VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on June 6th, 2020 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today : - explosive activity is still occurring at the Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico) - eruptive activity continued at the Aso volcano (Japan) and Manam volcano (Papua-New Guinea)

 

ECUADOR - Guagua Pichincha volcano

June 16th, 2016

No new report since 2016 - The Washington VAAC reported that on 14 June 2016 a possible ash emission from Guagua Pichincha was visible in satellite images drifting NW. Seismicity was elevated. A VAAC report issued about five hours later noted that no further notices of activity had been received. Previous news 2015 - IGEPN reported that seismic activity was detected since end of March 2015. (58 earthquakes during the 31st of March) A second swarm has been reported from 14th to-15th of April probably due to rocks fracturation. As of the 17-18 and 19th of April sulfur odor was detected from the rifugio and according to visual observation the main fumarole close the 1981'crater was more active that the previous days. As of the 20th of April, two phreatic explosions occurred (at 5:06 and 5:58 local time) on the Cristal dome complex active zone. As of the 29th of April, IGEPN recorded a signal tremor type probably in relation with geothermal activity under the volcano. Last previous activity was reported on 2010 : As of the 14 th of September 2010, IG reported that no significative change between 6-12 September period. Seismic network continues to record important number of events related to fracture of rock to the interior of the volcano, nevertheless did not register any type of additional anomaly. As of the 17th of April 2010, IG reported that there no change, both the seismic activity and fumarole emission remained at a low level. Previous significative information : as of the 20th of February 2009, IG reported that the seismic stations Geophysical Institute have registered for days back a slight increase of the internal activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. In previous days 4 phreatic explosions of moderate size have been registered. These explosions happen due to an increase of the internal steam pressure, possibly related to the increase of precipitations observed in the zone of volcano. Therefore the Geophysical Institute recommends that it is not allowed to descend to the interior of the crater since the phreatic explosions could be repeated and the people could take the rock hit, other materials and/or rarefaction waves that are generated by these events. These phreatic explosions they happen generally at times of much rainfall, this is the reason why these explosions not necessarily are indicative of a substantial increase of the activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. The Geophysical Institute in its preprecautionary eagerness of the security of the people maintains a monitoring permanent of the state of this and other volcanos of the country and will inform opportunely into any change that these can present/display. The activity of the volcano shows a slight increase in its seismic activity with respect to the previous months. 40 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes have been registered, which are related to the fracturing of rocks to the interior of the complex between the 14th and the 18th of February. These earthquakes are of small magnitude, which is the reason why they have not been perceived by the population. It is possible to indicate that during the 2007, an average of 4.2 VT earthquakes per day was had. Also in this time interval 6 events of long period (LP) per day were registered when the average in the 2008 was of 0.3. LP events are related to resonances of cracks full of flowed inside the volcano. In addition it is important to mention the presence of explosions of moderate magnitude, related to the phreatic activity. The 16th of February the guardian of the refuge of the volcano perceived an increase in the scent to sulphur in the high part of the crater. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador's capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. - Information : I G Quito

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Cratère du Guagua Pichincha - Aôut 1999 -Viracucha

ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

October 6th, 2016

No further activity since 2016 - News 2016 IG reported that during 27 September-4 October seismic activity at Tungurahua remained at moderate levels, characterized by 1-8 long-period earthquakes and up to three volcano-tectonic events per day. An hour-long period of tremor was recorded on 1 October. Minor fumarolic emissions rose above the crater rim. IG reported that Tungurahua's seismic network detected a significant increase in the number of long-period (LP) earthquakes on 12 September and small episodes of tremor beginning on 16 September. A swarm of 24 LP events were detected during 0408-0424 on 18 September. Starting at 1400 on 24 September the number of LP events again increased. Gas emissions were low, and together with the increased seismicity, possibly indicates a blocked conduit. IG noted that a possible large-scale eruption may happen within hours to days. In response, the Secretaria de Gestion de Riesgos (SGR) announced that the Alert Level was raised from Yellow to Orange (the second highest on a 4-color scale) on 26 September. Previously IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate-to-high levels during 16-17 March, moderate levels during 18-21 March, and low levels on 22 March. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano; the weather cleared for a brief period on 20 March and no activity was observed. IG reported that moderate-to-high levels of activity at Tungurahua continued during 9-15 March. Gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater on most days, often to heights less than 2 km above the crater, and drifted NW, W, WSW, and SW; cloud cover sometimes obscured views of the volcano. Explosions were recorded daily, and crater incandescence was reported almost nightly. Ash fell on 9 March in Pillate (8 km W), El Manzano (8 km SW), Cotalo (8 km NW), and Macas. On 10 March a small pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km NW down the Achupashal drainage. On 15 March residents in the Runten sector (NNE) heard an explosion and sounds resembling rolling rocks on the NE flank. Ash fell in Patate (NW) and Juive (7 km NNW). Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano. Tungurahua - Live webcam

ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

June 3rd, 2020

IG reported that during 27 May-2 June seismic data from Reventador's network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash emissions observed daily with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC rose as high as 1.4 km above the summit crater and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. Cloudy weather sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Incandescent blocks rolled as far as 500 m down the S and E flanks during 27-28 May. Nighttime crater incandescence was visible during 27-28 and 30 May, as well as during 1-2 June. IG reported that during 21-28 April seismic data from Reventador's network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash emissions were observed almost daily, though cloudy weather sometimes prevented views of the volcano; IG and the Washington VAAC reported gas-and-ash emissions rising as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and drifting W, NW, N, and NE. Incandescent blocks rolled 500-800 m down the flanks in all directions during 21-24 and 26-27 April. IG reported that during 17-24 March seismic data from Reventador's network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Gas-and-ash emissions were observed almost daily, though cloudy weather often prevented views of the volcano; IG and the Washington VAAC reported gas-and-ash emissions rising around 500-900 m above the crater rim, and as high as 2 km, and drifting NE, SE, S, and W. Ashfall was reported in San Rafael (8 km ESE) on 17 March. Incandescent blocks rolled 900 m down the S and SE flanks during 23-24 March. IG reported that during 18-24 January seismic data from Reventador's network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Daily gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim and drifted NW, W, and SW. Incandescent blocks rolled 600-700 m down the flanks during 18-21 February. Weather sometimes prevented views of the summit area. IG reported that during 15-22 January seismic data from Reventador's network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Daily gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and drifted W, NW, and N. Incandescent blocks rolled 700 m down the flanks. Weather sometimes prevented views of the summit area. An observation of a volcano tourists group on 6th and 7th of January reported that strong vulcanian-type explosions at irregular intervals between 4 and 12 hours. They were accompanied by loud sounds and shock waves audible from kilometers away, with ejection of incandescent materials at more than 1,000 meters and avalanches on the flanks. IGPEN reported that the ash plumes was reported at a height of 1,000 to 2,000 meters max. above the summit. Internal and surface activity levels remain high, with 36 and 43 explosions, respectively on January 6 and 7. The volcano sector often remains cloudy. Previous news 2019 - As of the 23rd of December, IGEPN reported that the volcanic activity remained in high levels of surface and internal activity, without changes. The nocturnal explosions were characterized by summit glow and the fall of glowing blocks on all sides up to 700 meters from the summit. On December 22, a plume 1,000 meters high above the crater wass observed in the morning before the clouds do not hide any visibility.The alert level remains in orange. IGEPN reported that crater incandescence was periodically observed at night. Blocks rolled 500-700 m down the flanks in multiple directions during 7-10 December. The superficial and internal activity continued without variation and qualified as high. On the morning of November 26th, the ash plume was observed at 400 meters height above the crater, with a dispersion towards the west. Incandescence was perceptible at night, with falls of blocks on the southern flank over 400 meters from the crater. Seismicity, recorded between 25 and 26.11 at 11 am, is characterized by 12 LP earthquakes, 40 explosions, emission tremor and 8 harmonic tremor episodes. IG reported that during 8-15 October seismic data from Reventador's network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather often prevented views of the summit area, although during clear conditions ash-and-steam plumes were visible rising sometimes higher than 1 km above the crater rim and drifting NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence was periodically observed at night. Blocks were observed rolling down the flanks on 10 and 14 October. IG reported tha activity remainned at high level on 18 September.The seismicity is marked by 37 LP earthquakes, 40 explosion earthquakes, 7 emission tremor episodes and 4 harmonic tremor episodes. Emissions of gas, more or less charged with ashes, formed plumes that rose to 1,000 meters in height and dispersed to the north and west.Nighttime glowig was observed at the crater, as well as on the avalanches of incandescent blocks on the west flank about 400 meters.Alert level remains orange. IG reported that during 21-27 August seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather often prevented views of the summit area, although during clear conditions ash-and-steam plumes were visible rising as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifting W, NW, and N. Crater incandescence was periodically observed at night. Blocks were observed rolling 800 m down the flanks during 26-27 August. IG reported that during 10-16 July seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather often prevented views of the summit area, although during clear conditions ash plumes were visible rising at least 600 m above the crater rim and drifting W and N. Blocks were observed rolling 500-600 m down the flanks on 10 and 16 July.IG reported that during 14-21 May seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Weather conditions often prevented views of the summit area, although when clear (during 17-18 and 20-21 May) severalash plumes were visible rising as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifting W and NW. Crater incandescence was visible on some mornings and evenings. On 19 May a 500-m-long pyroclastic deposit on the N flank was visible. Blocks were observed rolling 800 m down the flanks on 21 May. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sangay volcano

June 4th, 2020

IG reported that a night clearing on June 2 at 10:04 p.m. revealed these events on the ECU-911 webcam. In its report of June 3, the IGEPN reported gas and ash emissions at more than 1,000 meters above the crater, with a plume towards the southwest, this afternoon June 2 and early June 3. The lava flow, the incandescent materials and the remobilization of the deposit on the southeast flank were observed. At the seismicity level, there are between 2 and 3 June at 11 a.m., 15 LP earthquakes and 222 explosion earthquakes (number increasing). The level of surface activity and internal activity remain "high", with an unchanged trend. IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 6-12 May. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of the volcano; according to Washington VAAC notices ash plumes rose 870-1,470 m above the summit and drifted W and SW during 6 and 10-12 May. Incandescent blocks were seen descending the SE flank during breaks in cloud cover on 6, 8, and 11 May. Signals indicating lahars were recorded by the seismic network on 7 and 9 May. IGEPN reported that the surface and internal activity of Sangay remained unchanged, and qualified as "High". On May 5, 7 explosions occurred, and ash emissions could be observed towards the southwest. VAAC alerts were recorded with heights of 870 meters above the level of the crater and in a southwest direction. On the southeast flank, the lava flows remain active, and thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova of VRP 90 MW on May 4 at 6:55 p.m., and of VRP 13 MW on May 5 at 4:20 a.m.A lahar signal was recorded in the volcanic station on the afternoon of May 4, with a duration of 3 hours. IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 3-10 March. Ash plumes rose 870-1,130 m above the summit and drifted NW and W based on Washington VAAC notices. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SW flank during 3-4 March. A seismic station recorded a lahar on 8 March. IG reported that a permanent monitoring station located near the base of Sangay was repaired during 26 January-1 February and had begun to again transmit data in real time. The technician reported constant ash emissions during the expedition. A high level of activity persisted at Sangay during 12-18 February, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. Ash, steam, and gas plumes rose 570-870 m above the summit and drifted W and SW according to Washington VAAC advisories. A webcam recorded lava blocks descending the SE flank on 17 February. IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 27 January-4 February, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. Ash, steam, and gas plumes rose 880-1,200 m above the summit and drifted W and SW during 27-29 January. Minor ashfall was reported in Púngala and in several Chimborazo province communities during 27-28 February. A pyroclastic flow descended the SE flank on 28 January, reaching the Volcán River and causing secondary lahars in the river. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SE flank on 29 January. Minor ashfall was reported in the province of Chimborazo (W), particularly in the towns of Cebadas (35 km WNW) and Palmira (46 km W). On 30 January residents in the town of Alao (20 km NW) reported that vegetation was covered with fine white ash. An ash emission rose 570 m above the summit and drifted W on 31 January. Ashfall was reported in Macas (42 km SE) the next day. Gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 200 m and drifted W on 2 February. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SE flank on 3 February. Based on information from the Guayaquil MWO, satellite and webcam images, and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 1-11 January ash plumes from Sangay rose to 5.2-6.7 km (17,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was identified in satellite images during 9-10 January. As of the 10th of January, IGEPN reported that avtivity remained without surface and internal changes, always in amarillo alert level. Seismicity is characterized by LP earthquakes, explosions (between 28 and 43 per day) and the emission tremor; the ash plumes reach 1,500 meters above the summit. On January 9, pyroclastic flows were observed by webcam on the southeast flank of the volcano; this activity is similar to that of previous weeks. Previous news 2019 - Based on information from the Guayaquil MWO, satellite images, and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 10-17 December ash plumes from Sangay rose to 5.8-7.3 km (19,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly was visible on 17 December. IGEPN reported that on 11th of December the volcano maintained a semi-continuous activity from two eruptive centers: the central crater and the Ñuñurco vent southeast).The central crater showed an explosive activity which generates small clouds of gas and ash. During the past month, emissions have reached 2 km high above the crater and have often gone northeast with great variability causing small ash falls in the provinces of Chimborazo, Morona Santiago and Azuay. On the other hand, the Ñuñurco vent presented an effusive activity which results in an almost continuous emission of lava flows which settle along the south-eastern flank of the Sangay. At the margins of the lava flows were small rock falls (pyroclastic flows) which reached the basin and the upper channel of the Volcan river. These deposits cause small temporary dams in the Volcán river, which are remobilized by the rains forming mudslides and debris (lahars). The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Cuicocha - Cotachi

October 6th, 2018

IG reported that, after an earthquake swarm consisting of 62 volcano-tectonic events during 2-3 October, seismicity at Cuicocha returned to background levels on 4 October. Carbon dioxide levels were normal, and deformation data did not show any anomalies. IGEPN reported an increase of the seismic activity of the Cuicocha-Cotacachi volcanic complex in Ecuador. During the days of October 2nd and 3rd, 60 VT earthquakes associated with rock fracturing were recorded; almost all earthquakes are located near the Cuicocha volcano. Ten earthquakes, the strongest of magnitude 2.5 occurred on October 2 at 10:58 local time, were reported as significant by Quiroga population. The scenic lake-filled Cuicocha caldera is located at the southern foot of the sharp-peaked Pleistocene Cotacachi stratovolcano about 100 km N of Quito. Both Cotacachi and Cuicocha were constructed along the Otavalo-Umpalá fracture zone. Eruptive activity began about 4500 years ago and continued until about 1300 years ago. The 3-km-wide, steep-walled caldera was created during a major explosive eruption about 3100 years ago that produced nearly 5 km3 of pyroclastic-flow and fall deposits. Four intra-caldera lava domes form two steep-sided forested islands in the 148-m-deep lake. A pre-caldera lava dome is situated on the outer E side of the caldera. Pyroclastic-flow deposits cover wide areas around the low-rimmed caldera, primarily to the east. Gas emission continues from several locations in the caldera lake.The last historical eruption dates back to the year 650. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sierra Negra volcano (Galapagos)

September 2nd, 2018

As of the 1st of September IG reported that due to the continuous decrease in seismic energy levels, reaching even earlier values ​​at the beginning of the eruptive period from June to August 2018 at the Sierra Negra volcano, and the decrease in the number of thermal alerts and SO2 emission , the IGEPN reported the possible end of the eruptive activity or the entry into a period of calm after 58 days of eruption. By 25 August the lava flows in total covered an area of 30.6 square kilometers. Activity continued to decline the last week of August with decreased
seismicity, gas emission, and no surficial activity visible. . IG reported that during 20-21 August both steam-and-gas emissions and incandescence from lava flows were visible on the Sierra Negra webcam. No activity was noted when the weather was clear during 22-28 August. On 15 August satellite images showed lava from Fissure 4 continuing to enter the ocean. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 7-14 August. Incandescence from active NNW lava flows was visible almost nightly. A steam-and-gas plume rose 1.8 km a.s.l. and drifted W on 7 August. IG reported that on August 9, at 17:45 GMT, the tremor increased in amplitude, in relation with a new surge of activity on the northern flank.
Seismicity is further characterized by 52 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, and 6 LP earthquakes.The largest earthquake occurred at 10:55 am M3,1 TG and a depth of 2 km. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 1-7 August. Incandescence from active lava flows was visible daily. An increase of tremor began at 2220 on 3 August and lasted two hours, signifying a new pulse of activity on the N flank. Small gas emissions were visible on 4 August, and steam-and-gas emissions were noted on 6 August. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 25-31 July. Sulfur dioxide flux was as high as about 1,400 tons per day (on 28 July), and daily counts of volcano-tectonic and long-period events were 24-65 and 3-32, respectively. Nightly incandescence from advancing lava flows was visible. Gas plumes rose more than 1.8 km above the vents and drifted N, NW, and W. As of the 20th of July, IGEPN reported that the activity remains unchanged, at a superficial and high internal level.During the last measurement period, 18 to 19 July at 11am, the number of VT earthquakes decreased, with 39 events; the number of LP earthquakes is 11.The gas emissions are at least 1,800 meters above sea level, and go to the WNW.Nighttime glow is observed at the emission points, and on the lava flows.As of the 10th of July, IGEPN reported that Sierra Negra's surface and internal activity levels remain high. The eruptive process continues, as evidenced by numerous volcano-tectonic earthquakes and emission tremor; thermal anomalies are noted as well as the emission of a plume of vapor, gas and ash rising to 2,400 meters in height, then moving towards the southwest sparing the populated areas for the moment. Lava flows come from a source located in the lower part of the northwestern flank of the volcano; the emission of lava would have increased significantly since July 7 at 17h local. From July 2nd to 3rd at 11am local time, the IG reports 241 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 37 LP earthquakes and 2 VLP earthquakes. During the last 24 hours, about fifty volcanic earthquakes have been located at a depth of less than 5 km; the strongest was on the east flank of the volcano, at a depth of 2 km, with a magnitude of 3.4.The satellite images show gas and vapor emissions, and the presence of lava flows. IGEPN reported that after a small earthquake on July 1, 2018 at 15:52 GMT, tremor appeared. At 18 o'clock, the National Park staff reports incandescence and the presence of lava flows on the northwest flank of the volcano. The IGEPN informs, for the period from 01 to 11 am to 02 July at 11 am, 286 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 43 LP earthquakes, 3 VLP earthquakes and emission tremor. An ash emission was mounted 1,000 meters above the crater, then headed west. IGEPN reported that the activity of the past 12 hours was characterized by a gradual decrease in seismic and acoustic tremor, but these signals nevertheless indicate the continuation of the eruption with a lower intensity.One hundred and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded; the largest, with a magnitude of 3.3, is located south of the caldera at a depth of 4.3 km. The others are located at a shallower depth, and in the western part of the caldera. Previously, IGEPN and PNG reported that following a rise in seismicity for some months, and some more recent major earthquakes, including one of M 4.2 on June 22 at 6:24 GMT and another of M 5.3 on June 26 at 3:15 GMT under the Sierra Negra volcano / Isabela Island to the Galapagos, the seismicity was marked by replicas and tremor. On June 26, from 11:17 am TG, a new seismic swarm began in Sierra Negra; earthquakes are characterized by a depth of between 3 and 5 km and a magnitude of 4.6 maximum. Since the earthquake of M 4,2 at 13:38 TG, the amplitude of seismicity and infrasonic signals has greatly increased. Galapagos National Park staff reported rumbles from the volcano. all these signs suggest the beginning of the eruptive process. Images from the GOES-16 Satellite show a strong thermal anomaly in the northern area of ​​the caldera. The Park staff then reported lava flows inside the caldera and on the northern flank of the volcano towards Bahia Elizabeth. As Isabela Island is populated, the authorities have ordered the evacuation of 50 residents, who will be cared for by host families; tourist access to the Sierra Negra volcano area and the El Cura area is restricted. On 8 June IG reported a continuing high level of seismicity at Sierra Negra, characterized by a larger number and magnitude of earthquakes, indicating magma movement. The number of events per day had been significantly increasing since mid-2016. In the previous 10 days there was an average of 42 local events/day; on 25 May there were 104 events, the largest number of earthquakes per day recorded since 2015. In addition, in a 24-hour period during 7-8 June there were a total of 48 volcano-tectonic events, two long-period events, and three hybrid earthquakes; a M 4.8 long-period earthquake was recorded at 0715 on 8 June. The earthquake epicenters were mainly located on the edges of the crater, in two NE-SW trending lineaments; the first covered the N and W edges of the crater and the second went from the NE part around to the S edge. Data showed very large deformation at the caldera's center, compared with lower levels of deformation outside of the caldera. The broad shield volcano of Sierra Negra at the southern end of Isabela Island contains a shallow 7 x 10.5 km caldera that is the largest in the Galápagos Islands. Flank vents abound, including cinder cones and spatter cones concentrated along an ENE-trending rift system and tuff cones along the coast and forming offshore islands. The 1124-m-high volcano is elongated in a NE direction. Although it is the largest of the five major Isabela volcanoes, it has the flattest slopes, averaging less than 5 degrees and diminishing to 2 degrees near the coast. A sinuous 14-km-long, N-S-trending ridge occupies the west part of the caldera floor, which lies only about 100 m below its rim. Volcan de Azufre, the largest fumarolic area in the Galapagos Islands, lies within a graben between this ridge and the west caldera wall. Lava flows from a major eruption in 1979 extend all the way to the north coast from circumferential fissure vents on the upper northern flank. Sierra Negra, along with Cerro Azul and Volcan Wolf, is one of the most active of Isabela Island volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Fernandina volcano (Galapagos)

January 25th, 2020

IGEPN reported that the seismic activity which following the January 12, 2020 eruption has not returned to basic levels (pre-eruption); on the contrary, seismicity increased, presenting sporadic earthquakes of magnitude greater than M 3.0 and small seismic swarms which have evolved over time. The strongest earthquake was recorded on January 21, 2020 with a magnitude of 4.2. In addition, a ground deformation of about 35 cm was detected in the emission zone of the lava flows. The preliminary estimate of the lava flows emitted on January 12, 2020, located east of the volcano, indicates that they cover an area of ​​approximately 3.8 km², a value lower than the estimates of the previous circumferential eruptions (2017 and 2005) .IGEPN reported that the eruption hich started shortly before 6.10 p.m. on January 12, 2020, from a circumferential crack located under the eastern edge of the caldera to an altitude of about 1300-1400 m above sea level, caused the emission of lava flows on the eastern flank. A cloud of volcanic gas was also observed at a height of approximately 1500-2000 m above the level of the crack (~ 3-3.5 km above sea level) and moving towards the west -North West. The eruption was observed by the park guards of the Galapagos National Park from the Bolivar Canal station. In the past few hours, the level of seismic activity, the emission of volcanic gas and thermal anomalies have decreased significantly, indicating a rapid decrease in eruptive activity, similar to what happened in 2017 and 2018. It is important to indicate that on other occasions (Fernandina 2009, Wolf 2015, Sierra Negra 2018), an initial drop in initial activity was followed by a second eruptive phase. IGEPN reported that following a seismic crisis, an eruption occurred on January 12, 2020, around 10 local Galapagos time. After the 4.7M magnitude seismic event occurred at 4:42 p.m., 29 localized events were recorded, the magnitude of which remained below 3.1. Eruptive activity is located east of Fernandina Island along a circumferential fissure.Fernandina, the most active of Galápagos volcanoes and the one closest to the Galápagos mantle plume, is a basaltic shield volcano with a deep 5 x 6.5 km summit caldera. The volcano displays the classic "overturned soup bowl" profile of Galápagos shield volcanoes. Its caldera is elongated in a NW-SE direction and formed during several episodes of collapse. Circumferential fissures surround the caldera and were instrumental in growth of the volcano. Reporting has been poor in this uninhabited western end of the archipelago, and even a 1981 eruption was not witnessed at the time. In 1968 the caldera floor dropped 350 m following a major explosive eruption. Subsequent eruptions, mostly from vents located on or near the caldera boundary faults, have produced lava flows inside the caldera as well as those in 1995 that reached the coast from a SW-flank vent. Collapse of a nearly 1 km3 section of the east caldera wall during an eruption in 1988 produced a debris-avalanche deposit that covered much of the caldera floor and absorbed the caldera lake. (GVN/GVP)

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Tungurahua volcano 1999 - H. Gaudru

MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

December 14th, 2018

Latest MVO report about period 1st of April - 30th of September 2018 - The pause in lava extrusion that started on 11 February 2010 continues and is now more than 103 months long as of 30 September 2018. This prolonged period of persistent low-level unrest, (i.e., continued inflation, sporadic seismicity and persistent de-gassing) clearly demonstrates that the magmatic system has not shut down. Thus, the potential for a restart remains. Consequently, MVO continues to hold the view that little has changed in regards to the Hazard and Risk posed by the Soufriere Hills volcano at this time. Overall, activity during the reporting period has been low. Seismic activity has consisted of sporadic volcanotectonic (VT) earthquakes, sometimes in strings or brief swarms. Low-frequency seismicity has been completely absent, while rockfall activity has continued at a very low level - Read complete report - No recent news since 2016 - latest MVO Weekly Report for the Period 26 August to 2 September 2016 - Activity at the Soufriere Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded eight rockfalls, seven volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week. Four of the volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred in a very brief swarm on 28th August. The rockfalls were probably a continuation of the increased activity following the heavy rainfall on 24 August. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were not possible during the reporting period. No recent activity reported since September 2015 - Based on satellite image analyses and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 September 2015 possible re-suspended ash from Soufriere Hills drifted WNW at an altitude of 1 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. - latest previous report about eruptive activity dated for the period from 8th of March 2013 to 5th of July 2013 - Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 28th of June to 5h of July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 271 tonnes/day with a maximum of 427 and a minimum of 161 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 21st to 28th of June. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 353 tonnes/day with a maximum of 459 and a minimum of 221 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded four rockfalls and nine volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes the week from 14th to 21st.of June. Six of the VT earthquakes occurred in a brief swarm on 16 July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were only possible on three days this week and gave an average flux of 289 tonnes/day with a maximum of 332 and a minimum of 247 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 7th to 14 th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 281 tonnes/day with a maximum of 428 and a minimum of 185 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded nine rockfalls, five volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event the previous week frm 31st of may to 7th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 485 tonnes/day with a maximum of 543 and a minimum of 430 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event this week from 24th to 31st of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 395 tonnes/day with a maximum of 588 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. . The seismic network recorded three rockfalls the week from 17th to 24th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 380 tonnes/day with a maximum of 536 and a minimum of 281 tonnes/day. Many residents of Montserrat felt an earthquake at 7:51 pm on 18 May 2013. This earthquake had a magnitude of 4.9 and was located south-west of Barbuda; about 100 km north of Montserrat. It was not associated with the Soufrière Hills Volcano. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic this week from 10th to 17th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 373 tonnes/day with a maximum of 553 and a minimum of 137 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week from 3rd to 10th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 313 tonnes/day with a maximum of 435 and a minimum of 160 tonnes/day. Measurements were only possible on three days this week because of adverse wind conditions. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 26th of April to 3rd of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 379 tonnes/day with a maximum of 466 and a minimum of 254 tonnes/day. The wind has been mainly towards the north and north-east since the night of 1/2 May. This has blown the volcanic plume over inhabited areas and the smell of volcanic gases has been noticeable at times. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 19th to 26th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 366 tonnes/day with a maximum of 535 and a minimum of 181 tonnes/day. There have been no good views of the dome for over a month now. Reports from helicopter pilots suggest that most of the large slab on the eastern side of the dome is now gone; removed by the pyroclastic flow on 28 March 2013. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week from 12th to 19th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 556 tonnes/day with a maximum of 1155 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. Past week 5th to 12th of April, the seismic network recorded no seismic events related to the volcano this week. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 325 tonnes/day with a maximum of 585 and a minimum of 186 tonnes/day. MVO reported that during 22-29 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the Tar River Valley (E) at about 0500 on 28 March. The flow was not observed directly, but the deposits indicated that it traveled halfway down the valley, 1-1.5 km from the dome. There were no reports of ashfall; any ash was probably blown over Plymouth and out to sea. The source of the flow was not known due to cloud cover, but was likely from the failure a large slab that had been slowing moving away from the dome. Heavy rainfall during the evening of 28 March generated large lahars in several valleys around the volcano, including in the Belham Valley (NW). These started at about 1900 and lasted for several hours. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded one rockfall and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 15th to 22nd of March.Sulphur-dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 359 tonnes/day with a maximum of 540 and a minimum of 258 tonnes/day. There appear to have been no changes in the large slab recently observed to be peeling away from the dome above the Tar River Valley. The slab is now estimated to have dimensions of 80 by 60 by 4-6 metres. If this slab falls as a single block it will produce a large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas. previously , the seismic network recorded one rockfall this week from 8th to 15th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 251 tonnes/day with a maximum of 264 and a minimum of 227 tonnes/day. During a helicopter inspection on 8 March 2013, we observed a large fissure in the cliff on the eastern side of the dome, part of which has existed since 2007. This fissure is the result of slow cooling and erosion of the dome. It is parallel to the cliff face and is estimated to be two metres wide, suggesting that a large slab is slowing peeling away from the dome. If this slab falls as a single block it will probably produce a moderate-to-large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas The seismic network recorded one rockfall, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one hybrid event this week from 1st to 8th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements for the week gave an average flux of 368 tonnes/day with a maximum of 552 and a minimum of 213 tonnes/day. Variable winds blew the volcanic plume over inhabited areas for much of the week, particularly the first half, and the smell of volcanic gases was very noticeable at times. There has been no visible emission of ash from the volcano this week. Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)
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Grenade - Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano

March 25th, 2018

On 22 March the University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) and the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) reported that seismicity at Kick 'em Jenny continued to decline. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the maritime exclusion zone was adjusted to a radius of 1.5 km.
The University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) and the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) reported that during 12-15 March seismicity at Kick 'em Jenny significantly decreased. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) with a 5-km maritime exclusion zone. The University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) and the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) reported that on 12 March the Alert Level for Kick 'em Jenny was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) due to non-specified increased activity. The report reminded marine operators of the 5-km maritime exclusion zone. Kick 'em Jenny, a historically active submarine volcano 8 km off the north shore of Grenada, rises 1300 m from the sea floor. Recent bathymetric surveys have shown evidence for a major arcuate collapse structure that was the source of a submarine debris avalanche that traveled more than 15 km to the west. Bathymetry also revealed another submarine cone to the SE, Kick 'em Jack, and submarine lava domes to its south. These and subaerial tuff rings and lava flows at Ile de Caille and other nearby islands may represent a single large volcanic complex. Numerous historical eruptions, mostly documented by acoustic signals, have occurred at Kick 'em Jenny since 1939, when an eruption cloud rose 275 m above the sea surface. Prior to the 1939 eruption, which was witnessed by a large number of people in northern Grenada, there had been no written mention of Kick 'em Jenny. Eruptions have involved both explosive activity and the quiet extrusion of lava flows and lava domes in the summit crater; deep rumbling noises have sometimes been heard onshore. Historical eruptions have modified the morphology of the summit crater.

