update, the slight inflationary tilt at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano has leveled off and remains flat/stable. The level of the lava lake remained low after yesterday's drop, and was measured as 8 m (26 ft) below the rim of the active lava lake margin by field crews this morning. The surface is currently crusted over. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening. As of the 15th of March, HVO reported that teep deflationary tilt at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano began around 10:00 am HST on morning and continues at this time. The level of the active lava lake has dropped significantly throughout the day. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 13th of March, HVO reported that .the volcano is still erupting. Over the past week, lava has continued to erupt intermittently from the western vent of Halema'uma'u Crater. All lava is confined within Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain elevated and were last measured at around 2,200 tonnes per day (tpd) on March 8, 2022, during eruptive activity. Summit tiltmeters show several patterns of deflation and inflation over the past week. Seismicity is high but stable, with few earthquakes and ongoing volcanic tremors. As of the 2nd of March HVO reported that deflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano that was mentioned on the morning’s HVO Daily Update continues and has led to significantly diminished activity at the time of this notice. The level of the active lava lake has dropped significantly, and the surface is currently about 50% crusted over. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 1st of March, HVO reported that the Kīlauea Volcano eruption remains fully paused at the time of this notice. Tremor remains low and steady. Since 8 am HST this morning, tilt has gradually increased. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake until later tonight or tomorrow morning.As of the 28th of February HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. HVO reported that lava effusion resumed at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano beginning at approximately 10:00 a.m. HST on February 27 and continues.The summit tremor increased around 9:30 a.m. HST this morning and remains elevated and stable. The high inflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano mentioned in this morning's daily HVO update has slowed. The level of the active lava lake has risen approximately 30 feet since 8 a.m. HST on the 27th. As of the 26th of February, HVO reported that deflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano that was mentioned in this morning’s HVO Daily Update has slowed and has led to a near pause of the eruption at the time of this notice. The level of the lava lake has dropped significantly and the surface is currently about 70-80% crusted over. Based on previous observations, lava activity will likely be greatly diminished or paused at the active lava lake this evening.The summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has remained nearly constant since the HVO Daily Update issued 25th of February on morning. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be at the surface of the active lava lake this evening.Kīlauea Volcano eruption remains fully paused on 24th of February . The level of the lava lake has dropped significantly, and the surface is completely crusted over. Tremor remains low and steady with very slight fluctuations. Since 8 am HST this morning, tilt has increased approximately 0.8 microradians with a rapid increase in inflation occurring at 2:45 pm HST today. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake until later this evening or tomorrow. Based on past activity, it will likely be at least 6 hours until the eruption restarts.As of the 23rd of February, HVO reported that deflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano that was mentioned in the morning’s HVO Daily Update has slowed and has led to a near pause of the eruption at the time of this notice. The level of the lava lake has dropped significantly, and the surface is currently about 50% crusted over. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 22nd of February, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has remained nearly constant since the HVO Daily Update issued this morning. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be visible in the active lava lake this evening.As of the 21st of February ,HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued with minor fluctuations in lava output over the past 24 hours. All activity remains confined to the active lava lake within the western part of Halemaʻumaʻu with no ooze outs along the margins of the Halemaʻumaʻu crater floor. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.Lava effusion continues on February 17, 2022  morning at Kilauea, but the effusion rate has dropped as of 6 p.m. HST.  During this period, the level of the western lava lake has dropped by approximately 10 Meters.The active lava lake is now about 89 meters deep compared to when the lava emerged on September 29, 2021. Measurements on January 25, 2022 indicated that the total volume of lava effused since the start of the eruption was about 45 million m³ at that time.The summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano resumed approximately 2:30 am HST on 17th of February within the western part of Halemaʻumaʻu. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 16th of February, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued with slight fluctuations in lava output over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of 8:00 a.m. HST on February 11, HVO reported that lava continues to erupt from the western vent into Halemaʻumaʻu Crater at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there is no indication of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. Since approximately 6:00 p.m. HST on February 10, outflow to the active lava lake in the western portion of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater has decreased significantly. This drop in activity is associated with a period of continued deflation at the top that began around the same time. The surface of the lava lake has dropped 10 m (33 ft) since the start of this period of deflation.As of 7 a.m. HST, February 10, Lava continues to erupt from the west vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit of Kīlauea. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 8th of February, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has paused as of yesterday evening. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of the eruption migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 7th of February, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued with slight fluctuations in lava output over the past 24 hours. Lava activity remains confined to the crater, and there are no indications of the eruption migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. As of the 6th of Februry, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued over the past 24 hours. Lava activity remains confined to the crater, and there are no indications of the eruption migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. As of the 3rd of February, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, resumed late yesterday afternoon following a pause that lasted less than one day. Lava activity—which resembles that observed prior to the pause—remains confined to Halemaʻumaʻu crater, and there are no indications of the eruption migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 2nd of Fevruary, HVO reported that The summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has diminished in vigor this morning. Lava effusion has slowed in association with summit deflation that began just before midnight. These trends suggest that the summit eruption is heading into another pause. All recent lava activity has been confined to Halemaʻumaʻu crater, and there are no indications of the eruption migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. As of the 1st of February, HVO reported that eruption of lava from the west vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit of Kīlauea, has continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.Eruption of lava from the west vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit of Kīlauea, resumed at approximately 9:30 p.m. HST on January 30. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 30th of January, eruption of lava from the west vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit of Kīlauea, remains essentially paused, though a small amount of active lava may remain visible at the surface. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. As of the 28th of January, eruption of lava from the west vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit of Kīlauea, paused at approximately midnight, though a small amount of active lava remains at the surface. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 27th of January, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 25th of January, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, resumed at 5:52 a.m. HST this morning with a lava flow from the top of the west vent cone. This followed several days of minor progressively intermittent activity confined to a small pond north of the west vent cone. The lava lake began rising at about 6:30 a.m. HST this morning, and by 8:20 a.m. HST had risen 11 meters (36 feet). All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 24th of January, HVO, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, is greatly diminished. Activity has been confined to a small pond north of the west vent cone. Since yesterday afternoon, lava input into the small pond has been intermittent, with several hours between short-lived periods of new lava input. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 23rd of January HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, greatly decreased in output starting yesterday morning, with a 9 meter (30 feet) drop in lava lake level between 7 am and 9 pm yesterday January 22, 2022. The lake level is now 10 meters (33 feet) lower than yesterday morning. Since yesterday afternoon, activity has been confined to a small pond north of the west vent cone. There were several long-lived oozeouts on the eastern and northwest margins of the crater. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. As of the 17th of January, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, remains paused. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 16th of January, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has entered another pause. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 15th of January, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hrs. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, resumed at approximately 6:40 p.m. on January 11, following a short pause. All lava activity is confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 10th of January, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.HVO reported that lava returned to the western vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater at about 9:30 p.m. on January 7. The surface of the lava lake remains active in the western side of the crater. The lake has seen a total rise of about 70 meters (230 feet) since lava emerged on September 29. Measurements on December 30 indicated that the total lava volume effused since the beginning of the eruption was approximately 40 million cubic meters (10.5 billion gallons) at that time.As of the 7th of January in the morning , HVO reported a new pause. Lava is not erupting from the western vent in Halemaʻumaʻu. Crust covers most of the lake with occasional small foundering events north of the vent. The lake has seen a total rise of about 70 meters (230 feet) since lava emerged on September 29. Measurements from a helicopter overflight on December 21 indicated that the total lava volume effused since the beginning of the eruption was approximately 38 million cubic meters (10.0 billion gallons) at that time. As of the 6th of January, HVO reported that lava returned to the western vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater at about 4:00 a.m. yesterday morning, after a 3-day pause. The surface of the lava lake is active in the western side of the crater. The lake has seen a total rise of about 70 meters (230 feet) since lava emerged on September 29. Measurements from a helicopter overflight on December 21 indicated that the total lava volume effused since the beginning of the eruption was approximately 38 million cubic meters (10.0 billion gallons) at that time.As of the 4th of January HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, remains paused. Similar pauses in recent weeks have ranged in duration from 1 to 3 days. Inflationary trends began around 2 AM HST this morning and recovery of tilt suggests the eruption will restart within the next 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.Kīlauea Volcano entered another paused around 1 AM HST yesterday. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.HVO reported that on January 3, 2022, the Kīlauea volcano entered a pause. Lava is still erupting, but at a greatly reduced rate, from a single vent near the western wall of Halema'uma'u Crater, in the volcano summit area and in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 'i. The decrease in lava outflow from the West Halema'uma'u Vent into the active lava lake is indicated by the formation of a cooler crust over most of the lake except at the vent and Decreasing lava velocities measured on the thermal camera. The active lake began to crumble around 2 a.m. at the same time as the tremor was diminishing. No overflow from the active lake has been observed in the past 24 hours, but there has been a significant breakout along the northern margin of the largest crusted lava lake that was still active this morning.Lava returned to the western vent of Halema'uma'u crater at 2:45 p.m. on 31.12.2021 The eruption atop Kīlauea volcano continued for the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater. The lava lake surface is active again, with several large overflows on the older lake crust in the evening. A strong glow was visible in the evening sky from the volcano to Lower Puna. As of the 22nd of December, HVO reported that the summit eruption of the Kīlauea volcano has stopped. Depending on the size and length of recent breaks, the current break should last for several days. All recent lava activity remains confined to Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, and there is no sign of migrating activity elsewhere on Kīlauea. The rapid deflationary trend began on December 20, 2021 around 11 a.m. and subsided early on December 21. The volcanic tremor associated with the eruption has practically ceased and the seismic activity remains below the background noise. The surface of the lake became crusted after a sequence of partial overturns last night. The lake has experienced a total elevation of around 69 meters since lava emerged on September 29. The total erupting volume since the start of the eruption was estimated to be around 30 million cubic meters on November 16.Kīlauea volcano is still erupting on 20th od December from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The lava lake remains active in the western portion of the crater, with reduced activity over the past day. All recent lava activity remains confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park.Kīlauea volcano is still erupting from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater as on the morning, December 10, 2021. The vent continues to supply lava to a lava lake in the western portion of the crater. All recent lava activity remains confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park.HVO reported that lava resumed erupting from a single vent in the western wall of Halema'uma'u Crater on Kilauea after a 3-day break in activity. On Friday afternoon, the West Vent lava eruption rate declined sharply with a dramatic reduction in tremors and the start of a deflationary tilt. Lava reappeared at the vent around 6:00 pm on the night of December 6 and covered the anterior expanse of the active lava lake around 3:00 am this morning on December 7, 2021. The eastern edge of the lake jutting out onto the lowest area of ​​the caldera collapse blocks remains stagnant.Kīlauea volcano is erupting from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. As of this morning, December 5th, 2021, lava is erupting at the summit. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismic activity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated. .The total volume of the eruption since the start of the eruption was estimated to be around 30 million cubic meters on November 16. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high, with an emission rate for November 23, 2021 of around 6,400 tonnes per day. The average SO2 emission rate for the past few weeks is around 3,000 tonnes per day. As of the morning, November 18, 2021, lava is erupting at the summit. Activity has returned to levels observed prior to the brief decrease in activity. Most notable is the formation of a pond perched on the surface of the lava lake, stretching from the vent cone to the edge of the large island floating in the middle.All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismic activity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.Kīlauea volcano is still erupting from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. On the morning, November 9, 2021, lava continues to erupt but at a significantly diminished rate after the onset of summit deflation yesterday. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismic activity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.Kīlauea volcano is erupting. On the morning, November 6th, 2021, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismic activity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.As of the afternoon of October 27, 2021, lava continues to emerge from a single vent in the western wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. The western end of the lake showed a maximum altitude of about 794 meters above sea level by the HVO permanent laser rangefinder on October 27, 2021, or 1m. more than yesterday, and a total increase of about 50 meters since lava emerged on September 29.On the morning of October 29, an arch formed over the cone's discharge channel, adding an interesting formation to the ever-changing caldera. As the morning, October 23rd, 2021, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismic activity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.HVO reported that on the morning, October 20, 2021, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismicity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.Kīlauea volcano is still erupting. On morning, October 18, 2021, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismicity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.HVO reported that Kīlauea volcano is still erupting. As of this morning, October 17, 2021, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismicity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated. At the Summit,  Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates remain high, with a measured emission rate of approximately 1,600 tonnes per day on October 16, 2021. Summit tilt was slightly deflationary yesterday, October 16.As of the 14th of October, HVO reported that lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The western end of the lake showed a maximum elevation of approximately 785 meters (2575 ft) above sea level when measured by field crews on October 13, with a total increase of about 42 meters (138 ft) since lava emerged on September 29. The total erupted volume since the beginning of the eruption was estimated to be about 15.9 million cubic meters (4.2 billion gallons) on October 8. The western vent had intermittent fountain heights of 5 m (16 ft) with occasional bursts up to 10 meters (33 ft) observed by field crews on October 13. The fountain has built a spatter cone with an approximately 10 meter (33 ft) wide opening facing east towards the lake. Lava is flowing into the lake through the spatter cone opening. The central island and several of the smaller eastern islets from the 2020 lava lake are still above the lake surface along with an island of the 2020 western vent rampart in the northwest part of the lake. TAs of the 13th of October, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The western end of the lake showed a maximum elevation of approximately 785 meters (2575 ft) above sea level when measured by field crews on October 12, which is a 2 meter (7 ft) increase over the past day and a total increase of about 42 meters (138 ftAs of the 12th of October, HVO reported that lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The western end of the lake showed a maximum elevation of approximately 783 meters (2569 ft) above sea level when measured by field crews on October 11, which is a 2 meter (7 ft) increase over the past day and a total increase of about 40 meters (131 ft) since lava emerged on September 29. As of the 11th of October, HVO reported that lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The western end of the lake showed a maximum elevation of approximately 781 meters (2562 ft) above sea level when measured by field crews on October 10, which is a 1 meter (3 ft) increase over the past day and a total increase of about 38 meters (125 ft) since lava emerged on September 29. The total erupted volume since the beginning of the eruption was estimated to be about 15.9 million cubic meters (4.2 billion gallons) on October 8. The lava fountain of the western vent has a sustained height of about 4 meters (13 ft) decreasing from about 15 meters (49 ft) in the previous days. The fountain has built a spatter cone with an approximately 10 meter (33 ft) wide opening facing east towards the lake. Lava is flowing into the lake through the spatter cone opening. The central island and several of the smaller eastern islets from the 2020 lava lake are still above the lake surface along with an island of the 2020 western vent rampart in the northwest part of the lake. The lava lake is not level across its surface due to the location of the vent in the western end. Areas closer to the vent are about 2-3 meters (7-10 ft) higher in elevation compared to the north and south part of the lake and 5 meters (16 ft) higher than the east end of the lava lake. Lava surface activity such as crustal foundering is seen on the western end of the lake and north and south of the central island but is no longer observed on the east end of the lake. As of the 9th of October, HVO reported that lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater and lava fountains from the vent have sustained heights of about 15 meters (49 ft). The western end of the lake shows a maximum elevation of approximately 779 meters (2556 ft) above sea level as measured by field crews on October 8, which is a total increase of about 36 meters (118 ft) since lava emerged on September 29. The lava lake is above the base of the vent and the fountain has built a spatter rampart around it with an opening to the east. The fountain is feeding lava to the lake by a flow through the rampart opening. The previously active vent in the south part of the lake is no longer visible. The central island and several of the smaller eastern islets from the 2020 lava lake are still above the lake surface along with an island of the 2020 western vent rampart in the northwest part of the lake. The lava lake is not level across its surface due to the location of the vent in the western end. Areas closer to the vent are about 3 meters (10 ft) higher in elevation compared to the north and south part of the lake and 8 meters (26 ft) higher than the east end of the lava lake. Active lava and crustal foundering is now mainly focused on the western part of the lava lake. HVO reported that since the morning of October 7, 2021, lava continues to emerge from two vents: one along the floor and one in the western wall of Halema'uma'u crater. All lava activity is confined to this crater. Over the past 24 hours, the level of the lava lake has risen by about 1 meter with a total rise of about 32 meters since the lava emerged on September 29. The total thickness of the lava filling Halema'uma'u is now 258 meters with an elevation of the lake surface of about 775 meters above sea level. The western vent continues to have the fountain the most vigorous with sustained lava fountain heights of about 12 meters. Due to the location of the vents, the lava lake is not the same level over its entire surface. Areas closer to the vent in the western part have an elevation about 2m higher than the northern and southern parts of the lake and 4m higher than the eastern end of the lava lake. HVO reported that on 6th of October, lava continues to erupt from two vents within Halemaʻumaʻu crater. Over the past 24 hours, the lava lake level rose approximately 2 meters (7 ft) with a total rise of about 31 meters (102 ft) since lava emerged on September 29. The total thickness of lava filling Halemaʻumaʻu is now 256 meters (840 ft ) with a lake surface elevation of approximately 774 meters (2539 ft) above sea level. The west vent continues to have the most vigorous fountain with sustained lava fountain heights of about 14–15 meters (49 ft). The lava lake has risen above the base of the vent and the fountain has built a spatter rampart around most of it. Another vent continues to be active in the southern part of the lake with lava fountain heights averaging 3 meters (10 ft). Due to the location of vents, the lava lake is not level across its surface. Areas closer to vents in the west and south part are about 1–2 m (3–7 ft) higher in elevation compared to the north and east end of the lava lake. Crustal foundering, a process by which cooled lava crust on the lake surface sinks into the hot underlying lake lava, is observed on the active surface of the lava lake. The active lava lake surface is perched 1 meter (3 ft) above a 20-meter-wide (66 ft) ledge that extends outward to the Halemaʻumaʻu crater wall.As of the 4th of October, HVO reported that vigorous fountains - with gusts up to 50-60 meters (164-197 feet) - produced significant amounts of pumice stone, Pele's hair and fragments of volcanic glass which deposited in areas downwind along the rim and beyond Halema'uma'u Crater. Over the past few days, a thick layer (about 27 meters or 89 feet) of molten lava has accumulated as a lava lake at the base of the crater, partially drowning the vents, resulting in a moderate fountain. At the same time, the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted has increased from 85,000 tonnes per day to 12,000 tonnes per day. Although the amount of gas and volcanic particles have decreased since the start of the eruption, they both remain significant local hazards in the plume. Vent SO2 concentrations remain high (probably over 100 parts per million or ppm) and significantly high (5-10 ppm) at stations a few kilometers (miles) southwest of Halema'uma'u. The eruption is currently confined to Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. The HVO sees no indication of migrating activity elsewhere on the Kīlauea volcano and expects the eruption to remain confined to the summit region. HVO reported that lava continues to emerge from several vents along the floor and western inner wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Since this morning of October 3, 2021, all lava activity has remained confined to the Halema'uma'u crater. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high and were around 14,750 tonnes per day on October 2, 2021, which is higher than the previous day. Seismicity is high but stable. Summit tiltmeters continue to record a deflationary tilt. Over the past 24 hours, the level of the lava lake has risen by more than 1 meter. In total, the surface of the lava lake has risen by about 27 meters since the start of the eruption. The west vent continues to be the most vigorous source, with lava fountain heights sustained from 10 to 15 meters. Other vents, including a 35-meter-long crack, continue to be active in the central and southern parts of the lake, with lava fountain heights sustained from 5 to 10 meters. As of the 2nd of October, HVO reported that lava continues to emerge from several vents along the floor and western wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high and were estimated at around 12,900 tonnes per day as of October 1, 2021. Seismicity is high but stable. Summit tiltmeters continued to register a slowdown in deflationary tilt over the past 24 hours. In total, the surface of the lava lake has risen by about 26 meters since the start of the eruption. Localized and discontinuous crustal collapse continues (a process by which the cold lava crust on the surface of the lava lake is replaced by a less dense liquid from below, causing the crust to sink into the lava underlying the lake). Field teams this morning measured fountain heights of around 7 meters from the main vent and 1 to 2 meters from the southernmost vents. Occasional fountain height gusts have been observed over the past 24 hours, including a gust this morning with estimated heights of 50 to 60 meters. As of the 30th of September HVO reported that volcano was erupting. Lava emerge from several vents along the floor and west wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. As of this afternoon, all lava activity has been confined to Halema'uma'u crater. Seismicity and volcanic gas emission rates remain high. The volcanic alert is at Warning and the aviation code is Red. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high and were estimated at around 85,000 tonnes per day just after the eruption began yesterday afternoon at 3:21 pm. HST. Seismicity is high but stable, with few earthquakes and an ongoing volcanic tremor. Summit tiltmeters continued to register a slowing deflationary tilt this afternoon. The lava lake has increased by about a meter per hour since the eruption began. The lava lake did not exhibit widespread circulation overnight, with localized and discontinuous areas of crustal sinking (a process by which the cold lava crust on the surface of the lava lake is replaced by a liquid less dense from below, causing the crust to sink into the underlying lava of the lake). The maximum height of the fountain so far, seen yesterday, has been estimated to be 25-30m in height, although most fountains are currently only a few meters in height. The dimensions of the new lava lake are 980 m in the E-W axis and 710 m in the N-S axis. The estimated area of ​​the lake is approximately 52 hectares. As of the 29th of September, HVO reported that an increase in seismic activity and changes in soil deformation patterns at the top of the volcano began to occur around noon on September 29, 2021, indicating movement of magma in the subsoil. Around 3:20 p.m. HST on September 29, 2021, the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) detected a glow in the Kīlauea summit webcam images indicating that an eruption had started in Halema'uma'u Crater in the summit caldera of Kīlauea.  