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Soufriere Hills dome on December 6, 2000 (Courtesy Caraibean Helicopter)

 

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

June 6th, 2020

As of the 5th of June, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, the Popocatépetl volcano monitoring system has identified 344 exhalations accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. The ash emissions were scattered in the south, southwest sector. Two moderate explosions were also detected yesterday at 11:00 p.m. and 11:02 p.m. local time. In addition, 453 minutes of tremors were recorded.During the night, continuous emissions of water vapor, gas and small amounts of ash were observed. During the morning of June 5th, there were volcanic gas emissions and small amounts of ash scattered to the southwest. The volcanic alert remains at Amarillo Fase 2. As of the 3rd of June CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours, 153 exhalations have been identified in Popocatépetl, accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash, dispersed towards the west. In addition, 47 minutes of low and medium amplitude tremors were recorded, as well as a volcano-tectonic earthquake yesterday at 11:46 am with a calculated magnitude of 2.8. CENAPRED reported that each day during 20-26 May there were 90-251 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. The plumes drifted mainly E and SE. An explosion at 0302 on 21 May ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 12th of May, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours, Cenapred has counted 130 exhalations accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, 172 minutes of tremors and four minor explosions were recorded, two recorded on May 11 at 5:23 p.m. and 11:51 p.m., the others on May 12 at 3:02 a.m. and 6:04 a.m., not observable due to the cloudiness of the area. During the night, there was no visibility towards the crater due to the weather conditions.Since the morning, the volcano was observed with a continuous emission of water vapor and gas, however, at the time of this report, due to the cloudy conditions, there is no visibility towards the crater, no emission water vapor, gas and ash will disperse in a northeast direction. As of the 2nd of May, CENAPRED has identified over the past 24 hours 142 exhalations and small explosions, accompanied by gas emissions and small amounts of ash, which continued during the day. A total of 491 minutes of tremor was recorded. Night glow marked the summit of the volcano, visible on the webcams from 9 p.m. to more than 10:30 p.m. As of the 29th of April, in the past 24 hours, using the Popocatépetl volcano monitoring system, 52 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by water vapor, gas and slight amounts of ash dispersed towards the southeast sector (SE).Similarly, 908 minutes of tremor of low and medium amplitude were recorded. At the time of this report, there is a partial visibility, however in the morning a constant emission was observed in the southeast direction. As of the 24th of April, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours, using the Popocatépetl surveillance system, 215 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes ash, and two explosions, one moderate and one minor, were recorded today at 4:58 am and 5:07 am respectively. In addition, 304 minutes of tremor were recorded.An incandescence was observed during the night during certain exhalations. CENAPRED reported that for the last 24 hours, 97 exhalations, of volcanic gases occurred, sometimes accompanied by ashes. Seismicity presented 132 minutes of tremor An explosion occurred on April 21 at 9.45 p.m., accompanied by the expulsion of incandescent fragments and a plume 800 meters away. Night glow was reported. CENAPRED reported that an explosion occurred on April 13 at 11:16 p.m., which was accompanied by the expulsion of incandescent fragments on the flanks of the volcano, and a plume of gas and ash at a height of 1,500 meters, dispersing to the north-east.As of the 1st of April, CENAPRED reported that In the past 24 hours, the Popocatépetl volcano monitoring system has identified 100 exhalations accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash, as well as an explosion on March 31 at 10:08 a.m. In addition, there were 500 minutes of tremors, and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes with a calculated magnitude of 1.7, 2.1 and 1.7, respectively.Since 10 a.m. on April 1, there has been an emission of volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash scattered west-southwest. CENAPRED reported that in the past 24 hours, 128 exhalations have been identified at Popocatépetl, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of  ash. Emissions of ash dispersed in the northwest sector (NW). So far, there have been no reports of ash falling. WebcamsdeMexico posted photos of the activity at 8:16 a.m., 8:29 a.m. and 11:55 a.m., viewed from San Nicolás de los Ranchos, Puebla. In addition, 967 minutes of tremor were recorded. At the time of this report / 11h local, and from an hour, an emission of volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash dispersed to the northwest (NW) are observed. As of the 26th of March, In the past 24 hours, CENAPRED has identified 147 exhalations at Popocatépetl, accompanied by gas, a little ash, and two minor explosions, respectively on March 25 at 4:10 p.m. and March 26 at 2:00 a.m. Meanwhile, the constant emission of volcanic gases, sporadically accompanied by slight amounts of ash is reported, dispersed towards the NNO.At the seismicity level, 653 minutes of low amplitude tremor and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded, respectively from M1.2 at 4:34 p.m. on March 25 and from M2.3) at 8:55 a.m. on March 26. The volcanic alert remains fixed at Amarillo Fase 2. CENAPRED has identified in the past 24 hours a hundred exhalations, accompanied by gas, small amounts of ash and incandescent fragments; a moderate explosion, around 2:59 am, produced an eruptive column 1,000 meters high dispersing to the south and the expulsion of incandescent fragments some 800 meters on the flanks.Seismicity is further characterized by 129 minutes of low amplitude tremor. During the day of the 22nd, a constant emission of gas and occasionally also a little ash is reported. On March 23, around 12:41 am, a new explosion was accompanied by a plume of ash of medium height and ejection of incandescent materials up to 700 meters on the high flanks.The level remains at amarillo Fase 2. As of the 21st of March, CENAPRED reported that in the past 24 hours, 74 exhalations have been identified thanks to the surveillance system, accompanied by volcanic gas emissions, small quantities of ash and sometimes incandescent fragments. Night glow was observed. During the day constant emission of volcanic gases occurred and sometimes with slight amounts of ash, which were dispersed to the northwest. The activity was a little more intense in the evening, with an explosion at 10:40 pm, and the ejection of incandescent materials on the upper slopes. This activity remains under the Amarillo Fase 2 alert. As of the 15th of March, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours at Popocatépetl, Cenapred has identified 125 exhalations, accompanied by gas, water vapor and little ash, as well as explosions, including two minor around 11:07 p.m. and 4:05 a.m., and a moderate, the 14.03 at 8.45 p.m. All the explosions were responsible for a plume of about 1,500 meters, dispersing to the northeast, and for ejecting incandescent materials at a medium distance from the crater. Between these episodes, gas emissions, and slight amounts of ash were reported.Tremor was recorded for 189 minutes. As of the 13th of March, CENAPRED reoprted that in the past 24 hours, using Popocatépetl volcano monitoring systems, 163 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. In addition, a minor explosion was recorded earlier today at 7:01 a.m., which had a low ash content that dispersed in a southwest direction. There were also 97 minutes of tremors. At the time of this report on March 13 at 11:00 GMT, emissions of volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash were presented, dispersing preferentially to the southwest.The tracking by webcams showed a minor explosion at 8:46 p.m., accompanied by a plume of ash and gas reaching 1,500 meters and the expulsion of incandescent materials covering the side is 500 meters. Another explosion was observed at 11:08 p.m. The alert levels remain at Amarillo Fase 2, with a 12 km no-go zone. As of the 9th of March, CENAPRED reported for the last 24 hours, 176 exhalations accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash, and two minor explosions, one yesterday at 5:28 pm and the following day today at 07:46 h.797 minutes of small amplitude tremor were also counted. During this morning, a slight fall of ash occurred in Amecameca, in the State of Mexico. Then, volcanic gas emissions and small amounts of ash dispersed in the northeast of the north. As the 8th of March, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours to Popocatépetl 189 exhalations, some of these events were accompanied by gas emissions and slight amounts of ash. and three minor explosions recorded yesterday at 7:30 p.m., 9:20 p.m. and March 7 at 7:23 a.m. At the seismicity level, 215 minutes of tremor were also recorded. On the morning and volcanic gas emissions and slight amounts of ash have been presented which were cattered towards the northeast. As of the 5th of march, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours 287 exhalations and 6 minor explosions occurred, respectively at 8:32 p.m. on 04.03, and 2:30 a.m., 2:47 a.m., 3:07 a.m., 3:26 a.m. and 6:22 a.m. on 05.03., accompanied by gas and slight amounts of ash. The rest of the day was marked by gas and ash emissions, reaching max. 1,000 meters, dispersed to the northeast.The seismicity was characterized by an earthquake of M1.5 at 8h54 and 304 minutes of tremor.Volcanic alert remains at Amarillo fase 2. CENAPRED reported that two minor explosions were recorded on 28th of February at 6:56 a.m. and 8:29 a.m. Two volcanotectonic earthquakes were also recorded today at 05:48 and 07:12 with an estimated magnitude of 1.2 and 1.7. During this morning and until 17:00 GMT, there have been emissions of volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash which are scattered east-southeast, with a maximum height of 1100 m. Volcanic alert level remains at Amarillo Fase 2. CENAPRED reported that on February 25, an explosion at 12:16 a.m. sprayed incandescent materials on the flanks of the volcano accompanied by a plume of gas and ash at 1,500 meters dispersed towards the northeast. The volcanic alert remains at amarillo fase 2, with a 12 km exclusion zone. CENAPRED reported that 148 exhalations, a moderate explosion at 4:07 p.m., and 10 minor explosions occurred on February 23 at 12:16 p.m., 6:45 p.m., 8:37 p.m. and 9:58 p.m., on February 24 at 12:08 a.m., 1:01 a.m. , scattered to the southwest. In addition, 525 minutes of tremor were recorded. CENAPRED has identified 234 exhalations, 352 minutes of tremor and 9 minor explosions during the last 24 hours, recorded at 02:12, 02:47, 04:51, 06:01, 06:08, 06: 1: 7:17 a.m., 8:00 a.m. and 8:33 a.m., accompanied by the emission of gas and small amounts of ash that have dispersed to the northwest, in addition to the emission of fragments for some of they.The volcano presents a continuous emission of gas and light ash with a predominant direction to the north. On February 18, with the support of the National Guard, a reconnaissance overflight was carried out at the crater of the Popocatepetl volcano. During this overview, specialists from the National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) of the National Coordination for Civil Protection and researchers from the Geophysics Institute of UNAM were able to observe that no substantial change has been made. happened. The internal crater, covered with tephra, maintains a diameter of 350 m and an approximate depth of 100 to 150 m.CENAPRED reported that 386 exhalations and 296 minutes of tremor occurred, some of these events were accompanied by the emission of gases and light quantities of ash which dispersed on 14.02 towards the east and the 15.02 towards the northwest In addition, three explosions were recorded. The first of the moderate type yesterday at 10:31 p.m. even expelled incandescent fragments by the east and north slopes, accompanied by a column of 1200 m high. Subsequently, two minor explosions were recorded on February 15 at 07:12 and 09:32 respectively.CENAPRED reported that on February 13, a strong explosion was observed at 00:55, with incandescent fallout on the first 500 meters of slopes of the volcano and a large plume of ash reaching 1,500 meters in height before dispersing towards the northeast.CENAPRED reported that 128 exhalations and 523 minutes of tremor have been identified in the past 24 hours (report of February 12/11 a.m.), some of these events have been accompanied by the emission of gas and light amounts of ash which have scattered north-northeast. In addition, a volcano-tectonic earthquake of magnitude 1.5 was recorded today at 07:44.CENAPRED reported that each day during 5-11 February there were 57-154 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. An explosion at 1754 on 5 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NNE. A minor explosion at 0029 on 9 February ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. An explosion at 0233 on 10 February produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted NE, and ejected incandescent material as far as 500 m down the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). CENAPRED reported that 73 exhalations composed of water vapor, volcanic gases and a low ash content have been counted in the last 24 hours. Meanwhile, vapor emissions, volcanic gases and a low ash content have been observed, which the wind preferentially disperses towards the east-northeast. In addition, 357 minutes of tremors were recorded, and small episodes of nocturnal glowing. A small explosion on January 27 around 11:20 p.m. ejected pyroclasts at close range, and was accompanied by an ash plume at 600 m. in height, dissipating towards the northeast. Small ash falls are reported on San Nicolás de los Ranchos. CENAPRED reported that 41 exhalations and 124 minutes of tremors were identified on January 21. Due to the cloudy conditions of certain events, it was not possible to confirm whether they were accompanied by an ash emission. In addition, a minor explosion was recorded today at 04:14 h with a 1,500 m column. high, with a low ash content, and the expulsion of certain incandescent fragments a short distance from the crater. The Popocatépetl volcanic traffic light is in YELLOW PHASE 2. CENAPRED reported that each day during 8-14 January there were 76-268 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained ash (during 8-9 December). An explosion at 0631 on 9 January produced an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater rim and drifted NE. The event also ejected incandescent material onto the flanks as far away as 1 km from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). CENAPRED reported that an explosion occurred on 9th of January at 06:31 h, with a height of the ash column of 3,000 meters in the northeast direction, with the ejection of incandescent materials at a distance of 1 km from the edge of the crater .Data supplied by the VAAC Washington, on the other hand, indicates two successive ash clouds, reaching respectively 11,300 m. at 1:46 p.m. UTC and 8,200 m. for the second.Slight ash falls are reported on Ozumba, Puebla, San Nicolás de los Ranchos, Chiautzingo, San Matías Tlalpaneca, and Teotlalzingo. In the past 24 hours at Popocatépetl, 268 exhalations composed of water vapor, volcanic gases and low ash content have been identified. In addition, 90 minutes of tremors were recorded, a volcano-tectonic earthquake recorded yesterday at 10:04 am with a magnitude of 1.4. Previous news 2019 - CENAPRED reported that on December 25, from 4:15 am to 5:40 am, emissions of turbulent ash and glowing fragments were observed at a distance of about 800 meters. Derived from this activity, ash falls were recorded in the municipalities of Domingo Arenas, Nealtican, San Nicolás de los Ranchos and Chiautzingo, belonging to the state of Puebla. This activity was followed by gas emissions, dispersed to the northeast. In the past 24 hours, Cenapred has also recorded 166 low-intensity exhalations and 155 minutes of tremor. CENAPRED reported that after the destruction of the dome # 85 according to the diagram on December 21, verified on December 23 during a control overflight, the Cenapred could observe the diameter of the internal crater maintained at 350 meters, for an approximate depth from 70-80 meters; the crater is covered with tephra, and no dome is visible.CENAPRED reported that each day during 26 November-3 December there were 124-187 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained ash through 1 December. An explosion was recorded at 1036 on 26 November. Another explosion at 0233 on 28 November produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted NW. The event also ejected incandescent material onto the flanks as far away as 1.5 km from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). CENAPRED reported that 64 exhalations occurred accompanied by gas and sometimes with ash during the last 24 hours. The most important ones were presented on November 9 at 08:58 and 09:41., both at a height of 2 km northwest ; an explosion occurred on 9th of November at 09:23, between the last two exhalations. In addition, 52 minutes of tremor were recorded. On 5th of November CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 96 exhalations were identified, accompanied by gas and light amounts of ash, and six explosions occurred, two moderate at 11:07 and 22:19 which generated a column of 1.5 km and ejected incandescent materials; and four minors at 17:24, 21:49, 22:27 and 00:09 today. In addition, a volcano-tectonic earthquake with a preliminary magnitude of 1.9 and 148 minutes of tremor was recorded.At 11:00 am on October 5th, there was a slight steady emission of water vapor and volcanic gases. Any emission containing ash will be scattered west-southwest. As of the 5th of November specialists from CENAPRED, CNPC, and researchers from the UNAM Institute of Geophysics carried out an overflight and observed the formation of the No. 85 dome, 210 m in diameter and 80 m in diameter. thickness, with an irregular surface. The inner crater has a diameter of 350 m and an approximate depth of 90 m.CENAPRED reported that intense explosive activity occurred during the night of November 4, after a quieter day characterized by 92 low-level exhalations and an explosion at 00:38, which watered the flanks of incandescent fragments over 2 km and produced a plume ash of about 1,500 meters.Explosions occurred at 21:58 and 22:19, the latter marked by a strong incandescence and projections to more than one km. crater. At 00:09 on November 5th, an explosion was accompanied by a plume of ash 1,000 meters high, with a dispersion to the northwest. Previously CENAPRED reported two moderate explosions respectively at 23:33 on 3 October and 6:01 on 4 October. These explosions ejected incandescent fragments on the flank of the volcano and were accompanied by plumes of ash and gas from a height of 1,000 and 1,200 meters, dispersed towards north.Two other minor explosions were recorded at 0:09 and 8:38 on 4 October.At the seismicity level, the Cenapred reports 217 minutes of tremor. The alert level remains at yellow phase 2. CENAPRED reported that sustained activity was still continuing with on October 2nd at 11am local, a total of 215 exhalations during the last 24 hours. About 15 explosions were also reported, at 00:43, 01:28, 01:33, 01:50, 01:56, 02:38, 03:24, 03:27, 03:44, 04:07 and 06: 03. The explosion of 04:07 was accompanied by an ash plume of about 2,000 meters and an expulsion of incandescent fragments that covered the east flank of the volcano; that of 06:03 emitted a plume of 1,500 meters in height. The ashes dispersed to the southwest, and falls were reported on the municipalities of Atlautla Ozumba, Ayapango and Ecatzingo.The seismicity was characterized by 483 minutes of tremor, and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes of M 1,5 and 2,5, respectively at 16:53 and 00:19. CENAPRED reported that a loud explosion occurred on 29th of September at the end of the night. due to poor weather conditions caused by the tropical depression no direct observation or photo were possible.Over the past 24 hours, Cenapred has identified 181 exhalations, accompanied by gas and light amounts of ash, as well as 11 minor explosions. At the seismicity level, 565 minutes of low to medium amplitude tremor were recorded. CENAPRED reported that an overflight on September 27th revealed the presence of a small dome, 30 meters in diameter in the internal crater of 350 meters in diameter for a depth of 150 meters. During the past 24 hours, the activity consisted into 224 exhalations, accompanied by gas and light amounts of ash, as well as six minor explosions and a moderate one. The seismicity was marked by 486 minutes of low to medium amplitude tremor, in addition to emission tremor episodes. CENAPRED reported that 95 exhalations were identified by Cenapred, accompanied by gas and light amounts of ash. In addition, 16 explosions were recorded this September 24, respectively at 01:31, 02:28, 03:06, 03:20, 03:28, 03:58, 04:13, 04:21, 04:28, 04:59, 05:15, 05:42, 05:46, 07:24, 07:35 and 08:26 h. In addition, 846 minutes of low and medium amplitude tremor were recorded. An absence of visibility on the volcano was followed during the day, but emissions of gas and ash were observed dispersing towards the north. As of the 20th of September, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, Cenapred reports 183 gas exhalations and light amounts of ash tand 16 explosions. The plume has been dispersed to the northwest. Nightime glowing wasobseerved.At the seismicity level, there is a volcano-tectonic earthquake of M 2.6 and 690 minutes of tremor.The volcanic alert remains at yellow phase 2. As of the 31st of August CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 135 exhalations occurred accompanied by water vapor, gas and ash, with a maximum height of 1 km of wind dispersion to the west. In addition, 6 explosions were recorded, accompanied by ash columns from 1 km to 2 km high, the largest having been recorded at 8:16 today. Incandescent fragments were observed at night. Ash falls have been reported in the municipalities of Amecameca, Atlautla, Ozumba and Tlalmanalco, in the State of Mexico.604 minutes of low amplitude tremor were recorded.Emissions of volcanic gases and ashes dispersed to the west-northwest. CENAPRED reported that in the last 24 hours 203 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by water vapor, gas and small amounts of ash dispersed north-northwest. In addition, 18 explosions were recorded, including 12 on 23 August at 09:25, 14:34, 15:32, 15:37, 16:17, 17:36, 17:57, 18:05, 19:41, 19:49, 21:37 and 23:47 and seven on 24 August at 04:31, 06:30, 06 : 39, 06:57, 07:31, 07:45 and 08:00. However, due to the high cloudiness in the volcano area, visibility was partial. Similarly, 167 minutes of low amplitude tremor were counted. As of the 25th of August on the morning morning the volcano with gas emission was drifted to north-north-east. As of the 16th of August, CENAPRED reported that the volcano showed intense activity in recent days: during the last 24 hours, 188 exhalations, accompanied by water vapor, gas and low quantities of ash, five minor explosions (4 on the 15th between 10h and 12h, and one the 16.08 to 8.40) and two moderate explosions (16.08 to 9.08 and 9:51) occurred. At the seismicity level, 790 minutes of tremor and a volcano-tectonic earthquake were recorded. The volcanic alert remains in Amarillo phase 2, with a 12 km safety zone. As of the 15th of August, CENAPRED reported that in the past 24 hours, 162 exhalations have been identified using Popocatépetl volcano monitoring systems, accompanied by water vapor, gas and small amounts of ash. In addition, 13 explosions were recorded today at 00:34, 01:00, 01:45, 01:47, 02:08, 02:27, 02:33, 03: 20, 03:39, 05: 56, 06:44, 08:10 and 08:27 h.In addition, 711 minutes of low amplitude tremor were recorded. From August 15 in the morning to 11 am local, there are gas emissions west-northwest. CENAPRED reported that each day during 7-13 August there were 125-209 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained ash. As many as seven explosions were recorded daily, with the exceptions of 7 August (no explosion were detected) and 11 August (16 were documented). Two explosions on 13 August were characterized as major (at 0427 and 0453) and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 28th of July, Cenapred has identified 333 exhalations during the last 24h at Popocatepetl, accompanied by gas, water vapor and ashes. Eight explosions were recorded: July 27 at 11:14 and 14:50, and July 28 at 0:09, 6:03, 7:59, 8:11, 8:50, and 8:55. The ashes drifted in a northwesterly direction. Nighttime glow was observed in the crater.The seismicity was marked by 211 minutes of harmonic tremor. An overflight on 27 July by the UNAM CNPC and Cenapred teams, with the support of the Guardia Nacional, revealed the destruction of dome # 83 by previous explosions with ash emissions; the thermal photographs and images made it possible to determine that the internal crater retains its dimensions (70 meters in diameter and 15 meters in depth). As of the 23rd of July CENAPRED reported that In the past 24 hours, Popocatepetl volcano monitoring systems have identified 291 exhalations, accompanied by water vapor, gas and light amounts of ash, as well as 23 additional low ash explosions. Also recorded were 90 minutes of tremor and a volcanic earthquake with a magnitude of 1.5. In the night, incandescence marks the crater. Around 4:00 pm on July 23rd, the crater is visible and there is a continuous emission of steam, volcanic gases and some amounts of ash that the wind disperses to the west - southwest direction. Alert level remains at Yellow phase 2. On July 19, the Cenapred with the support of the federal police, carried out a reconnaissance flight of the crater of the volcano Popocatépetl. During the flyover, photographs showed the presence of a new dome with a diameter of 70 meters and a thickness of 15 meters; On the other hand, the internal crater retains its dimensions.The presence of the dome number 83 and its possible destruction are confirmed, because of recorded explosions and ash-containing emissions, which reached some town halls of Mexico City on Saturday, July 20, as well as minor explosions projecting incandescent fragments short range on the flanks. In the last 24 hours, Cenapred reports the recording of 306 exhalations, accompanied by steam, gas and some ashes, 26 light explosions and moderate explosions. Incandescence is noticed during nighttime explosions. As of the 17th of July, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, exhibited 236 exhalations accompanied by water vapor, gas, and slight quantities of ashes; four explosions were recorded: three moderates, the first on July 15 at 22:53, the others on July 16, at 3:50 and 5:42; a last small explosion occurred on July 16 at 14:10. There is no mention of ashfalls. At the seismicity level, 309 minutes of tremor were recorded, as well as 2 volcano-tectonic earthquakes with respective magnitudes of 1.9 and 1.6. At around 11:00 am on July 16, the Cenapred observed an emission of steam, gas and light amounts of ash towards O-NO. The alert remains at yellow phase 2.Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City and is North America's second-highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages. (GVN/GVP) . - Live cam of Popocatepetl -

MEXICO - Colima volcano

July 16th, 2019

Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and two small explosions were recorded during 5-12 July. Five lahars descended the Montegrande ravine. An overflight on 9 July revealed that the diameter of the vent had slightly increased, likely caused by subsidence, and other areas of minor subsidence within the crater were noted. An area of collapsed material on the outer W wall was also identified. Temperatures inside the crater were 116 degrees Celsius, lower than the temperature of 250 degrees Celsius recorded in May. The temperatures in the fumarolic area decreased from 202 degrees Celsius in May to 169 degrees. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with fumarolic emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and three small explosions were recorded during 29 June-5 July. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater and small explosions continued to be recorded during 8-14 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, originating mainly from the NE side of the crater, continued to be recorded during 1-7 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during 25-31 May small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater continued to be recorded. During overflights conducted during 23-24 May scientists observed that the new feature (a crack or cavity) reported the previous week had become a hole due to the combination of excavation due to explosions and probable subsidence. The maximum temperature recorded with a portable thermal camera was 252 degrees Celsius, an increase of 80 degrees since recorded on 1 May. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that 51 low-magnitude explosions mainly from the NE part of Colima’s crater were recorded by the seismic and infrasound network during 11-24 May. Emissions from the explosions consisted mainly of water vapor and gas, and were the first surficial manifestations of activity since seismicity increased in the past few weeks. Footage from five drone overflights conducted on 22 May showed fumarolic activity on the inner wall of the NE part of the crater and a new small explosion crater near the center of the main crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported increased seismicity at Colima during 20-26 April characterized by a considerable increase in the number of high-frequency and volcano-tectonic events. On 26 April a consensus was reached to raise the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and extend the exclusion zone to a 8-km radius during a meeting of the Coordinación Nacional de Protección Civil (CNPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil Colima (UEPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil y Bomberos de Jalisco (UEPCBJ), the Universidad de Colima (UdeC), and la Universidad de Guadalajara (UdeG). Seismicity continued to be elevated through 3 May. The largest events (M 2.4-3) were located 0.5-3 km deep in the N and NE parts of the volcano. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base - new webcam *************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