Webcam imagery shows cracks at the base of Halema'uma'u crater generating lava flows to the surface of the lava lake which was active until May 2021. As of the 14th of September, HVO reported that following the recent intrusion of sub-surface magma in the area south of the Kīlauea caldera, which slowed significantly on August 30, earthquake rates and soil deformation in this area have remained close to levels of before the intrusion. Over the past week, 13 low-magnitude earthquakes, all less than M2.5, have been detected under the Kīlauea summit region. These earthquakes occurred approximately 1 to 3 kilometers (0.6 to 1.9 miles) below ground level near Halema'uma'u. There has been no noticeable seismic activity in the vicinity of the recent intrusion; since August 30, inclinometers have not detected any substantial ground deformation in the summit region. These observations suggest that the supply of new magma to the intrusion slowed or stopped. As of the 30th of August HVO reported that in the past 24 hours, around 98 earthquakes have been recorded at the top of Kīlauea and south of the Kīlauea caldera. Most of the earthquakes were below magnitude 2 and occurred about 1-4 km (0.6-2.5 mi) below the surface. These small earthquakes occurred up to 8 earthquakes detected per hour. These earthquake rates are significantly lower than those seen during pulses of activity last week.HVO reported that from the evening of August 26, soil deformation in the southern summit region of Kīlauea resumed at the highest rates seen during the first intrusive pulse spanning August 23 to 25. On the other hand, the current seismic activity remains low compared to the previous impulses of this intrusive activity. The East Rift Zone remains calm. The rate of soil deformation under the southern portion of the Kīlauea Summit region in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park began to increase again on the evening of August 26 and continues to this time.HVO has detected a resumption of seismic activity and soil deformation below the southern portion of the Kīlauea Summit Caldera in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. The rate of soil deformation started to increase again around 6:00 p.m. HST on August 26 and was followed by an increase in seismic activity after 8:30 p.m. The resumption of activity occurred at roughly the same location as the earthquake swarm of August 23-25, inside and south of the Kīlauea caldera. The combination of these observations indicates a second pulse of intrusive activity. No indication of upward migration of earthquakes to the surface or change in deformation that would indicate a shallow depth of source intrusive activity. As of the 25th of August, the US Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcanoes Observatory has detected an increase in seismic activity beneath the southern portion of the Kīlauea Summit Caldera in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.Activity began around 4:30 p.m. HST on August 23 and continued through the night and into the early morning hours of August 24, 2021. The swarm was accompanied by increased ground deformation recorded by the Sandhill inclinometer, just west of the site of the seismic swarm. The same incline increase was also recorded by the inclinometer near Uēkahuna Bluff and the site of the former HVO building.At around 1:30 am on August 24, the earthquake swarm intensified in this region; this activity may indicate a magma intrusion occurring 1–2 km (0.6–1.2 miles) below the southern caldera. More than 140 earthquakes were recorded at 4.30 a.m. on August 24; the largest recorded earthquake was magnitude 3.3 with the majority of earthquakes below magnitude 1. Small earthquakes continue at a rate of at least 10 detected earthquakes per hour.Seismicity and ground deformation indicate a small dyke intrusion may occur 1-2 km (0.6-1 .2 mi) below the southern caldera. Previously - As of the 13th of July, HVO reported that no surface activity has been observed by field crews or on webcam images since May 23, 2021. Seismicity has slowly increased in recent weeks in the summit region, with continued summit inflation in recent months . Summit tiltmeters have recorded two cycles of deflation-inflation over the past week, along with continued gradual inflation. Continuing inflation was also recorded by the summit's GPS instruments; however, the tilt and GPS movement pattern indicates that the center of inflation may have shifted slightly towards the southern part of the caldera.Seismicity has slowly increased in recent weeks, although it has yet to reach the levels seen immediately before the December 2020 eruption. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain slightly high. HVO reported that  Kīlauea volcano is no longer erupting. No surface activity has been observed by field teams or webcam images since May 23, 2021. The surface of the lake is completely covered by a solidified lava crust. Seismicity has slowly increased in recent weeks in the summit region, with continued gradual summit inflation in recent months. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain slightly high. As of the 11th of June, HVO rported that the surface of the lake in the Halama'uma'u Crater of Kilauea is now completely covered with a solidified lava crust. No surface activity or evidence of recent surface activity has been observed over the past week except for minor subsidence in the range of 1 to 2 meters (3 to 7 feet). Small, higher-temperature spots around the rim and in local cavities remain visible on the webcam thermal imaging, albeit at temperatures well below those associated with molten lava. As of the 26th of may, HVO reported that eruption in Halema'uma'u crater has stopped. The lava lake has a depth of 229 m. and stagnates over its entire surface. No active lava was observed from the fissure; field teams saw no signs of activity in the lava lake. Since the eruption began on December 20, 2020, more than 40 million cubic meters of lava have been emitted. HVO will continue to monitor changes. As of the 21st of May, HVO reported that the lava outflow from the west vent continues to feed the Halema'uma'u lava lake into the crater through a submerged entrance. Lava flow and intermittent crustal sinking are confined to a small basin with rare overflows, and lava has not seeped along the lake's perimeter over the past week. The total lake depth is 229m on May 20, 2021, measured by a continuous laser range finder over the western part of the lake near the western vent area, and is unchanged since May 11. The lava crust is stagnant and solidified covering 99% of the surface of the lake measured by thermal mapping on May 13. HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 28 April-4 May through a submerged inlet. The depth of the lake was about 227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink. The E half of the lake remained solidified and comprised about 93 percent of the total area, based on thermal measurements acquired on 16 April. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 250 and 475 tons/day on 30 April and 2 May, respectively, continuing a downward trend that began in mid-April; the recent rates suggested that the effusion rate had also decreased. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 21-27 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The depth of the lake was about 226-227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink; the E half of the lake remained solidified. Lava sometimes overflowed the margins of the lake. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 350, 550, 300, and 350 tons/day on 21, 22, 23, and 24 April, respectively. The rates were the lowest measured during the eruption, though elevated above the levels recorded in the months before the start of the eruption (20 December 2020). The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 14-20 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The depth of the lake was about 226-227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink; the E half of the lake remained solidified. Lava sometimes overflowed the margins of the lake. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 950 tons/day on 14 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. As of the 14th of April, HVO reported that the lava outflow from the West Vent continues to feed the lava lake in  Halema'uma'u Crater. The west vent constantly emits low flow lava through a crusted channel and a submerged inlet into the lake. Lava flow and intermittent crustal sinking continue in the western part of the lava lake, with lava seeping sporadically in areas along the perimeter of the lake. The total depth of the lake is 227 m. this April 14, 2021, measured by a continuous laser rangefinder on the active western part of the lake. Stagnant and solidified lava crust covers the eastern part of the lava lake and slowly grows westward. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate, measured on April 8, was 1000 t / day. This is high compared to the rates for the months before the eruption started on December 20 (less than 100 t / day), but lower than the pre-2018 lava lake emission rates (around 5,000 t / day) . .HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 31 March-6 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The total depth of the lake measured about 225 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part; the E half of the lake remained solidified and expanded toward the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 tons/day on 1 April. HVO field crews observed weak spattering from two areas at the W vent during 1-2 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 24-30 March. Lava flowed from the main vent into the lake through two crusted-over channels and submerged inlets, the former of which occurred during 24-25 March. The total depth of the lake measured about 224 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part; the E half of the lake remained solidified, expanding toward the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 950 and 650 tons/day on 22 and 26 March, respectively.HVO reported that two vents on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 17-23 March. Lava flowed from both the main vent and a vent several meters NE into the lake through submerged inlets. Another lava flow emerged from about halfway up the cone structure starting at 0220 on 16 March, but had ended by the next day. The depth of the western part of the lake rose from about 221 m to 223 m and lava continued to circulate in that part. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 650, 700, and 1,100 tons/day on 17, 18, and 19 March, respectively. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that vents on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 10-16 March. Lava flowed from both the main vent and a newer vent several meters NE into the lake through submerged inlets. Another lava flow emerged from about halfway up the cone structure starting at 0220 on 16 March. The depth of the western part of the lake rose from 221 m to 222 m and lava continued to circulate in that part. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 tons/day on 14 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. HVO reported that a small lava pond developed near the western fissure during 5-7 March. On 7 March at about 13:00 local time a levee of the pond started to collapse allowing the pond lava to drain into the main lake. The lake has developed a subtle levee on its south margin (just below the center of the photo), with several lava streams cascading down onto the lower level on the eastern end of the levee. A new lava flow was active north of the normal lava flow entering the lake. This new lava flow was perched above the lake surface, and fed a narrow channel entering the lake. The new stream was set within a collapse scar that resulted from the collapse of a small lava pond.HVO reported that lava from the West Vent continues to feed the lava lake in Halema'uma'u Crater. The active western half of the lava lake measured approximately 217 m. depth, measured by a remote laser rangefinder on the morning of February 27, 2021. Observations yesterday afternoon indicated that lava effusion continues at the western fissure. The lava quickly develops a thin crust as it flows outward to the east with occasionally a crust sinking between the vent and the main island, but not beyond the island. HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 17-23 February. The depth of the western part of the lake fluctuated between 215 and 218 m and the lake surface actively overturned at “plate” boundaries. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was elevated at 1,000 tons/day on 19 February.As of the 17th of February, HVO reported that lava activity remains confined to Halema'uma'u Crater, with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. As of the morning of February 16, the active western half of the lava lake was approximately 216.5 m deep. The small decrease in depth since yesterday coincides with the current deflation. During the last day, lava effusion continued at the western fissure, with the lava rapidly developing a thin crust and flowing eastward. A few oozing lava flows were noted along the northern and eastern margins of the otherwise stagnant eastern part of the lake. The position of the main island has not changed; as measured on February 12, the southern end of the island was 9 m. above the surface of the lava lake, with the highest point at 21 m. above the surface. All the other islands remain stationary, frozen in the stagnant eastern part of the lava lake. SO2 emission rates remain high. The most recent measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates from February 12 are around 1,100 t / d, which is lower than the pre-2018 lava lake emission rates (around 5,000 t / d). Summit tiltmeters show that slight deflation continues this morning. Seismicity remains high but stable, with high earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that as of the morning of February 11, the lava in the active potion west of Halema'uma'u lake was about 215m deep, with the eastern part of the lava lake solidifying on the surface. Summit tiltmeters show inflationary tilt continuing over the past day. Sulfur dioxide emission rate measurements taken on February 10 were approximately 1,600 t / d, below the range of pre-2018 lava lake emission rates. Seismicity remains high but stable, with high earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that eruptive activity continues at the western fissure, supplying lava to the lava lake via a lava stream at the entry site along the western margin. Yesterday 9th of February, geologists reported a small active dome fountain at the entrance site. The active surface lava remains largely confined to the western half of the lake, as before. The western part of the lake continues to present scattered crustal shipwrecks. The stagnant eastern part of the lake was several meters lower than the perched, elevated and active western part. A series of surface cracks separate the asset from the stagnant part of the lake. The islands remained stationary last week. As of the morning of February 9, the lava in the western and active part of Halema'uma'u Lake was about 215 m (705 feet) deep, with the eastern part of the lava lake solidifying on the surface. SO2 emission rates remain high. HVO reported that on the morning of February 6, the lava in the western, active part of Lake Halema'uma'u was about 211 m (692 feet) deep, with the eastern part of the lava lake solidifying on the surface. SO2 emission rates remain high. As hot gases rise from the western vent of Halema'uma'u, the cooler temperatures of the atmosphere cause the water vapor to condense, creating a flammagenitus / pyrocumulus cloud over the Kīlauea lava lake .HVO reported that lava activity is still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On the morning of February 2, the lava lake is about 213 meters deep, and only the western part of the lava lake is active. SO2 emission rates remain high. The summit inclinometers are on an inflationary trend. Seismicity remains high but stable, with regular high earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes.HVO reported that lava activity is still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On January 28 afternoon, lava filled about 209 m of Halema'uma'u crater and only the western part of the lava lake is active. Sulfur dioxide emission rate measurements taken on January 23 were approximately 2,200 t / d, below the range of lava lake emission rates before 2018. The summit inclinometers are on an inflationary trend. Seismicity remains high but stable, with high and regular earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that active western half of the lava lake was about 205m deep this morning on January 25, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters below. The entire lava lake - including the stagnant eastern half - is perched / high above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. The east side is elevated about 1 m and the west side 4 m above the solidified lava crust adjacent to the crater wall. All of the islands have remained stationary for the past week, frozen in the stagnant eastern part of the lava lake. The dimensions of the main island have remained unchanged with its edges several meters above the surface of the lake. On January 22, the southern end of the island was measured at 12 m. above the surface of the lava lake, the highest point at 23 m. above the surface. HVO reported that lava activity is still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. Low-level fountaining from the west vent feeds a lava channel that drains into the lava lake in Halema'uma'u Crater. The active western half of the lava lake was around 205m deep as of January 23, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters below. The entire lava lake - including half that is stagnant - is perched / elevated at least 1-2m above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. HVO reported that the west vent feeds a lava channel that drains into the lava lake inside Halema'uma'u crater. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission ratio was 2.50 tonnes / day on January 16. The active western half of the lava lake was about 202 m deep on the morning of January 20, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters lower. The entire lava lake - including half of it is stagnant - is perched / elevated at least 1-2m above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. HVO reported that lava activity was still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu crater, with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On morning, January 15, the lava lake has a depth of about 199 m and remains stagnant on its eastern half. SO2 emission rates remain high. The low fountain in the west vent feeds a lava channel that drains into the lava lake at Halema'uma'u Crater. The active western half of the lava lake was about 199m deep on January 15, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters below. The entire lava lake - including half of it stagnant - is perched at least 1-2m above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. All of the lava lake islands have been stationary for the past week as if frozen in the stagnant parts of the eastern lava lake. The dimensions of the main island have remained unchanged with its edges several meters above the surface of the lake. HVO reported that lava activity was still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On morning, January 14, the lava lake was about 199 m (653 ft) deep and remains stagnant over its eastern half. Yesterday afternoon, summit tiltmeters started registering an inflationary tilt. Seismicity remains high but stable, with regular earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that on morning of January 12 the lava lake was about 196m deep below the west vents, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake was about 4m shallower. The eastern part of the lake seemed to have sagged beneath its perched edges. Overall, the size of the active and inactive parts of the lake has remained the same. The lake was still perched at least 1-2m above the inactive crust between the perched lake and the crater wall which was also rising.As of the 11th of January HVO reported that the lava activity was confined to Halema'uma'u with lava erupting from vents on the northwest side of the crater. on the morning of January 10, the lava lake was about 196 m deep under the western vents while remaining stagnant on its eastern half. SO2 emission rates are still high and the most recent measurements of the sulfur dioxide emission rate of 2,300 t / d on Sunday. The western vents showed a stronger flow from January 10 afternoon with splash and lava flows fueled by splashing from the top of small cones abutting the northwest wall of Halema'uma'u crater. Lava also flowed from the western vents into the lake through an encrusted channel. All of the islands have been stationary for the past day, like frozen in the stagnant parts of the eastern lava lake. The dimensions of the main island have remained unchanged with its edges several meters above the surface of the lake. HVO reported that the lava lake was 194 m deep on January 6th and had a volume of over 27 million cubic meters (35 million cubic yards). The most recent heat map (January 5) indicated that the dimensions of the perched lake were 760 by 520 m. for a total area of ​​28 ha - slightly smaller than December 30 when the map was made. Tuesday (January 5), the lake was perched about 1 to 2 m. above its narrow edges; the overflow on the narrow edge slowly raised a low wall around the lake similar to the wall around an above ground swimming pool.The HVO's flyby over Halema'uma'u on January 5, 2021 showed the newly exposed lava channel entering the lava lake. Lava also continues to enter the lava lake through the tube, which produces the small domed fountain at the margin of the lake below (lower center). As of the 4th of January, HVO reported that the situation was slowly changing. West vents emitted spatters from two places atop a small cone stuck to the northwest wall of Halema'uma'u crater.The lava also emerges as a small domed fountain in front of the west vents, probably from a submerged part of the vent. Sulfur dioxide emissions remain high, with a ratio of 4,400 tonnes per day (January 1). The lava lake was 190 m deep on Sunday afternoon (January 3) and a volume of 26 million cubic meters. It is now perched about a meter above its narrow edges measured yesterday morning (January 3); the overflows on the narrow edge have raised a low wall around the lake that looks like an above ground swimming pool. HVO reported that the West Vent of Halema’uma’u Crater continues to erupt without significant change in recent days. An incandescence was visible from the skylights above the vent and occasional splashes are ejected from these skylights. A weak spattering slowly formed a cone at the vents. The lava channel, which crusted several days ago, continues to supply the lake with lava, and the place where the lava is rising was marked by incandescent fine lines at night. HVO reported that the western vents of Halema'uma'u crater showed spatttering, and feed a lava flow through lava tunnels towards the lake; It continues to widen slowly, its depth reached 186 meters in the afternoon of December 31st, 2020. Sulfur dioxide emission ratios remain high, with 4,500-5,000 tonnes per day. The seismicity remains high, but stable, marked by a high tremor and some earthquakes. The main island of colder, solidified lava floating in the lava lake moved faster westward, as if searching for the western lava source filling the lake, while the other 10 small islands remained relatively stationary around the east end of the lake. The main island measured about 250 m. in length, 135 m. wide and about 3 ha. area according to the heat map of December 30. The measurements on Wednesday evening (December 30) show that the surface of the island was about 6-8 m. above the surface of the lake.HVO reported that the lava lake of Kilauea has changed little in recent days: Erupting lava at the active west vent flows along the lava channel encrusted for the most part over 130 feet in the surface of the lava lake, while in At the top of the fissure, the vents cycle between weak lava fountains and periods of strombolian activity, exhibiting spattering. The lava lake has a depth of 181 meters, for a volume of about 23 million m³. Sulfur dioxide emissions have fallen a little (3,300 tonnes / day), but still remain high. A slight deflationary signal is observed on 30 december, while the seismicity is high and stable, marked by a large tremor and some minor earthquakes. HVO reported that lava activity was still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu crater with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater, by two or three narrow channels visible on December 28 morning. As of the 27th of December, HVO reported that the lava lake in the Halemaʻumaʻu crater of Kilauea has changed little over the past day and was about 177 m (581 feet) deep and about 408 m (1340 feet) below the southern edge of Halemaʻumaʻu on the morning of December 27). The volume of the lake remained around 21 million cubic meters (27 million cubic yards or 4.8 billion gallons). The most recent heat map indicated that the dimensions of the lake were 790 by 520 m (864 by 569 yds) for a total area of ​​29 ha (72 acres). The narrow ledge (10-30 m or 11-22 yd) around the lake was about 1-2 m (1-2 yds) above the active surface of the lake, suggesting that the surface of the lake dropped during of the last 2 days. As of the 26th of December, HVO reported that the lava activity remained confined to Halemaʻumaʻu from two vents on the north and northwest sides of the crater. At 2 p.m. yesterday, the crater lake was still 176m deep and the lake level appeared to be 2m. lower, leaving a narrow black rim around the northern edge. Early this morning, the west vent re-activated as the north vent calmed down and began to drain the lake. Reduced SO2 emissions were measured last night. The north vent continued to erupt lava into a lake inside Halema'uma'u Crater. The west vent was glowing until about 2:40 a.m. this morning (almost coinciding with the change from a deflationary tilt to an inflationary summit tilt) when it became vigorously active with up to 3 narrow lava streams in the lake. After 3 a.m., the north vent calmed down and began to slowly drain lava from the lake, and the volume of the lava lake remained around 21 million cubic meters. As of the 25th od December HVO reported that there was no significant change at the summit crater of Kilauea : lava activity remains confined to Halemaʻumaʻu from two vents on the north and northwest sides of the crater. At 7 a.m. on December 25, the growing crater lake was 176 m (577 feet) deep. The high SO2 emissions continued. Two vents continued to erupt on the north and northwest walls of Halemaʻumaʻu. The west vent, located on the lowest block of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, splashed intermittently. The north vent remains the most vigorous and is slowly flooded by the rise of the lake.The vents continued to supply lava to a rapidly expanding lake filling Halema'uma'u Crater. As of early Christmas morning, the lake was 176m deep - an increase of 6m from the previous 24 hours. The volume of the lava lake on the morning of December 25 was approximately 21 million cubic meters. A colder, solidified lava island in the lava lake has become smaller and is slowly drifting northeast into the lake. It is approximately 260m in length and 115m in width according to the heat map of December 23rd. HVO reported that on the afternoon of December 23th, HVO field crews noted that the surface of the summit lava lake of Kīlauea is now 143 m deep, with an approximate volume of 12 million cubic meters. (summit webcams). The area was about 22 ha and the shape of the lake is roughly oval with an east-west length of 690 m and a north-south width of 410 m. A smaller, coolder, solidified lava island has drifted east into the lake over the past 24 hours. (photos and video). It seems to have about 150 m in diameter. The fountaining continues in 2 places, more vigorously at the east vent, feeding the growing lava lake. Summit tiltmeters continued to record a constant deflationary tilt. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high, estimated at around 30,000 tonnes / day, measured on Monday, December 21st. SO2 emissions continue. Seismicity remained high but stable, with a few minor earthquakes and fluctuations in tremor related to the vigor of the fissure fountain.As of the 22nd of December, HVO reported that not significant change occurred. Kīlauea continues to erupt at its summit from at least two vents on the north and west sides of Halemaʻumaʻu. On the morning, the growing crater lake was 487 m (1,598 ft) below the crater rim, indicating that the lake has filled 134 m (440 ft) of the bottom of the Halemaʻumaʻu rater. Summit tiltmeters continued to record slowing deflationary tilt through this morning. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high estimated at around 30,000 tonnes/day. Seismicity is elevated but stable the last day, with few earthquakes and tremor fluctuations related to the vigor of fissure fountaining. When measured last night, the Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake was 487 m (1,598 ft) below the crater rim and rising at more than 1 m/hr (3 ft/hr). Of the three vents that initially erupted from the north and northeast walls of Halemaʻumaʻu, only two remain active, with the middle vent pausing eruptive activity between approximately 7:30 and 8:00 a.m. HST. The middle and west vents, which are located on the lowest down-dropped block within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, have since been inundated by the growing lava lake. The farthest east vent remains the most vigorous. As of early this morning, a preliminary calculation of volume suggests that, since the start of the eruption, approximately 10 million cubic meters of lava have been erupted (equivalent to over 2 billion gallons). This is a surface area of about 33 acres. As of the 21st of December, HVO reported that activity over the past ten hours has been characterized by three fissure vents on the north and northwest walls of Halema'uma'u Crater. The lava fountain at these vents is estimated to measure up to 25m. height; the vents feed the lava flows into the base of Halema'uma'u Crater, which is being filled with a growing lava lake. No major changes at 4:09 am HST on December 21, 2020. The fountain on the north inner wall of Halema'uma'u crater is dominant, with a weaker fountain emitted from the cracks to the west. The lava lake continues to rise and grow slowly and began to flood the base of the fallen blocks in the Kīlauea caldera during the summit collapse events of 2018. The gas plume continues to ripple and drift to south-west. Just after 6 a.m. HST on December 21, 2020, the middle crack stopped; the main weakest eastern and western cracks remain active. Lava continues to fill Halemaʻumaʻu, and volcanic gas and glass (Pelé's hair) move in the wind. The lava lake has risen at about several meters per hour since the eruption began. The current lava lake has a circulating perimeter, but a stagnant center. The event was accompanied by only moderate amounts of warping, indicating the deflation of a magma reservoir beneath Halema’uma’u. The tilt rates have decreased slightly since the onset of the eruption. The eruption is currently confined to the Halemaʻumaʻu crater. HVO reported that a seismic swarm began on the evening of December 20th in Kilauea, accompanied by ground deformation detected by inclinometers. Shortly after approximately 9:36 p.m. HST on December 20, the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) detected a glow in Halema'uma'u Crater at the top of Kīlauea Volcano.An eruption has started in the summit caldera of Kīlauea. The situation is changing rapidly and the HVO will issue another statement when more information becomes available. According to the first data, that is a small eruption limited to the caldera. As a result, the HVO raised Kīlauea's volcanic alert level to WARNING and its aviation color code to RED. Previously, HVO reported that Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Monitoring data for the month of June show variable but typical rates of seismicity and ground deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions, and only minor geologic changes since the end of eruptive activity in September 2018. Water was first observed at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, one year ago. Since then, the body of water has slowly deepeaned and grown in size. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory continues to monitor the lake, Kīlauea Volcano remains at alert-level NORMAL and aviation color-code GREEN. HVO published May Monthly summary about the activity of the Kīlauea volcano, which is not erupting. Monitoring data for May shows variable but typical rates of seismicity and soil deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions and only minor geological changes since eruptive activity ended in September 2018 . Seismicity rates during the month were about 25% lower than last month. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the top and below the detection limits at PuʻuʻŌʻō and in the lower East Rift Zone. The crater lake at the bottom of Halema'uma'u continues to expand and deepen slowly. As of June 3, the depth of the lake was approximately 36 meters. A certain amount of sulfur dioxide is dissolved in the summit lake and work is continuing to try to quantify this process. HVO reported that monitoring data for February showed variable but typical rates of seismicity and soil deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions and only minor geological changes since the end of activity eruptive in September 2018. The pond of acid water at the bottom of Halema'uma'u continues to expand and deepen slowly. In early March, the dimensions of the pond were approximately 100 meters by 200 meters. The current depth is around 28 meters. As of the 6th of February, HVO reported that the seismicity rates during the month were variable but remain in the long-term values. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the top and below the detection limits at Puʻu ʻŌʻō and in the lower East Rift zone. The pond at the bottom of Halema'uma'u, which began to form on July 25, 2019, continues to expand and deepen slowly. At the beginning of February, the dimensions were: 95 meters by 194 meters. The current depth is around 25 meters.PREVIOUS NEWS 2019 - As of the 5th of December, HVO reported monitoring data continue to show steady rates of seismicity and ground deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions, and only minor geologic changes since the end of eruptive activity in September 2018. Monitoring data have shown no significant changes in volcanic activity during November. Over the past month, about a dozen DI events occurred beneath the summit. Seismic stations detected over 1800 earthquakes in the vicinity of the volcano, which is an increase of ~10% from last month. Rates of seismicity are relatively consistent throughout the month, although at the summit, episodic increased rates appear to be coincident with the inflated phase of the DI events. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the summit and are below detection limits at Puʻu ʻŌʻō and the lower East Rift Zone. The pond at the bottom of Halema'uma'u, which began forming on July 25, 2019, continues to slowly expand and deepen, and the most recent measurements are 162 meters in the east-west direction and 73 meters in the north-south direction. HVO reported that the crater lake of Halema'uma'u continues to grow; its level is measured on October 19 at 608 meters under the observation site. The steam that sweeps its surface testifies to the high temperature of the water, and the winds at the bottom of the crater. The refill is marked by areas of bluish color on a general tint of the surface of greenish yellow color. HVO reported that a recent flyover of the Pu'u O'o 'crater in the eastern rift zone of Kilauea allowed a good visualization of the bottom of the crater, drained after 35 years of eruptions. The rubble from the collapse of the crater walls filled much of its deepest part, the bottom being now about 250 meters (820 feet) below the eastern ledge. As of the 2nd of August HVO reported that the seismicity and strain ratios remained stable; low emissions of sulfur dioxide since September 2018. Insight from July 25, 2019, a green pond marks the floor of Halema'uma'u, at about 540 meters above sea level. HVO scientists flew over the summit of Kilauea in the morning of 1 August and confirm the presence of water at the bottom of Halima'uma'u crater. Observers saw reflections from the green pond. The pond has clearly expanded since the oldest photos made on July 25th. Previous news - As of the 22nd of May, HVO reported that no significant change occurred over the past week in Kilauea volcanic activity, in normal volcanic alert / green aviation code.Since the beginning of March, tiltmeters have recorded a modest inflationary trend at the top, confirmed by GPS and InSAR measurements; it is interpreted as a magmatic accumulation in the shallow portion of the summit magmatic system, 1-2 km deep.Other measurements show the filling of the magma reservoir of the deep East Rift Zone in a large area between Pu'u O'o and Highway 130, since the end of the 2018 eruption. The HVO continues to monitor Kilauea's seismicity, deformation and gas emissions closely, to detect an increase in its activity. As of the 20th of March, HVO reported that over the past week, volcanic activity has not changed significantly.Low levels seismicity persisted on the volcano, with earthquakes occurring mainly in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and inclinometers continue to display movements consistent with deep magma reservoir filling in the East Rift Zone. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Pu'u'u'ō remain low. These rates have been stable for several weeks. HVO reported that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with earthquakes occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and tiltmeters continue to show motions consistent with refilling of the deep East Rift Zone. These rates have been steady over the past several weeks. At Kilauea's summit, tiltmeters are showing deflationary tilt consistent with the beginning of a Deflation-Inflation event (D-I event); these types of events have been commonly observed at the summit for several years. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. As of the 15th of January 2019, HVO reportede that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past weeks. Deformation signals are consistent with slow magmatic recharge within the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ).Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with events occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. Slow inflationary tilt continues in the middle ERZ. Sulfur dioxide emission rates have been below detection limits in the LERZ since early September, though minor amounts of volcanic gas are still present. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. Previously,HVO reported that no more active lava observations since September 4th, 2018 on the basis of the criterias of GVN program, the phase of the eruption on the Lower East Rift Zone can be considered to be over .Kilauea remains an active volcano, and geophysical data continues to show movements in the magmatic system, including a recharge of the East Rift Zone. As of the 30th of October, HVO reported that Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Deformation signals are consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone.HVO monitoring during the past week shows low rates of seismicity at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ). Earthquakes continue to occur primarily at Kīlauea's summit area and south flank (magnitude-3.8 was the largest) with continued small aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 quake on May 4, 2018. Seismicity remains low in the lower ERZ. In the ERZ, tiltmeters near Puʻu ʻŌʻō and farther east continue to record an inflationary trend, consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone. At the summit, tiltmeters have recorded a slight inflationary trend. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions at the summit averaged 50 tonnes/day as reported on October 24, and 75 tonnes/day at Puʻu ʻŌʻō on October 23. There was no sulfur dioxide detected by our instruments in the lower ERZ. Previously, HVO bulletin ( 3rd of october) reported that On Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (ERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming from the cone was visible during the past day. Webcam images of the fissure 8 cone show that a portion of the crater wall near the northern spillway area has slowly shifted during the past 2 weeks, indicating some instability of the cone in this area. As of the 2nd of October, HVO reported that no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming has been visible during the day. On the middle ERZ, a rockfall at Puʻu ʻŌʻō produced a small ash plume around noon yesterday, October 1. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Rates of tilting throughout both the summit and the ERZ are much lower than those observed during the recent period of major eruptive activity. As of the 25th of September HVO reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming is visible during the day. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. HVO reported minor incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 12-15 September, and that small amounts of fuming rose from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the Fissure 8 cone during 12-18 September. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (less than 1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. Small collapses at Pu'u 'O'o Crater during 12-14 September generated visible dust plumes. The Volcano Alert level l remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin (11th of September) reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), minor amounts of incandescence were observed overnight from a collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone, though the amount was reduced over observations from the previous night. Very minor fuming is visible from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the cone. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none have extended outside the walls of the cone. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Aftershocks from the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May are still being generated on faults located on Kīlauea's South Flank. Small collapses continued to occur yesterday at Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater, but are much less frequent than they were over the previous two days. As of the 7th of September, HVO reported that lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible at fissure 8 from helicopter overflight or UAS (drone) views this morning. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none extend outside the walls of the cone. There is no change in overall activity from observations over the past several days. As of the 5th of September, HVO reported that seismicity remains low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. A magnitude-3.1 earthquake that occurred at 5:31AM HST this morning was located below Kīlauea's South Flank and is likely an aftershock of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake from early May. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible on the fissure 8 spillway overnight. Images from the UAS (drone) crew showed that weak lava activity continues in the fissure 8 cone as of yesterday afternoon, with no lava extending outside the walls of the cone and no flows heading down the spillway. HVO reported that on 2nd of September, seismicity remained low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. Earthquakes, probably aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May, continue on South Flank faults. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), incandescence was observed in the fissure 8 cone yesterday afternoon (09/01) with reports of activity extending into early evening. In addition to a persistent spot of spattering, lava slowly covered the 65-by-15 m (210-by-45 ft) crater floor by evening. Webcam views showed weak incandescence occasionally reflected on the eastern spillway wall from the crater overnight suggesting that the lava in the crater remained active. This morning, ground crews have no view of the crater inside the fissure 8 cone, but report the fissure 8 cone is quiet when viewed from a safe distance with no visible fume. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at the summit, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate (< 1,000 t/d) is lower than at any time since late 2007. Friday (08/31), LERZ emission rates were still too low to measure. HVO reported that during an overflight on 25 August a small lava pond was visible deep within the vent at Kilauea's Fissure 8 cone; the pond was no longer visible on 27 August. Lava continued to ooze into the ocean and produce minimal laze plumes, but by 27 August only a small single breakout from the Kapoho Bay lobe was active. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin ( 24th of August - 20:30 UTC) reported that seismicity and ground deformation are negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), only a few ocean entries were oozing lava and laze plumes were minimal from overflights early this week. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007. On Tuesday, the SO2 emissions from the LERZ were too low to measure although SO2 smells were noticed. HVO bulletin (19th of August - 22:39 UTC) reported that the lull in activity at Kīlauea Volcano continues. At the summit, seismicity and deformation are negligible. On the lower East Rift Zone, the only incandescence is at the coast near Ahalanui where a few ocean entries are oozing lava. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007 HVO reported that during 8-14 August activity at Kilauea was characterized by a slowly-circulating lava pond deep within the Fissure 8 vent (though the pond was crusted over by 14 August) and a billowing gas plume, and a few scattered ocean entries. The summit area was quiet except for occasional rockfalls into the crater. Fresh black sand from fragmented lava was transported SW by the ocean current, and accumulated in the Pohoiki harbor, creating a sandbar. The westernmost ocean entry was about 1 km NE of the harbor. Earthquake and deformation data indicated no magma movement or pressurization in the system. HVO bulletin ( 9th of August - 19h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from Fissure 8 remains low and there have been no signs of reactivation or new intrusion. Up-rift of Fissure 8, Fissures 9, 10, and 24, and down-rift Fissures 13, 23, 3, 21 and 7, continue to steam. Ground crews and overflights continue to monitor these for signs of new activity. This morning's overflight crew observed a crusted lava pond deep inside the steaming cone at a level significantly lower than when viewed Tuesday morning. HVO bulletin (7th of August - 23h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from fissure 8 remains low. The morning overflight crew observed a small active lava lake within the fissure 8 cone, a weak gas plume, and a drained upper lava channel. The surface of the lava lake was about 5-10 m below the spillway entrance. There were a diminishing number of small active ooze outs near the coast on the Kapoho Bay and Ahalanui lobes and the laze plume was greatly diminished. Active lava remains close to the Pohoiki boat ramp but has not advanced significantly toward it. As of the 3rd of August, HVO reported tha fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the channel leading northeastward from the vent. Multiple overflows developed late yesterday afternoon and evening, one of which headed north toward Noni Farms Road, starting a small fire. Field crews determined the advancing overflow had ceased by 21:00 HST but that fires were still burning. Further downstream overflows were concentrated in the wide lava field west and south-southwest of Kapoho cone, also igniting small fires in adjacent vegetation. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 18-24 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that continued to spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and entered the ocean at Ahalanui. Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred about every other day (38.5 and 53.5 hours in between a few of the events). Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low. Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele's hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater; lava occasionally overflowed the channel, and on 28 July ignited nearby vegetation. Small plumes of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles) were generated at several points along a broad 2-km-wide flow front at Ahalanui. The westernmost edge was less than 175 m NE of the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park (by 30 July). HVO bulletin ( 16th of July - 19:31 UTC) reported that Fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. The channel is full but not quite up to the rim; there were no significant overflows this morning. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. Explosions were reported from the main ocean entry this morning with at least one being quite strong. Fissure 22 did not appear active this morning but sounds were heard from it last night. No other fissures are active this morning. HVO bulletin (July 15th - 21:21 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Lava levels in the upper channel increased briefly following this morning's summit collapse-explosion event at 3:26 a.m. Another short-lived overflow of the channel at the vent spread east-southeast this morning, but did not advance beyond the existing flow field. The channelized ʻaʻā flow west of Kapoho Crater continues to be the main ocean entry at the southern edge of the flow front. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. No other fissures are active on the morning. At 3:26 a.m. HST July 15, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath the summit of Kīlauea with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.2 earthquake. Seismic activity at the summit decreased immediately following the event, but is beginning to increase at this time. Earthquakes in the summit area have resumed following 12th of july collapse/explosion event at 2:42 PM HST, which had an energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. (updated map 12th of July). HVO bulletin ( July 10th - 19:57 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava steadily into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Disruptions to the mid-channel occurred yesterday afternoon producing localized overflows along the margins of the flowfield, mostly atop earlier lavas. A significant overflow north of the cinder quarry advancing yesterday and last night towards Cinder Rd. has stalled. An overflow lobe moving around the west side of Kapoho Cone remains active this morning and small brushfires are reported along the margins. Downstream, lava appears to be reoccupying the channel leading to the ocean entry were multiple fingers of lava are active. The southern margin of the ocean entry shows little sign of movement. Yesterday's channel disruption and overflows were caused by blockages that developed along the channel. Additional blockages and resulting overflows are likely to occur as long as the activity continues. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin ( July 10 - 3:05 UTC) Early on afternoon observers reported multiple overflows occurring along both sides of the main lava channel, in an area extending from near the "Y" intersection at Pohoiki Road eastwards to an area just west of Kapoho Crater. Overflows on the upper part of the channel did not extend beyond areas previously covered in lava. Overflows further down the channel have reached beyond the flow field, including one flow lobe that is moving northeast from the main channel towards Cinder Rd. Residents are urged to heed warnings and notices from Hawaii County Civil Defense. Based on information from ground observers and morning and afternoon overflights, the lower part of the main lava channel has undergone significant reorganization. In particular, the channel that had been open near Four Corners is now mostly crusted over, and plumes from ocean entry are significantly reduced. It is likely this is due to a blockage that formed in the early morning in the main channel upstream of Kapoho Crater. Flow volumes coming out of Fissure 8 remain significant, and it is possible that changes in flow channels will continue to occur in the coming days. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. At 9:20 AM HST on July 9, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath Kilauea caldera with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. The number of earthquake dropped from 25-40/hr to less than 10/hr. We expect the earthquakes to increase over the next day until the next collapse/explosion tomorrow. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halemaʻumaʻu continues in response to the ongoing subsidence at the summit. HVO bulletin ( 4th of July - 18: 53 UTC ) Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. ( video vortex ) At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing pasty lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Ag and Beach Lots. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the flow front. As shown by the July 02 thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is oozing from the flow's molten interior into the ocean along most of its broad front. Temporary channel blockages of the Fissure 8 channel causing minor overflows were observed just north of Kapoho Crater by USGS and Civil Air Patrol overflights. Fissure 22 is spattering about 50-80 m above a conical spatter cone and feeding a short lava flow that is moving slowly to the northeast along the edge of earlier flows. (updated map - 30th of June) . HVO bulletin ( 29th of June - 8:28 pm ) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. These overflows rarely extend beyond the existing flow field. No active overflows were observed during this morning's helicopter overflight.The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots and a few burning areas were observed on the south side of the flow and west of highway 137. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the entry area. As shown by yesterday's thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is moving beneath the crust and into still-molten interior of earlier flows before it enters the sea. HVO bulletin ( 27th of June - 8:07 pm) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. Small overflows on both sides of the upslope portion of the channel occurred shortly after midnight, June 27. None of these overflows extended past the existing flow field. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The morning overflight revealed that the northern margin of the flow field at the coast is oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots. HVO bulletin (June 26th of June - 7:13 pm) reported that funtains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern portion of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 0.6 mi wide area with multiple laze plumes from smaller oozing lobes. Fissure 22 showed weak spattering and tiny flows around the base of the cone. This morning's overflight crew also observed minor incandescence at Fissure 16/18. HVO bulletin ( June 25th - 10:59 pm) reported that the eruption in the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) continues with no significant change during the past 24 hours. Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area marked by billowing laze plumes. Fissure 22 is weakly active and Fissure 16/18 was not observed on the morning.At 4:12 p.m. HST on June 24, after approximately 17 hours of elevated seismicity, a collapse explosion occurred at the summit producing an ash-poor steam plume that went undetected by the weather radar. Visual observations suggested the plume rose less than 2000 ft above the caldera before drifting downwind to the southwest. The energy released by the event was equivalent to a magnitude 5.3 earthquake. HVO bulletin 23rd of June - 18:40 UTC) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. During an overflight early this morning, geologists observed incandescence from Fissure 22, but no associated spattering or flow. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The entry areas are marked by billowing laze plumes. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 13-19 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was occasionally noted, and spattering was visible at Fissure 6 on 16 June. Hawai‘i County Civil Defense reported that by 17 June a total of 533 homes had been destroyed due to lava flows. HVO bulletin (June 17th - 8:15 UTC) reported that the Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption in Leilani Estates continued with little change. Fountains from the Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to feed lava into the well-established channel that flows to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava and mild spattering from Fissure 15 was observed late in the day. The flow field is relatively stable with little change to its size and shape for the past few days. HVO bulletin (16th - 2:59 UTC) reported that lava fountains from Fissure 8 reached heights between 100 and 130 ft with bursts up to 180 ft while the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 170 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. The early afternoon overflight found the Fissure 8 vent, channel, and entry stable with a small amount of expansion at the southern boundary of the flow near the coast and south of Vacationland. Fissure 24 (southeast of Fissure 8) seemed to be steamier and emitting more fume. Fissure 9 (southeast of Fissure 24) appeared hotter and will be checked on the ground this afternoon. HVO bulletin (June 15th - 8:27 UTC) reported that fssure 8 lava fountains reached heights of 200 ft in the afternoon, and the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 160 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (14th of June - 8:21 UTC) reported that lava fountains reaching heights of 53 m (174 ft) were observed at Fissure 8 in the late afternoon. Lava from Fissure 8 continues to flow through the well-established channel to the ocean at Kapoho, with rare, small overflows of the channel levees. A laze plume at the ocean entry was blown onshore this afternoon, and areas of upwelling offshore were present throughout the day. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (13th of june- 2:12 UTC) reported that line of closely spaced vents at Fissure 8 are continuing to erupt producing fountains encircled by a 115-ft spatter cone. This activity continues to feed the fast moving channelized flow that is entering the ocean at Kapoho. Weak lava activity continues at Fissures 16/18 as has been noted for the last several days. Incandescence was noted at Fissures 15 and 22. Lava was entering the ocean over a broader length this morning with several minor incandescent points and small plumes and two larger entries and corresponding plumes. The upwelling areas were also more dispersed than yesterday. (updated map 13th of June) . HVO bulletin (12th - 2:09 UTC) reported that three closely spaced lava fountains at fissure 8 are erupting with fluctuating heights from below the 115 ft high spatter cone around it up to 180 feet. Lava continues to be fed into the channelized flow trending north and then east to a single ocean entry at Kapoho. Weak lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was observed last night. This morning's overflight confirms that fountaining continues at Fissure 8 and that its channel is nearly full with no spillovers. Minor steam explosions were observed at the ocean entry. HVO bulletin reported that Fissure 8 now consists of three closely-spaced lava fountains, the tallest of which reached heights of 130-180 feet, feeding a strong channel to the northeast and then east to the ocean entry. During the day, minor spillovers have dribbled over the Fissure 8 channel levees but have generally stalled before reaching ground not covered by previous lava flows. Yesterday's measurements show that gas emissions from the fissure system have nearly doubled, possibly indicating an increase in eruption rate from Fissure 8. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 continued. HVO bulletin (June 9th - 8:49 UTC) reported thatLava continues to erupt from Fissure 8, with vigorous fountains reaching heights of about 200-220 feet. Observers on the late afternoon overflight reported no significant changes in the Fissure 8 flow field, which continues to supply lava to the ocean entry at Kapoho. Two vigorous steam plumes are rising from the ocean flow front and being blown inland. Strong thermal upwelling was noted in the ocean extending up to 1000 yards out to sea from the visible lava front. Heavy gas and steam emissions were noted at fissures 9 & 10, but lava emission is occurring only at Fissure 8. Low level ash emissions continue at the summit with slowly increasing seismicity, indicating that another small explosion is likely in the next several hours. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continues in response to ongoing subsidence at the summit. The number of houses destroyed since the beginning of this eruption has reached 600 including the areas of Leilani, Kapoho and Vacationland; This isthe most destructive eruption for Hawaii, listed in modern times, according to the mayor of the County. HVO bulletin ( June 8th - 8:24 UTC) reported that lava fountaining at Fissure 8 fluctuated with heights varying between 190 and 215 feet. This activity is feeding a lava channel flowing east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. The noon overflight found that the delta is about 1.2 mi wide in the Vacationland/Waopae area and observed the flow was expanding northward through Kapoho Beachlots. A large area of upwelling offshore suggests the presence of lava flowing on the ocean floor in that area. HVO bulletin ( June 7th - 00:34 UTC) reported that on the morning, lava fountaining at Fissure 8 continued to reach heights of 150-180 feet, feeding a stable channel to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Lava is entering the ocean in the Vacationland subdivision. Vacationland has been completely covered by lava, and overnight the flow expanded north by 100 m within Kapoho Beach Lots. The lava delta that formed at Kapoho Bay extended slightly overnight. The northern lobe of the Fissure 8 flow shows no signs of activity this morning, and there is only wispy smoke at the flow front. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin (June 6th - 8:28 UTC) reported that persistent lava fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching heights of 150-180 feet. This eruptive activity continues to feed a channel transporting lava to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Minor breakouts along the channelized flow have been very small and stagnated before travelling any significant distance. HVO's late afternoon overflight showed that the Fissure 8 flow is continuing to form a lava delta with limited continuing advances into the surviving parts of the Kaphoho Beach Lots and Vacationlands neighborhoods. The northernmost lobe of the Fissure 8 flow is advancing very slowly to the northeast. No other fissure vents are active. HVO bulletin (June 5th - 5:30 UTC) reported that fountaining at Fissure 8 continued feeding a robust lava channel to northeast along Highway 132 to the ocean entry in Kapoho bay. As of late afternoon the lava entry had built a delta extending approximately 700 yards into the bay. A laze plume is blowing inland from the ocean entry but dissipating quickly. The lava flow front is about 600 yds wide. A lava breakout was also occurring upslope of the Kapoho cone cinder pit but stalled about 300 yards southeast of the intersection of Railroad Avenue and Cinder Road. Sluggish lava flows are present in the vicinity of Fissure 18; all other fissures are inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 4th - 5:07 UTC) reported that fissure 8 fountaining persisted throughout the day to heights up to 220 feet, and the channelized flow continued to deliver lava northeast along Highway 132 to the Kapoho area. Lava is advancing along a 0.5-mile-wide front towards the ocean at Kapoho Bay between Kapoho Beach Road and Kapoho Kai Drive. As of 5:45 PM HST, the lava flow was about 245 yards from the ocean at its closest approach point. Other branches of the Fissure 8 lava flow were inactive. All other fissures are inactive, although observers on the late afternoon overflight noted abundant gas emission from Fissures 9 & 10 and incandescence without fountaining at fissures 16 & 18. HVO bulletin (June 2nd - 8:29 UTC) treported that fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching 180 - 220 feet in height and continues to feed a channelized lava flow to the northeast along Highway 132 and down into the Four Corners region (at the intersection of Highways 132 and 137). Small overflows from the channel are occurring along its length, including in a few places near the intersection of Highway 132 and Pohoiki road. As of 9:50 PM HST the flow front was approximately 0.28 miles from the intersection. The more western branches of the Fissure 8 flow either stalled or advanced only short distances. Fissure 18 appears to be crusted over or inactive. The flows that had been moving toward Highway 137 are either inactive or moving very slowly. Fissure 22 appears to be inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 1st - 4:41 UTC) reported that the fissure 8 continued to produce persistent fountains that reached heights up to 260 feet. A small spatter cone is forming on the downwind side of the fountain and is approximately 100 feet high. The fountains are feeding flow activity to the northeast, and minor overflows from the Fissure 8 channel are occurring along its length. One overflow covered the remaining northern part of Makamae Street in Leilani Estates. This overflow crossed Kahukai street, filling in a low area between Makamae and Luana streets. The front of the Fissure 8 flow near Noni Farms road advanced at rates up to 100 yards/hour. At 12:30 PM HST, the flow front was 1.9 miles from the Four Corners area. High eruption rates from Fissure 8 have led to the formation of a leveed channel along the western edge of the lava flow. Failure of flow levees could result in rapid advance of flows. Flow margins are extremely hazardous and should not be approached. Fissure 18 feeds the upper part of a lava flow that extends to 1.5 mi from Highway 137; the lower portion of the fissure 18 lava flow stalled about 0.5 mi from the highway. Fissure 2 is weakly active and is pooling lava around the vent. HVO bulletin (May 31st - 5:24 UTC) reported that fissure 8 maintained high fountains through Wednesday with sustained heights exceeding 200 feet and the presence of multiple secondary fountains that reached to 60 feet. This fountaining continued to feed a lava flow that moved downslope along Highway 132. Advance rates were less than 100 yards/hour for the three lobes of the flow. The flow moved north of Highway 132 in the vicinity of Noni Farms and Halekamahina roads, from which the two easternmost lobes advanced in a more east northeasterly direction while the westernmost lobe advanced in a northeasterly direction. The Fissure 18 flow also remained active, moving downslope toward Highway 137 at rates of much less than 100 yards per hour. During the day, sporadic bursts of activity were also observed from Fissures 22, 6, and 13. HVO bulletin (May 30th - 2:51 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissure 8 remained very active today fountaining to heights of 200 feet at times and feeding a lava flow that advanced atop the Fissure 8 ʻaʻā flow that was active Sunday night/Monday morning. The first lobe of this flow crossed highway 132 just before 2 pm HST Tuesday. Lava continues to advance toward the northeast. Visual observations early Tuesday afternoon also confirmed continued weak activity at Fissures 18 and 19. Fissure 18 has produced channelized flows which have advanced 1.6 mi toward the coast. HVO bulletin (May 29th - 2:35 UTC) reported that the lava flow from Fissure 8 reached Pohoiki Rd. this morning and stalled as the Fissure's activity abruptly diminished. A few fissures reactivated briefly during the day. As of the 1 pm overflight, Fissure 8, 18, 20, 22, 6/13, and 7/21 reactivated with Fissure 7/21 having the highest fountains. The reactivated fissures have not yet erupted enough lava to reach the coast so the two ocean entry sites were relatively inactive. Only a minor ooze of residual lava was entering the ocean from the Eastern channel. (map) HVO bulletin (May 28th - 4:20 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissures 22 and 13 continue to feed lava flows extending south to the lava ocean entry. Signals recorded on stations in the LERZ indicate that the lava ocean entry remained active overnight. This morning, lava activity at both vents has diminished and the ocean entries are weaker than yesterday. Fissure 6 is no longer active. Fissure 21 has been intermittently active. Fissure 7 activity is very active, producing a large spatter rampart over 100 feet tall from fountains reaching 150-200 feet. The fountains fed two perched channels--the north channel fed a lava flow that advanced toward pad E of the PGV property and the south channel a flow that was advancing to the southeast along the west border of the fissure 22 flow.Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the Overlook crater, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the Kīlauea summit, the largest occurred around noon producing an ash column to nearly 10,000 ft. The Fissure 7 north channel fed a flow that advanced into PGV property and approached pad E before it stalled this morning; however, the flow was refreshed by lava from the vent and, about noon, started to advance again covering a portion of pad E and also producing a narrow flow to the north of pad E. These flows continue to be active as of this posting. HVO bulletin (May 26th - 2:56 UTC reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that also reaches the coast, making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a lava flow that has advanced northeastward crossing Kahukai St. at about 3:30 pm this afternoon and continuing to the northeast at a slow pace. Fissure 17 is barely active.At the summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 4:17 pm sending ash as high as 12,000 feet above sea level. HVO bulletin (May 25th - 3:12 UTC) reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fairly tall fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that reached the coast yesterday making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a pahoehoe flow that has advanced eastward covering most of the area bounded by Leilani Blvd, Mohala St., and and the fissure line. Fissure 17 continues weak spattering, Fissure 19 and 23 are no longer active. At the summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after the recent explosive eruptions, are again slowly increasing. At this time, based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. HVO bulletin (May 24th - 2:47 UTC) reported that fissure 6 through 22 continue erupting lava fountains. The fountains from Fissure 22 feed a single lava channel that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. The actual point of entry has continued shifting to the west. Fountains erupted from Fissures 5, 6, 13, and 19 continued to feed a lava flow advancing to the south along the west side of the Fissure 22 flows and may reach the ocean this afternoon or evening. Fissure 17 continue weak spattering, Fissure 8 reactivated briefly this morning to erupt two small pahoehoe flows over the initial `a`a flow. At the Kilauea summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 10:30 this morning. Additional explosions are possible at any time. HVO bulletin (May 23rd - 8:22 UTC) reported that eruption of lava and ground cracking continues in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision. Over the course of the day, the most active eruptive activity in the Lower East Rift Zone shifted to the middle portion of the system of fissures. The most active fissures were 22,19, 6, 5, and 23. Fissure 17, at the northeastern end of the fissure system is only weakly active now. Fissure 6 is feeding a flow to the south, roughly parallel to the western flow from fissure 22. Fountaining of fissures 5 and 23 fed flows in the eastern part of Leilani Estates. Small ash emissions from the Overlook crater have been occurring frequently today. Moderate trade winds were blowing to the southwest and noticeable ashfall may happen in downwind locations. HVO bulletin ( May 22nd - 2:11 UTC) reported that fissure 22 is erupting a short line of low lava fountains that feed a channelized flow that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. Spattering continues from a reactivated Fissures 6 that intermittently feeds a short lava flow. Fissures 17 and 19 continue weak spattering.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents. ( video -Photos ) . At the summit One explosive eruption of ash occurred at about 1 am this morning. Several smaller ash emissions have also taken place and produced abundant ash. HVO bulletin ( May 21st - 0:15 UTC) reported that spattering continues from Fissures 6 and 17 with significant lava flows being erupted from Fissures 20. Two of these lava flows from Fissure 20 reached the ocean along the southeast Puna coast overnight; however, a crack opened under the east lava channel early this morning diverting the lava from the channel into underground voids. This may cause changes downslope in the channel system and the ocean entry.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents.At the Kilauea summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after explosive eruptions on Saturday afternoon and Sunday noon, are again slowly increasing. Based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is still billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. . HVO buletin (May 19th - 5:53 UTC) that the eruption of lava and ground cracking in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision continues. Late on afternoon, a fast-moving pahoehoe lava flow emerged from fissure 20 and traveled southeast where it crossed Pohoiki Road. Estimates from Hawaii County Fire Department aerial video at 6:30 pm indicate advance rate of 300-400 yards per hour; this rate may change with time and USGS crews are in the area to try and monitor flow advance. Other fissures remain weakly active and volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind. Smoke from burning vegetation as lava flows advance is also contributing to poor air quality. . HVO bulletin (May 18th, 2:54 UTC) reported that after the summit explosive eruption early morning seismic levels have been gradually increasing, but as of this report no additional explosions have occurred. No earthquakes greater than magnitude 3.5 have occurred in the past day.Volcanic gas emissions at the summit remain high. At the Lower East rift zone tThis afternoon, fissure 17 is still actively spattering but the flow is nearly stalled. In addition, fissures 18, 19, and 20 have reactivated and a new fissure (21) has opened between fissures 7 and 3. An area 50-100 yards wide, parallel to and north of the line of fissures between Highway 130 and Lanipuna Gardens, has dropped slightly. This long depression is currently being filled by pahoehoe lava flows from fissures 20 and 21. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. HVO bulletin (May 17th - 2:47 UTC) reported that ash emission from the Overlook crater within Halema`uma`u has generally decreased since yesterday. Although varying in intensity, at times the plume contains enough ash to be gray in color. The cloud is rising an estimated 3 to 4,000 feet above the ground, but altitudes are varying with pulses of emission. The ash cloud is drifting slowly northward from the Kilauea summit and ashfall may occur in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Volcano Village. Communities downwind may receive ashfall and should take necessary precautions. Several magnitude 3 or stronger earthquakes occurred beneath the summit today. The earthquakes were at shallow depth and resulted in cracks in Highway 11 near the entrance to Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. Some facilities within the National Park were damaged as well. The explosive eruption of 1924 at the Kilauea summit was also marked by hundreds of felt earthquakes as magma drained from the caldera. This afternoon, eruptive activity remained concentrated at fissure 17 but the spattering was decreasing in vigor. The advance of the flow has slowed significantly since yesterday afternoon; the flow remains nearly 2.5 km (1.5 mi) in length. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. Magma continues to be supplied to the lower East Rift Zone as indicated by the continued northwest displacement of a GPS monitoring station. Elevated earthquake activity continues, but earthquake locations have not moved farther downrift in the past couple of days. HVO bultetin (15th of May 23:27 UTC) reported that as of early this morning, eruption of ash from the Overlook vent within Halemaumau crater at Kilauea Volcano's summit has generally increased in intensity. Ash has been rising nearly continuously from the vent and drifting downwind to the southwest. Ashfall and vog (volcanic air pollution) has been reported in Pahala, about 18 miles downwind. NWS radar and pilot reports indicate the top of the ash cloud is as high as 10,000 to 12,000 feet above sea level, but this may be expected to vary depending on the vigor of activity and wind conditions. Ash emission from the Kilauea summit vent will likely be variable with periods of increased and decreased intensity depending on the occurrence of rockfalls into the vent and other changes within the vent. HVO bulletin (14th of May 18:36 UTC) reported that on the morning, activity is dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter more than 100 feet into the air, and an advancing lava flow from fissure 17 at the northeast end of the fissure system. As of 630 am the fissure 17 flow had traveled just under a mile roughly east-southeast parallel to the rift zone. It is turning slightly south and at this time is about one half mile south of Highway 132. Fissure 18 that became active late yesterday is weakly active. A fissure 19 has been spotted very near fissure 15 as of about 8 am just northeast of Pohoiki Road and north of Hinalo Street at the east end of Lanipuna Gardens. It is producing a sluggish lava flow. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the vents. Yesterday with the onset of activity at fissure 17, powerful steam jets have occurred intermittently near the west end of the fissure. These jets may be responsible for some of the loud sounds reported by residents and emergency workers. HVO reported that as of late today (May13rd), activity was dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter bombs hundreds of feet into the air, and several advancing lava flow lobes moving generally northeast from fissure 17 at the downrift (northeast) end of the new fissure system. As of about 7 pm, one lobe was 2 yards thick and advancing roughly parallel to Highway 132. The flow front was just over a half mile southeast of the intersection of Highway 132 and Noni Farms Road. Based on overflight images late this afternoon, additional lava from fissure 17 was also moving slowly southeast. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated. At the Kilauea summit Deflationary tilt continues. A robust plume of steam and volcanic gas, occasionally mixed with ash, has risen from the Overlook crater within Halemaumau. HVO bulletin (May12th, 2:39 UTC) reported that Volcanic unrest in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. While no lava has been emitted from any of the 15 fissure vents since May 9, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Communities downslope of these fissures could be at risk from lava inundationHVO bulletin (May 11th 4:51 UTC) reported that High levels of unrest related to the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continue. While no lava was noted erupting today from any of the 15 fissure vents formed thus far, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Earthquake activity was high in the area today. Continuing ground deformation and located earthquakes were mostly in the area around and northeast of Fissure 15 at Pohoiki Road indicating that the intrusion is migrating further to the northeast. Steaming ground cracks in the vicinity of Highway 130 continue. HVO bulletin (May 10th, 2:55 UTC) reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Visible activity this early afternoon was again focused on the northeast portion of the fissure area. Fissure 15 broke ground across Poihiki Road, generating a pahoehoe flow about 20 m (66 ft) long. During an overflight of the area about 3 p.m. HST, geologists observed a new steaming area uprift (west) of Highway 130. During a second overflight at 4:30 p.m., the area was still steaming. Rates of motion increased late this morning on a GPS station 1.5 km (1 mile) southeast of Nanawale Estates. The direction of motion is consistent with renewed movement of magma in the downrift direction (to the northeast). Rates of seismicity changed little throughout the day; located earthquakes were mostly uprift (west) of Highway 130. Gas emissions remain elevated in the vicinity of fissures. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past week and the lava lake level continues to drop. At about 8:32 a.m. HST, a large rockfall from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake triggered an explosion that generated an ash column above the crater; the ash was blown toward the south-southwest. Rockfalls and explosions that produce ash columns are expected to continue. HVO bulletin (May 8th, 18:15 UTC ) reported that of 7:00 am, the eruption along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision has paused. Strong emission of gas continues from the fissure system that is now about 2.5 miles long. This pause is likely temporary and resumption of lava emission or additional fissure outbreaks are possible at any time. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from Friday's magnitude-6.9 earthquake continue and more are expected. Rockfalls into the Overlook vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater are producing intermittent ash emissions. Seismicity at Kīlauea's summit remains elevated. USGS/HVO continues to monitor the situation 24/7 in coordination with Hawaii County Civil Defense and other authorities. Field crews are onsite this morning examining the fissure vents, lava flow of yesterday, and searching for any signs of new or resumed activity. As of the 8th of May (3:59 UTC), HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. The location of activity today was focused on the southwest portion of the area. This morning, two new fissure segments broke ground. The first (fissure 11) opened in a forested southwest of Leilani Estates about 9:30 am and was active for only 3 hours. The second (fissure 12) opened about 12:20 between older fissures 10 and 11. By 3:15 pm, both new fissures were in active but the west end of fissure 10 was steaming heavily. Cracks on Highway 130 widened from 7 cm to 8 cm over the course of the day and additional cracks were found just west of the highway on trend with the eruptive fissures. As of the 7th of May (6:59 UTC) HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Fissure 8 erupted lava fountains until about 4 p.m. HST, and the aa' flow advanced slowly northward through the afternoon, even after the lava fountains shut down. Geologists reported this early evening that the flow crossed Ho'okopu Road, a distance from fissure 8 of about about 1.1 km (0.6 miles). They also reported new ground cracks in the vicinity of fissures 8 and 9 that were emitting thick steam and gases, but no lava spattering was observed by the time of this status report. Rates of seismicity and deformation decreased in the past day. The absence of additional deformation in the past day suggests a pause in magma acculumation in the distal part of the intrusion. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past several days. Corresponding to this deflationary trend, the summit lava lake level in Overlook crater dropped about 2 m (6.5 ft) per hour during the day. The lake level has dropped an estimated 220 m (722 ft) since the collapse of Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater on April 30. Rockfalls from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake continue to produce ashy plumes above Halema'uma'u crater. Rockfalls and ashy plumes are expected to continue as the lake level drops. Earthquake activity in the summit remains at elevated levels. In the past 24 hours, about 31 magnitude-2 earthquakes occurred at depths less than 5 km (3 miles) beneath the summit area (compared to the 24-hour period when 152 magnitude-2 and magnitude-3 earthquakes. These earthquakes are related to the ongoing subsidence of the summit area and earthquakes beneath the south flank of the volcano. HVO bulletin ( Saturday, May 5, 2018, 21:54 UTC) reported that active eruption of lava and gas continues along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision. Additional fissure vents producing spatter and small lava flows developed early this morning, and additional outbreaks in the area are likely. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from yesterday's M6.9 earthquake continue and more should be expected, with larger aftershocks potentially producing rockfalls and associated ash clouds above Puʻu ʻŌʻō and Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Residents of the Puna District should remain alert, review individual, family, and business emergency plans, and watch for further information about the status of the volcano. Video. According to latest HVO bulletin (Saturday, May 5, 2018, 02:04 UTC) eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Several additional eruptive fissures or vents - each several hundred yards long - have opened over the past day. No significant lava flows have yet formed. Spatter and lava are accumulating primarily within a few tens of yards of the vent. The sixth and most recent fissure is on the eastern edge of the subdivision. Not all fissure vents remain active and no far-traveled lava flows have formed. For maps showing the locations of these features :https://volcano es.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_maps.html .HVO geologists will be in the area overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity using various monitoring data streams. Seismicity and deformation are consistent with continued accumulation of magma within the rift zone. Additional outbreaks of lava are expected. According to report from HVO (Friday, May 4, 2018, 08:13 UTC) the eruption in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano that began in late afternoon temporary ended by about 6:30 p.m. HST. Lava spatter and gas bursts erupted from the fissure for about two hours, and lava spread a short distance from the fissure, less than about 10 m (33 ft). At this time, the fissure is not erupting lava and no other fissures have erupted. HVO geologists are working near the fissure overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity. Geologists reported this evening that the presence of sulfur gas is quite noticeable around the fissure, typical of active and recently active fissures. The concentration of sulfur dioxide gas is high within tens of meters (yards) of the fissure. Lava flows did not advance more than about 10 m (33 ft) from the fissure. The flows are no longer active. At this time, no other fissures have erupted from along the rift zone. Tiltmeters at Kīlauea's summit continue to record deflationary tilt and the lava lake level has dropped about 37 m (121 ft) in the past 24 hours. Seismic activity has not changed significantly during the day or since the brief fissure eruption. Previously, HVO reported that the intrusion of molten rock into the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano reached the surface in the late afternoon on May 3 in a part of Leilani Estates. A fissure about 150 m (492 ft) long erupted mostly spatter and intermittent bubble bursts for about 2 hours.Lava did not travel more than a few m (yards) from the fissure.Hawaii County Civil Defence is coordinating needed response including evacuation of a portion of the Leilani subdivision. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory deployed geologists to the eruption site overnight, and other scientists are monitoring various data streams telemetered to the observatory 24/7.As of the 30th of April, in a special report HVO reported that following weeks of inflation, the floor of the crater of Pu'u O'o collapsed on April 30, 2018, between 14h and 16h30 in two episodes visibles on a thermal camera located on the edge of the crater. Bad weather conditions prevented the observatory teams to fly over the crater and cannot observe this activity.The collapse caused the release of a large amount of reddish ash around the Pu'u O'o for several kilometers on the 61 g lava flow. Following this collapse, seismometers and tiltmeters recorded an increase in seismic activity and deformation from the summit area of ​​Kilauea to an area between 10 and 16 km east of Pu'u O'o; during the night, this activity continued to spread along the rift zone to the east and the highway 130 to 30 km ... marking an area potentially at risk of eruption.The strongest earthquake of the sequence was of magnitude 4, south of Pu'u O'o 'on April 27 at 2:39. A new ladder crack, of 1 km long, has opened to the west of Pu'u O'o, characterized by heavy outgassing. its released a small amount of lava, according to the presence of small areas of spatters; it is no longer active. The level of the upper lava lake, located in the Halema'uma'u crater, has dropped 15 meters, suggesting an intrusion from the summit area during the weekend into the Pu'u O'o magmatic system towards the East; summit deflation supports this mechanism.The volcanic alert level remains at Watch and the aviation code is orange. Residents of Puna must remain alert and monitor information on the status of the volcano.During 18-24 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, and by late on 21 April had overflowed the S crater rim. As of midday on 23 April the new flows has covered about 16 ha of the floor, or about 30%. Overflows of the crater rim continued through 24 April, flowing as far as 375 m onto the N, SW, and S parts of the crater floor. HVO noted that the overflows were the first significant ones since May 2015. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 18 April geologists observed the pit crater on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, noting that overflows had built up the crater rim to several meters above the crater floor and 7 m higher compared to late March. During 11-17 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, with spattering visible from HVO and Jaggar Museum; by 16 April the lake level was 10 m below the rim of the Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 11 April a moderate swarm of over 200 earthquakes occurred at depths of 7-9 km below the summit. The largest event was a M 2.4. Seismicity returned to background levels at 0230. Three minor ledge collapses were detected on 12 April, one at 1157 and two just after 1830. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali; on 13 April most scattered breakouts were within 2.2 km from Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and one was about 5 km away. During 4-10 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand through 6 April. A rockfall at 1028 on 6 April triggered an explosion in the lava lake, damaging the webcam power system on the crater rim. During 28 March-3 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island. The Webcam images, which are updated every five minutes, can be accessed at : http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/cams/NCcam/ . From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