May 29th, 2020

As of the 28th of May 2020 INSIVUMEH reported that moderate to strong Strombolian explosions occurred at the rate of 8-12 per hour which raise columns of ash at 4,500-4,700 meters asl., dispersing south and southwest. Moderate avalanches occurred in the Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas barrancas. Fine ashes fall on the volcano observatory. Lahar has been also reported reported in the Barra Seca, a tributary of the Pantaleon river, located on the southwest flank of the volcano at 1 p.m. A weak to moderate lahar flowed in the Ceniza barranca tributary of the Achiguate river, from 4:20 p.m. Maintaining heavy rains can result in more lahars, carrying tree branches and volcanic material. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 5-12 explosions per hour recorded during 22-26 May, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km in multiple directions. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius, particularly in areas on the S flank. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Ciudad Vieja (13.5 km NE), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), and Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE). Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage varied in length between 150 and 400 m long. As of the 24th of May, lava flow a hundred meters long towards the Seca barranca was observed in the images of Sentinel-2, as well as avalanches of blocks reaching up to 280 meters in length. The rains on the upper parts of the drainage generate weak to moderate lahars, marked by volcanic material, blocks of 1-2 meters in diameter, and trees. INSIVUMEH reported a lahar on May 25 at 8:15 p.m. local in Barranca Seca, and Rio Pantaleon. INSIVUMEH reported that a change in the type of activity was recorded by the seismic and acoustic networks from May 5, 2020 . On the evening of May 8 a lava flow has been observed since the morning, in the direction of Barranca Ceniza reaching a length of about 400 meters. It was accompanied by almost constant incandescence at the crater and avalanches towards the vegetation zone over 1 km. The explosions remained weak to moderate, with shock waves and ash plumes reaching 4,800 m. asl. There were 5-12 explosions per hour recorded during 22-28 April, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). The two lava flows continued to be active during 25-28 April; the flow in the Ceniza drainage did not advance past 200 m and the flow in the Seca drainage had extended to 800 m long. The ends of the lava flows continued to generate blocks that reached vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that lava began to descend Fuego's Ceniza (SSW) drainage on 19 April. The rate of effusion increased in the evening of 23 April and observatory staff saw a second lava flow in the Seca (W) drainage that was 170 m long. On 24 April satellite data confirmed thermal anomalies from both lava flows. The main part of the lava flow in the Ceniza was 200 m long, but prodced incandescent blocks from the end of the flow traveled an additional 240 m, reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent blocks from the end of the flow in the Seca drainage traveled 520 m. Explosions at the summit crater generated shock waves and ash plumes that rose almost 1.2 km above the crater. Avalanches of blocks from these explosions traveled up to 1 km down all flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that the night of April 18 the seismic and acoustic network of Fuego recorded a change in the type of activity. bad meteorological conditions no permitted observation of the lava flow, but analysis of satellite images helped to obtain its characteristics. The flow to Barranca Ceniza on April 19 was approximately 320 meters long. The activity was accompanied by almost constant incandescence at the crater and avalanches over 1 km, reaching the level of vegetation. There were 5-14 explosions per hour recorded during 7-14 April, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-20 km in multiple directions. Minor ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Quisache, and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within a 25-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-600 m high. Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage had variable lengths during the week, from 200 to 600 m long. Avalanches of blocks from the lava flows traveled sometimes long distances, and in some cases set fire to vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that on April 12th, 4 strong explosions occurred with expulsion of incandescent materials on the flanks of the volcano, respectively at 2:42, 2:56, 3:55 and 4:12 Yhis day, the sector was cloudy and the atmosphere is warm, and moderate fallout; a lava flow of 200 meters wide followed the barranca Ceniza. INSIVUMEH reported that on April 8th weak to moderate explosions, 10 to 14 per hour, accompanied by gray plumes at 4,500-4,800 meters asl. scattered west and southwest, as well as incandescent pulses 300-400 meters high and avalanches in the vicinity of the crater, and the various drainages.A change in Fuego's activity since April 6 is reported by the Government in a special bulletin on April 8 at 9 p.m. local, following the change in seismicity: the activity has now become effusive, and forms a flow of lava 400 meters long towards the Ceniza barranca. There is an almost constant glow at the crater and avalanches up to 1 km. reaching the vegetation. The current activity is similar to that recorded from March 16, 2020, which lasted 8 daysThere were 4-12 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 17-24 March, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km S, SW, and W. Almost daily ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and La Cruz. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled nearby houses and were felt in communities within a 25-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Honda, and Las Lajas ravines. Lava flows of variable lengths (400-1,000 m) descended the Trinidad and Ceniza ravines each day but were inactive by the evening of 23 March. INSIVUMEH reported that a new change occurred in eruptive behavior on March 15 from 19:24, with an increase in degassing accompanying the lava flow, well observable at night on about 600 meters long in the Trinanca barranca. An increase in avalanches was reported in Las Lajas, Trinidad and Cenizas barrancas.Effusive activity was accompanied by weak explosions.The seismic activity presented a continuous signal of low amplitude in relation to the expulsion of the materials feeding the lava flow and its degassing. As of the 26th of february INSIVUMEH recorded 5 to 12 moderate explosions of Strombolian type per hour which generated a plume of gray ash which reached approx. 4,500 m-4,700 m asl and derivative W and SW. In addition, a white plume that reached 4,300 m asl and drifted west and southwest is observed.The incandescent material is ejected at an approximate height of 100 m to 200 m above the crater with moderate avalanches around the crater, mainly in the Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Santa Teresa, Trinidad, Las Lajas barrancas, with slight fallout.A lava flow 300 meters long is described in the Ceniza barranca, with moderate to strong avalanches from the flow front.Ash falls have been reported in several leeward areas, including Santa Sofía, Morelia , Panimaché I and II , Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa , Sangre de Cristo and El Porvenir .INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-16 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 12-18 February, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Alotenángo (8 km ENE), and La Soledad (11 km N). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within an 8-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 150-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines lava flows in the Ceniza drainage were 700-800 m long during 13-17 February and lengthened to 1.2 km during 17-18 February. INSIVUMEH reported that on February 5th explosive activity continued at the rate of 5 to 8 episodes per hour, accompanied by ash plumes reaching an altitude of 4,900 meters (flight alt. 160 / VAAC Washington). The ashes move towards the northeast for about twenty kilometers, with fallout on Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja and Antigua Guatemala. Night glow is linked to impulses 200 meters high and avalanches of boulders in the barrancas. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-17 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 14-21 January, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within a 7 km radius, though they were felt up to 25 km away during 19-20 January. Incandescent material was ejected 100-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ash plumes drifted 18 km E during 20-21 January. INSIVUMEH reported that low to moderate ash emissions continued at the rate of 11-17 episodes per hour, accompanied by plumes between 4,500 and 4,800 meters asl. moving west and southwest. Night glow was observed at 200-300 m. above the crater; this activity generating weak to moderate avalanches around the crater, and some stronger towards the drainage. Ash falls were reported on Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de cristo, San Pedre Yepocapa, and Panimache. Previous news 2019 - As of the 27th of December, INSIVUMEH reported that activity remained at the same level the last days with 15-18 explosions per hour, weak to moderate, which were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,200-4,500 meters asl., and avalanches in direction of the different barrancas. Nighttime incandescent impulses were observed at 100-200 meters in height and a lava flow in the barranca Seca reached a length of 300 meters. On the other hand following a change of direction of the winds blowing from the southwest, the ash plumes dispersed on December 27 in the morning towards the northeast and the north, with the probability of falls in the areas of Acatenango, Ciudad Vieja and Antigua Guatemala. INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity increased; night and early morning glow were visible and according MIROVA moderate thermal anomalies could be observed, included in recent days between 18 and 91 MW.The active lava flow in the direction of the Ceniza barranca was about 600 meters, with avalanches and steam at the head of the lava front. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 6-15 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 20-26 November, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 100-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows advanced in the Seca and Santa Teresa (W) drainages during November, and were 300 and 800 m long on 21 and 24 November, respectively. INSIVUMEH following important rain on of the volcano, a weak to moderate lahar was reported on November 17th of November in the Ceniza gorge consisting of ashes and blocks deposited by constant activity, and remobilized. INSIVUMEH reported that since November 6 a lava flow towards the barranca Seca, long on November 13 of about 900 meters. This activity was effusive, according to the OVFGO, despite a notable incandescence in night and hours of low light, as well as a sustained degassing. This activity, similar to that recorded in April, could be prolonged in the following months. Discrete emissions of ash and gas continue, with a plume at 4,700 m. asl., moving west and southwest for 20 km. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-18 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 2-8 October, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, W, and NW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows traveled 200 m down the Seca drainage on 6 October and were active in the Santa Teresa (W) drainage on 8 October. Lahars descended the Ceniza, El Mineral, and Seca drainages during 3-7 October, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks 1-3 m in diameter. As of the 5th of October, INSIVUMEH reported that constant rains over the past few days are likely to cause floods, lahars and landslides. Especially in the area of ​​the Fuego volcano, weak to moderate lahars were reported in different drainages: the Ceniza, Las Lajas, Seca and Rio Mineral barrancas are involved. These lahars were characterized by the transport of ash, blocks 1 to 2 meters in diameter and generate steam columns and shock waves. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that at night and early June 22 in the morning, incandescence was observed at a height of approximately 350 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches in the crater contour, some over long distances to vegetation in the direction of the crater. Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, El Jute, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash fallout is reported from Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimache I and II. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 15-18 June, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km W, SW, and E. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluya¡ (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofi­a (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Previous month, INSIVUMEH reported that there were 15-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 16-17 and 19-20 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, and W. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 300-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). A lava flow on the W flank was 300 m long. On 16 May lahars carrying variously-sized blocks and tree branches and trunks descended the Las Lajas ravine. On 20 May hot lahars with a sulfur odor descended the Ceniza, El Jute, and Las Lajas drainages, carrying blocks 1-3 m in diameter. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 13-24 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 9-10 and 12-14 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km S and SW. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in areas to the S and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (and reached vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW).Lava flows were 500-600 m long on the W flank. On 11 May steaming lahars descended the Las Lajas, Seca, Ceniza, and Mineral drainages, carrying variously-sized blocks and tree parts. Lahars on 14 May carried blocks and tree trunks down the Ceniza drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that on 18 April steaming hot lahars descended Fuego's Ceniza (SSW) and Taniluya (SW) drainages, carrying variously-sized material including blocks up to 2 m in diameter. The lahars were 1 m deep, 15 m wide, and had a sulfur odor. During 20-23 April there were 17-22 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1.1 km and drifted 15-20 km S, SW, and W. Shock waves vibrated local structures. Incandescent material was ejected 300-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines. A lava flow, 600 m long, advanced in the Seca drainage. Ashfall was reported in reported in Yepocapa (8 km N), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Panimache (8 km SW). INSIVUMEH reported that on April 11 between 18 and 22 low to moderate explosions occurred every hour, with ash plumes as high as 4,800 meters asl, before dispersing to the east. During the night, incandescent impulses rose 300 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches to the barrancas.A lava flow extends for 500 meters, from the crater to the direction of Barranca Seca. A low ashfall is reported on Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja, and La Reunión; according to the direction of the wind, the ashes could fall back on Antigua Guatemala.Persistent heavy rains on the Fuego volcano in Guatemala resulted in lahars in various drainages on April 11th: the Taniluya, Ceniza and El Jute barrancas were impacted, and thousands of people from surrounding communities were blocked. Previously, a special bulletin from INSIVUMEH was issued on 31 March describing another increase in activity with the number of explosions ranging from 14 to 32 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted W, SW, and S. The explosions vibrated local residences. A lava flow that had emerged in the early morning hours advanced 800 m in the Seca drainage. On 1 April there were 13-16 explosions recorded per hour. Ash plumes rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-15 km S, SE, and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate residential structures. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, reaching vegetation. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I, Morelia, Palo Verde Estate, Santa Sofia, La Rochela, and San Andres Osuna. INSIVUMEH reported that on 29th of March, the eruptive activity was characterized by constant periods of increase in its eruptive behavior, with 20 hourly explosions, and plumes of ash reaching 5,000 meters asl. before moving for 15 to 30 km. These explosions generate avalanches in the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas, which remobilize materials; at night, they were incandescent and visible over 350 meters from the crater. The respect of the instructions is recalled in view of possible new eruptions, accompanied by pyroclastic flows. As of the 22nd in the morning, INSIVUMEH reported an increasing activity of the volcano; between 15 and 20 moderate and strong explosions occurs every hour, columns of ash and degassing rising up to 5 thousand meters above sea level, dispersing at 30 kilometers south, west, south-west, east and southeast, generating moderate and strong crater avalanches that take the direction of Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash falls were reported on La Rochela, Ceylon, Osuna, Las Palmas, Siquinalá and Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa; other communities could be affected up to 30 km from the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that explosive activity was still contnuing during recent days, with 13 to 16 weak to moderate explosions accompanied by ash plumes at 4.400-4.700 meters asl, scattering over a wide area according to the winds.Incandescence was observed at 200 -300 meters in height, as well as avalanches in the contours of the crater and the barrancas.Ash falls occurred in El Rodeo, El Zapote, Celan, La Rochela, Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, and Sangre de Cristo. INSIVUMEH reported that on the 1st of February, nocturnal glow was observed, and the rhythm of the explosions was13 to 18 per hour at the beginning of the day, with plumes of ashes reaching 4,800 m. asl. The ashfall occurred toward the Northeast on Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja, and the capital Ciudad Guatemala. Avalanches were observed in the barrancas Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that 10-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 29-31 January. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted E and NE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE), and Guatemala City (70 km E). Incandescent material was ejected 300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. During 31January-1 February there were 14-16 explosions recorded per hour, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km and drifting 20-25 km S and SE. Ash fell in the communities of El Rodeo (10 km SSE), El Zapote, Ceilan, and La Rochela. Incandescent material rose 200-400 m high causing avalanches of material to descend the Seca, Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda (E) ravines. Shock wave causing vibration in the communities near the volcano.INSIVUMEH reported that on January 22, the activity was maintained with 15 -25 low to high explosions, per hour, a plume of ash amounting to 4,800 m asl. before dispersing to the west and south-west, and incandescent impulses 100-300 meters above the crater.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché I y II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Yepocapa. As of the December 5th, few explosions occurred accompanied by plumes of gray ash at a height of 4,500-5,000 meters asl. dispersing to the west and southwest over 25 km. Incandescent impulses are reported at a height of 150-200 meters above the crater, generating fallout in the vicinity of the crater and to the main barrancas. INSIVUMEH repored that heavy rains during 28 and 29 November generated hot lahars, accompanied by the smell of sulfur and degassing columns, towards the Seca, Santa Teresa and El Mineral barrancas. The lahars carried ash and blocks 1 to 3 meters in diameter, volcanic materials deposited during the last eruptions.INSIVUMEH reported that moderate to strong explosions continued at a rate of 12 to 15 per hour, this vulcanian-type activity is accompanied by eruptive columns with ashes rising to 5,000 meters asl. and shock waves and vibrations felt within a radius of 25 km. A change of wind direction, November 26 in the morning from south to north, produced ashfalls on Alotenango, San Miguel, Dueñas, Antigua Guatemala and Ciudad Guatemala. During 24-25 November there were 12-15 weak-to-moderate explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate local structures, and ashfall was again reported in Panimache, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Moderate-to-strong Vulcanian explosions on 26 November generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted N. The explosions were heard, and shock waves felt, mostly within 25 km, though some explosions were audible to residents of Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Explosions continued the next day at a rate of 10-15 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high, and avalanches of material descended multiple drainages. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. As of the 22nd of November, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions accompanied by expulsions of a dark gray plume continued.The avalanches of blocks and ashes, accumulated during the eruption of November 18, continued in the Seca, Ceniza, El Jute, Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that the strong eruption of the Fuego was accompanied on November 19 in the morning by constant explosions, and a sustained ash plume rising to about 7,000 meters asl, before dispersing 50-60 km to the west and southwest.The incandescent source was observed 800-1000 meters above the crater, with ballistic materials scattered for more than one kilometer around the volcano.The main lava flow reached about 3,000 meters in length towards the barranca Ceniza ; two other shorter flows, of about 300 meters, were observed in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. The flows was accompanied by avalanches and mobilization of ashes.Pyroclastic flows descended from the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. Abundant falls of ash and particles are falling on Panimache, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Paolo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, San Juan Alotenango, and Antigua Guatemala.The Conred also reported light ash falls on Mazatenango, San Bernardino, San Antonio, San Miguel Panán, Chicacao, San Juan Bautista, Santa Bárbara Río Bravo and Patulul, and that 2,052 people were safe and 3,000 have been evacuated; 76,145 people would be affected. At about 11h40 AM slight decrease in seismicity was observed, as well as a decrease in the height and extension of the ash plume: height of 6,000 meters asl dispersing over 20-30 km. In the evening (6PM) the seismogram and the RSAM showed a drop in activity, and according to the observatory this 5th eruptive phase of the year was over, after a duration of 32 hours. However, Explosions were always recorded, weak to moderate, accompanied by a plume of ash at 4,800 meters asl, drifting to a west and southwest sector over 15 km.The incandescent impulses were reduced to 100-300 meters, generating weak avalanches mainly in the crater contour; some ejections reach the limit of vegetation towards the main barrancas. A special INSIVUMEH bulletin of 18 November reported that at 10.10 local, the fifth eruption 2018 started. It was characterized by a permanent ash plume at 4,900 meters asl, dispersing to the south for 15-25 km, and generating moderate to strong avalanches in the Ceniza and Tanilyua Barrancas, up to the vegetative limit. The incandescent fountain was observed up to 300 meters high above the crater. A lava flow, 2,000 meters long, in the direction of the barranca Ceniza, has a front generating avalanches and ash rising. A possibility exists of the beginning of lava flow in the Taniluya barranca in the next hours, and of pyroclastic flows.Ash falls have been reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, and Finca Paolo Verde.During the night, the explosions generated a plume rising to 5.200 meters in height before dispersing 20-30 km in a westerly and north-easterly direction; the incandescent fountains rose up to 500-600 meters above the crater and the ballistic ejections reached 800 meters in various directions. The lava flow towards the Ceniza gorge reaches a length of 2,500 meters.At the time of the 0h40 report, a pyroclastic flow descended in the direction of the Seca barranca. Comred declared the red alert and activated the Emergency Operations Center-COE-Municipal to coordinate the response actions. National Highway 14 is closed. Self-evacuation is in progress. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that on 18th of November, the activity increased again rising: 8 to 14 explosions, low to moderate, per hour are accompanied by emission of plumes of ash to 4,700 meters asl., drifting on 15-20 km to the southwest and west. Incandescent pulsatile emissions at 150-200 meters are observed, as well as moderate avalanches in the crater contour. A lava flow reaches a length of 1,300 meters in the Ceniza barranca, permanently fed.Ash falls are reported on Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde.INSIVUMEH reported that 7-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 8-12 November. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 8-20 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porveni, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-300 m high and caused avalanches that traveled far, reaching vegetated areas in multiple drainages. Lava flows as long as 1.2 km advanced in the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, though lava-flow activity greatly decreased by 12 November. As of the 9th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity continued; the lava flow in the Ceniza barranca reached a length of 1 200 meters. Avalanches were reported in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas.Low to moderate explosions occurred ranged from 12 to 18 per hour, with ash plumes rising to 4,600-4,700 meters asl, before dispersing over 10-15 km. towards a western sector, accompaznied with fallout of fine particles on this zone, including Sangre de Cristo, Santa Sofia, Panimaché I and II, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir. The explosions were accompanied by outgassing noises for 2 to 5 minutes.INSIVUMEH reported that a new eruptive phase began on November 6 in Fuego, the fourth in 2018.Low-to-moderate steady-state explosions are recorded, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,800 m. asl.,then drifting 20 km westerly and southwesterly, and with shock waves and sounds.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finac Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Incandescences impulses are visible in the crater that rose to about 200-300 meters high, generating avalanches around the crater, impacting the vegetation towards the Seca and Taniluya barrancas, and feeding a 1000 meter long flow, then reaches 1,200 meters in the Ceniza gorge.The effusive activity then continued until the evening, weakening very slightly. As of the 5th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that activity of Fuego increased, with 10 to 15 hourly explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 4,700 meters asl. dispersing 15 km in a westerly and southwesterly direction. Nighttime glow is observed to 200-300 meters above the crater; the explosions generate weak to moderate avalanches, and lava flows 600 meters long towards the Tanilyua and Ceniza barrancas.The ash falls concern Panimaché, El, Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde and San Pedro Yepocapa.t INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 20 October hot lahars descended Fuego's Las Lajas (SE) and Mineral drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter along with branches and tree trunks. The lahars were 20-30 m wide and 2 m deep. During 20-23 October there were 8-15 weak explosions recorded per hour, producing gray ash plumes that rose 750-850 m above the crater rim and drifted 12 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimaché (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Lava fountains rose 100-200 m high. Avalanches of blocks descended the El Jute (SE), Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, with material reaching vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-16 October explosions (8-18 per hour) produced ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 8-12 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, and Panimache I and II (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-200 m high, causing avalanches of material within the crater, though some of the avalanches traveled long distances, reaching vegetated areas. The lava flow on the W flank was still visible but by 14 October no longer active. On 13 October a steaming lahar descended the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reported that from 3.50 am on October 12, a new phase of the eruption began, effusive: fountains of 400 meters above the crater generated a lava flow that reaches 600 meters long towards the west drainages of the volcano. A possibility of pyroclastic flows is considered towards the seca, Las Lajas and Cenizas barrancas. On the evening of October 12, pyroclastic flows are reported in the Barranca Seca, where the lava flow reaches a length of 1,500 meters. Its advance causes a lifting of materials and some avalanches. A pyroclastic flow is also observed in the Barranca Santa Teresa. The eruptive dynamics is maintained with moderate explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 5,000 meters asl, dispersing to the SW, O and SE over 15-20 km. ; incandescent impulses are observed 200-300 meters above the crater. The fallout of ashes concerns Panimache I, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde..INSIVUMEH reported that on October 11, a slight increase in the explosive activity of the Fuego was reported characterized by 10 to 14 hourly explosions, weak to moderate, accompanied by plumes of ash rising to 4,600 meters asl. traveling 15 km to the west and southwest. Incandescent impulses are observed 100-200 meters above the crater, generating the fall of volcanic materials and avalanches towards the Santa Teresa and Las Lajas barrancas. This activity is accompanied by moderate fallout, shock waves and constant outgassing noise.INSIVUMEH reported that on September 29 in the evening an increase of the explosive activity occurred ; tremor and degassing pulses lasting up to 3-4 hours were accompanied by aircraft turbine sounds and block avalanches on the southwestern flank. About Five to nine hourly explosions were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,400 - 4,700 meters.In the evening, 10 to 15 hourly explosions were recorded, weak to moderate, and accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500 meters asl. moving 10 km to the west and southwest, and fallout of volcanic materials that generate small avalanches.Ash falls are reported on San Pedro Yepocapa, Finca Palo Verde, Morelia, and Panimache.The summit is marked by a constant incandescence during the night.INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 and 24-25 September explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted 12 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimache (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). On 25 September hot, steaming lahars descended the El Jute (SE) and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reporterd that on 7 September at 7:31 local time, an avalanche occurred on one of the flanks of Fuego due to a fissure in the upper part of the Barranca Las Lajas, the destabilization of materials accumulated during the eruption of June 3, and preceded by a small ash emission from a vent located lower down the slope.During the last 24 hours about 5 to 12 low to moderate hourly explosions occurred , accompanied by ashes and gas reaching 4,700 meters above sea level, before moving west-southwest 15 km INSIVUMEH reported that heavy rain generated lahars during 29 August-1 September that descended Fuego's El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), Cenizas (SSW), Taniluya (SW), Seca (W), Mineral, Honda, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. The lahars were hot, had a sulfur odor, and carried tree branches and blocks (2-3 m in diameter). On 1 September lahars disrupted roads between San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW) and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and from Finca Palo Verde and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). During 2-4 September explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Avalanches of incandescent material were confined to the crater. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH reported that during 18-21 August explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 850 m above the crater and drifted 12 km NW, W, and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area and down drainages on the flanks. According to CONRED, as of 22 August, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 169, and 256 remained missing. On 17th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that volcanic activity remains moderate with 6 explosions, accompanied by ash plumes at a height of 4,100-4,200 meters asl, drifting to the northwest and west; low avalanches are reported towards the Cenizas barranca.The heavy rains remobilized the ashes and caused a lahar in the barranca Honda. INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 August heavy rain triggered lahars that traveled down the Seca drainage on Fuego's W flank and the Mineral drainage, carrying tree trunks and blocks as large a 2 m in diameter. During 12-14 August weak-to-moderate explosions generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m high, and avalanches of blocks descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Santa Teresa (W) SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), and finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH rported that a strong explosion, accompanied by avalanches around the crater, fallout and shockwaves, occurred on August 8 at 21:20 local. Incandescent materials were ejected at 4,800 m Asl., Evening about 1,100 meters above the summit; the ash plume moved 12 km to the west. This is the first strong explosion recorded in the last six weeks.INSIVUMEH reported that during 29-30 July avalanches of material descended the Cenizas drainage on Fuego's SSW flank. Hot lahars generated by heavy rains on 30 July descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), El Jute (SE), and Cenizas drainages, carrying blocks 2-3 m in diameter and smelling of sulfur. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported relatively quiet conditions at Fuego during 4-9 July characterized mainly by gas emissions and block avalanches on the flanks. During 7-8 July there was about one explosion detected every two hours, producing diffuse ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Cenizas (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, while lahars were present in the El Jute (SE), Las Lajas, Cenizas, Taniluya (SW), Seca, Mineral, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. Seismicity increased on 10 July. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km and drifted 12 km SE, causing ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimaché (8 km SW). According to CONRED, as of 4 July, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 332 remained missing. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that 2-7 weak explosions per hour at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 650 m above the crater rim and drifted W and SW during 27-29 June and 1-3 July. Ashfall was reported on 27 June in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo and Yepocapa. Avalanches of material descended the S, SW, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, El Jute, and Cenizas drainages). INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 20-26 June multiple lahars at Fuego were often hot, steaming, and had a sulfur odor, and were generated from heavy rains and the recent accumulation of pyroclastic-flow deposits from the 3 June events. Lahars remained a significant hazard, and descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Santa Teresa (W), and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. They were 25-45 m wide, as deep as 3 m, and often carried blocks up to 3 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. The agencies warned that because the Las Lajas drainage is full of deposits, lahars can continue to descend that drainage or create new channels in San Miguel Los Lotes (one of the hardest-hit areas). Explosions continued, producingash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde on 22 June. Avalanches of material descended the SE, S, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages). According to CONRED, as of 26 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 remained evacuated. During 16-19 June as many as seven explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km W, SW, and S. Some explosions were heard in areas within a 10-km radius. Avalanches of material descended the Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages during 17-18 June, producing ash plumes, and ashfall in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde. According to CONRED, as of 19 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows remained at 110, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 people had been evacuated. As of the 15th of June, INSIVUMEH reported that following heavy rains hot lahar traveled down in Santa Teresa Barranca and Rio Mineral, a tributary of Rio Pantaleon. Large of 20 to 25 meters and 2 meters high, and carrying fine and pasty materials, blocks of 3 meters in diameter and trunks. At 17:40, a lahar descended the river Ceniza. Other lahars were reported in Taniluya and Las Lajas barrancas, about 30 to 45 meters wide and 3 meters high As of the 13th of June INSIVUMEH reported that a lahar was observed traveling down in the Ceniza gorge; about 25 meters wide and 2 meters high, it carries fine and pasty materials, blocks one to three meters in diameter and tree trunks. Another lahar has taken the Las Lajas barranca, 30-40 meters wide and 3 meters high, characterized by the transport of similar materials.As of the 12th of June INSIVUMEH reported that at 7 am local an increasing of the explosive activity occurred, characterized by columns of ashes between 4,500 and 5,000 meters height asl., dispersed on 15 to 25 km to the northeast . Ashfall is likely to occur in Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja and San Miguel Duena. At 7:35 local time, the observatory reported a pyroclastic flow in the Seca barranca, producing a curtain of ashes that reached 6,000 meters asl before dispersing to the north and north-east. The explosive activity causes avalanches that produce thick columns of ash, which disperse along the same axis.These episodes are likely to impact the main drainages in next hours or days.In addition of the danger created by the pyroclastic flows, there are lahars due to the remobilization of the ashes following the heavy rains. On 11th of June at the end of the afternoon, hot lahars descended the barrancas Las Lajas and El Jute, made of fine and pasty materials, blocks of large diameter up to 3 meters, and trunks and branches; his measurements were 35 to 55 meters wide and 5 meters high. Other lahars have been reported in the Seca and Mineral barrancas, with the risk of overflowing rivers.As of the 8th of June,INSIVUMEH reported lahars in Santa Teresa, Mineral, Taniluyá and Ceniza barrancas, tributaries of the Pantaleón and Achiguate rios; these lahars are hot, emit fumes, and carry fine materials, and rocks 2-3 m in diameter, as well as tree trunks. In parallel, pyroclastic flows are reported in El Jute and Las Lajas drainages, accompanied by co-pyroclastic plumes up to 6,000 meters asl.The latest assessment given to 8 June / 8:30 by the Conred, is 109 dead, 197 missing, and 1,713,617 people affected by the climax and its aftermath. As of the 7th of June, at the beginning of the evening, new pyroclastic flows descended the Las Lajas and El jute drainages, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic cloud rising to 6,000 meters asl.CONRED reported that by 0630 on 6 June a total of 12,089 people had been evacuated, with 3,319 people dispersed in 13 shelters. One bridge and two power networks had been destroyed. According to news sources on 6 June, Guatemala's National Institute of Forensic Sciences stated that 75 people were confirmed to have died and 192 were still missing. Many, possibly thousands, received burns and other injuries. Weather conditions, continuing activity at Fuego, poor air quality, hot pyroclastic flow deposits, and rain made rescue efforts difficult. On Tuesday, an explosion forced relief to stop the research. The disaster has affected, to varying degrees, a total of 1.7 million Guatemalans.Details about volcanic event : the strong eruptive phase occurred at the volcano on Sunday 3rd of June). Lasting for about 16-17 hours until the evening, it generated ash clouds reaching up to 10 km, which drifted into westerly directions for more than 40 km, lava flows descending on the flanks, heavy ash fall in nearby areas and secondary mud flows triggered by strong rainfall. Massive pyroclastic flows - fast-moving turbulent avalanches of gas and hot rock material have claimed lives as well. Information from official side at least 69 victims have been confirmed. All fatalities occurred as result of being engulfed in pyroclastic surges, it seems mainly on the eastern flank.The eruption has abruptly decreased after 18:45 local time and returned to small to moderate intermittent explosions and minor rockfalls. Incandescence is visible at the crater, where fresh lava flows begin to cool. Civil protection has declared the highest alert level RED for the areas of Escuintla, Alotenango, Sacatepéquez, Yepocapa and Chimaltenango, while Escuintla is kept at the second highest, ORANGE. More than 3000 people are reported to have been evacuated and ash fall from the eruption has been affecting an area with a population of more than 1.5 million, roughly 10% of the country's population total. Previously, local news reported that a violent eruption occurred on the evening of Sunday, June 3 (local time), leaving at least 25 people dead and injured several other people after pyroclastic flow entered into Rodeo village. Volcanic ash has reportedly covered nearby villages, including San Pedro Yepocapa and Sangre de Cristo, ashfall has also been reported in Guatemala City. Some 100 people have been evacuated from affected areas. Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales has declared that a national emergency response has been mobilized. La Aurora International airport was closed on Sunday due to ashfall. Further eruptions, evacuations, and transportation disruptions are expected in the coming hours and days. INSIVUMEH reported that beginning at 1400 on 17 May a lahar descended the Seca (Santa Teresa) drainage on Fuego's W flank. The lahar was 25 m wide, 1 m deep, and carried trees and blocks 1.5 m in diameter. During 19-21 May explosions occurred at a rate of 5-8 per hour, and generated ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Some explosions were accompanied by rumbling audible more than 30 km away, and shock waves that vibrated structures in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimache (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material within the Seca, Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages that reached vegetated areas. Ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia, Panimache I and II, and Finca Palo Verde. A lava flow 700-800 m long was active in the Ceniza drainage. Small ash explosions at Fuego on 11 and 12 May rose to 5 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. or approximately 1 km (3,280 ft) above the summit. The ash dispersed quickly to the southwest and was visible on webcams. Activity increased on 14 April and remained elevated through 17 April. Moderate-to-strong explosions were detected at a rate of 6-9 per hour, and sometimes produced shock waves that vibrated houses in Morelia and Panimache. Dense ash plumes rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20 km W and S, though winds also carried the ash to higher altitudes to the SE. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in Santa Sofía, Morelia, Panimache I and II, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde. The rate of explosions increased to 7-10 per hour on 16 April; explosions sometimes caused structures in Panimache, Morelia, La Reina, and Alotenango (8 km ENE) to vibrate. A lava flow traveled 1.3 km down the Seca drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-10 April explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 10-15 km SW and S. Sometimes the explosions were accompanied by weak shock waves. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 200 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the Seca (Santa Teresa, W), Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Trinidad (S) ravines. During 9-10 April ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). (INSIVUMEH) - Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