USA - Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaian islands)

March 17th, 2023

As of the 16th of March, HVO reported that the volcano has remained at calm stage since the effusive eruption ended on 13 December, 2022. The number of earthquakes beneath the edifice has returned to background levels. An inflation continues to be registered as magma refills the upper magma chamber. Thus, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is lowering the Volcanic Alert Level to "Green".The volcanic tremor has not shown significant variations. Previous news 2022 - As of 7:00 a.m., December 15, webcams only captured residual incandescence and no lava movement in the F3 vent. The channels below the vent appear drained of lava and no longer feed the main flow front.  The inactive main flow front remains stalled about 1.7 mi (2.8 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) when last measured on the morning of December 10.  The inactive main flow front still glows at a few spots at night and may inch northward very slowly as it continues to settle. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates are at background levels; on December 10, the emission rate was approximately 2,000 tonnes per day (t/d). Mauna Loa is no longer erupting.  As of 7:00 a.m. , December 14, webcams only captured residual incandescence and no lava movement in the F3 vent. The channels below the vent appear drained of lava and no longer feed the main flow front.  The inactive main flow front remains stalled about 1.7 mi (2.8 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) when last measured on the morning of December 10.  The inactive main flow front still glows at a few spots at night and may inch northward very slowly as it continues to settle. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates continue to be reduced; on December 10, the emission rate was approximately 2,000 tonnes per day (t/d). As of the 13th of December at 7:17 AM HVO reported that Mauna Loa is no longer erupting. (image)Lava supply to the fissure 3 vent on the Northeast Rift Zone ceased on December 10 and sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased to near pre-eruption background levels. Volcanic tremor and earthquakes associated with the eruption are greatly diminished. Accordingly, the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is lowering the Volcano Alert Level for ground-based hazards from WATCH to ADVISORY and the Aviation Color Code from ORANGE to YELLOW. Spots of incandescence may remain near the vent, along channels, and at the flow front for days or weeks as the lava flows cool. However, eruptive activity is not expected to return based on past eruptive behavior. Summit and Northeast Rift Zone inflation continues. As of the 12th of December at 19:35 UTC , HVO reported that the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa may still be active at the fissure 3 (F3) vent but all 2022 lava flows appear to be inactive.  As of 7:00 a.m. today, December 12, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory overflight found only residual incandescence and no lava movement in the F3 vent; as they were leaving the field crew heard small explosions accompanied by sprays of spatter from the west end of the fissure 3 (F3) vent. The channels below the vent appear drained of lava and no longer feed the main flow front. The inactive main flow front remains stalled about 1.7 mi (2.8 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) when last measured the morning of December 10.  The inactive main flow front still glows at a few spots at night and may inch northward very slowly as it continues to settle.(lava flow mapSulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates continue to be reduced; on December 10, the emission rate was approximately 2,000 tonnes per day (t/d). As of the 11th of December - 19:28 UTC - HVO reported that the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa may still be active.  Incandescence is restricted to the  cone that formed around the fissure 3 vent, there was no observable activity anywhere on the rest of the flow field overnight.  As of 7:00 a.m. today, December 11, the M8 webcam shows very little incandescence and no lava movement in the F3 vent. The channels below the vent appear drained of lava and no longer feed the main flow front. The inactive main flow front has stagnated about 1.7 mi (2.8 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) when last measured yesterday morning, December 10.  The inactive main flow front still glows at a few spots at night and may inch northward very slowly as it continues to settle. Previously HVO reported that lava eruption from fissure 3 (F3) on the Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa continues but with greatly reduced lava output and volcanic gas emissions.  Most lava is confined to the vent in a small pond.  The short lava flows active about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from the vent yesterday have stalled.  The flow front in the Humu'ula Saddle region has stagnated 1.9 miles (3 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) and is no longer a threat.   High eruption rates will not resume based on past eruptive behavior and current behavior suggests that the eruption may end soon. However, an inflationary trend of Mauna Loa’s summit is accompanying the decreased activity and there is a small possibility that the eruption could continue at very low eruptive rates.  As of the 10 th of December -1:36UTC, HVO reported that the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues, with reduced lava output and gas emissions at fissure 3 (F3) since this morning. As of 11:30 a.m. today, December 9, activity at the F3 vent continues to be significantly reduced, with low lava fountains feeding lava flows that extend only 1.65 mi (2.65 km) from the vent in northeast direction. The channels below this point appear drained of lava and probably no longer feed the main flow front. The inactive main flow front remains stalled about 1.7 mi (2.8 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road).  Yesterday, December 8, the inactive main flow front inched northward very slowly about 7 feet (2 m) per hour as it settled. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates were also reduced to approximately 30,000 tonnes per day (t/d) as measured on December 8, 2022. (Mauna Loa image). As of the 9th of December at 2:46 UTC, HVO reported that the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues with one active fissure, fissure 3, feeding lava flows downslope.  Fissure 3 vent continues to erupt but the supply of lava was reduced this morning. Lava was overtopping channels near the vent with flows extending no farther than 2.75 mi (4.4 km) from the vent as of approximately 9:30 a.m. this morning, December 8. The channels below this point appear drained of lava and probably no longer feed the main flow front, which remains stalled about 1.7 mi (2.8 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road).  The lava flow is now inactive for most of its lower length, but the flow front may appear to advance a little as it settles.   Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of approximately 130,000 tonnes per day (t/d) were measured on December 7, 2022, and remain elevated at this time. Volcanic gas is rising high and vertically into the atmosphere before being blown to the west at high altitude, generating vog (volcanic air pollution) in areas downwind. Pele's hair (strands of volcanic glass) fragments are being wafted great distances and have been reported as far Honoka‘a. Tremor (a signal associated with subsurface fluid movement) continues beneath the currently active fissure. This indicates that magma is still being supplied to the fissure, and activity is likely to continue as long this signal will be recorded.  As of the 8th of December HVO reported that yhe Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues. One active fissure, fissure 3, is feeding a lava flow downslope.  Fissure 3 is generating a lava flow traveling to the north toward the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) that has reached relatively flatter ground and slowed down significantly, as expected. The lava flow has advanced very little since 6:00 a.m. this morning, December 7, when it was about 1.8 mi (2.9 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road). The flow advance has slowed possibly due to a significant breakout removing lava from the channel about 2.8 mi (4.5 km) behind the tip of the main flow on the east side. The main flow has advanced at an average rate slower than 20 feet (6 meters) per hour during the 24-hour period prior to this morning. The lava flow remains active and is continuously supplied from the fissure 3 vent.  HVO crews have installed a new webcam to view the front of the main flow  Lava flow advance rates may be highly variable over the coming days and week. Lava flows advance more slowly, spread out, and inflate on the flat ground between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea. Individual lobes may advance quickly, and then stall. Additional breakouts may occur if lava channels get blocked upslope. There are many variables at play, and the direction and timing of flow advances are expected to change over hours to days, making it difficult to estimate when or if the flow will impact Daniel K. Inouye Highway. As of the 7th of December HVO reported that the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues. One active fissure, fissure 3, is feeding a lava flow downslope. Fissure 3 is generating a lava flow traveling to the north toward the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) that has reached relatively flatter ground and slowed down significantly over the past several days, as expected.The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory has not made observations of the eruption since this morning due to weather obscuring views and preventing fieldwork. As of 5:00 a.m. today, December 6, the flow front was about 1.93 mi (3.1 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road). The lava flow advanced at an average rate of about 68 feet per hour (21 meters per hour) over the 24 hour period prior to this morning; this rate is about twice the rate for the past several days. Over shorter periods yesterday, the advance rate varied from 62 to 90 feet per hour (18.8 to 27.4 m per hour). The lava flow remains active and is continuously supplied from the fissure 3 vent. Lava flow advance rates may be highly variable over the coming days and week. Lava flows advance more slowly, spread out, and inflate on the flat ground between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea. Individual lobes may advance quickly, and then stall. Additional breakouts may occur if lava channels get blocked upslope. There are many variables at play, and the direction and timing of flow advances are expected to change over hours to days, making it difficult to estimate when or if the flow will impact Daniel K. Inouye Highway. As of the 6th of December - 2:23 UTC , HVO reported that The Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues. One active fissure, fissure 3, is feeding a lava flow downslope.  Fissure 3 is generating a lava flow traveling to the north toward the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) that has reached relatively flatter ground and slowed down significantly over the past several days, as expected.   As of 12 p.m. December 5, the flow front was about 2.15 mi (3.5 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road). There continued to be several small overflows from main channels recorded over the past day. During the past 24 hours, the lava flow advanced at an average rate of about 20 feet per hour (6 meters per hour).  Though the advance rate has slowed over the past several days, the lava flow remains active with a continuous supply from the fissure 3 vent.  Advance rates may be highly variable over the coming days and weeks. On the flat ground between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea, lava flows advance more slowly, spread out, and inflate. Individual lobes may advance quickly, and then stall. Additional breakouts may occur if lava channels get blocked upslope. There are many variables at play and both the direction and timing of flow advances are expected to change over periods of hours to days, making it difficult to estimate when or if the flow will impact Daniel K. Inouye Highway.   Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of approximately 120,000 tonnes per day (t/d) were measured on December 4, 2022. As of the 5th of December - 2:22 UTC, HVO reported that he Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues. One active fissure, fissure 3, is feeding a lava flow downslope.  Fissure 3 is generating a lava flow traveling to the north toward the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) that has reached relatively flatter ground and slowed down significantly over the past several days, as expected.    As of 12 p.m. December 4th, the flow front was about 2.25 mi (3.6 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road). Where the fissure 3 lava channel is branching, on the steeper slopes of the Northeast flank about half way down the lava flow, there were several small overflows recorded over the past day. During the past 24 hours, the lava flow advanced at an average rate of about 40 feet per hour (12 meters per hour). Though the advance rate has slowed over the past several days, the lava flow remains active with a continuous supply from the fissure 3 vent.    Advance rates may be highly variable over the coming days and weeks. On the flat ground between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea, lava flows advance more slowly, spread out, and inflate. Individual lobes may advance quickly, and then stall. Additional breakouts may occur if lava channels get blocked upslope. There are many variables at play and both the direction and timing of flow advances are expected to change over periods of hours to days, making it difficult to estimate when or if the flow will impact Daniel K. Inouye Highway.   As of the 4th of December, HVO reported that the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues, with little change since this morning. One active fissure, fissure 3, is feeding a lava flow downslope. Fissure 3 is generating a lava flow traveling to the north toward the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) that has reached relatively flatter ground and slowed down significantly over the past several days, as expected.   As of 1 p.m. today, December 3, the flow front was about 2.4 mi (3.9 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road). During the past 24 hours, the lava flow advanced at an average rate of about 40 feet per hour (13 meters per hour). Though the advance rate has slowed over the past 24 hours, the lava flow remains active.   Advance rates may be highly variable over the coming days and weeks. On the flat ground between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea, lava flows advance more slowly, spread out, and inflate. Individual lobes may advance quickly, and then stall. Additional breakouts may occur if lava channels get blocked upslope. There are many variables at play and both the direction and timing of flow advances are expected to change over periods of hours to days, making it difficult to estimate when or if the flow will impact Daniel K. Inouye Highway.  As of the 3rd of December - 2:39 UTC, HVO reported that the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues, with little change since this morning. One active fissure, fissure 3, is feeding a lava flow downslope. Fissure 4 is sluggish, and fissures 1 and 2 are no longer active.  Fissure 3 is generating a lava flow traveling to the north toward the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) that has reached relatively flatter ground and slowed down significantly over the past couple of days, as expected.   As of 7:00 a.m. this morning, the flow front was about 2.7 mi (4.3 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road). During the previous 24-hour period, the lava flow advanced at an average rate of 150 feet per hour (45 meters per hour). The lava flow remains active. Around fissure 3, a cone is developing; it was measured as approximately 157 (48 m) high today. Fissure 4 continues to be active, but with very little eruptive activity observed this morning.   Advance rates may be highly variable over the coming days and weeks due to the way lava is emplaced on flat ground. On flat ground, lava flows spread out and inflate. Individual lobes may advance quickly, and then stall. Additional breakouts may occur if lava channels get clogged upslope. There are many variables at play and both the direction and timing of flow advance are  expected to change over periods of hours to days, making it difficult to estimate when or if the flow will impact Daniel K. Inouye Highway. S ulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of approximately 180,000 tonnes per day (t/d) were measured on December 1, 2022. Erupted lavas have undergone a rapid analysis by HVO and our partners at the University of Hawai‘i Hilo. Lavas from the first 48 hours of the eruption are all very similar—samples from close to the eruptive vents are glassy and have no or very few minerals, whereas lavas sampled at flow fronts far from the eruptive vent have small crystals (<0.01 mm or 0.0004 inches) of plagioclase and olivine that grew during cooling of the lava flows. These samples have an MgO (magnesium oxide) content of 6.0-6.8 weight percent, which is very typical of Mauna Loa magmas. The average eruption temperature calculated from these MgO contents is 1156 degrees Celsius (2113 degrees Fahrenheit. Preliminary comparison of new lava chemistry with other historical Mauna Loa eruptions shows that the new lavas are not leftover from the 1984 eruption, but instead represent a new intrusion of magma into the summit and northeast rift zone, consistent with geophysical signals. Field crews report that today’s lava flows remain crystal free near the vents and full of small crystals at the flow fronts. Continued chemical analyses in the lab will help us understand how the eruption is evolving. As of the 2nd of December 3:00 UTC, HVO reported that the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues, with two active fissures feeding lava flows downslope. Fissure 3 remains the dominant source of the largest lava flow. The fissure 3 lava flows are traveling to the north toward the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) but have reached relatively flatter ground and have slowed down significantly as expected (webcam Fissure 3). Advance of the largest flow slowed over the past 24 hours to a rate of about 0.025 miles per hour (40 meters per hour). As of 1:00 p.m. HST today, the flow front is about 3.2 miles (5.2 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road). Advance rates may be highly variable over the coming days and weeks due to the way lava is emplaced on flat ground. At the rate observed over the past 24 hours, the earliest the lava flow might be expected to reach the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road) is one week. However, there are many variables at play and both the direction and timing of flow advance are fluid and are expected to change over periods of hours to days. Fissure 4 is still active with lava flows moving toward the northeast.  The small lobe that was moving to the east from fissure 4 has stalled. Volcanic gas plumes are lofting high and vertically into the atmosphere. Pele's hair (strands of volcanic glass) is falling in the Humu‘ula Saddle area. Seismic monitoring detects tremor (high rates of earthquakes) in the location of the currently active fissures. This indicates that magma is still being supplied, and activity is likely to continue as long as we see this signal. There is no active lava within Moku'āweoweo caldera, and the Southwest Rift Zone is not erupting. We do not expect any eruptive activity outside the Northeast Rift Zone. No property is at risk currently. As of the 1st of December 2:10 UTC, HVO reported that the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues, with two active fissures feeding lava flows downslope (map). The fissure 3 lava flows are travelling to the north, still moving toward the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road). Fissure 3 remains the dominant source of the largest lava flow. Advance of the largest flow slowed between 7 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. HST today to a rate of 0.02 miles per hour (24 meters per hour). As of 12:30 HST p.m. today, the flow front remained about 3.6 miles (5.8 km) from the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road).  The flows are reaching a relatively flat area and are beginning to slow down; as this happens, the lava flow will spread out and inflate. Forecasts indicate it may take two days for lava flows to reach the Daniel K. Inouye Highway (Saddle Road). Fissure 4 is still active with lava flows moving toward the northeast. A small lobe is moving to the east from fissure 4 at a slower rate than the main lobe. Volcanic gas plumes are lofting high and vertically into the atmosphere. Pele's hair (strands of volcanic glass) is falling in the Humu‘ula Saddle area. Seismic monitoring detects tremor (high rates of earthquakes) in the location of the currently active fissures. This indicates that magma is still being supplied, and activity is likely to continue as long as we see this signal. There is no active lava within Moku'āweoweo caldera, and the Southwest Rift Zone is not erupting. We do not expect any eruptive activity outside the Northeast Rift Zone. No property is at risk currently. As of the 30th of November morning 2:23 UTC; HVO reported that the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues, with several fissures and lava flows active. Several lava flows are traveling in a northeast direction. The longest and largest lava flow is issuing from fissure 3. This lava flow crossed the Mauna Loa Weather Observatory Road at approximately 8 p.m. yesterday evening, November 29, and the flow front was located approximately 4.5 miles (7.5 km) from Saddle Road at approximately 3:30 p.m.HST this afternoon (straight line distance).This afternoon, fountains at fissure 3 were consistently 40-50 m (131-164 ft) tall and fountains at fissure 4, which formed at approximately 7:30 p.m. HST on November 28, were 5-10 m (16-33 ft) tall.There is no active lava within Moku'āweoweo caldera, and there is no lava erupting from the Southwest Rift Zone. We do not expect any eruptive activity outside the Northeast Rift Zone. No property is at risk currently. There is a visible gas plume from the erupting fissure fountains and lava flows, with the plume primarily being blown to the North. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of approximately 250,000 tonnes per day(t/d) were measured on November 28, 2022. As of the 29th of November at 2:55 UTC, HVO reported that eruption of Mauna Loa continues on the Northeast Rift Zone. Three fissures erupted and as of 1:30 PM, only the lowest of the three fissures was active.(map) Estimates of the tallest fountain heights are between 100–200 ft (30 – 60 m), but most are a few yards (meters) tall. The fissures sent lava flows to the northeast and parallel to the rift zone. Lava flows from the two higher fissures moved downslope but stalled about 11 miles (18 km) from Saddle Road. Fissure 3 is currently feeding lava flows moving east parallel to the Northeast Rift Zone. These remain at above 10,000 feet elevation and over 10 miles (16 km) away from Saddle Road. We do not expect upper fissures to reactivate. However, additional fissures could open along the Northeast Rift Zone below the current location, and lava flows can continue to travel downslope. There is no active lava within Moku'āweoweo caldera, and there is no lava erupting from the Southwest Rift Zone. We do not expect any eruptive activity outside the Northeast Rift Zone. No property is at risk currently. There is a visible gas plume from the erupting fissure fountains and lava flows, with the plume primarily being blown to the Northwest. Previously, At approximately 11:30 p.m. HST this evening, November 27, an eruption began in Moku‘āweoweo, the summit caldera of Mauna Loa, inside Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. At this time, lava flows are contained within the summit area and are not threatening downslope communities. Winds may carry volcanic gas and possibly fine ash and Pele’s hair downwind. Residents at risk from Mauna Loa lava flows should review preparedness and refer to Hawai‘i County Civil Defense information for further guidance. Based on past events, the early stages of a Mauna Loa eruption can be very dynamic and the location and advance of lava flows can change rapidly. If the eruption remains in Moku‘āweoweo (the summit caldera), lava flows will most likely be confined within the caldera walls. However, if the eruptive vents migrate outside its walls, lava flows may move rapidly downslopeHVO is in close consultation with emergency management partners and will be monitoring the volcano closely to provide further updates on activity. As soon as possible, HVO will conduct aerial reconnaissance to better describe the eruption and assess hazards. HVO reported continuing unrest at Mauna Loa during 9-15 November. The seismic network detected 27-74 daily small-magnitude (below M 3) earthquakes 2-5 km beneath Mokua'weoweo caldera and 6-8 km beneath the upper NW flank of Mauna Loa. An M 3.6 earthquake occurred NW of the summit on 9 November at 0621. Data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments at the summit and flanks showed continuing inflation, though data from tiltmeters at the summit did not show significant surface deformation over the past week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).HVO reported continuing unrest at Mauna Loa during 1-8 November. The seismic network detected 13-50 daily small-magnitude (below M 3) earthquakes 2-5 km beneath Mokuea weoweo caldera and 6-8 km beneath the upper NW flank of Mauna Loa. Data from Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments at the summit and flanks showed continuing inflation, though data from tiltmeters at the summit did not show significant surface deformation over the past week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale)..webcams . Massive Mauna Loa shield volcano rises almost 9 km above the sea floor to form the world's largest active volcano. Flank eruptions are predominately from the lengthy NE and SW rift zones, and the summit is cut by the Mokuaweoweo caldera, which sits within an older and larger 6 x 8 km caldera. Two of the youngest large debris avalanches documented in Hawaii traveled nearly 100 km from Mauna Loa; the second of the Alika avalanches was emplaced about 105,000 years ago (Moore et al. 1989). Almost 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is covered by lavas less than 4000 years old (Lockwood and Lipman, 1987). During a 750-year eruptive period beginning about 1500 years ago, a series of voluminous overflows from a summit lava lake covered about one fourth of the volcano's surface. The ensuing 750-year period, from shortly after the formation of Mokuaweoweo caldera until the present, saw an additional quarter of the volcano covered with lava flows predominately from summit and NW rift zone vents. (GVN/GVP)