May 28th, 2020

INSIVUMEH reported that during 19-26 May explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 700-1,000 m above the crater and drifted as far as 1 km NW, W, and SW. Avalanches of blocks descended the S, SE, and SW flanks of Caliente cone. Local ashfall around the volcano was sometimes reported. As of the 29th of April, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 800-900 m above the crater and drifted as far as 1.2 km NW, W, and SW. Avalanches of blocks descended the S, SE, and E flanks of Caliente cone. Ashfall was recorded in areas downwind including Loma Linda, San Marcos Palajunoj, and La Florida and Santa Marta fincas. INSIVUMEH reported that on April 1, 2020 a plume of vapors, accompanied by a little ash 400 meters above the summit, drifting west and southwest over the Palajuno area and the villages of Loma Linda and San Marcos; the explosions remain weak.INSIVUMEH reported that the volcano presented degassing pulses on February 24, which roses to a height of 3,000 meters above sea level and disperses to the southwest.Low explosions have been recorded in the past 24 hours accompanied by ash plumes at heights of 3,100-3,200 meters asl. that disperse to the southwest. As of the 17th of February CONRED reported that volcano presented a degassing 100 meters above the crater which dispersed to the west by the wind. The volcanic activity remains in the average of the parameters.As of the 22nd of January, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 800-900 m above the crater and drifted as far as 1.4 km W and SW. INSIVUMEH noted that ashfall was likely in areas downwind. Avalanches of material descended the NW, SW, and SE flanks of Caliente cone. Previous news 2019 - INSIVUMEH reported that on most days during 20-26 November there were 1-3 explosions per hour detected at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Ash plumes rose 600-900 m above the complex and drifted SW and W. Avalanches of material descended the E, S, and SW flanks. Ash sometimes fell locally, and likely in finca El Faro, Santa Maria, and Viejo Palmar during 20-21 and 24-25 November. INSIVUMEH reported that each day during 2-8 October there were as many as five explosions per hour detected at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex. Ash plumes rose 700-900 m above the complex and drifted SW. Avalanches of material descended the SE and S flanks. Ash fell in Monte Claro (S) on 2 October. As of the 5th of October, INSIVUMEH reported that a white degassing that rises to a height of 3,000 meters above sea level was dispersed to the southwest. Fifteen low explosions in 24 hours were recorded, generating ash columns at 3,300 meters above sea level, dispersing to the southwest, and weak avalanches on the south-east and south flanks. Light falls of ash are reported in the perimeter of the volcano. Previously, as of the 12th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that a white degassing overcomes the cone and disperses to the southwest; 2 to 4 weak to moderate explosions are recorded per hour, accompanied by ash plumes at 3,200 meters asl. These volcanic ash and outgassing columns are dispersed to the southwest and are also characterized by a low ash drop on the volcanic perimeter, generating low and moderate avalanches along the eastern flank that cause the displacement of materials. on his way.INSIVUMEH reported that following heavy rains in the region, moderate to strong lahar was recorded by the STG8 seismic station of Santiaguito in Rio San Isidro on 7 July at about 23:00; its measurements are a height of 2 meters, width of 20-25 m, it carries blocks with a diameter of 2 to 3 meters, branches and tree trunks and sediments.As of the 3rd of July, scientific blog about Santiaguito). The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

May 31st, 2020

INSIVUMEH reported that, during the night and the morning of May 30, 2020, Strombolian explosions occurred with expulsion of incandescent materials at 50-100 meters above the MacKenney crater of Pacaya. This activity feeds a large lava flow in a northeast direction, with a length of 700 meters. As of the 25th of May, INSIVUMEH reported that the volcan is still presents a continuous strombolian activity, with ejection of incandescent materials to 25-50 meters above the summit crater Mackenney, emissions of gas and vapor plume, dispersed in the south and the southeast, and a lava flow on the northeast flank reaching the length of 300 meters on satellite images. Seismicity is characterized by internal tremor associated with the rise of magma, degassing and Strombolian explosions. INSIVUMEH reported that during 22-28 April Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 100 m above the crater rim. Lava flows were active during 26-27 April, traveling about 150 m SW. Seismicity increased at 2140 on 27 April, and a lava flow on the SW flank lengthened to 400 m. INSIVUMEH reported that significant seismicity occurred since April 27 during the night, recorded by the PCG and PCG 5 stations. It was caused by the opening of a crack on the northeast flank of the volcano where emanates only gases. A lava flow extended to the southwest, and has extended for 400 meters from the MacKenney crater. Simultaneously, Strombolian explosions were accompanied by incandescent ejections a hundred meters high. As of the 24th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that typical Strombolian activity continued , with incandescent ejections 25 meters high above the Mackenney crater. They feed two lava flows of approximately 250 meters. INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-21 January Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 100 m above the crater rim, building a small cone. Multiple lava flows, some short-lived, traveled as far as 150 m W and S, and down the NW flank towards Cerro Chino. As of the 4th of January, INSIVUMEH reported that an explosive Strombolian activity occurred characterized by projections 50-100 meters high. Two lava flows, 200 and 300 meters long in a southerly direction, are observed at night, as are constant avalanches, which re-mobilize materials by raising ash. Previous news 2019 - INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-26 November Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 75 m above the crater rim. Lava flows traveled as far as 400 m down NW flank and produced block avalanches from the flow fronts. A special report from INSIVUMEH noted that seismic activity at Pacaya continued to increase, with RSAM values reaching 8,000 units by 18 September, coincident with an intensification of explosive activity at Mackenney Crater. Explosions from a growing cone in the crater ejected material as high as 100 m above the cone. Lava effusion increased; several lava flows (300-500 m long) advanced on the N and NW flank towards Cerro Chino and produced avalanches of blocks up to 1 m in diameter from the flow fronts. Strombolian explosions during 19-24 September ejected material 5-25 m above the cone, though on 21 September material was ejected as high has 100 m. Two lava flows traveled SW on 21 September. Special report from INSIVUMEH noted that seismic activity at Pacaya had increased on 8 September, with RSAM values reaching 7,000 units by 13 September, coincident with increased explosive activity at Mackenney Crater. Explosions from a growing cone in the crater ejected material as high as 75 m above the cone. Lava effusion increased; lava flows advancing on the N and NW flank towards Cerro Chino were about 500 m long. Avalanches of blocks up to 1 m in diameter were produced by the flow front. Similar activity was observed during 15-16 September. INSIVUMEH reported that on July 25 the volcano presented a degassing of moderate height, 150 meters above the crater, dispersing towards the south. Lava flows move on the north flank, and generate small avalanches of blocks at the front of flows. INSIVUMEH reported that during 17-23 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim. As many as four lava flows traveled down the NW and N flanks; two of the flows were 300 m long. Minor avalanches of material from the lava flow fronts descended the flanks.INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-18 June Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 30 m above the crater rim. A lava flow divided into two branches and traveled 300 m down the NW and W flanks, advancing towards Cerro Chino. Minor avalanches of material from lava flow fronts descended the flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that during 28 March-1 April Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 75 m above the crater rim. A lava flow traveled down the N flank, producing minor avalanches of material from the lava-flow front. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-12 February Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim. Multiple lava flows traveled 10-250 m down the NW flank, advancing towards Cerro Chino, and on the E flank. Minor avalanches of material from lava-flow fronts descended the flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that a white, 300 meter high degassing plume rose above the volcano on January 31, with a westward dispersion.Seismicity was characterized by a tremor associated with rising magma and gases to the surface. Strombolian explosions, between 5 and 30 meters, still occurs the Mackenney crater; during the night, incandescence was observed, as well as two lava flows in a northwesterly direction, measuring about 70 and 75 meters. In a special notice posted on 13 December 2018 INSIVUMEH reported that rumbling at Pacaya was heard within a radius of 8 km, and weak Strombolian explosions at Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 50 m above the crater rim. Active lava flows were 200-300 m in length and traveled down the NW flank, generating avalanches of blocks that were as large as 1 m in diameter. The report also noted that the cone in the crater continued to grow, filling the crater, and was 75 m above the crater rim. During 15-16 December lava continued to flow NW and Strombolian explosions ejected material 5-25 m high. NSIVUMEH reported that strombolian activity is characterized by explosions with ejections 25-50 meters above the crater falling around the Mackenney cone, which feed a lava flow towards Cerro Chino, which reaches about 200 meters Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone. New Webcam

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COSTA RICA - Arenal volcano

September 16th, 2013

No recent notable events since 2013 - OVSICORI-UNA conducted an overflight of Arenal on 14 September 2013 to measure gas emissions, and found low concentrations of carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen sulfide. An infrared camera detected a ring of thermal anomalies along the rim of Crater C.OVSICORI-UNA reported that plumes composed mainly of water vapor rose from the NE and SE edges of Arenal's Crater C on 8 and 9 September. Tremors indicative of hydrothermal and magmatic activity were detected on 8 September. The report noted that seismic and fumarolic activity had been very low in the past three years; however steam plumes associated with heavy rains had been frequent. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank. New webcam

COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

May 15th, 2020

OVSICORI reported that on the morning of May 14, an SO2 peak of 29.2 ppm was recorded. On the other hand, from the point of view, maximum concentrations of SO2 greater than 2 ppm were detected. Band tremor is observed in the range of 1 to 5 Hz. The lowest frequency tends to be persistent, unlike the highest frequency.The OVSICORI also reported stable CO2 / SO2 and H2S / SO2 ratios, around 1.0 and 0.1, respectively As of the 6th of May, OVSICORI reported that during the day, the hot magmatic gases fed the fumarole, with separate exhalations of 5-6 minutes, with a seismic signature.The volcano continues to present an average of 300 earthquakes of low frequency and low amplitude per day. The measured magmatic gas concentrations remain low, with SO2 concentrations of less than 5 parts per million (ppm), an H2S / SO2 ratio of less than 0.1 and a slight decrease in the CO2 / SO2 ratio with values ​​around 0.7. OVSICORI reported that seismic activity is higher on February 25 compared to the previous day. A slight increase in seismic activity was observed with frequent low frequency (LP) volcanic earthquakes which showed an increase in amplitude, as in the almost continuous volcanic tremor. OVSICORI reported that fumaroles still rose the acid lake which remains filled in this season. The sulfur dioxide concentration on January 26 is max. 24 ppm, down on January 27 with less than 0.4 ppm measured at the ExpoGas station. Seismic activity remains stable. Previous news 2019 - As of the 28th of November, OVSICORI reported that the crater lake maintained its surface area compared to the previous week.The color of the water tends to be greenish. Evaporation processes were a little more intense than the previous week and rainfall decreased. The field of sulfur-rich fumaroles in the northeast maintains its exhalation activity. At the mouth A, bubbling and emission of gas were observed. At the seismic level, the tremor of small amplitude was maintained (2 to 4.5 Hz), as well as discrete events of type LP (long duration) of low amplitude. OVSICORI reported in November that the acidic lake maintained its surface area compared to the previous week. Its color tends to become greenish. The evaporation processes were less intense and the precipitation constant. The field of fumaroles rich in sulfur in the north-east sector maintains its activity.Seismically, the low amplitude background tremor is maintained (2 to 4.5 Hz), as well as discrete earthquakes of type LP (long period) also of low amplitude. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new explosive event occurred on 30th of September at 5:40 AM. it produced a black cypressoid plume that rose above the edge of the crater, immediately accompanied by a plume of gas ... the eruptive column filled the crater before rising to 2,000 meters above it ( 4.708 m asl) then disperse to the southwest. Ovsicori reported an activity duration of 5 minutes.Thick, acidic ash has settled down, accompanied by an odor of sulfur, according to testimonies from inhabitants of Trojas de Sarchi. Since the eruption, the weak degassing concerns three vents, and especially the main mouth; some bubbles are observed at vent C. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a phreatic eruption occurred September 27, with activity level slightly down. A plume rich in water vapor, gas and aerosols is observed 1,000 meters above the crater. The NASA Satellite AURA detects a plume of sulfur dioxide between 16 and 26 September dispersing to the northwest northwest. A sulphurous smell is perceptible by the inhabitants of Alajuela, Heredia, San José, and Cartago. Fog and rain, hyperacids, saline and viscous, generate a rapid and extreme corrosion at the top of Poás (see article of 25.09). The hyperacid rains were measured at the home of PNVP staff (pH = 3.31) on Monday, September 23rd. The water of Laguna Botos is also very acidic, pH = 3.60.OVSICORI-UNA reported that an hydrothermal eruption of Poas volcano was recorded on 22 September at 20h59 local time. It lasted 25 minutes, accompanied by a plume rising to 2,000 meters above the summit, before dispersing to the northeast.The event was captured by the thermal camera located on the southern edge of the active crater. Activity continued until 4 pm on September 23, and a collapse was generated on the southern edge of mouth A with a widening of the fumarole fieldOn September 20, Poas maintained a vigorous degassing, characterized by a plume of gas and white vapor rising more than 1,000 meters above the crater. The decrease of the wind and the atmospheric conditions made it possible to see this plume of the Central Valley. On Sunday, September 15th, more than five phreatic eruptions were observed between 16:55 and 22:40:00. The bubling was also constant during this week. At the seismic level, a continuous bottom tremor remained, and increased slightly by magnitude on September 17. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruptive event from vent A (Boca Roja) at Poas generated a 1-km-high plume of steam, gas, and fine particulates at 0650 on 17 August. The event was preceded by an increase in tremor amplitude starting at 0500 that same day. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. Web camera from OVSICORI-UNA.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

April 13th, 2020

OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption ( probably phreatic) was observed on the webcams on April 12 around 9:40 pm. Previous news 2019 - OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruptive event at Turrialba was detected at 1441 on 28 July, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. Ashfall was reported in La Picada (N) and El Retiro farms. As of the 17th of July, OVSICORI-UNA reported that weak and stable activity remained, with a plume of steam and gas, dispersed towards a west and south-west sector.The crater glow recorded by webcams remained low, compared to that of previous months.Two small lakes are always mentioned at the summit; a third forms temporarily after a few hours of rain, then disappears. Some LP earthquakes were recorded during the past week. On 19 May OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive, short-duration emissions with small amounts of ash had been sporadically occurring at Turrialba over the previous week. Prolonged and intermittent periods of emissions with minor amounts of ash were visible during 19-20 May.OVSICORI-UNA reported that in the past week activity remained low and stable. The LP earthquake record was maintained however.On 27 April at 7:22, a short eruption occurred , accompanied by a small plume of brown ash that rose 100 meters above the summit. OVSICORI-UNA reported that minor ash emissions rose from Turrialba on 8 April. OVSICORI-UNA reported that gas emissions at Turrialba significantly decreased on 30 March. An eruption recorded at 0735 on 31 March was followed by passive emissions with a low concentration of magmatic gases at least through 1 April. Seismicity continued to be dominated by low-frequency events. OVSICORI-UNA reported a period of continuous emissions from Turrialba during 20-22 March. The emissions were characterized as white water vapor plumes with periodic pulses of diffuse ash rising 300 m above the vent rim and drifting W and SW. A sulfur odor was noted in Tierra Blanca de Cartago on 22 March. Only water vapor plumes with a low concentration of magmatic gases were visible during 23-26 March. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 9-12 March plumes of gas sometimes containing small amounts of ash rose as high as 1 km above Turrialba's crater rim. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at 0444 on 1 March produced a plume that rose 200 m and drifted NE. A period of continuous emissions rising 200-300 m was recorded during 2-4 March; the plumes contained minor amounts of ash at least during 2-3 March. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption occurred on February 28 from 10:50 local which lasted about 4 minutes and was accompanied by an ash plume 500 meters above the crater.The seismic activity remains in the norms of the previous days. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Turrialba on 21 February generated a plume that rose 300 m and drifted NW. Frequent ash pulses were recorded that day. Ash emissions were frequent during 22-24 February, though of variable intensity and duration. Plumes rose as high as 300 m and drifted NW and SW. On 22 February ashfall was reported in Santa Cruz (31 km WSW) and Santa Ana, and a sulfur odor was evident in Moravia (31 km WSW). Cloudy weather conditions prevented visual observations of the vent during 25-26 February. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during the morning of 18 February a plume with low ash content rose from the vent. An event at 1310 generated a plume that rose 500 m and drifted W. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an explosive episode occurred at 8:34 local accompanied by a plume 300 meters above the crater, and another at 13:30 local, a plume at 1,000 meters above the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 13-15 February a period of almost continuous gas emissions with minor ash content rose 200-300 m above the rim of Turrialba's active vent. The plumes drifted NW, W, and SW. An event at 1330 on 15 February produced a plume that rose 1 km and drifted W. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a period of sporadic ash emissions from Turrialba began at 0540 on 8 February and lasted more than one hour. The activity produced ash plumes that rose no more than 200 m above the vent rim. A very small ash emission was visible on 11 February. RSN reported that on 1st of February at 6:46 a small eruption occurred; it produced a plume of gray ash that rose 400-500 meters above the crater before drifting to the NNE. The eruption lasted 15 minutes. OVSICORI -UNA reported that an eruption occurred on January 8, accompanied by a white plume 500 meters above the crater; passive emissions of discontinuous ash were more sustained than the previous days, and ash falls are reported on Heredia OVSICORI-UNA reported that prolonged and sporadic passive ash emissions, forming small plumes, are observed at Turrialba on 1 and 2 January 2019. Incandescence is visible at the western crater during the night. Seismicity is characterized by small volcanic earthquakes and tremor.Images from the Aura - IMO satellite indicate a substantial reduction in sulfur dioxide flux during the last half of 2018.A few falls of ashes are reported in the Central Valley.The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

COSTA RICA - Rincon de la Vieja volcano

June 3rd, 2020

OVSICORI-UNA reported that two eruptive episodes occurred on June 1st. The first, at 5 p.m., produced a plume reaching 1,500 to 2,000 meters above the summit; for the second at 5:45 pm, the height of the plume was 2,000 meters, and the duration of one minute. No ash fall or sulfur odor was associated with these eruptions.On June 2, from 5 to 7.15 am, activity was constant. It continues with a beautiful white plume emitted at 3:47 p.m. local time. OVSICORI reported that the eruptive activity continues with regular hydrothermal explosions. On May 25, 2020, after a sequence of gas pulses, small, almost continuous eruptions - more than 10 episodes in an hour - accompanied by plumes 1,000 meters above the crater. Two episodes occurred at 5:35 p.m. local and 5:38 p.m. local, the latter with materials reaching the edge of the active crater. On May 26, an eruption was recorded at 8:05 am local, without being able to specify the height of the plume for lack of visibility; it lasted a minute. The same day, at 4:21 pm local time, another explosion generated a plume of 1,500 meters above the crater; the activity lasted 2 minutes. An overview was carried out on May 22, showing of a significant white of gas and vapor degassing in the active crater. A continuous tremor, between 0.6 and 5 Hz, is reported. In addition, at 4:24 p.m. local time, a 1-minute eruption was accompanied by a plume that reached 1,000 meters above the crater. It followed a vapor emission. OVSICORI recorded a small ash eruption occurred with less water vapor content than in the previous weeks, on May 21, 2020 at 5:37 am, accompanied by a plume to 1,000 meters above the crater. The activity lasted one minute. Seismicity is characterized by semi-continuous tremor. OVSICORI reported that a new hydrothermal eruption occurred on May 15, 2020 at 11:27 a.m. local, accompanied by a plume of 600 meters (?) Above the crater, and lasting 1 minute.The cloudiness prevented an accurate estimate of the height of the plume ... observers north of the volcano report a height of 1,000 meters for the vapor and gas plume, and a column of gray sediment 400 meters above the crater. OVSICORI reported that two eruptions occurred on the morning at 5:24 a.m. and 7:04 a.m. (UTM + 6). In both cases, the column rose to about 500 meters above the height of the crater, a total of 2416 m above sea level. No ash fall or lahars are reported.OVSICORI reported that a new hydrothermal explosion occurred on May 8 at 3:43 am local; due to the cloud cover in the crater, the height of the plume remains unknown. The Ovsicori reports tremor in bands in the range of 1 to 5 Hz, sometimes discontinuous. OVSICORI-UNA reported two phreatic explosions at Rincon de la Vieja during 30 April-5 May and continuing fluctuations in tremor levels. At 1610 on 30 April an event produced a gas-and-steam plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim. At 1317 on 5 May a steam plume rose 200 m above the rim. OVSICORI reported that hydrothermal eruptions continued at Rincon de La Vieja. An detected episode occurred on April 29 at 9:19 p.m., without visual observation; the observatory signals the presence of a continuous tremor since 8 am in the morning. On April 30, another episode occurred from 4:10 pm local, accompanied by an eruptive column which rose to 1,500 meters above the crater. OVSICORI reported that on April 27, a new hydrothermal eruptive episode occurred at 5:20 pm. It is characterized by a duration of 5 minutes and a plume reaching 1,000 meters above the crater. New episode on April 28 at 9:19 p.m. local, lasting 1 minute, but it was no possible to determine the height of the plume, due to lack of visibility. OVSICORI reported that on April 24, small eruptions / exhalations were recorded at Rincon de La Vieja, respectively at 5:38 am, 6:40 am, 7:52 am and 10:20 am local. The stronger hydrothermal eruption at 10:20 is characterized by a column of water and solid materials reaching up to 300 meters above the edge of the crater and a plume of vapor up to a height of 1,000 meters. New lahars are reported.On April 22 at 5:35 am local time, a hydrothermal eruption was signaled by the Ovsicori, accompanied by projections and a gas plume reaching 1,500 meters. The activity lasted 1 minute and did not generate any lahar.OVSICORI reported that after the phreatic episode of April 19, the volcano presented on the evening of April 20 and on April 21 several exhalations (puffs) of gas and low energy vapor, the main one at 6:26 local time on 21.04, with a white plume that rises 1000 meters above the height of the crater / 2916 meters above sea level. Duration of the activity: 30 seconds.OVSICORI-UNA reported that a hydrothermal eruption occurred on April 19th at 10:14 am local to Rincon de La Vieja, and produced a vapor column at 1,500 meters above the crater. It lasted about a minute. The expelled materials, solid and liquid, reached a height of about 300 meters above the crater, and produced a lahar on the north face, which did not affect the populations around the volcano. The OVSICORI also reported several small eruptions of the same type in the past hours (including one at 5.30 am), which however did not exceed the edge of the crater.OVSICORI-UNA reported periodic hydrothermal explosions at Rincon de la Vieja during 8-14 April. A possible small eruption occurred at 0658 on 8 April and was followed by a decrease in the amplitude of tremor signals. Beginning at 0033 on 11 April a small-scale hydrothermal explosion was recorded by the infrasoiund and seismic networks for 20 seconds. Water and sediment was ejected onto the upper flanks of the volcano. The event was recorded by the webcam located in Sensoria, 4 km N of the crater. In the morning local residents noted that the water in the Pénjamo River was milky white. A small hydrothermal explosion at 0251 on 13 April produced a plume of steam and gas that rose 500 m. As of the 25th of February, OVSICORI reported that the seismic activity maintained with occasional volcanic earthquakes of low frequency (LP) and of low amplitude, in addition to a tremor of variable amplitude. Between 7 a.m. and 9 a.m., the magnitude of the tremor increased considerably.Between 5 and 8 a.m., it was possible to observe a plume of gas and water vapor which managed to rise above 500 meters above the level of the crater, before the blanket cloud does not compromise visibility. OVSICORI reported that after the phreatic eruption of last week, the seismic activity has been showing from 3 h on February 7 a background tremor and earthquakes LP and tornillo. An overflight of the volcano was carried out on February 6; it revealed fumaroles, degassing is the only surface activity. OVSICORI-UNA reported that following the phreatic eruption on January 30, 2020, an overflight of the volcano was carried out by the volcanological section of the RSN in coordination with the Air Security of the Public Force. Despite the high cloudiness, the presence of materials ejected during the eruption could be observed ... in the event of rain, the mobilization of these materials can generate secondary lahars in the vicinity of the Penjamo rios, and the Quebradas Azufrada and Zanjonuda.OVSICORI-UNA reported that after an increase in seismic activity since Monday, Rincon de La Vieja was the site of a phreatic eruption on January 30 at 12:13 pm; it was accompanied by pyroclastic souls and warm lahars in the Quebradas azufrada and Zanjona, and the rio Pénjamo. The lahars arrived at the bridges between 15 and 30 minutes after the eruption.The activity level of the volcano is raised to 3 since the possibility of eruptions has considerably increased. OVSICORI reported that since Monday 27th of January , the Rincon de La Vieja volcano has shown an increase in seismic activity, associated with the movement of hydrothermal fluids inside. So far, there are no movements of magma inside the massif that could generate an eruption. Previous news 2019 - As of the 19th of December, RSN reported that seismic activity continued during the past week at Rincon de La Vieja, with the appearance of long-term earthquakes (just over two dozen) and a volcano-tectonic earthquake, recorded at the most close to the volcano. Sporadic signs of spasmodic tremors, and on some harmonic occasions, are observed.OVSICORI-UNA reported that seismic activity continued with the appearance of long-term signals (about two dozen) and two volcano-tectonic signals, the two types of signals recorded in most stations near of the volcano. The spasmodic tremor has decreased in amplitude as of October 31 and continues on November. OVSICORI -UNA reported that on September 12 at 08h18, tremor began, becoming spasmodic, before a phreatic eruption at 8:32; it lasted 5 minutes, but could not be observed due to bad weather conditions. Another small phreatic eruption occurred on September 16 at 12:51, lasting 2 minutes, barely visible on the webcam. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a 10-minute-long eruption at Rincon de la Vieja began at 0343 on 11 June. Emissions were not visible due to weather conditions. OVSICORI-UNA reported that phreatic eruptions at Rincón de la Vieja were recorded at 1703 on 14 May and 0357 on 17 May, though dense fog prevented visual confirmation of both events with webcams. On 15 May a local observer noted a diffuse plume of steam, gas, and particulates rising from the crater and photographed milky-gray deposits on the N part of the crater rim, ejected from the event the day before.OVSICORI-UNA reported that on May 11, a phreatic eruption began at 7:19, and lasted 7 minutes, expelling acid lake sediments and ashes; a plume of steam and magmatic gas rose to about 600 meters.On 14 April OVSICORI-UNA noted that aerial photographs taken during an overflight showed a milky-gray acid lake at a relatively low water level with convection cells of several tens meters of diameter in the center and Eastern parts of the lake. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new eruption probably phreatic occurred on April 12th at 6:43 am; it was accompanied by a whitish plume that rose 500 meters above the crater, and lasted a minute. Another phreatic event was detected at 0700 on 13 April, although poor weather conditions prevented visual observations. OVSICORI-UNA reported a new phreatic eruption on April 10th at 6:17 local lasting 2 minutes and accompanied by a column of steam and gas rising to 1,000 meters above the main crater , and observed from the northern sector of the volcano and Curubandé. In the past 24 hours, seismographs have recorded a considerable number of low-amplitude and short-lived volcanic earthquakes; a seismic signal is associated with the phreatic episode, and follows that of the phreatic episode of April 9 at 20:34. OVSICORI-UNA reported that two phreatic eruptions occurred at Rincon de La Vieja, respectively, these 1st and 3rd of April. A whitish coloration of the northern flank of the volcano is observed, due to the expulsion of sediments from the crater lake on March 29 at 20:43.On April 1, a phreatic episode occurred at 8:02, accompanied by a white plume of gas and water vapor. On April 3, at 2:35 pm, another phreatic episode is responsible for the emission of a slightly larger plume of steam and gas.OVSICORI-UNA reported that a two-minute-long phreatic eruption at Rincon de la Vieja was recorded at 0802 on 1 April and produced a plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. The report noted that a previous event had occurred at 2043 on 29 March. Intermittent tremor was recorded in between the two events. Rincon de la Vieja, a composite stratovolcano in Northwestern Costa Rica forms a NW-trending ridge consisting of several eruptive centers that have coalesced through time. Elevations of the individual cones range from 1670 to 1920 meters and nine craters are readily identified by their topographic expression. Numerous phreatic eruptions have occurred since 1851 (as recently as November, 1995), all from the Active Crater. The last major eruption involving juvenile magma occurred at ~3,500 ybp, producing the Rio Blanco tephra deposit. Ash, pumice, and lithics ejected during this eruption were deposited in a highly asymmetrical dispersal pattern WSW of the Active Crater, indicating strong easterly prevailing tradewinds at the time of the eruption. Historical descriptions of the summit crater morphology suggest that conditions there have changed little over the past century.
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NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

October 17th, 2019

According to local news, ashes ejection occurred on October 15th, 2019. Samples were collected and recorded in the municipality of Ticuantepe, which, as a result of the change in wind direction, received the ash particles from the volcano. If The winds continued to blow from south-east to north-west the city of Managua could be affected by gases or falls of pyroclastic material. Previous notable news 2017 - The Washington VAAC reported that on 13 May a west-drifting ash emission from Masaya was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot.
Previously, based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 21 January a possible emission from Masaya with minor ash content drifted almost 25 km NW.Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 5 January a gas, steam, and ash plume from Masaya drifted W. Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that a steam-and-gas plume from Masaya possibly contained some ash on 3 November. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 28 August a gas plume with possible ash rose from Masaya to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 15 August a possible ash plume from Masaya rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Elevated seismicity and a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images indicated increased activity. In a report posted later that day the Washington VAAC noted that the webcam recorded minor ash emissions. Previously, INETER reported that during 18-19 May RSAM values at Masaya fluctuated between 300 and 700 units which are low-to-moderate values. The lava lake in Santiago Crater continued to strongly circulate and the vent widened through 24 May. INETER reported that between 1700 and 2400 on 3 May volcanic tremor at Masaya increased; RSAM values spiked at 1,000 units and then dropped to 250. Gas emissions at Santiago
crater were at low-to-moderate levels, and the lava lake continued to strongly circulate. On 5 May RSAM values fluctuated between 250 and 500 units which are low-to-moderate values. INETER reported that during 27 April-3 May gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels. Seismic tremor decreased though continued to fluctuate between low to moderate levels. The lava lake continued to strongly circulate. INETER reported that during 20-23 April gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels and RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 22 April the level of the lava lake decreased, though strong lake circulation was reported on 23 April. INETER reported that during 6-12 April the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. (Time-lapse video). Previously on 30 March INETER reported that the lava lake rose in Masaya's Santiago crater and several landslide deposits from the precious few days were visible in the NE crater. RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that tremor continued and the widening of the vent in the SE part of the crater persisted. According to a SINAPRED report on 28 March INETER noted that lava-lake activity at Masaya's Santiago crater was intense and the craters continued to gradually widen. Emissions were at low levels. INETER reported that on 3 March the lava lake on the SW floor of Masaya's Santiago crater was very active. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. Previously, INETER reported that the lava lakes in three vents on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater were active during 20 February-1 March. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. On 23 February small explosions ejected spatter onto the crater floor. During fieldwork volcanologists observed active lava lakes in all three vents on the crater floor, and noted that the inner walls of the crater were being eroded due to the lava lake. A new vent was forming on the SE part of the crater floor. During a second visit on 24 February INETER staff noted that the vents had become larger due to landslides on the crater walls. Small streams of lava sporadically originated from the NE vent. By 1 March the two vents in the SW part of the crater had almost merged. On 17 February INETER reported that the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. During 10-11 February sulfur dioxide emissions at Masaya rose to high levels (1,500 tons per day), and RSAM values were at moderately-high levels due to higher levels of volcanic tremor. This activity coincided with an increase in the size of the lava lake. Gas emissions were at moderate and low levels on 12 and 16 February, respectively. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindiri­ and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage. (GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Telica volcano

August 18th, 2018

SINAPRED reported that on 15 August an explosion at Telica generated an ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim. INETER reported that a moderate explosion took place in June 21, 2018 at 7:08 local time. A plume of gas, ash, and some rocks rose 500 meters above the crater, before drifting east, south and southwest. Rockfall occurred near the crater, while the finer and sandy material was found more than one kilometer. Ash falls are reported on Los Manglares, Las Marias, Pozo Viejo, El Porvenir and Monte de Los Olivos.The explosion was followed by gas emissions; new explosions are likely during the day. INETER reported that a small gas explosion was heard by local residents on 10 September 2017. INETER warned the public to stay at least 2 km away from the crater. Previously in 2016 based on information from INETER, SINAPRED reported that 30 explosion at Telica occurred during 7-8 May, producing gas-and-ash plumes that rose 600 m and drifted S and SW. The explosions originated from a new vent in the N part of the crater; lava emissions were also observed. INETER reported high micro-seismicity and low outgassing during 11-16 May. Incandescence from vents on the crater floor was visible during 11-12 May; sounds from jetting gasses were noted on 11 May. RSAM values were 180-190 units during 11-12 May, dropping to 80 units during 12-14 May. INETER reported that during 6-11 April micro-seismicity at Telica remained high and lava in a vent on the crater floor was observed. Gas emissions were at low to moderate levels and RSAM values were low. On 30 March INETER reported that micro-seismicity at Telica remained high and was characterized by small, high-energy earthquakes. Incandescence emanated from the crater floor. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that seismicity continued at a high level and warned the public to stay away from the crater. In a 28 March report, SINAPRED noted that incandescence from Telica's crater continued to be observed, and reminded people to stay away from the crater. Previously, INETER reported high micro-seismicity at Telica during 20 February-1 March. Incandescence from the vent on the crater floor increased; lava in the vent was first observed on 25 February and persisted through 1 March. Five gas-and-ash explosions were recorded during 19 February-1 March, generating plumes that rose 300 above the crater and drifted W and SW. The strongest event started at 0819 and produced gas-and-ash emissions for 14 minutes. INETER reported that high micro-seismicity at Telica was associated with gas explosions during 16-17 February. On 18 February SINAPRED stated that a small amount of lava was visible in a vent. Based on satellite data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 13 February a gas plume possibly containing ash rose from Telica to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. On 16 February INETER reported that high micro-seismicity was associated with gas explosions. Previously INETER reported that four 5-minute-long explosions at Telica were detected at 0602, 0818, 0934, and 1124 on 25 November, and generated ash-and-ash emissions. On 26 November multiple gas-and-ash explosions were detected; the strongest explosion occurred at 0941 and produced an ash plume that rose more than 800 m above the crater. During 26-27 November a total of 29 explosions were detected, with 16 of those producing ash plumes. Based on wind and satellite data, pilot observations, and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 November an ash plume from Telica rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 100 km W. According to news articles, (at least) two explosions, at 0847 and 0848, generated ash plumes that rose 2 km and ejected tephra at least 900 m away. An unstated number of people living within a 900-m-radius evacuated, and residents in Agua Fría (also 900 m away) noted it was the first time variously-sized lapilli and blocks had reached their community. Ash fell in at least 70 communities in the municipalities of Quezalguaque (13 km SW), Posoltega (16 km WSW), Chichigalpa (20 km WSW), and Chinandega (30 km W). Previously, INETER reported that a 30-minute period of moderate-intensity explosions at Telica began at 0800 on 23 September. Abundant gas-and-ash emissions initially rose 400 m above the crater and drifted WNW, but then decreased to 50 m. Ashfall was reported in the community of Guanacastal. Explosions occurred at 1645 and 1648. Scientists conducting fieldwork observed deposits on the crater floor from an inner-wall landslide that had occurred on 17 July, and new fumaroles on the crater floor. Five explosions were detected on 24 September. Based on wind and satellite data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 September ash plumes rose as high as 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and N. During 28-29 September INETER noted that voluminous gas plumes rose from two vents on the crater floor. Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of 1061-m-high Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately SE of Telica, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.(GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Momotombo

February 29th, 2020

INETER recorded small explosions on February 26 at Momotombo; the activity started at 13:55 with an increase in gaseous emissions, then small gas explosions at 14:45 and 15:30, the last accompanied by an earthquake of M1.4. The last eruptions dated from December 2015 and January 2016. 2016 eruption reports - INETER reported that three explosions at Momotombo during 5-6 April ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater. During 6-7 April there were 27 small explosions for a total of 438 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. The explosions ejected some incandescent material, and generated ash plumes that rose 200 m and drifted SW. RSAM values were low during 5-12 April. SINAPRED reported that on 2 April explosions at Momotombo produced gas-and-ash plumes and ejected incandescent tephra. On 28 March SINAPRED reported that 38 explosions were detected at Momotombo over a period of 24 hours, which ejected gas-and-ash plumes and incandescent tephra. The strongest event occurred at 1140 on 27 March and generated a plume that rose 1 km. During 2-3 March INETER reported that 53 small explosions at Momotombo generated low-energy gas plumes that rose 300 m above the crater. On 3 March some of the explosions produced ash plumes that drifted W and SW. RSAM values were at low to moderate levels. SINAPRED reported that during 5-6 March there were 78 explosions for a total of 279 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. One of the most significant explosions occurred on 6 March. The next day gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater. INETER reported that during 19 February-1 March explosions at Momotombo were detected daily; 88 explosions were detected during 1 December 2015-1 March 2016. Explosions produced ash plumes, and ejected incandescent material onto the N, NE, E, and SE flanks. Ash plumes rose 1.7-2.3 km above the crater and drifted SW during 21-22 February; gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.8 km on 24 February; an ash plume rose 1 km on 25 February; and a small gas-and-ash plume rose 300 m on 26 February. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the N and NW flanks during 23-24 February. Explosions on 27 February ejected tephra 300 m above the crater. At 0646 on 1 March explosions ejected gas and incandescent tephra; an ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted W and SW. The gas-and-ash emissions lasted 16 minutes, causing the plume to widen and darken the sky. INETER reported that during 16-17 February two explosions at Momotombo were accompanied by tremor, and produced ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The first and largest explosion (recorded at 0344) ejected incandescent tephra 800 m above the crater. RSAM values were at low-to-moderate levels. Based on webcam views and satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 February ash emissions rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and WSW. The next day ash emissions drifted SW. On 21 February ash plumes drifted about 80 km W and 25 km E. INETER reported moderate levels of gas emissions at Momotombo on 10 February; volcanic tremor and gas emissions increased to moderate-to-high levels the next day. An explosion on 12 February produced small ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the N and SE flanks. An explosion at 1305 on 15 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and ejected incandescent tephra onto the N and NE flanks. INETER reported that during 4-5 and 7-8 February both RSAM values at Momotombo were low to moderate and emissions were at moderate levels. INETER reported that during 26-29 January RSAM values at Momotombo were at low to moderate levels, and gas emissions were at moderate levels. Crater incandescence from high-temperature gas emissions was observed at night during 26-27 January. A Strombolian explosion at 0344 on 30 January ejected tephra onto the E, NE, N, and NW flanks, and produced gas emissions. At 0529 on 31 January another explosion also ejected gas, ash, and incandescent material. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas including the communities of Boqueron, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), and La Sabaneta. Moderate levels of gas emissions drifted SW towards Puerto Momotombo.INETER reported that during 20-21 January both RSAM values and emissions at Momotombo were low. Volcanic tremor increased at 0900 on 22 January, causing RSAM values to rise to high levels. There were no changes to emissions. INETER recommended to the public to stay at least 6 km away from the volcano. INETER reported that at 1209 on 12 January a large explosion at Momotombo ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and generated an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater. Tephra was deposited on the E, NE, N, and NW flanks. Ash plumes drifted downwind and caused ashfall in the communities of Flor de Piedra, La Concha (40 SSE), Amatistan, Guacucal (40 km N), La Palma, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), La Sabaneta, Mira Lago, Asentamiento Miramar, Pancasan, Rene Linarte, Raul Cabezas, and Betania. At around 0500 on 15 January strong volcanic tremor was accompanied by small explosions in the crater; ejected ash and incandescent tephra were deposited on the W flank. Seismicity decreased during 16-17 January. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, three gas-and-ash explosions on 2 January, at 1333, 1426, and 1434, excavated the remaining parts of the lava dome which was emplaced about a month ago. An ash plume rose 500 m above the crater, drifted S and SW, and caused ashfall in Puerto Momotombo (9 km WSW). Possible ash plumes from an explosion at 2129 were hidden by darkness. At 0420 on 3 January an explosion ejected lava bombs 2 km away and caused ashfall in La Paz Centro (18 km SW). Lava flows had advanced as far as 2 km down the NE flank. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, activity at Momotombo continued through 10 December. Fieldwork revealed a small, incandescent, circular crater halfway up Momotombo's E flank that was fuming during the morning on 6 December. An explosion on 7 December destroyed part of the crater. On 10 December SINAPRED reported that material had been accumulating in the crater since the beginning of the eruption on 1 December. Seismicity during 9-14 December was low and stable. Based on satellite and webcam observations, and seismic data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Momotombo rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-225 km NW and WNW. INETER reported that series of at least 4 small explosions occurred at the volcano on the morning, at 07:49, 08:17, 08:42, and 08:55 local time on 1st of December. The eruptions, in particular the last and largest one, produced steam and ash plumes that rose up to approx. 1 km from the summit. Light ash fall was observed in the community of El Papalonal and near the Momotombo geothermal plant to the SW of the volcano. Later, during the day, It seems that the volcano continues to erupt and have been intensifying its activity with near-continuous strombolian explosions accompanied with hot incandescent material and a small et slowly lava flows went down from the summit crater on the Northeast flank.Ashfall was reported in nearby communities to the W and SW, including La Concha, Los Arcos, Flor de la Piedra, La Paz Centro, and Leon. Some families in La Paz Centro self-evacuated. This is the first eruptive activity of the volcano in 110 years, the last confirmed eruption of Momotombo occurred in 1905 . Momotombo is a young, 1297-m-high stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows from Momotombo have flowed down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms a 391-m-high island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional larger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after an April 10, 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the southern flank of the volcano. INETER

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

March 5th, 2019

INETER reported that a low-energy explosion at San Cristobal was detected by the seismic network at 1550 on 4 March 2019. The event produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Previous news 2018 - INETER reported that at 1320 on 22 April a small explosion at San Cristobal generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in the La Bolsa region and Hacienda Las Rojas. Previously, INETER reported that a series of 14 explosions at San Cristobal began at 2134 on 7 November 2017. The first explosion was the strongest, causing an increase in RSAM to 150 units; RSAM dropped to 50 after the last explosion. Ash fell in areas to the W and NE, including in the communities of Los Farallones, San Agustin, La Mora, El Naranjo, and Chinandega. Based on seismic data INETER reported that a period of tremor recorded at San Cristobal during 1939-2005 on 9 September ended with an explosion signal. INETER and Sinapred reported that an ash eruption began this 18 August around 6:30 am local time at the San Cristobal volcano, the highest volcano in Nicaragua, and continued during the day. No rumblings or explosions were reported. The likely hydrothermal or phreatic episode began with a large degassing. Many communities have been impacted by ash falls, which have mainly affected the communities of La Grecia, Las Hamacas, Ranchería, La Joya and Mocorón. Based on analysis of satellite images and information from INETER, the Washington VAAC reported that a small ash puff from the volcano rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NW. Later that day a gas emission possibly containing ash rose 300 m and drifted W. An ash plume identified in satellite images extended as far as 265 km W. Seismicity was elevated. Steam-and-gas emissions continued through the rest of the day. Previously, INETER and SINAPRED reported that at 1020 on 22 April 2016 an explosion at San Cristobal produced an ash-and-gas plume that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted SW. The seismic network recorded 10 additional explosions by 1200. Ashfall was reported in local areas including Las Brisas (10 km S), San José (8 km SSE), Santa Narcisa, Pellizco Central (12 km SSE), Los Albanos, Los Lirios (18 km WSW), Santa Cruz (35 km SE), Las Grietas (14 km E), El Liberal, and San Lucas (13 km E). The INETER report noted that the last explosive activity occurred on 6 June 2015, though explosions that day were of lesser magnitudes. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP

NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

October 20th, 2019

According to news reports, ash was emitted from Masaya on 15 October, causing very minor ashfall in Colonia 4 de Mayo, 6 km NW. Previously, Ineter, reported that an explosion occurred on Sunday, July 21, in the afternoon in the crater Santiago of Masaya. According to official reports, the ashes released did not cause injuries to people who were near the crater and did not pose a problem for neighboring populations, but the authorities did not rule out any additional activities. The Masaya Park has been temporarily closed.Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage. GVN/GVP)

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El SALVADOR - San Miguel volcano

April 2nd, 2020

SNET stated that during 30-31 March the seismic network at San Miguel recorded a period of increased seismicity characterized by continuous, low-frequency, tremor-type signals.RSAM values were between 90 and 116 units, lower than the normal values of 150, at a seismic station located on the upper N flank. SNET stated that during 28 February-6 March there were no reports of noises or gas emissions at San Miguel from the network of local observers. Seismicity was stable; 50-60 low-magnitude earthquakes were recorded per hour with RSAM values between 40 and 98 units, lower than the normal values of 150. The sulfur dioxide emission flux was 517-808 tons per day. SNET reported that during 23-28 February activity at San Miguel was low. An increase in the number of very small-magnitude earthquakes was recorded by the VSM seismic station located on the upper N flank. RSAM values were between 45 and 75 units, lower than the normal values of 150. SNET report noted an increase in amplitude of microearthquakes and minor gas emissions form the main crater. Sulfur dioxide levels had also increased. Beginning at 1055 on 22 February an ash emission that lasted 10 minutes long resulted in a small gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim. Minor ashfall was reported in the area of Piedra Azul, 5 km SW. RSAM peaked at 510 units during the period of emissions, above the normal values of 150, as recorded by station VSM located on the upper N flank. The number of low-amplitude tremor events increased after a quiet period of about 11 hours and were associated with gas emissions; RSAM was 33-97 units and minor gas plumes were visible rising 400 m during 23-24 February. SNET reported that starting at 7:00 p.m. yesterday February 20th, 2020 at 7:50 a.m. Friday 21, the Network of local observers reported the occurrence of a series of rumblings from the volcano. Monitoring data indicates that the volcano has exhibited a change in behavior, evidenced by the increase in the amplitude of microseisms and slight gas emissions by its central crater. The seismicity recorded in the volcano shows signs that may be related to fractures and small internal explosions of the volcano, which indicates an increase in its internal pressure, with the possibility of the appearance of a more significant degassing which can be accompanied by small ash fumes, which, if they occur, will preferably be transported to the southwest flank of the volcano. Previous news 2018 - SNET reported a significant increase in the number of low- and high-frequency earthquakes beneath San Miguel's crater beginning on 22 May. RSAM values fluctuated between 142 and 176 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 30 May-1 June. Webcam images on 30 May showed a small gray gas emission. On 2 March SNET reported that gas plumes rose as high as 400 m above San Miguel's crater rim during the previous week. Ash was in the emissions on 24, 26, and 28 February, and 1 March. RSAM values fluctuated between 70 and 179 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 1-2 March. At 2200 on 5 March seismic amplitude began to increase, with RSAM values rising to 318 units by 0600 on 6 March. A webcam recorded minor gas emission during 5-6 March. SNET reported that during 0800-1100 on 19 February gas-and-ash emissions from San Miguel rose 350 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Ash fell on the upper flanks of the volcano, and a sulfur odor was reported in La Piedra farm. On 2 February SNET reported that seismicity at San Miguel was decreasing, along with a decrease in emissions. RSAM values fluctuating between 63 and 114 units; normal values are between 50 and 150. Small pulses of gas near the crater rim were visible. SNET reported that during 25-26 January seismic activity at San Miguel was slightly higher than normal, with RSAM values fluctuating between 75 and 179 units. Small pulses of gas near the crater rim were visible. SNET reported that during 14-17 January there were four gas-and-ash emissions from San Miguel that rose no higher than 300 m above the crater rim. The report noted that prior to each emission seismicity decreased and then suddenly increased. SNET reported that at 1653 on 14 January and 1615 on 15 January gas-and-ash plumes from San Miguel rose no more than 300 m above the crater rim and dispersed SW. The report noted that prior to both emissions seismicity decreased and then suddenly increased. Previously - On 19 May 2017 SNET reported that during the previous 24 hours RSAM values at San Miguel continued to decrease, fluctuating between 69 and 80 units (typical background levels average 50 units). Sulfur dioxide flux was also lower, though changing winds may have affected readings. SNET reported that during 28 April-5 May RSAM values at San Miguel had decreased and fluctuated between 50 and 173 units (typical background levels average 50 units). Sulfur dioxide flux was also lower, though changing winds may have affected readings. SNET reported that during 27-28 April RSAM values at San Miguel fluctuated between 106 and 176 units (typical background levels average 50 units). At 1532 on 27 April a strong gas plume rose 1.2 km above the crater rim. In a special report from 17 April 2017, SNET reported an increase in seismicity and gas emissions from San Miguel in recent days. Earlier that day during 0620-0630 RSAM values spiked to 356, an increase over normal values around 50. During 18-21 and 23-24 April RSAM values fluctuated between 80 and over 300. The symmetrical cone of San Miguel volcano, one of the most active in El Salvador, rises from near sea level to form one of the country's most prominent landmarks. A broad, deep crater that has been frequently modified by historical eruptions (recorded since the early 16th century) caps the truncated summit of the towering volcano, which is also known locally as Chaparrastique. Radial fissures on the flanks of the basaltic volcano have fed a series of fresh lava flows, including several erupted during the 17th-19th centuries that reached beyond the base of the volcano on the N, W, and SE sides. The SE-flank lava flows are the largest and form broad sparsely vegetated lava fields. GVN - (SNET)

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COLOMBIA - Galeras volcano

April 22nd, 2013

INGEOMINAS reported that during 15-21 May seismicity at Galeras was at a low level; during 19-20 May earthquakes with magnitudes 2.6 or less were concentrated in an area 3 km SW at depths near 4 km. Gas plumes rose 500 m above the crater and contained small amounts of ash during 15-16 and 20-21 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). INGEOMINAS reported that during 10-16 April 2913 earthquakes at Galeras were located in various areas as far as 13 km from the crater, at depths no greater than 14 km and with maximum magnitudes of 2. Moderate levels of sulfur dioxide were detected; plumes drifted NW. Cameras recorded ash emissions all week, especially on 9, 11, 12, and 14 April, when pulsating activity produced plumes that drifted W. Plumes rose no more than 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").INGEOMINAS reported that during 30 October-6 November 2012 seismicity at Galeras fluctuated but was slightly lower compared to the previous week. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low. Cameras around Galeras recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising from the crater on 30 October and 1 November. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. Webcam image

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Ruiz

June 3rd, 2020

Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 27 May-2 June seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was at similar levels to the week before, with signals dominated by periods of continuous volcanic tremor, tremor pulses, long-period, and very-long-period earthquakes. Some of the earthquakes were
associated with minor gas-and-ash emissions that drifted N and were recorded by the webcam. The highest gas-and-steam plume rose about 1.3 km above the summit, recorded on 29 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). On 28 April Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that small ash-and-gas emissions from Nevado del Ruiz were periodically visible in webcam images and observed by Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados officials during the previous week. These emissions drifted WSW and NW. A gas-and-steam plume rose 1.2 km above the crater rim on 21 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Servicio Géologico Colombiano reported that seismicity related to fluid dynamics, inside volcanic conduits, showed an increase in the number of events and the seismic energy released, during the week of 6 to April 13. The seismicity generated by the fracturing of the rocks presented a slight decrease in the number of earthquakes and increase in the seismic energy released, compared to the previous week. This kind of seismicity was located mainly in the Arenas crater and in the south-southwest, northwest and northeast sectors of the volcano, at depths varying between 0.3 and 6.3 km. The occurrence of several seismic events of the drum-beat type, associated with fracturing of rocks were recorded on April 9, 10 and 12. Small gas and ash emissions have been confirmed by cameras and reports from officials in Los Nevados National Natural Park, as well as by the VAAC Washigton VAAC, with a plume of gas and vapor reaching max. 1,300m above the summit on April 9. The deformation of the volcanic surface, measured from GNSS stations (Satellite System of Global Navigation), showed no significant change. By monitoring the information provided on Mirova and NASA, low energy thermal anomalies at the volcano over the past week
Servicio Géologico Colombiano informed that ash and gas emissions were recorded on March 23 at 6:30 a.m., observed by web cameras installed in the volcano area and in Manizales and also reported that earthquakes of low energy levels associated with low ash emissions have continued in recent days. The direction of dispersion of the last emissions was governed by the direction of the wind, mainly to the northeast and southeast of the volcano, and a possible ash fall is expected in the area. New earthquakes associated with gas and ash emissions are also not excluded. The activity level continues in yellow or (III) / changes in the behavior of volcanic activity. Servicio Géologico Colombiano informed the authorities and the community that in recent days, the snow-capped volcano has presented small emissions of ash associated with seismic signals of low energy level. A 10 MW thermal anomaly c was observed by Mirova on 10.03.2020 / 03h35. On March 10, three gas and ash emissions were recorded today at 07:42 h 10:29 and 10:55 (local time), with column heights measured at the top of the volcano of 696, 346 and 552 m respectively, with a dispersion influenced by the wind direction and speed, which varied from the southwest to the southeast of the volcano. Very fine ash fall is possible near the volcano and in populations located in the direction of the wind regime. The different monitoring parameters show that the volcanic system is still unstable, which can give rise to new ash emissions.The level of activity continues in yellow or (III): Changes in the behavior of volcanic activity. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption. (GVN/GVP)