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U.S.A. - Atka volcano (Aleutian islands)

April 9th, 2024

The activity at the volcano has subsided following the minor explosion detected at the summit crater of Korovin on 27 March. While intermittent small earthquakes and mild volcanic tremors persist, the alert level for the volcano returned to Green.As of the 28th of March, AVO reported that the alert status for the volcano was raised to "yellow", as a minor, short-lived explosion took place from the volcanic system last night. The eruption was detected at 19:38 local time by infrasound and seismic recordings, as well as by the Korovin webcam showing a dark plumefollowed by a short-lasting volcanic tremor. No ash emissions have been observed in satellite images. The Atka Volcanic Complex consists of a central shield and Pleistocene caldera with several post-caldera volcanoes. A major dacitic explosive eruption accompanied formation of the caldera about 500,000 to 300,000 years ago. The most prominent of the post-caldera stratovolcanoes are Kliuchef and Sarichef, both of which may have been active in historical time. Sarichef has a symmetrical profile, but the less eroded Kliuchef is the source of most if not all historical eruptions. Kliuchef may have been active on occasion simultaneously with Korovin volcano to the north. Hot springs and fumaroles are located on the flanks of Mount Kliuchef and in a glacial valley SW of Kliuchef. Korovin, at the NE tip of Atka Island, is the most frequently active volcano of the complex, and contains a double summit with two craters. The NW summit has a small crater, but the 1-km-wide crater of the SE cone has an open cylindrical vent of widely variable depth that sometimes contains a crater lake or a high magma column. A fresh-looking cinder cone lies on the flank of the partially dissected Konia volcano, located on the SE flank of the dominantly basaltic Korovin. Some late-stage dacitic lava flows are present on both Korovin and Konia. (GVN/GVP)

U.S.A. - Bogoslof volcano island (Aleutian islands)

October 25th, 2023

As of the 24th of October, an increased seismic activity has been monitored at the volcano over the past 90 days, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported. Increases in seismic activity typically precede eruptions, but many volcanoes have exhibited similar behavior that did not result in eruptions. There have been no other signs of unrest observed in satellite data over the past several days. Despite the elevated unrest, the AVO raised the alert level for the volcano to Yellow.End eruption report 2018- The AVO has put online a 3D multispectral image of Bogoslof, resting since August 30, 2017, end of the eruption 2016-17. The approximately 60 explosive episodes characterizing this period have significantly modeled the Bogoslof's morphology. The island has grown by a factor of three, reaching 1.6 km², but new pyroclastic materials and surge deposits are not consolidated; erosion modifies the contours of Bogoslof permanently, and in December, the lagoon of the vent opened on the ocean on the north coast, marking a gradual return to more modest dimensions ... general problem of news or remodeled volcanic islands: construction and destruction. Previous news - On 6 December AVO decreased the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Bogoslof to Unassigned, noting that no significant activity had been observed in seismic, infrasound, satellite, or lightning data during the past three months. The last detected explosive activity occurred on 30 August 2017. On 27 September AVO reported that the last explosion at Bogoslof was detected on 30 August, and no new volcanic activity was observed in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since then. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that during 20-26 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 22-23 September, indicating ongoing unrest. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 13-19 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 13-14 and 16-17 September, indicating ongoing unrest. On 17 September discolored ocean water was visible in satellite data, possibly representing outflow from the crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 6-12 September nothing significant was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. The 8 September report noted that the crater lake had been bisected by a narrow isthmus of land. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in one satellite image during 10-11 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at 0405 on 30 August and continued intermittently until 0555; the event produced a low-level ash plume that rose to around 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. Later that day seismic and infrasound data showed quiet conditions, and a low-level plume (likely steam) drifted almost 65 km SSE. Satellite, infrasound, and seismic data showed nothing notable during 31 August-5 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Three short-duration eruptive events occurred during 27-28 August. The first, a two-minute-long explosion at 1508 on 27 August, produced a volcanic cloud that rose 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The second event started at 0323 on 28 August and lasted 25 minutes. The resulting small cloud drifted ESE and quickly dissipated. The third event was detected at 1117 on 28 August and generated a small volcanic cloud that rose 7.6-9.1 (25,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were observed in a few satellite images during 28-29 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a satellite image of Bogoslof acquired at 0628 on 24 August showed elevated surface temperatures and a small plume that was most likely steam drifting 17 km S. During 24-25 August a robust steam plume drifting 70 km SE and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data. A four-minute-long explosion that began at 1629 on 26 August generated an eruption cloud that rose 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The event was also observed in seismic and infrasound data, and one lightning stroke was detected. . AVO reported that photographs of Bogoslof taken during an overflight on 15 August showed that the vent area (which had dried out during the 7 August eruption) had refilled with water. Seismicity decreased on 16 August and remained low at least through 18 August. Weakly elevated surface temperatures consistent with a warm lake were identified in satellite data during 19-20 August. Satellite data acquired on 21 August showed an approximately 125-m-diameter lava dome within the intra-island lake, just W of the 1992 lava dome. A cold volcanic plume, likely from the lava dome, drifted about 55 km S of the island. Some minor explosions were detected in infrasound data at about 0410 on 22 August. The lava dome had grown to 160 m in diameter. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that on 9 August seismic and infrasound data suggested low-level eruptive activity at Bogoslof; weakly elevated surface temperatures and a minor steam emission were identified in satellite images. No significant activity was observed in cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data during 10-13 August. Two short pulses of tremor were detected (at 0853, lasting five minutes, and at 0913, lasting three minutes) in seismic data; seismicity returned to baseline levels afterwards. A sequence of seismic events began at 0000 on 15 August; no activity was observed in infrasound, lightning, or satellite data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and theVolcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that during 2-6 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. An explosive eruption began at 1000 on 7 August, following more than an hour of increased seismicity. A pilot reported that an ash cloud rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l., prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. The eruption lasted about three hours, and was longer lived than most of the events in the eruptive sequence that started in December 2016. At 1341 AVO noted that the ash plume had formed a continuous cloud which stayed attached to the volcano and drifted S. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 8 August. Satellite images acquired on 8 August showed a significant expansion of the island towards the N with thick tephra deposits around the vent area forming a new crater lake. AVO reported that during 26 July-1 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in partly cloudy to clear satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 19-25 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 12-18 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images; weakly elevated surface temperatures were noted on 12 and 16 July. In addition no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code Aremained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Avo reported that two new explosions occurred at the Bogoslof on 10 and 11 July. The first one consists of a series of explosions that began on July 10 at 7:47 UTC and ended on 10.07 at 10:35 UTC, the AVO has passed the alerts to RED / Warning. A small cloud of ashes associated with the first episode reached 6,000 meters, and quickly dissipated in a southeasterly direction. A rapid decline in seismicity around 11:00 UTC lowered alert levels to ORANGE / Watch. - The second period of activity began around 6 pm UTC: seismicity and infrasound were increased for 8 minutes. No significant emissions were detected by satellite.On July 11, at 01:06 UTC, the seismic network recorded an eruption that lasted about 15 minutes. No volcanic clouds, lightning or infrasound were detected. Alert levels remain unchanged until data is evaluated. AVO reported that an explosion at Bogoslof was detected at 0124 on 30 June and lasted about 20 minutes. A small cloud from the event drifted about 16 km N and by 1815 had dissipated. Seismicity declined afterwards but continued intermittently at low levels. Beginning at 1248 on 2 July a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data. The event lasted about 16 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Following the eruption seismicity declined and no signs of volcanic unrest were detected in seismic, infrasound, on satellite data on 3 July; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. The ACC and VAL were again raised to Red and Warning, respectively, following an explosive event that began at 1651 on 4 July and lasted 13 minutes. An eruption cloud rose as high as 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. An 11-minute-long eruption began at 1907 on 4 July, producing a small cloud that rose 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. AVO reported that a new significant explosive eruption occurred at 20:48 UTC July 2 (12:48 AKDT July 2). AVO is raising the Aviation Color Code to RED and Alert level to WARNING for Bogoslof volcano. Satellite data and pilot reports shows a volcanic cloud with an estimated altitude of 36,000 ft asl moving towards the east. Seismic and infrasound data suggest that the ash emissions are no longer continuing. AVO reported that slightly elevated surface temperatures at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images on 23 June, and steam emissions were occasionally observed the previous week. Beginning at 1649 on 23 June a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data that lasted about 10 minutes. It produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 400-490 km E. The event prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Four additional explosions were detected, during 1918-1924, 2013-2021, 2104-2112, and 2152-2155, though any resulting ash plumes were not detected above the cloud deck at 8.5-9.1 km (28,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. On 25 June the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. At 1645 on 26 June an eruption which lasted about 14 minutes produced an ash plume that rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic and lighting data indicated that a significant explosion began at 0317 on 27 June, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. The event lasted 14 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Following a significant explosive eruption this 24 June at 0h49 UTC / 23 June 16h49 AKDT, the Bogoslof  has changed to a red aviation code. It produced a plume rising to about 36,000 ft, and was accompanied by a strong seismicity, flashes and infra-sons. The eruption lasted 10 minutes. The satellites located the volcanic cloud at 1:30 UTC, at 36,000 ft, moving northeast.AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures and a small steam emission at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were detected on 16 June, and a 13-km-long steam plume was visible on 18 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a new lava dome at Bogoslof breached the surface of the ocean on or around 6 June, and was the first observation of lava at the surface since the start of the eruption that began in mid-December 2016. The dome was an estimated 110 m in diameter on 7 June, and then grew to 160 m in diameter by 9 June. An explosive eruption began at 0318 on 10 June with a series of short infrasound signals which then, starting at about 0416, transitioned into several minutes-long continuous seismic and infrasound tremor signals. The events generated an ash-rich cloud that rose to an estimated altitude of 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. The eruption ended at 0528. Satellite data indicated that at least part of the volcanic cloud was more ash-rich than most in the current eruption period. On 11 June AVO noted no detectable activity in seismic or infrasound data after the event the day before. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Satellite image acquired on 10 June and a photograph from an observer aboard a jet aircraft on 11 June suggested that the lava dome was no longer above the surface of the water, and was destroyed during the 10 June event. A series of explosive events, each lasting 10-30 minutes, began at 1747 on 12 June and ended around 2035. Ash plumes rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. At 0817 on 13 June a six-minute-long explosion was detected in seismic and infrasound data. A plume was not observed, likely because it was too small or below detection limits. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that a short-duration (less than 10 minute) explosion at Bogoslof began at 1842 on 31 May based on seismic and infrasound data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted WNW, and dissipated over the Bering Sea. The explosion was preceded by a several hour-long swarm of very small earthquakes. Seismicity decreased in the hours prior to the explosion and remained below the detection threshold. A sulfur dioxide plume from an explosion on 28 May was visible in satellite data drifting over the Hudson Bay region of Canada on 2 June. A short-duration explosive event at 0750 on 5 June produced a small volcanic cloud observed by a pilot. Low-amplitude tremor was detected in seismic data beginning at about 1229 on 5 June but then decreased to background levels. A vessel in the area reported vigorous steaming and a white plume rising several thousand feet above sea level. A brief explosive event was detected at 0600 on 6 June. The event likely produced a low-level (less than 3 km or 10,000 ft a.s.l.) emission; a possible plume at 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. was identified in a satellite image following the detection of the activity in seismic and infrasound data, but quickly dissipated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. On 29 May the ash cloud continued to drift NE. No detectable activity was observed in data from seismic or infrasound stations located on nearby Islands, and no new activity has been observed in satellite data. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that the eruption at Bogoslof which began at 2232 on 16 May lasted about 73 minutes. Trace amounts of ash fell in the community of Nikolski on Umnak Island. Later that day the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch; no further ash emissions were detected and seismicity was low. Satellite data showed that the event altered the N coastline of the island. The crater lake was breached with a 550-m-wide gap along the N shore, and the NE shore had been extended 300 m from new tephra deposits. AVO reported that an increase in seismic and infrasound activity from Bogoslof was detected from stations on nearby islands starting at 2232 on 16 May, suggesting the beginning of an explosive eruption. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Watch. A pilot reported an ash plume rising as high as 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l., and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network detected lightning associated with the cloud. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. The eruption lasted about 73 minutes. On 19 April AVO noted that no new volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since a short-lived increase in seismicity on 15 April; AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and theVolcano Alert LevelIncreased seismicity at Bogoslof was recorded by stations on nearby islands starting around 1501 on 15 April, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The seismic activity subsided a few hours later; there was no evidence of renewed eruptive activity from infrasound, lightning, or satellite data during 15-18 April. On 5 April AVO reported that the Aviation Color Code for Bogoslof was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory based on the absence of detected activity at the volcano for the past three weeks; the last large explosion occurred on 8 March. No significant volcanic activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data during 6-11 April. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 29 March-4 April, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 28-29 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 22-28 March, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 15-21 March, and satellite views were either obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 20-21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 2236 on 7 March, indicated in seismic, lightning, and infrasound data, and lasted about three hours. Though ash was not immediately visible in satellite data, AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Later, satellite images showed a large ash cloud rising to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E. This event was the first detected eruptive activity since 19 February, and more than 1,000 lightning strokes related to the volcanic eruption cloud were detected during this event, by far the highest number observed to date. In addition the seismic levels were among the highest detected since the beginning of the eruption. Satellite images from 8 March showed that the W part of the island had grown significantly. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 9 March. Two earthquakes swarms were detected during 9-11 March; the first began at 1750 on 9 March and ended at 1400 on 10 March, and the second was detected from 1900 on 10 March to 0500 on 11 March. Mildly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 10-11 March. A third swarm began at 0500 on 12 March. A short-duration event, from 1131 to 1143 on 13 March, produced a small ash cloud that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. AVO noted that after the event, the level of seismic activity declined and the repeating earthquakes, detected for much of the previous several days, stopped. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images from 13 March. A photograph taken by a pilot showed a low-level, billowy steam plume rising from the general area of the intra-island lake. AVO reported that a new explosive eruption began on March 8 at 7:36 UTC / 7 March at 22:36 AKST at Bogoslof, characterized by about three hours of significant ash emissions. Activity was observed via seismic, infrasonic and lightning detection networks. A large ash cloud was seen by the satellites, moving east to an altitude of 10,700 meters asl. The volcano remains at a high level of instability, and its current aviation alert level is red. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in seismic, infrasound, or mostly cloudy satellite data during 22-28 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.AVO reported that during 15-16 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0955 on 17 February seismic data indicated the beginning of an explosive event, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Individual pulses of seismicity was recorded until 1140, and then afterwards seismicity was low. Satellite images and pilot observations indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. The event was also verified by infrasound and lightning data. Another short-lived explosive event began at 1546, detected in infrasound and seismic data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion at 0450 on 18 February was detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The seismic data suggested that ash emissions lasted several minutes, and then seismicity decreased. A preliminary evaluation of satellite data indicated that a cloud rose at least as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.; the cloud drifted SW. On 19 February the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Later that day seismic and infrasound data recorded a series of short-lived explosive pulses during 1708-1745. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. A plume identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 160 km SE over Unalaska Island. AVO geologists on the island described the cloud has having a white upper portion and a slightly darker lower portion. Storms in the region impacted data communications at AVO's facility in Dutch Harbor on 20 February, limiting AVO's ability to forecast and detect eruptions at Bogoslof. AVO reported that during 8-12 and 14 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0724 on 13 February seismicity significantly increased, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Satellite images acquired through 0930 showed no ash emissions above the 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. cloud deck, and no lightning was detected. AVO concluded that, despite the intensity of seismic activity, a significant ash emission was not produced during this event; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0520 on 31 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. A burst of tremor lasting nine minutes was detected starting at 0457 on 3 February. A second burst, starting at 0533 and lasting 20 minutes, was also detected by infrasound instruments, indicating an explosion. No ash cloud was detected above the meteorological cloud deck in satellite data. An event that began at 1642 produced a small volcanic plume that drifted about 40 km N below an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic tremor significantly decreased later that evening. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images acquired on 5 February, possibly related to hot deposits from explosive activity the day before. On February 3, at 13:57 and 14:33 UTC, two episodes of tremor were detected; The second, accompanied by an infrasonic signal, indicates an explosion, without cloud of ash observed by satellite.Several short bursts of seismic activity were detected at 0520 and 0608 on 30 January. An infrasound signal accompanied the first event indicating an explosion; an eruption cloud was identified in satellite data at 0530, rising to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. later that day AVO noted that bursts of explosive activity continued and intensified; more than 10 short-duration explosions were detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. Ash plumes rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 125 km SE. Trace amounts of ashfall and a sulfur odor were reported in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor (98 km E). By the next day the explosions had subsided or ended. Satellite images acquired on 31 January showed significant changes to the island. AVO stated that freshly erupted volcanic rock and ash had formed a barrier that separated the vent from the sea, suggesting that the change had resulted in the more ash-rich emissions occurring during 30-31 January. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0453 on 24 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. An hour-long seismic increase began at 0134 on 25 January though no evidence of eruptive activity was evident. Based on lightning and seismic data an explosive event began at 0650 on 26 January, and another burst of seismicity was recorded at 0706. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. An ice-rich cloud, first identified in satellite data at 0700, likely contained ash, and rose as high as 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE at lower altitudes, and NE at altitudes above about 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Lightning and seismic data again indicated an explosive event at 0824 on 27 January, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. An ice-rich cloud that likely contained ash rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E; seismicity related to ash emissions remained elevated for 48 minutes. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 1320 on 18 January, generating an ash plume that rose at least to an altitude of 9.4 km (31,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The dark (ash-rich) plume was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot, and produced lightning strikes and infrasound signals detected by sensors in Sand Point and Dillingham. Analysis of a satellite image suggested the presence of very hot material (lava) at the surface immediately surrounding the vent, which was the first such observation since the beginning of the eruption. AVO raised theAviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert level (VAL) to Warning. A second lower-altitude cloud was visible in satellite images around 1400, likely corresponding with an increase in seismic tremor that occurred from 1340-1355. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch the next day. Another explosion was detected at 1317 on 20 January, following an approximately 30-minute-long increase in seismic activity, based on seismic data and lightning detected from the World Wide Lightning Location Network. Pilots observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. Satellite images indicated an ice-rich plume and lava present at the vent. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, but were again lowered one level to Orange and Watch, respectively, the next day. Several lightning strikes north of Bogoslof indicated that an explosive event began at 1409 on 22 January. An ash plume identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, and again lowered one level the next day. Following a period of increasing seismicity, an explosive event began at 0453 on 24 January, as indicated in seismic data and lightning detection, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. Seven minutes later an ice-rich plume which likely contained ash rose too altitudes of 7.6-10.7 km (25,000-35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO reported that photos taken by a pilot on 10 January showed Bogoslof covered with dark gray ash, and a roughly 300-m-diameter submarine explosion crater on the E side of the island. Unrest continued during 11-17 January. Two short-lived explosions (five to six minutes long) were seismically detected at 1123 and 1230 on 12 January and observed by pilots. The estimated altitudes of the first and second plumes were 5.5 and 4.4 km (18,000 and 14,500 ft) a.s.l., respectively. Seismicity again increased at 2126 on 14 January and remained elevated. Six explosive events were detected between 2216 on 14 January and 0350 on 15 January. No volcanic clouds were identified in satellite data, although one lightning strike was recorded at 2232 on 14 January. Increased seismicity on 17 January indicated minor explosive activity; steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose no higher than 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.The last eruption of this volcano took place from July 6 to 24, 1992. It had Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 3 and produced a new dome.Bogoslof is the emergent summit of a submarine volcano that lies 40 km north of the main Aleutian arc. It rises 1500 m above the Bering Sea floor. Repeated construction and destruction of lava domes at different locations during historical time has greatly modified the appearance of this "Jack-in-the-Box" volcano and has introduced a confusing nomenclature applied during frequent visits of exploring expeditions.The present triangular-shaped, 0.75 x 2 km island consists of remnants of lava domes emplaced from 1796 to 1992. Castle Rock (Old Bogoslof) is a steep-sided pinnacle that is a remnant of a spine from the 1796 eruption. Fire Island (New Bogoslof), a small island located about 600 m NW of Bogoslof Island, is a remnant of a lava dome that was formed in 1883. (USGS-AVO)