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PERU - Ubinas volcano

March 20th, 2020

During 11-18 May the number of seismic events at Ubinas totaled 54 with volcano-tectonic (VT) signals being the most numerous. Sporadic emissions of gas and steam were recorded by the webcam rising to heights less than 300 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay
outside of a 10-km radius. As of the 16th of march, IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remains at low levels. Sporadic emissions of bluish gases and water vapor were recorded. MIROVA satellite surveillance did not record any thermal anomalies.The IGP recommended reducing the level of volcanic alert from orange to yellow.
IGP reported that the eruptive activity between March 2 and 8, remained at low levels. To date, the record of earthquakes that would be associated with the rise of magma to the surface is weak. In addition, there are sporadic emissions of bluish gases (of magmatic origin) and water vapor. According to this scenario, the possibility of volcanic explosions and / or low ash emissions remains low. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained at low levels. In early January, the energy of earthquakes which would be associated with the rise of magma on the surface has considerably decreased. There are weak and sporadic emissions of bluish gases (of magmatic origin) and water vapor, observed through surveillance cameras. Previously in 2019 IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained low. From 18th to 24th of November earthquake energy associated with rising magma at the surface has decreased. In addition, there was low and sporadic bluish gas (magmatic) and water vapor emissions observed by surveillance cameras. According to this scenario, it is unlikely that volcanic explosions and / or ash emissions will occur. The alert level remains at orange. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained low during the period from 11 to 17 November 2019. To date, earthquake energy associated with rising magma at the surface has decreased. The IGP recorded and analyzed a total of 480 seismic events associated with the eruptive process of the Ubinas volcano, with predominant seismicity of the volcano-tectonic (VT) type, related to the fracturing of rocks in the interior. of the volcano. The seismic signals that would be related to the rise of magma (hybrid type) have decreased both in number of events (12 earthquakes daily) and energy generated. In addition, there has been no volcanic explosion since September 12th.Plumes of blue (magmatic) gas and water vapor retain heights less than 500 m above the summit. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure does not present anomalies. MIROVA satellite monitoring did not record thermal anomalies in the volcano. IGP reported that during the period from 7th to 13th of October, the eruptive activity remained light, and characterized by magmatic gas emissions and steam at less than 1,000 meters above the summit. At the seismicity level, 3533 earthquakes were recorded in relation to the eruptive process, with a predominance of VT earthquakes of M <2.1. No significant signs at the deformation level, and three small thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova. During the period from 16 to 22 September, the IGP recorded and analyzed a total of 4.356 seismic events, with a predominant volcano-tectonic (VT) type seismicity with an average value of 567 events per day, all of a magnitude less than M2.5. Seismic signals that would be related to the rise of the magma (hybrid type) were also recorded, at the rate of 119 events per day.During 10-15 September the number of seismic events at Ubinas totaled 4,093, with volcano-tectonic (VT) signals being the most numerous, averaging 572 events per day, and all having magnitudes under M 2.5. Hybrid events averaged 299 events per day. Continuous emissions of blueish gas and water vapor were recorded by the webcam rising to heights less than 1.5 km above the summit. Two thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. An explosion at 0725 on 12 September produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 1.5 km and affected several districts S and SE in the Moquegua region. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. IGP reported that during 3-9 September three volcanic explosions were detected at Ubinas, all producing eruption plumes that rose to heights less than 2.5 km above the crater rim. The largest, and first, was recorded at 1358 on 3 September and produced significant amounts of ash and gas, affecting areas to the S and SE. After the explosions gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 1 km. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. IG reported that the volcano experienced an explosion on September 3 at 13:58 local, accompanied by an ash plume of 5,500 meters above the crater, then dispersed to the south and southeast in the district of Ubinas. IG reported that during the past week the seismic activity was slightly increased with an average of 118 to 225 episodes per day, with a weekly total of 2828 earthquakes. No explosions were recorded; only a moderate emission of ash is reported on September 1 at 9:45 pm, associated with a tremor signal; On the other hand, the emissions of gas and steam are continuous and reach 1,000 meters above the summit. Three thermal anomalies were reported by Mirova attesting to the proximity of the magma to the surface. Following a few weeks of calm, new ash emissions occurred on August 26 at 10:30, and few later a phreatic activity occurred generating a plume that reached 1,600 meters above the crater, then dispersed to a north and northwest sector (San Juan de Tarucani district). Continuous ash emissions on 27 August were recorded by satellite and webcam images drifting S and SW. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 15-km radius. As of the 23rd of August, IGP reported that the eruptive process continued. A decrease in seismic activity related to the rise of magma was recorded, but the satellite images indicate the presence of a hot magmatic body close to the surface, and emissions of bluish gas (magmatic gas) and steam vapor. water were observed. IGP reported that during 13-19 August blue-colored gas plumes from Ubinas rose to heights of less than 1.5 km above the base of the crater. Seven thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. The number of seismic events was 1,716 (all under M 2.4), a decrease in the total number recorded during the previous week. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 15-km radius. As of the 14th of August the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) reported that the Ubinas volcano continued its eruptive process. Bluish gas (magmatic gas) and water vapor emissions observed by surveillance cameras continue to be recorded. Satellites detected thermal anomalies which indicate the proximity of the magma to the surface of the crater. As of the 28th of July satellite images by visible infrared radiometers (VIIRS), thermal anomalies observed on the edges of the Ubinas volcano crater corresponding to the presence of a body of lava / lava plug about 180 m. diameter at the base of the crater, which would prevent the emission of gas and ash. At the seismicity level, during the 7-day period, 2,295 earthquakes with a magnitude of less than 2 were recorded, including a percentage related to the rise and movements of fluids. IGP reported a total of 1,522 seismic events between July 20th and 24th, all of a magnitude below 2.2. During the analyzed period, an increase in seismic signals in relation to the rise of the magma (LP & hybrids) causes fear of explosive activity in terms of hours or days; it should be noted that more than 35 hours have passed since the last explosion. Thermic anomalies remain moderate to low, between 11 and 6 MW. Updated information on Ubinas' activity on July 23rd at 8pm. Peruvian autorities and INGEMMET reported that anomalies in the various geophysical parameters are associated with the rise of magma and the increase of seismic energy, LP and hybride, similar to the scenario that preceded the 22 July explosion at 23:25.Due to rainfall in the volcano area, lahars are possible. Ingemmet recommends to the populations of the villages of Querapi, Ubinas, Escacha, Huatahua, Tonohaya, Sacohaya, and San Miguel, to evacuate immediately, before a possible increase of the volcanic activity. IGP reported that new ash emissions occurred between 500 and 1.500 m., during the day of July 22, scattered to the southeast.An explosion on July 22 around 11:25 pm projected incandescent materials. The ashes spread over more than 10 km. to the villages of Ubinas, Lloque and Chojata districts.IGP reported that ash emissions continued to Ubinas on July 21, reaching about 500 meters above the crater, with scattering in a southeast and east sector of the volcano.The I.G.Peru does not notice deformation and probably a continuation of the eruptive process at moderate level. The orange alert level is maintained, moderate explosions can occur, accompanied by consequent emissions of ashes. IGP reported that explosive activity continued on July 20, with smaller ash plumes, rising to an estimated height of 7,300 meters (flight altitude 240). The Peruvian authorities ordered on Friday the evacuation of hundreds of people living near the Ubinas volcano in southern Peru, after two explosions and a rain of ashes and gas. The evacuation was decided after the announcement by the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) of raising the level of volcanic alert from yellow to orange. About 15,000 people are exposed to ashes within a radius of 30 km.The Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) reported that since 2 h 35 July 19th, 2019 an intense explosive activity on the volcano Ubinas. Three volcanic explosions generated energy equivalent to earthquakes of magnitude 5.8, M5.3 and M4.1. as well as typical tremors of intense ash and gas emissions.The deformation of the volcanic structure does not show any anomalies, and TROPOMI (SO2) and MIROVA data do not show any significant changes.The column of ash has exceeded 7 km height above the crater level / 12.2 km asl. According to VAAC Buenos Aires, the cloud spreads towards Bolivia. Ash falls have been recorded in the cities of Ubinas, Escacha, Anascapa, Matalaque, San Miguel, Huarina, Tonohaya, for which an ash dispersal alert has also been launched so that the authorities and take steps to prevent harm to health. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

PERU - Sabancaya volcano

June 3rd, 2020

As of the 2nd of June, IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of 14 explosions per day on average, with plumes up to 2 km in height on the summit of the volcano, and consequent emissions of ash and gas, dispersed towards the east and southeast sectors of the volcano.IGP reported that during the week from 18th to 24th of may, the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of explosions, on average 6 per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 3 km high above the summit of the volcano.During the same period, the IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 525 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano. IGP reported that during the week of May 11th to 17th, 2020, the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with the recording of an average of 12 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 2, 5 km high above the summit of the volcano, dispersing in an east and southeast sector. Consequently, for the following days, no significant change is expected regarding its activity. The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 413 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure, using GNSS data (processed with fast orbits), does not present any significant anomalies.Satellite surveillance identified the presence of 7 thermal anomalies with values ​​between 1 MW and 10 MW, associated with the presence of a body of lava on the surface of the volcano crater. the IGP recorded and analyzed the presence of approximately 380 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano, in the week of 4 as of May 10, 2020. Between May 4 and 6, earthquakes of magnitude M3 occurred : seven to M3.0, located between 12 km to 15 km north and northeast of the volcano, near the populated centers of Maca and Pinchollo , respectively. These events would be associated with the tectonic and volcanic activity of the area. In addition, on average 11 daily explosions of low to medium intensity were recorded; the ash and gas plumes reached up to 3,000 meters above the summit, with a dispersion going from east to north of the volcano. Between May 5 and May 7, a slight ash fall was reported in the districts of Lari, Macay Achoma, located northeast of the volcano. The I.G.Peru reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels for the week of April 27 to May 3, 2020; that is to say with the recording of explosions, 9 per day on average, with eruptive columns up to 2.5 km high above the summit of the volcano and the consequent emission of ash and gas. Consequently, for the following days, no significant change is expected regarding its activity.IGP reported that between 20 and 26 April 2020, around 297 earthquakes of volcanic origin occurred associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano.On average, 9 daily explosions of low to medium intensity were recorded. Plumes of gas and ash up to 2 km high above the summit of the volcano could be observed, scattered towards the southwest, south and southeast sectors of the Sabancaya. Between April 21 and 25, major earthquakes were recorded in the Colca Valley region, with magnitudes between M3.2 and M4.1, associated with tectonic and volcanic activity; The epicenters of these earthquakes are located within a radius of 20 km around the crater of the volcano. IGP reported that a daily average of 11 explosions occurred at Sabancaya during 13-19 April. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.9 km above the summit and drifted NW, S, and SE. There were eight thermal anomalies identified in satellite data, originating from the lava dome in the summit crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels between March 23 and 29, with the continuous recording of moderate explosions and the consequent emission of ash and gas. Consequently, for the following days, no significant change is expected regarding its activity.During the aforementioned period, the IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 536 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano and accompanied columns of gas and ash up to 3 km high above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the western, southwest and southern sectors of Sabancaya.In addition, 16 medium to low intensity daily explosions were recorded on average. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure records significant anomalies. Satellite surveillance has enabled the presence of 5 thermal anomalies with values ​​between 2MW and 13 MW, associated with the presence of a surface lava body in the crater of the volcano. The volcanic alert level in orange and it is recommended not to approach within a radius of 12 km. As of the 25th of March, IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of moderate explosions and the consequent emission of ash and gas. Nineteen daily explosions of medium to low intensity were recorded, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 3,000 meters above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the southwest and south sectors of Sabancaya.At the seismic level, 738 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal fluids were recorded. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure records significant anomalies. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels.Between March 9 and 15, the IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 1,384 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano. In addition, 24 daily explosions of medium to low intensity were recorded on average, accompanied by columns of gas and ash up to 3.5 km high above the summit of the volcano, which were mainly dispersed towards the sectors south, southeast and northeast of Sabancaya. Monitoring the deformation of the volcanic structure records significant anomalies.Satellite surveillance enabled the presence of 3 thermal anomalies with values ​​between 11 MW and 14 MW, associated with the presence of a body of delava. inside the crater of the volcano. The volcanic alert level remains orange. IGP reported that the eruptive activity between March 2 and 8 remained at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of moderate explosions and the consequent emission of ash and gas. Consequently, for the following days, no significant change is expected regarding its activity. During the above-mentioned period, the IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 748 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano, in addition to 17 daily explosions of medium to low intensity, accompanied by columns of gas and ash up to 3.7 km high above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the west, north and northwest sectors of the volcano. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels during the week of February 24th to March 1st, characterized by the continuous recording of moderate explosions and the resulting emission of ash and gas. The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 633 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano. An average of 18 daily explosions, medium to low, were recorded, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching up to 2,000 meters above the summit.On February 26, 27 and 28 at 3:52 p.m., 2:20 p.m. and 1:00 p.m. respectively, the IGP recorded and reported the descent of 3 lahars, through the Huayuray-Pinchollo stream, in the northern sector of the volcano. Sabancaya. The events presented volumes deemed small to moderate, which generated the temporary blockade of the Chivay-Cabana highway in the Cabanaconde district.IGP reported that activity during the week of February 17-23 remained at moderate levels. For the following days, no significant change in activity is expected.The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 782 volcanic earthquakes, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano. An average of 16 medium to low daily explosions were recorded, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 3,000 meters in height above the summit.On February 24 at 1:23 p.m. local, the IGP recorded and reported the descent of a lahar (volcanic mud flow), by the Huayuray-Pinchollocon stream direction of the Colca river, with a likely affectation of the main Chivay road -Cabanaconde. IGP reported During the week of February 10th to 16th, 2020, the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of moderate explosions and the consequent emission of ash and gas. Consequently, for the following days, no significant change in activity is expected.INGEMMET reported that during the period from January 27 to February 2, 2020, 1,240 earthquakes of volcanic origin occurred, associated with the circulation of fluids inside the volcano. During this period, they recorded between 8 explosions per day, of medium to low intensity. Plumes of gas and ash are reported up to 1.7 km high above the summit of the volcano, scattered in the southeast, northeast, northwest and west areas of the volcano. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure, using GNSS data (processed with fast orbits), does not record significant anomalies. Satellite surveillance made it possible to identify the presence of 4 thermal anomalies with values ​​between 3 MW and 4 MW, associated with the presence of a lava dome in the crater of the volcano about 280 m in diameter. It should be noted that the number of anomalies was reduced due to the high cloudiness in the region. The volcanic alert level is maintained at orange, with advice not to approach within a radius of less than 12 km from the crater. Ingemmet reports that the lava dome present in the Sabancaya crater lost 65% of its volume between December 2019 and January 2020, and is therefore partially destroyed; one part collapsed and another was expelled in the ash emissions.According to the analysis of satellite images (Planet Scope, LandSat and Sentinel 2) in February 2017, the presence of a dome inside the crater of the Sabancaya volcano with a diameter of 85 m and an area of ​​5.674 m² has been observed. Subsequently, in 2017 and 2018, significant growth was observed, and in September 2018, the dome already had an area of ​​18,003 m². Sabancaya, located on the saddle between 6288-m-high Ampato and 6025-m-high Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three volcanoes, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. Both Nevado Ampato and Nevado Sabancaya are only slightly affected by glacial erosion and consist of a series of lava domes aligned along a NW-SW trend. The name of 5967-m-high Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua Indian language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750. (GVN/GVP)

PERU - Misti volcano

March 14th, 2020

A lahar was reported by the Instituto Geofisico this March 13th, 2020 at 4:30 p.m. on the southeast sector of the El Misti volcano; of moderate volume, it lasted about 15 minutes and borrowed the southeast quebradas, in the districts of Chiguata and Paucarpata. Previous data 2014 - Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) reported that, during the last 12 months, seismicity at El Misti was dominated by volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. Two seismic swarms (more than 100 events per day) occurred during the last three months, on 19 May and 3 June. An increase in tremor was noted in April, although the total duration did not exceed 10 minutes and was generally low-amplitude. Long-period seismicity was not significant. In the last 15 days, seismicity increased slightly and tremor was recorded daily. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismicity at El Misti increased during January, and a seismic swarm consisting of 119 volcano-tectonic events was detected during 14-15 January. Despite the increase, activity remained at a low level. El Misti, Peru's most well-known volcano, is a symmetrical andesitic stratovolcano with nested summit craters that towers above the city of Arequipa. The modern symmetrical cone, constructed within a small 1.5 x 2 km wide summit caldera that formed between about 13,700 and 11,300 years ago, caps older Pleistocene volcanoes that underwent caldera collapse about 50,000 years ago. A large scoria cone has grown with the 830-m-wide outer summit crater of El Misti. At least 20 tephra-fall deposits and numerous pyroclastic-flow deposits have been documented during the past 50,000 years, including a pyroclastic flow that traveled 12 km to the south about 2000 years ago. El Misti's most recent activity has been dominantly pyroclastic, and strong winds have formed a parabolic dune field of volcanic ash extending up to 20 km downwind. An eruption in the 15th century affected Inca inhabitants living near the volcano. Some reports of historical eruptions may represent in creased fumarolic activity. Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and (GVN/GVP)

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CHILE-ARGENTINA - Copahue volcano

October 20th, 2019

VAAC Buenos Aires reported on October 19th an explosion accompanied by a plume of ashes at Copahue, on the border between Chile and Argentina, at 3,000 meters altitude (flight altitude 100) moving southwards 35 km away.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported that during 2-7 October a webcam at Copahue recorded white and gray emissions rising as high as 300 m above the El Agrio Crater rim and drifting ENE, SE, and SSE. By 7 October the number and intensity of seismic events detected at Copahue had decreased to low levels. The volcano Alert Level was lowered to Yellow (second lowest level on a four-color scale). ONEMI maintained the Yellow Alert (the middle level on a three-color scale) for residents, and stated that the public should stay at least 1 km away from El Agrio Crater. SERNAGEOMIN/ OVDAS raised the alert level to orange, following the recording on webcams on 1st of October from 9:45 local a gray plume formed of fine particles, associated with minor explosions at the crater, and also detected by infrasonic equipment. On the other hand, the earthquakes VT, in relation with the movements of fluids, with epicentres to 6 km of the crater El Agrio, continue. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that since mid-September, LP earthquakes of low energy, in relation with a superficial volcanic activity in the crater, has been observed.This activity was characterized by a continuous degassing, more intensely observed according to the atmospheric conditions, and sometimes charged with ashes, which darken the snow-covered slopes.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that a long-period (LP) earthquake recorded at 1657 on 11 September correlated with an infrasound signal from an explosion; a gas-and-ash emission rose to low heights. A larger explosion, recorded at 2245 along with an LP earthquake, produced a plume that rose 250 m above the crater rim. Incandescent deposits around the vent were visible at night, and a 3-km-long ash deposit, covering an area of 3.4 square kilometers, was visible on the ESE flank. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (second lowest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 500 m of the crater. ONEMI maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobio. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity at Copahue increased at 1250 on 9 September, characterized by increased amplitude of continuous tremor. Anomalies in the seismic signals suggested elevated surface activity, though cloudy weather prevented visual observations. According to the Buenos Aires VAAC diffuse steam emissions recorded by the webcam on 10 September rose to 3.5 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and possibly contained minor amounts of ash. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (second lowest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 500 m of the crater.ONEMI maintained the Alert Level at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobío.SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Copahue stations in Chile recorded a volcano-tectonic earthquake associated with rock fracturing of local magnitude 3.4 and a depth of 3.4 km on July 7 at 03:03 local time, followed by five aftershocks of lower magnitude.Volcanic technical alert level remains at Yellow Previously, on 5 April OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity at Copahue increased during 1-31 March, characterized by abundant volcano-tectonic earthquakes and increases in long-period and very-long-period earthquakes. In addition, the level of the lake water in El Agrio crater had dropped compared to previous months. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 500 m of the crater. ONEMI raised the Alert Level to Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobio. On 6 February OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level for Copahue to Green, the lowest level on a four-color scale, noting the return of the crater lake and infrequent surficial activity. In addition, data from the geodetic monitoring network showed only slight deformation during the previous three months. ONEMI lowered the Alert Level to Green (the lowest level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobio. Previously, Sernageomin / OVDAS rereported that from 3:20pm a seismic swarm occurred on 6th of December :200 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, associated with rock fracturing occurred 6.2 km at the ENE crater El Agrio.The strongest earthquake, from ML 3.1, is recorded at 15:56 at a depth of 4,600 meters.The superficial activity of the volcano is still characterized by a plume of gas and fine particles which rose to about 800 meters high. Volcan Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Rio Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Copahue since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Puyehue-Cordon Caulle

May 3rd, 2020

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on May 2nd, 2020 at 7:33 p.m. local to the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex a volcanotectonic earthquake of M loc. 3.0 / depth 3.1 km, associated with the fragmentation of rocks. The technical alert remains unclear. The last period of activity dates back to June 2011 - April 2012, characterized by an VEI 5. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that.on March 14, starting at 6:30 am local time, the monitoring stations of the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex recorded a swarm of 185 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, associated with rock fracturing, at 1,600 meters NNW from the emission center of 2011; the most energetic earthquake was Ml 2.2 at a depth of 4.3 km. No surface activity has been described by the Sernageomin and the technical alert level remains green.The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (PCCVC) is a large NW-SE-trending late-Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic-to-rhyolitic transverse volcanic chain SE of Lago Ranco. The 1799-m-high Pleistocene Cordillera Nevada caldera lies at the NW end, separated from Puyehue stratovolcano at the SE end by the Cordón Caulle fissure complex. The Pleistocene Mencheca volcano with Holocene flank cones lies NE of Puyehue. The basaltic-to-rhyolitic Puyehue volcano is the most geochemically diverse of the PCCVC. The flat-topped, 2236-m-high volcano was constructed above a 5-km-wide caldera and is capped by a 2.4-km-wide Holocene summit caldera. Lava flows and domes of mostly rhyolitic composition are found on the E flank. Historical eruptions originally attributed to Puyehue, including major eruptions in 1921-22 and 1960, are now known to be from the Cordón Caulle rift zone. The Cordón Caulle geothermal area, occupying a 6 x 13 km wide volcano-tectonic depression, is the largest active geothermal area of the southern Andes volcanic zone. Latest eruption occurred in 2012. (SERNAGEOMIN)

CHILE- ARGENTINA border - Planchon-Peteroa volcano

March 8th, 2019

As of the 8th of March, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the cameras always showed a constant degassing of gray color, marked by a plume at a height of less than 2,000 meters, indicating the presence of particles, moving mainly towards the southwest.The seismicity of the last days was characterized by VT earthquakes, associated with the fracturing of rocks, and a large number of LP earthquakes, in relation with the dynamics of the internal fluids.The superficial activity of Peteroa suggests that we are dealing with an open system. Alert level remains at Amarillo / change in behavior of volcanic activity. SERNAGEOMIN surface activity has continued since the beginning of February. The gray plumes, with a maximum height around 2,000 meters above the crater are still observed this 23 February. The alert level remain Yellow. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the superficial activity of Peteroa has continued since the beginning of February. The gray plumes, with a maximum height around 2,000 meters above the crater shows with the presence of ash a volcanic system open in the superficial part of the volcano. On February 22, plumes, more or less laden with ashes, were observed throughout the day. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 6th of February, the intense eruptive activity was still continuing, marked by a change of wind direction, which blows the ash plume to the northeast and the Vergara international pass, between Chile and Argentina. On the morning of February 3, Sernageomin recorded a continuous increase in the column of gas and particles at about 1,600 meters above the crater, dispersing to an eastern secto. An episode at 10:33 local, was associated with tremor and a low displacement. The energy of the seismic signal has been rising since February 1st. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 1st February from 5 pm local time, the cameras recorded a steady and continuous increase in particulate matter emissions, with a column of 2,000 meters and a dispersion towards the east. This episode was accompanied by VLP earthquakes between 17 and 19h local, in connection with the injection of magma from a greater depth, and tremor.The increase in ash emissions and seismicity suggest an open system, and possible new minor eruptive episodes affecting the area of ​​active craters. The alert is maintained in yellow level. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on January 15 at 9h56 PM local an explosion accompanied by a greyish ash plume at about 600 meters, moving mainly northwest.In a previous bulletin, the Sernageomin specified that according to the observations and the recorded measurements, a new eruptive cycle of phreatomatic characteristics develops, following the possible contact of a magmatic body with a part of the hydrothermal system. which would facilitate the fragmentation of a minor volume of magma and the expansion of steam and the emission of ashes.The alert level remains in Amarilla. Previously, Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS)-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported increased activity at Planchon-Peteroa beginning in the morning of 16 December. Low-intensity pulses of tremor were detected by the seismic network and associated with pulsating grayish gas emissions which rose no higher than 800 m above the vent rim. Webcams recorded crater incandescence during the night of 15-16 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the volcano, and ONEMI maintained Alert Level Yellow for the communities of Molina (66 WNW), Curica (68 km NW), Romeral (75 km NW), and Teno (68 km NW). The OVDAS / Sernageomin reports an explosive emission of ashes and gas this December 14 at 9:57 local to the complex Planchón Peteroa located on the border Chilio-Argentina, associated with a seismic signal LP and tremor, which remained after the emission .The gray plume rose to 800 meters before dispersing to the east. The alert level remains in Amarillo. Planchón-Peteroa is an elongated complex volcano along the Chile-Argentina border with several overlapping calderas. Activity began in the Pleistocene with construction of the basaltic-andesite to dacitic Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of basaltic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the north. About 11,500 years ago, much of Azufre and part of Planchón collapsed, forming the massive Río Teno debris avalanche, which traveled 95 km to reach Chile's Central Valley. Subsequently, Volcán Planchón II was formed. The youngest volcano, andesitic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Peteroa, consists of scattered vents between Azufre and Planchón. Peteroa has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake. Historical eruptions from the complex have been dominantly explosive, although lava flows were erupted in 1837 and 1937. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Nevado de Chillan

May 23rd, 2020

OVSICORI reported that an explosion occurred at the Nevados de Chillan Complex on May 22, 2020 at 11:36 am local time, associated with an LP seismic signal, in connection with the dynamics of internal fluids; the gas and ash plume rose to 2,200 meters above the emission bridge, before dispersing to the northeast.SERNAGEOMIN reported that after a volcano-tectonic earthquake on May 11 at 8:06 a.m., in connection with rock fracturing, presented some explosions on May 12 at 11:35 a.m., 1:45 p.m. and 2:25 p.m. They were accompanied by plumes of gas and ash at 1,100 meters, 1,600 meters and 1,280 meters above the active crater respectively. The plumes dispersed to the northeast.SERNAGEOMIN reported that two new explosions occurred on May 7, respectively at 7:43 am and 7:51 am local; two lower plumes, 1,800 and 1,500 meters, deposited volcanic material on the northeast flank of the active crater. The activity was associated with a tremor.SERNAGEOMIN reported that on May 6 at 9:45 p.m. UTC / 5:47 p.m. local time, an explosive activity occurred. accompanied by a plume of ash and gas reaching 2,500 meter high above the emission point, dispersing to the northeast, and a seismic signal of wide period associated with the dynamics of internal fluids.SERNAGEOMIN reported that on April 21 at 1:33 p.m. local time (5:33 p.m. UTC), the monitoring stations installed near the Nevados de Chillán Volcanic Complex recorded an explosion associated with fluid dynamics in the volcanic system with emission of gases and particles. This activity was accompanied by a plume at 2380 meters above the emission point, moving in a south-easterly direction. SERNAGEOMIN-OVDAS reported that two low energy explosions were recorded on 12 April 2020. They were accompanied by ash plumes, respectively at 2,300 m. and 1,800 m. high, displaced by the winds towards the south-east. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on April 8 at 17:54 local / 21:54 UTC an earthquake LP, associated with the dynamics of internal fluids, was recorded at a depth of 0.4 km. An energetic explosion was associated with a plume of gas and ash rising to 3,700 meters above the point of emission, before drifting south. Basal pyroclastic flows were observed mainly in the north, northeast and southeast sectors. Mirova recorded two thermal anomalies, respectively on April 8 at 6:10 am, from VRP 27 MW, and on April 9 at 3:35 am, from VRP 4 MW. SERNAGEOMIN reported that explosive activity was recorded on March 29 at around 6:38 p.m. local, with a scattering of ash at low altitude in an east-southeast direction. Activity continued on March 30, with grayish emissions reaching a maximum of 1,400 meters.Volcano-tectonic earthquakes dominate at the seismicity level.The technical alert is maintained in Amarilla. SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosion was recorded at 6:00 p.m. on Thursday, March 19, 2020 at the Nevados de Chillan complex, accompanied by an ash plume 1,500 meters above the active crater, with dispersion to the southeast. The last Sentinel satellite image -2 (ESA) of March 16, continues to show a thermal anomaly (weak) inside the active crater. The thermal anomaly measured by Mirova on 19.03 is 4MW. The technical alert is maintained at Amarilla. A special report on volcanic activity (REAV) of March 5 indicates that the seismic and surface activity has decreased since December 14, 2019, as well as the frequency of explosions and the dynamics associated with the movement of fluids at inside the volcano. The Sernageomin, on the basis of this history, declares that there is a low probability of a major eruption (eruptive columns> 4 km) and therefore reduces the radius of exclusion from 3 to 2 km, and also reduces the alert orange technique in AMARILLA. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on February 23 at 1:04 am local time, a VT earthquake, associated with rock fracturing was recorded in Nevados de Chillan complex ; of magnitude 3.3 and a depth of 3.8km, It was located at 3.300 meters to the ESE of the Nicanor crater. It was preceded by 4 earthquakes of lesser magnitude, without detection of associated surface activity. The level of the volcanic technical alert remained in Naranja. White plumes rose 100 m during 23-25 February. SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 18-22 February white-and-gray plumes from Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater generally rose as high as 1.9 km above the rim and drifted mainly SE. An explosion recorded at 1924 on 19 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km.SERNAGEOMIN/ONEMI reported that on February 7 at 8:07 p.m. local / 11:07 p.m. UTC the seismic stations of Nevados de Chillan recorded a volcano-tectonic earthquake of magnitude 3.1, associated with the fracture of rocks, at 1.6 km from the Nicanor crater, and a depth of 2, 7 km. No change in surface activity was associated with this earthquake. The technical alert level remains in Naranja. SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 28 January-4 February white gas plumes from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater rose as high as 900 m above the rim and drifted E, ESE, and SE. Minor explosions during 28-29 January ejected incandescent blocks that were visible at night. At 1356 on 30 January an explosion generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 3.4 km above the crater rim; parts of the plume collapsed, generating pyroclastic flow that traveled NE and SE. Two thermal anomalies were identified in satellite images, one from vent CE4 (November 2019) and the second from a new vent named CE5, formed 60 m NW of the center of CE4. There had been no advancement of the lava flows (L1, L2, L3, and L4) since 24 November 2019. The number of long-period earthquakes and tremor associated with explosions both considerably decreased after December 2019. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank.Previous news 2019 - SERNAGEOMIN reported that on december 12, vulcanian explosions occurred accompanied by plumes 2,000 meters high and minor pyroclastic flows on the northern flank. The seismicity consists of VT earthquakes, LP earthquakes (linked to the explosions) and tremor. As of the 8th of December, SERNAGEOMIN reported that explosive activity continued, starting from four emission centers in the Nicanor crater, and effusive, without any known advance of the flows. The seismicity of the last 24 hours was s moderate, and characterized by volcano-tectonic earthquakes, earthquakes LP (in relation with the explosions) and VLP and tremor.SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosion occurred on December 5 at 11:32 local time (UTC -3h), associated with an LP seismic signal, and a plume of ash and gas at a height of about 1,600 meters. On the other hand, among the earthquakes of the day, we point the most energetic at4.5 km to the ESE of the active crater and a depth of 3,400 meters.Inflation continues to be recorded, as well as thermal anomalies: 7MW on 05.12 and 19 Mw on 06.12 / 4.05.Nicanor Crater has four emission centers, acting independently or simultaneously. Their activity is associated with pyroclastic flows, 1,100 meters long towards East and 400 meters towards South. Lava flows, from L1 to L4, observed previously, show no further progress. As of the 1st of December, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during the last 24 hours, the instrumental monitoring network recorded volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, a long period (LP), a tremor type (TR) and a very long period (VLP) , releasing seismic energy at moderate levels.The higher energy VT earthquake was located 1.8 km northwest of the active crater at a depth of 13 km. When weather conditions permitted, explosive activity was recorded, with pulsatile emission of gases and particles. During the night it was possible to observe small explosions with projection of incandescent volcanic material around the active crater. SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported that explosive activity continued with pulsating emissions of gas and particulate materials, more spectacular at night with incandescent projections. The extrusion of a lava flow, called L4, slowly descended on the north-north-east flank of the volcano, adjacent to the 3  previous lava flows. Together they form two lobes that extend 90 meters from the edge of the crater Nicanor. Inflation was always measured.The alert level remained in Naranja, characterizing a moderate explosive activity, lava flows and gas emissions in the vicinity of the crater.A new risk map was published on 24th of November with a potential impact zone of the activity reaching a distance of 5 km northeast and 3 km southwest, with extension in the drainages. OVDAS reported an explosion on November 18 at 19:17 local, a depth of 1.2 km /, associated with an LP seismic signal. The plume has reached a height of 560 meters.During the night, explosions, with incandescent projections were observed around the active crater. The extrusion of several lava flows on the NNE slope continues, with a very low rate of progression. The block flow traveled 700 meters from the crater towards NNE, covered half by another flow of lesser extent.Pyroclastic flow deposits were observed in the SO, NW, N and NNE directions, respectively over 850, 670, 1680 and 440 m.The crater zone changes morphologically: the crater Nicanor tends to grow on its SO edge, eroding the crater Arrau. NE side of the active crater, an emission focus is responsible for emission of gas and pyroclastic materials. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the seismicity of the past 24 hours was characterized by volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the most energetic located 3.4 km northwest of the active crater and 3.2 km deep, LP and VLP earthquakes, and tremor. Emissions of gases and particles have been episodic; during the night, the explosions projected glowing materials around the crater. SERNAGEOMIN recorded some explosions during the day of October 31, 2019. They were not very energetic and were accompanied by plume at about 1,000 meters, loaded with ashes.The Naranja alert level remains maintained. SERNAGEOMIN reported that iffuse white plumes rose from the crater on 25 and 29 October; cloudy weather obscured views in between those dates. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabia¡n, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank. As of the 24th of October, SERNAGEOMIN reported high energy explosions, associated with a seismic signal LP and emissions of gas and pyroclasts, respectively at 0h33 local,  6:43 local, 9:44 local , and 17:06 local. The dispersion of emissions is predominantly eastward. Since October 16th, a new lava flow has been observed on the NE flank; its progress remains slow. ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 2-8 October white-to-gray gas plumes from Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater rose as high as 1 km above the rim and drifted ESE, S, and SE. Explosions on 2 and 6 October ejected incandescent material onto the flank. The lava flow on the NNE flank ceased advancing around 6 October, and small pyroclastic flows were recorded during 6-8 October. The volcano Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabian, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank. ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 24 September-1 October white-to-gray gas plumes from Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater rose as high as 1.3 km above the rim and drifted NE, E, and SE. Explosions sometimes ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. A lava flow on the NNE flank continued to advance at a low rate. Ashfall was reported 15 km WNW in Las Trancas on 24 September. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank. ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 10-17 September white-to-gray gas plumes from Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater rose 400-800 m above the rim and drifted NE, E, and SE. Explosions sometimes ejected incandescent material onto the E and SE flanks. A lava flow on the NNE flank was 100 m wide, 5 m thick, and had advanced 600 m by 14 September. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabian, and stated that the public should stay at least 3 km away from the crater on the SW flank and 5 km away on the ENE flank. SERNAGEOMIN reported that Since Thursday, September 12, the extrusion of a block lava flow occurred from the crater Nicanor on the NNE side of the Nuevo volcano; it extends over 600 meters, and 100 meters wide, for an average thickness of 5 meters. The surface temperature of the lava, measured by the thermal camera is around 800 ° C in the active crater, and is greater than 100 ° C in the front of the lava flow.This new dynamic is still accompanied by ballistic emissions and projections, in some cases visible from the valley to Trancas and Shangri-lá; ash causes deposits 0.5 cm thick 2 km southwest of the active crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that four explosive episodes occurred on September 3, respectively at 1:40, 3:57, 3:13 pm, and 7:03 pm local, all associated with LP earthquakes in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids.Sernageomin observed various explosive episodes on September 01, respectively at 8:54, 8:58, 9:16, 12:03, 12:51 and 18:32 local. Each time, these explosions were accompanied by LP The alert level remains Naranja.SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 21 and 22 August, explosions were observed respectively at 15:34 local and 14:58 local, each time accompanied by LP earthquake in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids.The technical alert remains orange.The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, 3212-m-high Cerro Blanco (Volcan Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group, and 3089-m-high Volcan Viejo (Volcan Chillan), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcan Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcan Viejo in altitude. The Volcan Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcan Nuevo between 1973 and 1986, eventually exceeding its height by 20 m. (GVN/GVP)

Chile - Villarica

April 24th, 2020

As of the 23rd of April SERNAGEOMIN reported that the volcano showed low energy seismic parameters. However, surface activity persisted, with minor explosions, and an oscillating level of the lava lake. The technical alert level remains at Amarilla. Low levels of activity and minor explosions were noted on 27 January. SERNAGEOMIN maintained the Alert Level at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucon (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and changed the exclusion zone for the public to a radius of 500 m around the crater. Activity remained at a low level, but however POVI observed lava fountains on January 18,129,20 and January 22, 2020, expelled by a recurrent gas-piston mechanism for this volcano. The lava well where the lava comes from is only 4-5 meters in diameter. Previous news 2019 - ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN reported that since the Strombolian eruption of mid September 2019 a new source of lava was observed on the Villarica webcam on December 12 at 11.54 p.m., since the Strombolian eruption of mid September 2019. Seismic energy remains low and stable, according to POVI. The technical alert is Amarilla.ONEMI and SERNAGEOMIN noted that the activity was consistent with the elevated seismicity detected by the seismic network during the previous few days. Seismicity and explosive activity in the crater both began decreasing on 12 September and continued a downward trend at least through 16 September. Discrete tremor signals disappeared during 15-16 September, with moderate levels of continuous tremor dominating the signal. No explosions were detected. SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level to Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucon (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and changed the exclusion zone for the public to a radius of 1 km around the crater. ONEMI and POVI reported that the seismic network at Villarrica recorded significant variations in seismicity beginning at 0030 on 8 September, characterized by an increase in the number of long-period (LP) events from 20 to 50 per hour. LP events ceased to be detected around 1030 and short periods of high-energy tremor began. Weather clouds prevented views of the summit crater, though the characteristics of the seismicity indicated fluctuating lava-lake activity. The increased seismicity persisted on 9 September, prompting SERNAGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level to Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI has maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) since 6 August for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), and Curarrehue, along with the commune of Panguipulli and stated that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater. On 10 September seismicity remained high; infrasound signals were recorded at a rate of 50 events per hour. POVI reported on August 12 a collapse of a segment of the eastern edge of the crater of Villarica under the weight of snow, based on zenith images of Sentinel / Copernicus, and images from the ground. POVI reported that during 24-25 July multiple Strombolian explosions in Villarrica’s summit crater were detected in seismic data and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. An overflight of Villarica on July 25 confirmed the presence of a lava lake at the summit, at a depth less than that of previous days. As of the 23rd of July, Sernageomin / OVDAS reported some changes in the behavior of volcanic activity in Villarica. At the seismicity level, the LP earthquakes ceased, with an evolution towards a discrete tremor, at the rate of 2 episodes per hour. The webcams record a major incandescence, evidence of a more intense surface activity attributed to the presence of the lava lake closer to the surface and whose dynamics is fluctuating, which generates small Strombolian explosions reaching a diameter of 200 meters, accompanied by ballistic projections around the crater and on the upper flanks. The level of the volcanic technical alert remains green. POVI reported that webcam images captured deposits of incandescent material on the flank 300 m from Villarrica’s summit crater in the morning of 15 July. Incandescent material from lava fountaining ejected above the crater rim was periodically visible on 16 July.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported that during 1-31 May gas plumes rose as high as 170 m above Villarrica's crater rim. Incandescence from the crater was periodically visible. POVI reported that on 17 June lava spattering above the crater rim was recorded by a newly-installed infrared webcam. POVI reported that sporadic Strombolian lava fountains continued in the past five months.On May 14, the fountains are particularly spectacular, more than 20-40 meters wide and over 70 meters high above the edge of the crater.Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Antillanca-Casablanca volcano group

March 12th, 2020

As of the 11th of March, SERNAGEOMIN announced today that a yellow technical alert has been declared for the Antillanca-Casablanca volcanic complex, in the Los Lagos region. The alert was generated after the detection on March 9 of a series of 73 seismic events located approximately 2.4 kilometers north-northwest of the Casablanca volcano, with a maximum magnitude of ML1.8. Other seismic events were detected respectively on January 31 and February 1 of MI 3.1-3.2 for the strongest west and northwest of the Casablanca volcano.The other parameters do not show significant variations.The Sernageomin specifies that the level of technical alert Amarilla corresponds to minor explosions or possible fumaroles.The Antillanca Group is a group of basalt to andesitic slag cones from the Upper Pleistocene to the Holocene, maars and small stratovolcanoes covering an area of ​​380 km2 SE of Lago Puyehue and NE of Lago Rupanco. The most prominent building is the Holocene stratovolcano of Casablanca, which has a truncated conical profile and produced major explosive eruptions about 2910 and 2260 years ago (radiocarbon dating).

CHILE - Chaiten volcano

April 4th, 2020

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on April 3 at 04.17 local time, an earthquake of local magnitude 2.8 located 3.2 km deep was recorded under the summit of the Chaitén volcano. The National Service of Geology and Mines has indicated that this earthquake is associated with rock fracturing and the dynamics of internal fluids (hybrid earthquake). The volcanic technical alert remains on "verde". The last period of activity of the Chaiten occurred between May 2, 2008 and May 31, 2011. This first historic eruption produced major explosive rhyolitic activity, numerous pyroclastic flows and lahars, and was followed by the installation of a dome complex which filled much of the caldera. Chaitén is a small, glacier-free caldera with a compound Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. Early work had identified only a single explosive eruption during the early Holocene prior to the major 2008 eruption, but later work has identified multiple explosive eruptions throughout the Holocene. A rhyolitic obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km from the volcano to the N and S. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén. The first historical eruption, beginning in 2008, produced major rhyolitic explosive activity and growth of a lava dome that filled much of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

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Japan - Suwanojesima volcano

June 1st, 2020

JMA reported that continuous eruptive activity occurred in recent days. The last eruptive episode dates from May 29 at 11:19 p.m. local, accompanied by a plume reaching 1,200 meters above sea level, drifting east. Night glow marked the summit crater. An area of ​​one kilometer radius around the crater is likely to be impacted by bombs and / or pyroclastic flows. JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible during 15-22 May. Two explosions were recorded on 21 May, producing plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 1-8 May explosions occurred twice a day at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater and produced plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim. Material was ejected 400 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. Rumbling sounds were noted in a village 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that an eruptive episode occurred on April 28 at 4:17 am; it was accompanied by a plume at 1,400 meters above the crater, with a flow towards the south-east. The activity is still in progress, and the alert levels unchanged. JMA reported that during 10-17 April incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible nightly. Small eruptions occasionally occurred, along with an explosion on 15 April, producing gray-white plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim; plumes drifted N on 15 April. Rumbling sounds were noted in a village 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 3-10 April incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible nightly. Small eruptions occasionally occurred, producing gray-white plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim; rumbling sounds were noted in a village 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that an eruption occurred on April 6 from 3 p.m. local time, and ash falls are expected.JMA reported that during 19-27 March incandescence from Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly. One explosion was recorded on 23 March and eruptive events were detected during 23-24 March; ringing sounds were noted in a village 4 km SSW. Gray-white plumes rose 700 m above the crater rim on 24 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that during 13-19 March incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible nightly. On 14 March an ash plume rose 400 m above the crater rim. On 23 March the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l., or 120 m above the summit, and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 28 February-6 March incandescence from Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible nightly. Occasional eruptive events and two explosions were recorded; ash plumes rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim. Occasional eruption sounds were reported in a village 4 km SSW on 3 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that an explosion occurred at the Mitake crater in Suwanosejima on February 28 at 1:30 a.m., accompanied by a white plume 700 meters above the crater, drifting west. The status of volcanic activity remains unchanged (since December 1, 2007), at level 2 / do not approach the crater. JMA reported that during 14-21 February incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible nightly. An eruption on 19 February produced a grayish-white ash plume that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village, 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA also reported that previously small eruptions occurred on February 9th and 10th, with plumes 700 meters above the edge of the crater. JMA reported that white plumes rose as high as 700 m above the rim of Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 17-24 January. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. No changes in crater morphology were observed during an overflight on 21 January compared to 21 February 2019 observations; white plumes rose 400 m above the rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that occasional small eruptive events occurred during 12-17 January. Plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim. Residents of Toshima Village (4 km SSW) reported ashfall and explosion and rumbling sounds. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA recorded 13 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 3-10 January. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and material was ejected as far as 600 from the crater. Explosion and rumbling sounds, as well as ashfall, were reported in areas 4 km SSW. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that eruptive activity continued. Two episodes were reported for on January 5, 2020, the first at 2:38 p.m. local, accompanied by an ash plume at 1,400 meters above the Mitake crater, moving towards the SW. The second episode was reported at 10:22 p.m., with ashes expected to the NW due to change of the wind. JMA reported that a new explosion occurred December 4 at 5:37 am accompanied by an ash plume visible up to 400 meters, before entering the clouds; its direction was towards the south-east. The volcanic alert level is at 2 / do not approach the crater. JMA reported that a small explosion occurred on January 3, 2020 at 2:51 p.m. at the Suwanosejima / Otake crater. The ash plume was observed up to a height of 800 meters, before entering the cloud layer. The ash disperses to the southeast. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 persons live

JAPAN - Kirishimayama volcano group - Shinmoedake Peak - (Kyushu)

January 3rd, 2020

JMA raised alert on January 2, 2020 at 10:40 p.m. JST to level 2 / do not approach the crater; The change is due to a series of volcanic earthquakes recorded from 4 p.m. on January 1, with their epicenter just below the crater. Previous news 2019 - JMA raised the Kirishimayama / Shinmoedake alert level on Nov. 18 at 5:10 am JST from 1 to 2 / do not approach the crater, following an increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes, with epicentres just below the crater. On November 18, 16 volcanic earthquakes were recorded from 0 to 15h local time. The number of volcanic earthquakes below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased on 25 February 2019 prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The number of daily volcanic earthquakes decreased during 3-4 March, and each day through 18 March only a few were recorded. Previously in 2018, A punctual emission of gas and ashes occurred from the volcano on 27th of June at 15:34 local; the plume has reached an altitude of 2,200 meters.The alert level remains at 3 out of 5, and it is recommended not to approach the volcano.A new explosive eruption occured from the crater of the Shinmoedake on June 22 at 9:09 local. It was accompanied by an ash plume rising to 2,600 meters; the ash emission lasted about 5 minutes according to the images provided by the JMA webcam. A shock wave spread from the crater over 1,100 meters.That is the 49th explosion at Shinmoedake since April 5, 2018.The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 May ash plumes from Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, were identified in satellite images drifting S at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. JMA noted that white plumes rose 100 m above the crater rim during 18-21 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that a short eruption occurred on 14th of May at 2:.44 am. An ash plume rose to about 4500 m high above the summit crater and drifted toward Southwest. This activity continued until 4:10 am. It's the first activity since the 6th of April. A pyroclastic flow travelled 2 km down the flank. Volcanic earthquake rates under the crater increased after the eruption. Shallow, low-frequency earthquakes and tremor were also reported. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). As of the 5th of April, JMA reported that a new explosive eruption marked the Shinmoedake this April 5 in the early hours. Two larger explosions were observed at 3:31 and 3:47, accompanied by high ash emissions and a plume rising up to 5,000 meters, traversed by volcanic lightning generated by friction of ash particles..Based on observations during overflights on 28 March and 2 April, JMA reported that the crack on the W flank of Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued to widen. White emissions rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. Several high-temperature regions around the margins of the lava in the crater, and from the flow on the NW flank, were detected on 28 March. The lava flow on the NW flank advanced 85 m from 9-29 March. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 300 tons/day on 30 March. The number of volcanic earthquakes began to decline after 26 March; though from 0014 to 1430 on 3 April the number increased to 239. Many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that the eruption at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued during 19-27 March. Lava effusion possibly stopped on 9 March, though the lava flow on the NW flank continued to advance. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Short-duration volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. During a field survey on 22 March scientists measured 600 tons/day of sulfur dioxide gas, and noted that the crack on the W flank had grown slightly larger. On 25 March an explosion at 0735 was followed by an ash plume that rose 3.2 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 800 m. An event at 0845 generated an ash plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater rim, and a very small pyroclastic flow that traveled 800 m W. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 300 tons/day on 24 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that the eruption at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued during 13-19 March. Lava effusion possibly stopped on 9 March, though the lava flow on the NW flank continued to advance. An explosion at 1413 on 15 March generated a gray-white plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater and ejected material 1 km from the crater. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). According to news articles, ash plumes from Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, caused the cancelation of about 80 flights in and out of Kagoshima airport on 6 March. JMA reported that daily explosions during 6-13 March generated ash plumes that generally rose 3 km above the crater rim, though an ash plume on 10 March rose as high as 4.5 km. Explosions also ejected tephra that fell 700-1,800 m from the vent. Ashfall was reported in a wide area including in the prefectures of Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima. An explosion at 1558 on 9 March rattled structures in the Kagoshima and Miyazaki prefectures. Satellite images showed an increase in the crater diameter from 550 m on 7 March to 650 m on 9 March. During overflights on 9 March observers noted white plumes rising from the margins of the lava covering the crater floor, from lava flows on the S flank, and from newly forming lava flows on the NW flank. The volume of erupted lava was an estimated 14 million cubic meters. The NW lava flow had advanced 226 m by 13 March. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Volcanic tremor was continuous from 1 March until 1536 on 8 March; afterwards the signals had small amplitudes and were intermittent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that volcanic earthquakes at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased during 24-25 February. Volcanic tremor began to be recorded at 0815 on 1 March and intensified within a few hours. Residents in Takahara-machi, 12 km E (Miyazaki prefecture), reported ashfall at 1100; poor weather conditions prevented visual observations of the volcano. Later that day a small eruption was confirmed. Ashfall was reported in the Takahara-cho neighborhood, 12 km E (Miyazaki prefecture), around 1615. The eruption was observed at 1707 during an overflight. The sulfur dioxide flux was 5,500 tons/day, but then decreased to 2,200 tons/day on 2 March. During 2-3 March gray ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater, and ash fell in Takahara-cho on 3 March. Ash plumes rose 400 m on 4 March. Explosive events on 6 March generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km. During an overflight observers noted new lava on the E side of the crater, and plumes rising from both the center of the crater and an area on the N side. Ashfall was confirmed over a wide area from Kirishima prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture to the S, to Miyakonojo city (Miyazaki prefecture) to the E. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). Kirishimayama is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene dominantly andesitic group consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1700-m-high Karakunidake being the highest. Onamiike and Miike, the two largest maars, are located SW of Karakunidake and at its far eastern end, respectively. Holocene eruptions have been concentrated along an E-W line of vents from Miike to Ohachi, and at Shinmoedake to the NE. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 8th century. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Aso volcano (Kyushu)

June 6th, 2020

JMA reported that the eruptive activity continued. On June 5th, an ash plume is observed between 500 and 900 meters (after 3 p.m.) above the Nakadake crater.The activity is stil underway on June 6th. JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 29 May-2 June. Volcanic plumes rose 1,000-1,600 m above the crater rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high; the rate was 1,000 tons per day on 27 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 11-18 May. Volcanic plumes rose 600-1,000 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high; the rate was 1,300 tons per day on 17 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 4-11 May. Volcanic plumes rose 700-900 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 3,000-4,800 tons per day during 7-8 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 13-20 April. Gray-white ash plumes rose 800-1,100 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was somewhat high at 1,600 and 1,200 tons per day on 14 and 16 April, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). .JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 9-16 March. Gray-to-white ash plumes rose 600-800 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 1,600-1,700 tons per day on 11 and 16 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). VAAC Tokyo reports ash emissions to Asosan on Kyushu on February 29 and March 1, 2020, following an activity of previous duration of the volcano. The ash clouds drift east to an altitude flight 70.JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 10-17 February. Ash plumes rose 900-1,300 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate continued to be at a high level. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 27 January-3 February. Plumes rose 1.1 km above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, ranging from 1,900 to 3,400 tons per day during 28-29 and 31 January and 3 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 7-20 January. Plumes rose 0.9-1 km above the crater rim during 15-20 January and caused ashfall in areas downwind; the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes mainly drifted S, SE, E, and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Previous news 2019 - JMA reported that the eruption at Asosan that began on 7 October continued through 16 December. Ash plumes rose as high as 1 km and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 3,000-3,300 tons per day on 11 and 16 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that multiple and brief ash emissions characterizes the Nakadake crater of the Aso volcanic complex since April-May 2019. In recent days, the emissions of ashes occurred , while being visible only from the Museum of the volcano, the plume being drived by variable winds. They were reported by VAAC Tokyo, which states that ashes were not identifiable on satellite images. JMA reported that the eruption at Asosan that began on 7 October continued through 18 November. The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13-18 November ash plumes rose to 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. On 18 November JMA confirmed ashfall in downwind areas. JMA reported that during 7-15 October ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above Asosan's summit crater rim, causing ashfall in areas downwind including periodically at the Kumamoto Regional Meteorological Observatory. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was very high at 4,000 tons per day on 11 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that during 2-7 October ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above Asosan's summit crater rim and drifted NE and NW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Aso City. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,800 tons per day on 7 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that during 25-30 September ash plumes rose as high as 1.6 km above Asosan’s summit crater rim and drifted NE and NW, causing ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,600 tons per day on 26 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that ash emissions continued to be observed at Asosan, rising to 1.6, 1.1, and 0.9 km above the crater rim during 14-17, 18-20, and 21-24 September, respectively. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 3,600 tons per day on 17 September and 2,700 tons per day on 19 September. Ashfall was reported in downwind areas to the SW, including at the Kumamoto Regional Meteorological Observatory. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. (GVP/GVN)

JAPAN - Asama volcan (Honshu)