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U.S.A. - Shishaldin volcano (Alaska)

February 19th, 2024

As of the 18th of february, after the recent increase of the volcano's alert level to Orange, no signs of ongoing ash emissions have not been shown over the past few days. The seismic activity remains elevated due to volcano-tectonic earthquakes beneath the edifice. Neither explosive nor effusive eruption at the volcano has not been detected. Hence, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) lowered the alert level for the volcano back to "Yellow".As of the 11th of February, the activity at the volcano began to increase slightly. Minor ash emissions at the summit were identified in the webcam imagery at 09:25 local time this morning. Tephra has been spread through the northern flank. The episode might be associated with seismic signals relating to debris avalanches. The low-level ash plume may result from non-eruptive collapse of ash and pyroclastic debris at the upper part of the edifice. Visibility got worse throughout the day as dense atmospheric clouds obscured the summit. Thus, the Alaska Volcano Observatory raised the alert level for the volcano to "Orange".Previous news 2023 - As of the 3rd of November, AVO reported that a new explosive eruption commenced at the volcano at about 03:40 local time early on themorning and is likely still ongoing. An ash plume was observed at 04:00 local time at an elevation of 20,000 ft, according to the National Weather Service. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Anchorage reported ash emissions rising to 30,000 ft. The eruption was preceded by a usual sharp peak in tremor, indicating magma moving upwards through the volcanic conduits.As of the 1st of November, AVO reported that the activity at the volcano has declined over the past few weeks. The seismic activity consists of the continuing low-level tremor and small low-frequency earthquakes. No large ash emissions have occurred at the volcano since 3 October. Recent satellite observations affirmed a decrease in surface temperatures and SO2 emissions. Therefore, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) decreased the Aviation Color Code to Yellow.As of the 18th of October, the seismic unrest at the volcano is ongoing. The Alaska Volcano Observatory's (AVO) instruments continue to record the elevated tremor, including small, low-frequency earthquakes. The latest Sentinel-2 (a combination of false and true color bands) satellite imagery of Shishaldin, acquired on 16 October, shows a strong heat anomaly on the northeastern flank. This affirms the emerging lava flow, currently about 460 meters long, resulting from the latest paroxysm event from early October. The intense steaming comes from the lava as the interaction of hot fluid emissions with snow and ice.As of the 15th of October, AVO web camera monitored a large water vapor-gas plume atop the volcano over the past 24 hours. The steam column presumably consists mainly of volcanic gases and water vapor and does not indicate an imminent eruption. This likely reflects the interaction of hot lava material with snow and ice. The alert level for the volcano remains at 'Orange' .As of the 4th of October, AVO reported that the latest paroxysm eruptive episode at the volcano is over. The AVO webcam has shown only 'venting' from the summit vent. The seismic activity waned, but is still above background levels. Volcanic flows on the flanks of the volcano may create lower-level ash emissions. The alert level for the volcano was lowered back to Orange. The intense eruptive period sustains at the volcano. The 13th lava-fountaining sequence (paroxysm) followed a usual several-hours lasting strong seismic tremor, a typical precursor of rapid magma flux towards the summit. At 17:20 local time on 3rd of October, it culminated in constant dense ash emissions spewing tephra up to 40,000 ft (12 km) elevation to the east of the volcano. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that the ash column was accompanied by volcanic lightning, suggesting ash-rich fine emissions in the plume.As of the 26th of September, AVO reported that the activity of the volcano began to show signs of waning this morning. At about 07:00 local time the day before, east-southeast dissipating ash emissions have been rising to estimated 38,000 ft height. In an hour and a half, at 08:20 local time, the ash column continued lowering to approx. 20,000 ft-25,000 ft elevation. Minor explosions have been occurring near the summit vent area, which represents the low-level activity. The seismic activity decreased significantly at about 06:00 local time. Soon after the eruption dwindled, minor fine-ash deposits were reported by the communities of False Pass, King Cove, Cold Bay and Sand Point that occurred during the recent eruptive period.AVO reported that the volcano entered another 12th eruptive period, commencing on 23rd of September and is still continuing at the time of this update. A seismic tremor started to accelerate over the past 36 hours. Given the geophysical data and regional infrasound sensors, a low-level minor eruptive activity has been occurring at the summit crater. However, no strong elevated surface temperatures, indicating the presence of new lava at the summit, have been monitored yet. Visibility has been limited due to dense clouds at altitude between 2,000 ft and 15,000 ft. Whether the activity sharply increases or not is not clear yet, but based on previous eruptive sequences, the activity may culminate in a strong fountaining period (so-called paroxysm) and ash-rich emissions. The alert level for the volcano remains at Orange so far.As of the 26th of August, AVO reported that the volcano entered another 8th strong eruptive episode a few hours ago and is still in progress at the time of this update. Volcanic tremor started to rise quickly at about 03:00 AM early morning today and has been intensifying until 04:30 PM when it reached its spike. The tremor dropped, but remains elevated. In the beginning, the eruptive phase consisted of seven explosive events spewing ash emissions up to 40,000 ft (12 km) elevation. Fresh ash deposits (tephra) have covered a considerable part of the edifice. Gradually, but slightly lowering of the continuing dense ash column has been reported by reaching its altitude to 30,000 ft (9 km), later 28,000 ft (8,5 km) extending about 450 km to the northeast of the volcano. During the eruption, strongly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data associated with emissions generated by fountaining and lava flows atop the summit.As of the 24th of August, AVO noted a low-level explosive eruption at the volcano's summit crater over the past hours. Elevated surface temperatures have been identified in thermal satellite views over the past 24 hours. Visibility of the eruptive phase was limited due to dense clouds.The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) reported that the recent eruptive episode decreased some time during 15 August. The seismic activity declined. Neither significant explosions nor ash emissions are no longer detected. . The volcano has been only steaming since last morning. Satellite views depict a sustained thermal anomaly at the summit, indicating the presence of hot volcanic material.As of the 15th of August, AVO reported that the eruptive phase at the volcano has continued throughout yesterday. Given the previous paroxysm series characterized by tall and dense ash columns, emissions have been reaching only a low-level altitude of about 16,000 ft (5 km) moving northeast. The National Weather Service has issued a SIGMET for this ash cloud. The 7th such episode from the volcano's summit vent took place within the past month.As of the 4th of August, AVO reported that the level of unrest has increased at Shishaldin Volcano. A steady increase in seismic tremor has been observed over the past 7 hours. Despite cloud cover obscuring the volcano, elevated surface temperatures consistent with lava erupting at the summit are evident in the latest satellite data. Based on previous eruption cycles, ash emissions are likely to occur and may increase over the next few hours.The eruptive series that started on 25th of July, has progressively decreased on 26th of July throughout the night. The seismic activity has declined as well, no significant explosions were no longer detected in infrasound data. Visibility of the eruptive phase was very limited due to dense meteorological clouds reaching altitude up to 20,000 - 25,000 ft (6,1 - 7,6 km). It is highly presumably that low-level ash emissions have been continuing in the vicinity of the volcano. The volcano entered another 5th eruptive phase at about 22:00 local time on 25 July by the continuing low-level ash emissions to about 15,000 ft (6 km) dissipating E-NE, detected in the satellite image.An ash cloud from Shishaldin Volcano reaching 30,000 ft. (9 km) was observed in satellite data and pilot reports at 11:30 pm AKDT (07:30 UTC on July 23). This follows a several-hour increase in observed eruptive activity. In response, the aviation Color Code is being raised to RED and the Volcano Alert Level is being raised to WARNING. Increased levels of volcanic unrest (seismic tremors and infrasound signals indicative of minor explosive activity and higher surface temperatures consistent with effusive activity) were reported at 16.53 AKDT (local time) on July 22. Although cloud cover obscured direct observation, it was inferred by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) that ash emissions were below 6 km asl (or around 3 km above the summit) At this time, the volcanic alert remained at "watch", the second highest of the four-level scale. The aviation colour code remained at orange, the second highest of the four-colour scale.As of the 18th of July, AVO reported that the activity at the volcano has decreased gradually. Ash emissions continue at the summit vent, but at a much lesser intensity thanthe day before, i.e. reaching only a low-level 10,000 ft (3,000 m) elevation in the south direction. The latest satellite imagery from 18 July shows multiple basalt-to-andesite lava flows in the N-NE direction that overflowed the crater rim and continue to descend slowly on the flanks. A night-time glow in the summit vent is being detected in the AVO surveillance camera tonight, reflecting the lava emerging out of the crater.As of the 16th of July, the explosive activity at the volcano has been continuing at intense levels over the past few hours the day before. Near-constant ash emissions persisted from the recently formed cinder cone within the summit crater for over 6 hours, accompanied by the ongoing seismic tremor. The eruptive period that began at 21:00 local time sent emissions of ash to an approx. elevation varying between 15,000 ft (4,6 km) and 16,000 ft (4.9 km), some of them reaching up to 20,000 ft (6 km) height. The ash column has extended about 125 km to the S-SE of the volcano, but later on has changed its direction to E-SE. The NWS has a SIGMET for this cloud and estimate it to be under 16,000 ft (4.9 km) above sea level. Frequent explosion signals were being detected at regional infrasound (pressure sensor) networks.US Coast guard flew over the volcano on 13 th of July and could see a cinder cone that has formed in the summit crater of the snow-clad volcano. Steam plumes from the cone suggest that it was active, most likely, in the form of strombolian explosions from the cone.As of the 12th of July 2023 AVO raised the alert for the volcano to Yellow, as elevated surface temperatures were identified in the upper edifice area this day. The Alaska Volcano Observatory detected high temperatures in the summit crater. This also confirms a heat radiation image from MIROVA (Middle Infrared Observations of volcanic activity), which measured a high thermal anomaly (100 MW) in the crater area. From a seismic point of view, intermittent volcanic tremor and low-frequency earthquakes have become more frequent over the past week. This change represents a variation from the background levels at the volcano, but this doesn't hint an imminent eruption so far.The 2857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." A steady steam plume rises from its small summit crater. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, it is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the west and NE sides at 1500-1800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century. Webcam . (GVN/GVP)

USA - Trident volcano ( Alaska)

July 26th, 2023

As of the 25th of July, AVO reported that a significant increase in low-frequency earthquakes (both shallow and deep-level earthquakes) started to develop in the region of Katmai volcanic cluster since May this year. The shallow earthquake swarm is currently located 4 km north of Trident volcano at 5 km depth. Deep events are distributed beneath the area of Trident and Novarupta volcanoes at depths between 30 and 35 km. These types of earthquakes often suggest an elevated flux of magma under the surface accompanied by long-lasting of continuous tremor. The seismic activity at Trident volcanic complex has continued at fluctuated levels since August 2022. In November 2022, the activity escalated and consisted of shallow earthquakes less than 5 mi (8 km) below sea level. Most quakes were less than magnitude 1, but dozens of magnitude 2 and 3 earthquakes have occurred. The earthquake rate averaged between 10 to 20 daily earthquakes, occasionally reaching rates several times higher. The largest event took place on 20 November with a magnitude M 4.6. Since early January, earthquakes have become more intense at an average rate of ten per day. In late February 2023, depths of quakes were mostly deep in the beginning, about 25 km, but became rapidly shallower at a depth approx. 5 km beneath the volcano over the following four days. Following the elevated activity, the AVO volcano observatory raised the alert status to "yellow" in February and still remains valid so far. Previous news 2022 - AVO raised the Aviation Color Code for Trident to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory (the second lowest level on a four-level scale) on 29 September due to an ongoing seismic swarm. The swarm began on 24 August and within about four days the seismic network began detecting episodes of weak seismic tremor and low frequency earthquakes. The events were initially located at depths around 25 km, but then they progressively shallowed to around 5 km by 28 August. Earthquakes were located 3-6 km deep since then, though some deeper events were recorded. AVO attributed the swarm to moving magma or magmatic fluids and noted that seismic swarms had previously been recorded with no subsequent eruptioAVO reported that the earthquake swarm that began on August 24, 2022 under the Trident volcano continues. In addition, episodes of weak seismic tremor and low frequency earthquakes have been detected since August 28. Together, these observations mean that Trident is showing signs of elevated unrest above the known background level. Therefore, we are raising the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. During the current swarm, earthquake depths were initially mostly deep at about 25 km below sea level, but gradually became shallower to about 5 km on August 28. Since then, earthquakes have mostly occurred 3-6 km below sea level, although some deeper events have been detected. Earthquake magnitudes (M) ranged from M –0.7 to M 1.9. At the height of the swarm, dozens of earthquakes occurred daily beneath the volcano, but earthquake rates have since declined to a few per day. No other signs of agitation were detected in the monitoring data.The Trident stratovolcano cluster was named for the three prominent peaks that were the most visible features at the summit prior to 1953. The andesitic-dacitic group consists of four overlapping stratovolcanoes and numerous flank lava domes, including Falling Mountain and Mt. Cerberus on the far west flank. The summit complex is located 3-5 km SE of Novarupta volcano, and merges along a ridge to the NE with Katmai. The three oldest Trident volcanoes are glaciated and Pleistocene in age, while the youngest, Southwest Trident, was formed during historical time. Eruptions migrated through time from the NE to the SW. In 1953 a new lava dome began growing on the SW flank of Trident I volcano. A series of thick andesitic lava flows were erupted between 1953 and 1968, forming a cone with 400-800 m of local relief. Periodic explosions took place until 1974, and the current summit contains a 350-m-wide crater. Some of the distal lava flows from West Trident stratovolcano collapsed into the Novarupta vent during its 1912 eruption. (GVN/GVP)

USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

July 20th, 2023

As of the 19th of July, AVO reported that an increasing number of earthquakes have been monitored in the vicinity of the volcano over the past week. Thirty-seven quakes were strong enough to be located by the local seismic instrument, although mostly with a magnitude less than M 2, but rarely more frequently than usual. In the early week, most of earthquakes were detected at 11 km depth but become shallower at less than 6 km beneath the surface as indicated by seismic recordings. In addition, elevated surface temperatures and continuing gas emissions suggest an increased likelihood of eruption in the near future. In response, the AVO observatory raised the alert status for the volcano to "Yellow". As of the 6th of January, a sustained reduction of volcanic unrest at Cleveland Volcano over the past few months has prompted the Alaska Volcano Observatory to decrease the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level from "Yellow" to "Unassigned". Elevated surface temperatures and sulfur dioxide emissions prompted raising the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level to "Yellow" on 11 May last year. This activity continued throughout the summer, but all signs of unrest have ceased or declined in recent months. Elevated surface temperatures in the summit crater are occasionally being observed but at reduced frequency and strength. Sulfur dioxide emissions have not been detected in satellite data since July 29, 2022. The last eruptive activity at Cleveland volcano was a short-lived explosion on the evening (local time) of June 1, 2020. AVO reported that during 15-21 June elevated surface temperatures over Cleveland were sometimes identified in satellite images, reflecting the continuing emissions of hot gases. Weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Crater subsidence in the summit crater was detected during the previous several weeks. Sulfur dioxide emissions were detected on 15 and 21 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.AVO reported that during 24-31 May daily elevated surface temperatures over Cleveland were identified in satellite images, along with plumes of steam and sulfur dioxide gas. Crater subsidence in the summit crater was detected during 26-27 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. As of the 10th of May, AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures and sulfur dioxide emissions have been detected in satellite data for the past two days, representing a departure from background activity. AVO raises the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level to Yellow/advisory.The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks. Webcam

USA - Gareloi (Alaska-Aleutian Island)

February 13th, 2024

As of the 12th of February, the Alaskan Volcano observatory have reported that the alert status for the volcano was raised to "yellow", as an elevated seismic activity beneath the edifice has been detected since 09:15 local time. So far, no significant changes neither in satellite data or webcams have been identified. The volcano continuously vents gases from fumarole fields within the southern crater. According to AVO) these observations suggest the presence of shallow magma and potential interaction with a hydrothermal system. The current increase in seismicity likely reflects a change to the magmatic-hydrothermal system, but it is not clear that the likelihood of a volcanic eruption has increased. AVO will continue to monitor activity to determine if the recent changes are related to influx of new magma or other changes to the magma system.The 8 x 10 km Gareloi Island, the northernmost volcano of the Delarof Group at the western end of the Andreanof Islands, consists of a stratovolcano with two summits and a prominent SE-trending fissure. The fissure was formed during an eruption in 1929 and extends from the southern summit to the sea. Steep sea cliffs that are cut into rocks of an older, eroded center are found on the SW coast, and submarine deposits of three debris avalanches produced by edifice collapse are found offshore. Young lava flows cover the older volcano from the summit to the coast along three broad axes trending NW, ENE, and S. The 1929 eruption originated from 13 craters along a 4-km-long fissure. Phreatic explosions were followed by the ejection of glassy pumice, lapilli, scoria, and older blocks, as well as by the emission of four short, steep lava flows, one of which reached the SE coast. (GVN/GVP)

USA -Aniakchak volcano (Alaska)

April 17th, 2023

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) announced that an increased rate of seismic activity at the volcano has been registered in mid-February, following the ongoing earthquake swarm from October 2022. Ever since, quakes have become more intense and shallower at less than 5.6 miles (9 km) depth. Later on, in mid-February, earthquakes have continued to pick up in numbers per day including a maximum magnitude M 3.3 on 17 February. Transmissions of seismic records were disturbed due to a network outage in early March causing an inability to detect small earthquakes. However, the seismicity remains above background levels. The evolving activity was found in the strongest quake with a magnitude of 3.3 on 6 April. Earthquakes and ground uplift (inflation) likely reflect magma injections and migration beneath Aniakchak caldera at depths between 2 to 2.5 miles (3 to 4 km). These shallow magma levels may indicate tell-tale sign of an impending eruption. Therefore, a decision has been made to rise the Volcanic Alert Level to "Yellow".One of the most dramatic calderas of the Aleutian arc, the 10-km-wide Aniakchak caldera formed around 3,400 years ago during a voluminous eruption in which pyroclastic flows traveled more than 50 km N to the Bering Sea and also reached the Pacific Ocean to the south. At least 40 explosive eruptions have been documented during the past 10,000 years, making it the most active volcano of the eastern Aleutian arc. A dominantly andesitic pre-caldera volcano was constructed above basement Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks that are exposed in the caldera walls to elevations of about 610 m. The ice-free caldera floor contains many pyroclastic cones, tuff cones, maars, and lava domes. Surprise Lake on the NE side drains through The Gates, a steep-walled breach on the east side of the 1-km-high caldera rim that was the site of catastrophic draining of a once larger lake about 1850 years BP. Vent Mountain and Half Cone are two long-lived vents on the south-central and NW caldera floor, respectively. The first and only confirmed historical eruption took place in 1931 from vents on the west and SW caldera floor. (GVN/GVP)

USA - Great Sitkin volcano - Andreanof Island (Alaska-Aleutian Islands )

April 18th, 2024

AVO reported that slow lava effusion in Great Sitkin's summit crater was last confirmed in a 10 April radar satellite image with continuing inflation over the vent and advancement of the NW and E lava lobes. Effusion likely continued during 11-16 April. Seismicity was low with a few small daily earthquakes recorded by the seismic network. Weather clouds fully or partly obscured satellite and webcam views during some of the week. Possible weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in satellite images during 15-16 April. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale). AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued in Great Sitkin's summit crater during 13-19 March. Weather clouds obscured or partly obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. A radar satellite image acquired during 17-18 March showed advancement of the active NW lava flow, movement at the E lava flow, and uplift of the center of the lava dome above the vent. Seismicity was low and a few small earthquakes were recorded during 18-19 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale). On 11 January AVO reported that a radar image of Great Sitkin showed that the thick flow in the summit crater continued to expand to the E and reached the N margin of an earlier flow; effusion likely continued during 12-16 January. Local webcams and seismic data communications were offline due to a storm-related power failure. No unusual activity was visible in mostly cloudy satellite images. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 15-16 January. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale). Previous news 2023 - AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 6-12 December with a thick flow in the summit crater mainly expanding E. Seismicity was low. Weather clouds obscured views during most of the week. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the third level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the third color on a four-color scale).As of the 6th of August, AVO reported that the effusive eruption at the volcano continues and is characterized by slow-paced viscous lava flows. The sluggish rate and high viscosity of magma have been causing its thickening around the main vent and forming cake-shaped lava dome in the inner summit crater from which two sticky, thick lava flow front arms emanate onto the steep eastern and southern flanks. The eastern lava lobe branch remains active and slowly advancing to the base of the edifice. The lava tongue on the southern flank seems to be stopped for a longer time, it has been mainly active in the beginning of the effusive phase in July 2021, from that time it appears inactive.As of the 17th of May, AVO reported that the effusive eruption at the volcano continues and is characterized by slow-paced viscous lava flow. The slow rate of the lava has been causing its thickening around the vent rather than its length advance. From satellite images, the active lava flow front continues to ooze out onto the eastern flank at a sluggish rate. Lava tongues on the southern and southwestern slopes, mainly active in the beginning of the effusive phase in July 2021, seem to have stopped or at least decreased its advance. The steep terrain near the lava flow lobes may cause to detach of lava blocks from it and turn develop into rockfalls tumbling down the valleys. The seismic activity continues at low levels.AVO reported that lava continued to slowly erupt at the summit of Great Sitkin during 26 April-2 May. Weather clouds obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. Seismicity was low, and during 27-28 April only a few small events were detected. Satellite data last acquired up to 24 April showed that the thick lava continued to expand toward the E and remained confined to the summit crater. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).AVO reported that lava likely continued to slowly effuse at the summit of Great Sitkin during 29 March-4 April, producing a thick lava flow. Minor earthquakes and seismic events were noted during 1-2 April. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest color on a four-color scale).AVO reported that a 15 February satellite image confirmed continuing lava effusion at Great Sitkin and growth of the flow field to the E, though effusion likely continued through 20 February. Weather clouds often obscured satellite and webcam views; steam emissions were observed during 17-18 February and weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 19-20 February. Seismicity was very low during 21-22 February with one small local earthquake detected. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).As of the 6th of February, AVO reported that the effusive eruption at the volcano continues and is characterized by the ongoing slow-paced viscous lava flow. The slow rate of the lava caused its thickening around the vent rather than the length progress as detected in satellite-based radar observations. The Alaska Volcano Observatory slightly elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite data from 26 January. Satellite and webcam views were mostly cloudy. The steep terrain near the lava flow lobes may cause to detach of lava blocks from it and turn develop into rockfalls tumbling down the valleys.AVO reported that radar images acquired on 13 and 15 January confirmed ongoing slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin; effusion likely continued through 17 January. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 10-11 January and a few small earthquakes were detected on most days during 10-17 January. Weather clouds sometimes obscured satellite and webcam views. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).AVO reported that slow lava effusion likely continued during 4-10 January, though weather clouds often obscured satellite and webcam views. A few small daily earthquakes were detected during 6-10 January and slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 7-10 January. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Previous news 2022 - AVO reported that satellite data acquired on 22 December confirmed that the lava flow field at Great Sitkin was advancing E. Slow lava effusion likely continued during 23-27 December, though nothing significant was visible in sometimes cloudy satellite images or detected in seismic data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-23 and 25-27 December. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 9-15 November and seismicity was low. Satellite images were often cloudy, though elevated surface temperatures were identified on 9, 13, and 15 November. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).AVO reported that slow lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 2-8 November and seismicity was low. Satellite images were often cloudy, though elevated surface temperatures were identified almost daily. The flow field continued to grow, with lobes of lava extending more than 600 m E and around 430 m S. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).AVO reported that continuing slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin was confirmed by a 27 September satellite image and likely continued during 28 September-4 October. Elevated surface temperatures were identified during 28-29 September; weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views during the rest of the week. Seismicity remained at low levels. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin likely continued during 20-27 September. Elevated surface temperatures were identified during 20-21 September; weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views during the rest of the week. A data outage that affected the local seismic network was resolved by 23 September. Seismicity was low during 24-25 September. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively. AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 9-16 August; no changes to the flow margins were visible but the lava had deepened around the vent. Weather clouds often obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. Seismicity was low and occasional local earthquakes were recorded. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on most days. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.As of the 15th of July, AVO reported that the slow eruption of lava from the summit crater of Great Sitkin Volcano continued this week. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed at the summit in satellite data on most days when the volcano was not obscured by clouds. Seismic activity remains weak with occasional small local earthquakes detected throughout the week. Satellite radar observations showed a thickening of the lava flow around the vent, but no significant change in the length of the lava flows.AVO reported that the eruption at Great Sitkin continued during 29 June-5 July. The lava-flow field grew slightly, expanding 15 m E. Elevated surface temperatures were occasionally identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes obscured satellite and webcam views. Seismicity was low. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that the eruption at Great Sitkin continued during 8-14 June. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data almost daily, consistent with lava effusion; weather clouds sometimes obscured satellite and webcam views. Seismicity was low with several small local earthquakes detected by the seismic network. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that the eruption at Great Sitkin continued during 24-31 May, though weather clouds sometimes hindered observations. Almost daily elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data, consistent with lava effusion, and satellite images during 28-29 May showed that the lava field had expanded. Steam emissions were occasionally visible. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion likely continued during 3-10 May; a 5 May satellite image showed that the S flank flow had advanced 15 m. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 6-10 May. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin likely continued during 27 April-3 May; no significant seismic activity was detected and weather clouds obscured webcam and satellite views. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively. AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 20-26 April, and very low seismicity persisted. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 13-19 April, based on high-resolution satellite data. Weather clouds prevented visual observations on most days. Very low seismicity persisted. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively. AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 5-12 April and very low seismicity persisted. The lava flows on the S, W, and N flanks had advanced up to 10 m during 2-8 April, and elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite images during 8-10 April indicated continuing effusion. Steaming from the vent and flow field was occasionally identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 30 March through 5 April and low seismicity persisted. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano most of the week, but slow lava effusion continued; minor flow fronts advanced from the W and S lobes, as well as the E margin. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.The 1740-m-high summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 meters. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Great Sitkin since the late-19th century. (GVN/GVP) Webcam

U.S.A - Pavlof volcano (Alaska)

January 25th, 2023

As of the 24th of January 2023 AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof has ended. No explosions had been detected since 11 December 2022 and seismicity had decreased to background levels. Weakly elevated surface temperatures and minor steaming from the recently active vent continue to be observed intermittently in satellite and webcam images, consistent with the cooling of previously erupted lava. On 19 January AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal (the lowest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).Previous news 2022 - AVO reported that effusive eruption at the volcano continues at weak levels on 22nd of November. The short lava continues to keep the flow active from the upper eastern flank vent. There has not been detected explosive eruption at the volcano for some time, but it may occur at any time and may be accompanied by small ash plumes. The level of unrest at Pavlof Volcano can change quickly and the progression to more significant eruptive activity can occur with little or no warning.AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 9-15 November and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Multiple explosions were detected almost daily in seismic and infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were seen in cloudy satellite images during 10 and 12-15 November. Clear webcam images taken on 12 and 15 November showed a lava flow and ash deposits on the upper flanks, though due to cloudy conditions earlier in the week the timing of these events is uncertain. Nighttime crater incandescence was visible in webcam images on 14 and 15 November. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 2-8 November and nearly continuous seismic tremor was recorded. Multiple explosions were detected almost daily in seismic and infrasound data. Trace ash deposits on the NW flank were identified in satellite images during 1-2 November, and minor steaming was visible on 3 November. Minor steam-and-ash emissions were visible in webcam images and observed by pilots during 3-4 November, and ash deposits on the flanks were visible. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 4-8 November. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).As of the 28th of October, AVO reported that the volcano continues to erupt from the active vent just below the summit on its southeastern flank. Several explosions were detected daily. These explosions had higher seismic and infrasound amplitudes than previous weeks, marking an increase in explosive activity this week. An almost continuous seismic tremor was also recorded throughout the week. Cloudy conditions generally obscured views of the volcano, although low-level ash and steam emissions were observed intermittently in clear web camera views. Elevated surface temperatures have been observed in satellite data over several days over the past week.AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 27 September-4 October. Seismic tremor continued, and a few small earthquakes were recorded during 28-29 September. Weather clouds often prevented views of the volcano, though elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on a few of the days. Diffuse steam plumes were visible in webcam views during 30 September-2 October. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 20-27 September. Small explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data during 20-21 September; seismic tremor levels were variable during the rest of the week. Weather clouds often prevented views of the volcano, though elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite and webcam images during 20-21 and 23-27 September. A diffuse gas was occasionally seen in webcam images during 25-26 September, and one plume with possible ash content was visible during 26-27 September. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 9-16 August, though cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. Seismic tremor persisted and multiple small daily explosions were detected in local and regional seismic and infrasound data. The explosions may have produced minor ash emissions that rose no higher than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated quickly, though on a few of the clear views none were seen. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on most of the days. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 29 June-5 July, and seismic tremor persisted. Daily elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite images were consistent with the continuing effusion of short (615 m or less) lava flows. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 14-21 June, and seismic tremor persisted. Daily elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite images were consistent with the continuing effusion of short (500 m or less) lava flows. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 24-31 May, and seismic tremor persisted. Daily elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images consistent with the effusion of short lava flows on the upper E flank. An active flow that was 650 m long was visible in satellite images during 28-29 May. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 3-10 May, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Seismic tremor persisted. Daily elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images and almost daily steam emissions were recorded in webcam images. The lava flow from the E vent was 500 m long by 8 May. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 26 April-3 May, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Seismic tremor persisted and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images almost daily. A short lava flow had descended the E flank during 26-28 April and was about 500 m long. Steaming from the active vent was visible during 30 April-2 May. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 20-26 April, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Seismic tremor persisted and daily elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 12-19 April, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Seismic tremor persisted and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images almost daily. Steam emissions were seen rising above the summit in webcam images on 16 April. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 5-12 April, and seismic tremor persisted. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images almost daily. Possible minor lava effusion was visible in satellite images on 6 April, and a few small explosions were recorded each day during 6-9 April. Low-level ash emissions were visible in webcam and satellite images during 6-7 April, and satellite images captured ash and pyroclastic flow deposits extending at most 1.5 km from the vent and short lava flows on 9 April. Steam emissions from the vent were visible during 8-10 April. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that weak eruptive activity was ongoing at Pavlof during 30 March through 4 April, and seismic tremor persisted. Weak explosive activity was detected during 31 March and 2-3 April with low-level plumes visible in the mornings, though satellite and webcam views were mostly obscured by clouds. During 3-4 April elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images despite the cloudy weather. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 22-29 March, and seismic tremor persisted. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on most of the days and were consistent with minor lava effusion. Cloud cover sometimes prevented webcam and satellite views of the summit area; sulfur dioxide emissions were visible in satellite images during 24-26 March. Two small explosions were detected in local and regional infrasound data during 23-24 March and one was recorded during 26-27 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 15-22 March, and seismic tremor persisted. Cloud cover sometimes prevented webcam and satellite views of the summit area, though almost-daily elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite images were consistent with minor lava effusion. Three small explosions were detected in local and regional infrasound data during 19-20 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 8-15 March, and small explosions were detected in local seismic and infrasound data on most days. Tremor levels was characterized as strong during 8-10 March and moderate during the rest of the week. A satellite image acquired on 7 March showed highly elevated surface temperatures near the vent (likely due to an accumulation of lava spatter), and a dark lahar deposit extending 750 m down the SE flank. Minor ash deposits were visible around the vent. Elevated surface temperatures were visible on most days of the week, though cloud cover sometimes prevented observations, consistent with continued activity. On 14 March satellite images showed minor lava effusion at the vent. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof was ongoing during 2-8 March. Small explosions were detected on most days. Lava effusion likely continued from a vent just E of the summit, possibly sending lava flows a short distance down the NE flank, though weather clouds often obscured views. Elevated surface temperatures were often identified in satellite images. A high-resolution satellite image acquired during 5-6 March showed a developing spatter cone in the E crater, as well as no active lava flows nor widespread ash deposits on the flanks. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. As of the 5th of March, AVO reported that a few small explosions were detected overnight and this morning at Pavlof. No ash emissions were detected in satellite or webcam imagery, but elevated surface temperatures continue to be detected near the active eastern vent, consistent with short lava flows on the upper flanks.AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof was ongoing during 23 February-1 March. Lava effusion continued from a vent just E of the summit and sent a lava flow a short distance down the NE flank. Seismicity was higher with periods of tremor, and elevated surface temperatures were periodically identified in satellite images; both were consistent with continuing lava effusion. Small explosions were detected during 24 and 26-28 February. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof was ongoing during 8-15 February with lava effusion from a vent on the upper SE flank feeding lava flows on the E flank. Seismicity was elevated with periods of tremor and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; both were consistent was continuing lava effusion. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that eruption of the Pavlof volcano continues in the Alaskan Peninsula. Strongly elevated surface temperatures consistent with the active lava flow on the eastern flank of Pavlof were observed in satellite data throughout the week. Web camera views were mostly obscured throughout the week, but occasional clear views showed continued steaming. Clear satellite images from Wednesday January 19 showed a lava flow and lahar extending 1.3 km and 4.4 km (0.8 and 2.7 miles), respectively, east of the volcano's summit.AVO reported that elevated seismicity at Pavlof during 5-11 January was characterized by daily periods of tremor. High surface temperatures consistent with active lava effusion near the vent were identified in satellite images each day. The lava flow on the SE flank lengthened from 80 to 300 m during 2-6 January based on high-resolution satellite data. Robust steaming was observed by pilots and in webcam images on 9 January. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that seismicity at Pavlof was elevated during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022 and was characterized by daily periods of tremor. Minor ash emissions were visible during 28-29 December and small explosions were occasionally recorded during 29-30 December. Thermal emissions continued to be low, and elevated surface temperatures consistent with a hot vent region were identified in satellite images during 1-3 January. During 3-4 January lava was active in an area within 100 m of the SE vent. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavlof, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing Strombolian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode, when a fissure opened on the N flank, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.(GVN/GVP) Webcam

U.S.A. - Veniaminof volcano (Alaska)

July 10th, 2021

AVO changed both the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Veniaminof to Green and Normal, respectively, on 8 July, noting that seismic stations were back online. The monitoring network consists of local and regional seismic stations, regional infrasound networks, lightning detection, and satellite image monitoring.AVO reported that eruptive activity at Veniaminof had declined during the previous few weeks; no emissions were visible after ash emissions on 5 April and seismicity continued to decline. On 21 April the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Likely low level ash emissions were observed on 6th of April in web camera views from the summit of Veniaminof. Seismic activity remains high. Due to the renewed activity, AVO was raising the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The Alaska Volcano Observatory continues to monitor Veniaminof with a local seismic network, remote infrasound and lightning networks, as well as satellite and webcam images.AVO reported that during clear weather days on 25, 28, and 29 March. Discrete, short-lived ash emissions were detected during the afternoon and evening of 27 March in images from the FAA webcam in Perryville. The intermittent events lasted several minutes and produced small ash clouds that rose less than 300 m (1,000 ft) above the vent and drifted SE, which may have resulted in trace ashfall in Perryville, though there was no confirmed evidence. As of the 25th of March, AVO reported that low level activity continued. Elevated surface temperatures are observed at the top cone and the sidewall vent. Satellite observations reveal fresh ash deposits extending over about 10 km. south-east on the snow of the caldera.Seismicity shows periods of repeated seismic events and tremor.Back to the noises formed during the activity of March 23: the audible noises in the vicinity of the volcano are caused by the bursting of large pockets of gas with the active cone, in the case of typical Strombolian activity, characterizing basaltic volcanoes basalto-andesitic. AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 17-23 March. Low surface temperatures were visible in satellite images along with steam-and-gas plumes. Low-level tremor was recorded in local seismic data. During the morning of 21 March small explosions were identified using seismic data and infrasound sensors in Chignik Lagoon. A volcanic gas cloud drifted SE at or below 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Small explosions were detected again during 21-23 March. Sulfur dioxide plumes were identified in satellite data. Minor ash emissions rose hundreds of meters and rapidly dissipated, though on 23 March a pilot saw an ash plume rise to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite data during 22-23 March showed highly elevated surface temperatures and subsidence of the glacial ice over the flank vent where lava was erupting. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.