November 10th, 2019

On 6 November JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asamayama to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) noting that no eruptions had occurred since 26 August, volcanic tremor had not been recorded since early September, and volcanic gas emissions had been generally low. JMA a minor eruption occurred on 25 August at 1928, accompanied by a plume rising 600 meters above the crater.Its last activity dates back to August 7th. The alert level was 3 until August 19, when it was lowered to 2. Despite the risk of small eruptions (possibly accompanied by pyroclastic flows and bomb ejections), the level remains at 2 according to the JMA. The plume then turned white and continuous emissions rose 200 m during 25-26 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that White plumes rose as high as 700 m above the crater rim during 8-13 August, and the amount of sulfur dioxide released was 90-200 tons per day. JMA reported that un eruption occurred at at 10:08 p.m. Wednesday 7th of August sending ashplume to an altitude of about 1,800 meters. Volcanic ash is reported in small quantities north of the crater on Naganohara, Tsumagoi, Karuizawa, and Miyota.In addition, to the northeast of the crater over a distance of about 2 km, there is a risk that ash will be blown away.There were no reports of injuries nor property damage as of Thursday morning. The small eruption prompted the volcanic alert level to be raised from 1 to 3, on a scale of 5. Asamayama, Honshu's most active volcano, overlooks the resort town of Karuizawa, 140 km NW of Tokyo. The volcano is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan volcanic arcs. The modern Maekake cone forms the summit and is situated east of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofuyama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic shield volcano was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the east flank. Maekake, capped by the Kamayama pyroclastic cone that forms the present summit, is probably only a few thousand years old and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century CE. Maekake has had several major plinian eruptions, the last two of which occurred in 1108 (Asamayama's largest Holocene eruption) and 1783 CE. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Kuchinoerebujima ( Ryu-Kyu islands)

April 29th , 2020

JMA reported that t activity continued at the Shindake crater of Kuchinoerabujima, with an eruption that occurred at 11:05 a.m. on April 29, characterized by a plume of ash and gas 1,000 meters above the crater. The plume flows north, then northeast.JMA reported that very small eruptions are still occuring intermittently in the crater of Shindake. On April 24 at 11:15 p.m., a plume was reported 300 meters above the crater. No volcanic block collapse or pyroclastic flow was observed. A field study from April 21-23 revealed a crack on the west side of the Shindake crater, where a slight increase in temperature in the nearby geothermal field was reported. JMA also reported an increase in activity level on April 24. JMA reported that during 13-20 April very small eruptive events at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater produced grayish-white plumes that rose 600 m above the crater rim. An event at 0147 on 20 April generated a grayish-white plume that rose 800 m and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that currently on level 3 alert, activity continued, with the emission of a white-gray plume on April 16 at around 3 p.m. local. The activity was in progress. Previously, JMA reported that activity continues, according to the JMA with plumes of gas and ash observed this April 6 at 8:10 a.m. JST, from a height of 400 meters, and at 3 p.m. JST, with a plume reaching 700 meters. Ash and lapilli falls are expected. The alert level is 3 / do not approach the volcano. As of the 23rd of March, JMA recorded a white plume 400 meters above the crater of the volcano. Seismicity is characterized by increasing volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the number of which reaches 25 / day. Sulfur dioxide emissions are around 1,300 tonnes / day. The latest bulletin of March 23 also reported bombs and pyroclastic flows likely to affect an area up to 2 km from the crater. JMA reported that very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater during 20-21 February generated whitish plumes that rose 200 m above the crater rim. No changes were observed during field visits on those two days. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 400-600 tons per day during 20-23 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that at 1211 on 13 February a very small eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced a grayish white plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that a small explosion occurred on February 9 at 9:50 a.m. local, with an ash plume rising 500 meters above the crater, before dispersing to the southeast.As of the 4th of February, JMA reported that a pyroclastic flow extending for about 900 meters was observed on the southwest side of Mount Shindake, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic plume 626 meters high, on Kuchinoerabu Island, in the Kagoshima prefecture. However, it did not reach the residential areas and no injuries or damage to the residences were confirmed, according to the local government. The height of the ash plume could not be assessed by the VAAC due to the cloud cover. According to JMA, the eruption occurred around 5.30 a.m. on February 3, 2020. Large deposits of ash were found scattered in areas about 600 meters from the crater. Very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima on 20, 23, and 24 January produced grayish-white plumes that rose 500 m above the crater rim. Ashfall 2 km NE of the crater was confirmed during aerial observations on 23 January. The number of volcanic earthquakes increased during 25-26 January. An eruptive event was recorded at 0148 on 27 January, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation; volcanic tremor, changes in tilt data, and infrasound signals accompanied the event. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were 200-1,000 tons per day during 20-27 January; JMA characterized emissions of 600-1,000 tons per day as high. JMA reported trhat white plumes from Kuchinoerabujima rose 600 m above the crater rim during 14-17 January. Minor eruptive activity from 1659 on 17 January through 1030 on 20 January generated grayish-white plumes that rose 300 m. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 800 and 1,600 tons per day on 15 and 16 January, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). VAAC Tokyo reported that an eruption took place on January 11th at 3:05 p.m. and continued at 3:30 p.m., producing a thick plume of ash and gas rising to 2,000 meters before entering the clouds. The ash is dispersed in an eastern sector.The alert level is 3 / "do not approach the crater" since 28th of October.2019. Previous news 2019 - JMA raised the alert level of the Kuchinoerabujima to 3 / do not approach the crater on October 28, 2019 at 00:15 local. This adjustment of the alert follows a massive earthquake on October 27 at 21:33, with a hypocentre located near the crater Shindake. A possible eruption, likely to cause pyroclastic flows, can impact area from the crater  to the coast.JMA reported that Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater has not erupted since 3 February, and the number of shallow earthquakes located near the crater had been decreasing since then. Deeper volcanic earthquakes had not been recorded since 16 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained elevated. JMA lowered the Alert Level to 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-5) on 12 June. JMA reported that during 30 January-1 February and 3-5 February white plumes rose as high as 600 m. An event that lasted during 1141-1300 on 2 February generated a plume that rose 600 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA and VAAC Tokyo reported a new eruption on January 29, 2019 around 5pm local time. The Shindake plume rose to 2,800 meters asl at 5:14 pm to 5:16 pm, accompanied by a pyroclastic flow to the southwest for 600 meters. JMA reported that an explosive eruption occurred at about 9:19 am on January 17th, 2019. This explosive activity was accompanied by a plume of ash to a height of 6.000 meters, ejection of pyroclasts up to 1,000 meters from the crater, but also pyroclastic flows encompassing the southwest flank of the volcano on 1,500 meters. These flows have fortunately not reached the inhabited areas.Following this eruption, a powerful white plume of gas and vapor was observed.The JMA maintains the alert level at 3 / do not approach the volcano within a radius of 2 km.JMA reported that following small, regular eruptions lasting a few weeks, followed by a complete break the volcano showed a strong explosive eruption accompanied by a shock wave perceived at the port of Honmura 2 km from the crater, this December 18 at 16:37; the ash plume reached 2,000 meters before entering the cloud layer, and a pyroclastic flow ran a distance of 1,000 meters on the west flank. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km west of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. The youngest cone, centrally-located Shintake, formed after the NW side of Furutake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shintake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furutake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shintake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions. (GVN/GVP) - NHK webcam

JAPAN - Azumayama volcano (Honshu)

June 19th, 2019

On 17 June JMA lowered the Alert Level for Azumayama to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale), noting that deformation and elevated seismicity recorded in May had stabilized and decreased, respectively. JMA reported that yhe number of volcanic earthquakes at Azumayama increased on 5 May and data from a tiltmeter about 1 km SE of Ohana Crater showed inflation on 9 May, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Field observations on 7 and 10 May indicated no changes in the fumarolic and thermal areas around Ohana. Seismicity began to decrease on 10 May, though continued to fluctuate through 20 May. Deformation continued but at a slower rate. The Azumayama volcanic group consists of a cluster of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones. The andesitic and basaltic complex was constructed in two E-W rows above a relatively high basement of Tertiary sedimentary rocks and granodiorites west of Fukushima city. Volcanic activity has migrated to the east, with the Higashi-Azuma volcano group being the youngest. The symmetrical Azuma-Kofuji crater and a nearby fumarolic area on the flank of Issaikyo volcano are popular tourist destinations. The Azumayama complex contains several crater lakes, including Goshikinuma and Okenuma. Historical eruptions, mostly small phreatic explosions, have been restricted to Issaikyo volcano at the northern end of the Higashiyama group.(GVN/GVP)
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JAPAN - Hakoneyama volcano (Honshu)

October 9th, 2019

On 7 October JMA lowered the Alert Level for Hakoneyama to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale), noting that the number of volcanic earthquakes had decreased to background levels after a spike in seismicity was recorded in May. Inflation had been detected but had become almost stagnant after late August. Fumaroles in the Owakudani hot springs area continued to be
active, with gas-and-steam plumes rising 100-400 m above their vents. JMA reported that the number of earthquakes at Hakoneyama increased on 18 May and remained elevated through 27 May. The epicenters were centered around the W bank of Lake Ashinoko and around Komagatake. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data continued to indicate a trend of inflation. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that the number of earthquakes at Hakoneyama increased during 18-19 May, with epicenters centered around the W bank of Lake Ashinoko and around Komagatake. Fumaroles in the Owakudani hot springs area continued to be active. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data showed changes in deformation beginning in mid-March. On 19 May JMA raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Elevated seismicity continued to be recorded through 21 May. Hakoneyama volcano is truncated by two overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 10 x 11 km wide. The calderas were formed as a result of two major explosive eruptions about 180,000 and 49,000-60,000 years ago. Scenic Lake Ashi lies between the SW caldera wall and a half dozen post-caldera lava domes that were constructed along a NW-SE trend cutting through the center of the calderas. Dome growth occurred progressively to the NW, and the largest and youngest of these, Kamiyama, forms the high point. The calderas are breached to the east by the Hayakawa canyon. A phreatic explosion about 3000 years ago was followed by collapse of the NW side of Kamiyama, damming the Hayakawa valley and creating Lake Ashi. The latest magmatic eruptive activity about 2900 years ago produced a pyroclastic flow and a lava dome in the explosion crater, although phreatic eruptions took place as recently as the 12-13th centuries CE. Seismic swarms have occurred during the 20th century. Lake Ashi, along with the thermal areas in the caldera, is a popular resort destination SW of Tokyo.(GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano (Kyushu)

June 4th, 2020

JMA reported that the volcano remained erupting, with a large explosive episode on June 4, 202 at 2:59 am JST; the whole summit, up to 2 km. of the summit crater, was impacted by the incandescent fallout from the Minamidake, and the JMA reports a volcanic plume more than 1,500 meters above the edge of the crater. Ashes scattered southeast, then southwestJMA reported that during 25 May-1 June incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible almost nightly. The daily sulfur dioxide emission rate was high. There were three explosive events and 18 eruptive events during 25-29 May with plumes rising as high as 3 km above the crater rim. Material was ejected 800-1,100 m away from
the crater. An eruption at 1337 on 1 June generated an ash plume that rose to 3 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that explosive activity continued during past days with some explosions and ash plumes covered with lightning. An explosion occurrerd at 11:57 am on May 26, with a vertical plume reaching 1,000 meters above the summit. Another occurred at the end of the same day around 9:07 p.m. at the summit crater of the Minamidake generated a plume of gas and ash rising up to 900 meters above the crater. Another again on May 27 was reported by the VAAC Tokyo at 4:23 am accompanied by a plume at a flight altitude of 40, which could drift towards the ENE. Then, the JMA reporteds a new explosion at 2 p.m., with a colored plume 2,000 meters above the crater.
JMA noted a powerful explosion on May 20, 2020 at 10:45 pm local time, which generated a dense plume of ash and gas, reaching 4,000 meters and drifting east. Incandescent material was ejected on the slopes and caused block avalanches; the area affected by ballistic impacts and pyroclastic flows is set 2 km from the crater.JMA reported that during 11-18 May incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. There were 10 explosive events with plumes rising as high as 2 km above the crater rim. Material was ejected 600-900 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 4-11 May incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. There were four eruptive events with plumes rising as high as 2.3 km above the crater rim. Three explosions were recorded; an explosion at 0531 on 9 May produced an ash plume that rose 4.2 km and ejected material 600-900 m away from the crater. JMA noted that ash plumes had not risen higher than 4 km since 8 November 2019. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that a major eruption occurred on May 8, 2020 at 7:03 a.m., accompanied by a plume of ash and gas reaching 2,000 meters above the active crater, dissipating towards the northwest. Other episodes preceded him at 6:53 a.m. and 7:08 a.m. JMA reported that during 27 April-4 May incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. An explosion at 2246 on 27 April generated an ash plume that rose over 3 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks 600-900 m from the crater. An eruptive event at 1510 on 2 May produced a plume that rose 1.4 km above the rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that nine eruptions occurred at the summit crater of Minamidake including two explosions on April 27. The plume rose up to 2500m above the edge of the crater before dispersing east. The largest volcanic blocks reach the 6th station (800 to 1100 m from the Minamidake summit crater). Inclinometers and extensometers installed on the island showed the uplift and the expansion of the volcano. JMA reported that an explosion took place on April 24 at 2:32 p.m. accompanied by a plume of ash and gas, the 155 ° of the year, rising to 2,100 meters above the Minamidake crater, with a dispersion towards the south-east. The JMA reports a dispersion of large volcanic rocks towards the 6th station, 800-1.100 meters from the Minamidake crater. JMA reported that during 13-20 April incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. The seismic network occasionally recorded very small eruptive events and three explosions. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 1,700 and 2,000 tons/day on 14 and 17 April, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 6-13 April incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. The seismic network recorded 16 eruptive events and 6 explosions. Ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and material was ejected 300-500 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that the past week  (from April 2 to 6, 2020) the eruptive activity actively continued. JMA reports up to 15 eruptions on April 4 at the Minamidake crater, with block ejections at 600-900 meters, and according to an alert bulletin, could reach up to 2 km., and plumes reaching 3,800 m. altitude. Night glow was observed.Seismicity is dominated by numerous volcanic earthquakes. JMA reported that during 23-30 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. Twelve eruptive events were recorded along with three explosions during 23-27 March. An eruption at 1041 on 27 March produced an ash plume that rose 1.8 km above the crater rim and ejcted material 800-1,100 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported than An explosion occurred at the Minamidake crater of Sakurajima on March 25, 2020 at 5:39 am. It was accompanied by a gray plume 1,400 meters above the crater, and fallout of incandescent materials on the high slopes. The ash cloud has moved north northeast. The Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

Japan - Satsuma-Iwojima ( Ryukyu islands)

April 30th, 2020

JMA reported that An eruption occurred at 06:09 am on April 29 at the Iodake crater of Satsuma Iwo Jima. It continued until 6:50 a.m. The height of the gas and ash plume is 1000 meters above the edge of the crater. The ashes should fall to the north of the crater.The inclinometer data near Mount Iodake did not show any significant change due to volcanic activity.Therefore, it is unlikely that a large-scale eruption will occur at this time.Currently, Satsuma Iwo Jima is at eruption alert level 2 (regulation around the crater).Previous news 2019 - The Japan Meteorological Agency has raised the alert level of Satsuma-Iojima to 2 (/ do not approach the crater) on November 2nd of November at 17:50 JST, following an eruption that occurred at 17:35 local, accompanied by a plume of ash which has desegregated the 1,000 meters above the crater. The ashes dispersed in a northwesterly direction, with little impact on the village of Mishima..A grayish-white plume rose 1 km above the Iodake crater rim. The report noted that the number of volcanic earthquakes has been low, with no variations before or after the event. The next day during an overflight conducted by the Coast Guard and the Japan Meteorological Agency Mobile Survey Team (JMA-MOT) observers noted no changes to the geothermal field and no new deposits from the event the day before. Views of the crater were obscured by white plumes rising 300 m above the crater rim.Satsuma-Iojima forms part of the edge of the largely submerged Kikai caldera, 19 km wide, and located at the northern end of the Ryuku volcanic arc, south of Kyushu Island / Japan. Two post-caldera structures contributed to its current morphology: Mt.Iwodake, a rhyolitic lava dome, and the small Inamuradake scoria cone.The historical eruptions of the 20th century have mainly concerned Iwodake, which is marked by a fumarolic activity of high temperature (up to 900 ° C).The summit zone, of 400 over 140 meters, includes several craters, result of the explosive activity following the installation of the dome. The small crater Kintsuba is located southwest of the central crater Oana, a place of mining sulfur . Small ash eruptions were observed in 1999, 2001, 2002-2204, and 2013. (GVN/GVP)

Japan - Nishinoshima volcano - Izu Island

May 23rd, 2020

An overview was conducted by the Japan Coast Guards on May 18, 2020. When approaching the island, the summit activity was accompanied with degassing due to the arrival of lava at sea.Strombolian explosions produced a plume of ash, and ejected materials on the blanks of the pyroclastic cone. On the thermal image, It was possible to see that the lava flowing from the effusive vent on the southwest flank of the cone is divided into two arms, one of which formed a delta at the entrance to the sea. Activity appears to be continuous, slightly up on April 29, 2020 overview The japonaise Coast Guard carried out an overview by the Japan Coast Guards on April 29, 2020. The surface of the slag cone has been renewed and deposits of sulfur can be seen in places on the northeast surface of the cone. Although it cannot be seen from the front of the image, it appears that the collapsed crater southwest of the summit that appeared on April 19 has been buried again. Between April 29 and the previous sighting on April 19, there was obviously a good activity. Thermal images are also interesting. Although the exit is the same, you can see the lava flow move clockwise through the pyroclastic cone and head south. A beautiful fan of lava in the north direction, and a flow to the east coast consists of three arms. The Japanese Coast Guard flew over Nishinoshima (Ogasawara Islands) on March 9, confirming that the gray plume emitted reached an altitude of about 1,000 meters. The lava flows on the northeast flank of the crater for about 1 km to the north shore before flowing into the sea, where a plume of gas and vapor was visible. Mirova has noted thermal anomalies, when the cloud cover does not prevent measurements, between 79 and 314 MW, for the period from 09 to 11.03.2020. As of the 3rd of March, GSI site reported topographic changes due to lava were observed on the north and east sides of the pyroclastic cone, and changes in the coastline are observed on the side North of the island. In addition, a new topographic change was observed on the southwest side of the pyroclastic cone, which would be caused by lava. The thermal anomalies transmitted by Mirova between February 29 and March 2 range from 47 MW on March 1 / 4:15 a.m. and 338 MW on March 2 / 12:45 p.m. As of the 17th of February, JMA reported that the activity that resumed since December 20, 2019, continued actively with thermal anomaliestnoted by Mirova and SAR images testifying to flows which enlarge its surface.Eruptive activity continues on Nishinoshima, with thermal anomalies noted by Mirova, and reaching 425 MW on February 2 at 3:50 a.m. Regular GSI reports show the topographic changes caused by lava flows from the northeast to the east of the island between January 17 and 31. On January 26, 2020, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 captured this image of a plume of ash and vapor emanating from volcanic island of Nishinoshima. In this image, the infrared data is superimposed on a natural color image to highlight the active flows of the volcano. According to the Global Volcanism Program, the lava flows traveled northeast and entered the ocean, generating plumes of vapor near the shore. The Japan Coast Guards reported a continued increase in emissions from January 15 to 21 from the central crater. The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima conducted from 1335 to 1412 on 17 January surveyors observed continuous gray emissions rising from the central crater of the pyroclastic cone to 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E and NE. The central crater was open to the ENE; lava flows traveled NE and entered the ocean, producing steam plumes at the coastline. GSI reported that Synthetic Aperture / SAR Radar images on board the Japanese satellite DAICHI-2 (ALOS-2) provided by the GSI, show changes in the coastline to the NNE of Nishinoshima Island (Ogasawara Islands), between 3 and January 17, 2020, in connection with a lava flow from the cone.The thermal anomalies reported by Mirova oscillated between 7 and 268 MW on January 15-17, 2020 (note that they can be masked by cloud cover and interpreted accordingly). The eruptive episodes therefore continue well, with relative enlargement of the emerged part.According to recent news he morphological evolution of the cone and the contours of the island continues.The GSI reported a modification on both the NW and SSE coast on December 20, 2019, and a significant increasing on the NNE side on January 3, based on ALOS-2 satellite images.Moderate to high thermal anomalies were observed by Mirova. Previous news 2019 - As of the 16th of December, JMA reported that the strombolian activity continued and was characterized by the emission of a plume of ash, bombs, and feeded two flows from a vent near the summit of Scoria Hill, in a west and east direction. One of the lava flow reached the ocean with emission of gas and vapor. Thermal anomalies remained moderate but constant. The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima on 15 December surveyors observed that explosions were occurring from the main crater of the pyroclastic cone every second to several seconds. Blocks were ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim; red hot blocks were scattered at the base of the cone. Gray plumes rose from the crater, and lava continued flowing E into the sea. A new crater had opened on the N flank of the cone and effused lava that flowed NW down to the sea. JMA expanded the marine exclusion zone around the island to 2.5 km the next day. JMA reported that the Nishinoshima Volcano, which has been calm since July 2018, has recovered explosive-effusive activity since 4 December 2019. The explosions are located at the main cone, and a vent that opened at the NE base of the cone produces spaterring and lava flows.This activity, in addition to the thermal anomalies recorded by satellite, was observed on December 6 during an overflight by the Japanese coastguard. The small island of Nishinoshima was enlarged when several new islands coalesced during an eruption in 1973-74. Another eruption that began offshore in 2013 completely covered the previous exposed surface and enlarged the island again. Water discoloration has been observed on several occasions since. The island is the summit of a massive submarine volcano that has prominent satellitic peaks to the S, W, and NE. The summit of the southern cone rises to within 214 m of the sea surface 9 km SSE. (GVN/GVP)

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USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

June 4th, 2020

HVO published May Monthly summary about the activity of the Kīlauea volcano, which is not erupting. Monitoring data for May shows variable but typical rates of seismicity and soil deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions and only minor geological changes since eruptive activity ended in September 2018 . Seismicity rates during the month were about 25% lower than last month. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the top and below the detection limits at PuʻuʻŌʻō and in the lower East Rift Zone. The crater lake at the bottom of Halema'uma'u continues to expand and deepen slowly. As of June 3, the depth of the lake was approximately 36 meters. A certain amount of sulfur dioxide is dissolved in the summit lake and work is continuing to try to quantify this process. HVO reported that monitoring data for February showed variable but typical rates of seismicity and soil deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions and only minor geological changes since the end of activity eruptive in September 2018. The pond of acid water at the bottom of Halema'uma'u continues to expand and deepen slowly. In early March, the dimensions of the pond were approximately 100 meters by 200 meters. The current depth is around 28 meters. As of the 6th of February, HVO reported that the seismicity rates during the month were variable but remain in the long-term values. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the top and below the detection limits at Puʻu ʻŌʻō and in the lower East Rift zone. The pond at the bottom of Halema'uma'u, which began to form on July 25, 2019, continues to expand and deepen slowly. At the beginning of February, the dimensions were: 95 meters by 194 meters. The current depth is around 25 meters.PREVIOUS NEWS 2019 - As of the 5th of December, HVO reported monitoring data continue to show steady rates of seismicity and ground deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions, and only minor geologic changes since the end of eruptive activity in September 2018. Monitoring data have shown no significant changes in volcanic activity during November. Over the past month, about a dozen DI events occurred beneath the summit. Seismic stations detected over 1800 earthquakes in the vicinity of the volcano, which is an increase of ~10% from last month. Rates of seismicity are relatively consistent throughout the month, although at the summit, episodic increased rates appear to be coincident with the inflated phase of the DI events. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the summit and are below detection limits at Puʻu ʻŌʻō and the lower East Rift Zone. The pond at the bottom of Halema'uma'u, which began forming on July 25, 2019, continues to slowly expand and deepen, and the most recent measurements are 162 meters in the east-west direction and 73 meters in the north-south direction. HVO reported that the crater lake of Halema'uma'u continues to grow; its level is measured on October 19 at 608 meters under the observation site. The steam that sweeps its surface testifies to the high temperature of the water, and the winds at the bottom of the crater. The refill is marked by areas of bluish color on a general tint of the surface of greenish yellow color. HVO reported that a recent flyover of the Pu'u O'o 'crater in the eastern rift zone of Kilauea allowed a good visualization of the bottom of the crater, drained after 35 years of eruptions. The rubble from the collapse of the crater walls filled much of its deepest part, the bottom being now about 250 meters (820 feet) below the eastern ledge. As of the 2nd of August HVO reported that the seismicity and strain ratios remained stable; low emissions of sulfur dioxide since September 2018. Insight from July 25, 2019, a green pond marks the floor of Halema'uma'u, at about 540 meters above sea level. HVO scientists flew over the summit of Kilauea in the morning of 1 August and confirm the presence of water at the bottom of Halima'uma'u crater. Observers saw reflections from the green pond. The pond has clearly expanded since the oldest photos made on July 25th. Previous news - As of the 22nd of May, HVO reported that no significant change occurred over the past week in Kilauea volcanic activity, in normal volcanic alert / green aviation code.Since the beginning of March, tiltmeters have recorded a modest inflationary trend at the top, confirmed by GPS and InSAR measurements; it is interpreted as a magmatic accumulation in the shallow portion of the summit magmatic system, 1-2 km deep.Other measurements show the filling of the magma reservoir of the deep East Rift Zone in a large area between Pu'u O'o and Highway 130, since the end of the 2018 eruption. The HVO continues to monitor Kilauea's seismicity, deformation and gas emissions closely, to detect an increase in its activity. As of the 20th of March, HVO reported that over the past week, volcanic activity has not changed significantly.Low levels seismicity persisted on the volcano, with earthquakes occurring mainly in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and inclinometers continue to display movements consistent with deep magma reservoir filling in the East Rift Zone. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Pu'u'u'ō remain low. These rates have been stable for several weeks. HVO reported that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with earthquakes occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and tiltmeters continue to show motions consistent with refilling of the deep East Rift Zone. These rates have been steady over the past several weeks. At Kilauea's summit, tiltmeters are showing deflationary tilt consistent with the beginning of a Deflation-Inflation event (D-I event); these types of events have been commonly observed at the summit for several years. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. As of the 15th of January 2019, HVO reportede that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past weeks. Deformation signals are consistent with slow magmatic recharge within the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ).Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with events occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. Slow inflationary tilt continues in the middle ERZ. Sulfur dioxide emission rates have been below detection limits in the LERZ since early September, though minor amounts of volcanic gas are still present. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. Previously,HVO reported that no more active lava observations since September 4th, 2018 on the basis of the criterias of GVN program, the phase of the eruption on the Lower East Rift Zone can be considered to be over .Kilauea remains an active volcano, and geophysical data continues to show movements in the magmatic system, including a recharge of the East Rift Zone. As of the 30th of October, HVO reported that Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Deformation signals are consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone.HVO monitoring during the past week shows low rates of seismicity at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ). Earthquakes continue to occur primarily at Kīlauea's summit area and south flank (magnitude-3.8 was the largest) with continued small aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 quake on May 4, 2018. Seismicity remains low in the lower ERZ. In the ERZ, tiltmeters near Puʻu ʻŌʻō and farther east continue to record an inflationary trend, consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone. At the summit, tiltmeters have recorded a slight inflationary trend. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions at the summit averaged 50 tonnes/day as reported on October 24, and 75 tonnes/day at Puʻu ʻŌʻō on October 23. There was no sulfur dioxide detected by our instruments in the lower ERZ. Previously, HVO bulletin ( 3rd of october) reported that On Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (ERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming from the cone was visible during the past day. Webcam images of the fissure 8 cone show that a portion of the crater wall near the northern spillway area has slowly shifted during the past 2 weeks, indicating some instability of the cone in this area. As of the 2nd of October, HVO reported that no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming has been visible during the day. On the middle ERZ, a rockfall at Puʻu ʻŌʻō produced a small ash plume around noon yesterday, October 1. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Rates of tilting throughout both the summit and the ERZ are much lower than those observed during the recent period of major eruptive activity. As of the 25th of September HVO reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming is visible during the day. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. HVO reported minor incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 12-15 September, and that small amounts of fuming rose from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the Fissure 8 cone during 12-18 September. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (less than 1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. Small collapses at Pu'u 'O'o Crater during 12-14 September generated visible dust plumes. The Volcano Alert level l remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin (11th of September) reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), minor amounts of incandescence were observed overnight from a collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone, though the amount was reduced over observations from the previous night. Very minor fuming is visible from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the cone. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none have extended outside the walls of the cone. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Aftershocks from the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May are still being generated on faults located on Kīlauea's South Flank. Small collapses continued to occur yesterday at Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater, but are much less frequent than they were over the previous two days. As of the 7th of September, HVO reported that lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible at fissure 8 from helicopter overflight or UAS (drone) views this morning. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none extend outside the walls of the cone. There is no change in overall activity from observations over the past several days. As of the 5th of September, HVO reported that seismicity remains low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. A magnitude-3.1 earthquake that occurred at 5:31AM HST this morning was located below Kīlauea's South Flank and is likely an aftershock of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake from early May. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible on the fissure 8 spillway overnight. Images from the UAS (drone) crew showed that weak lava activity continues in the fissure 8 cone as of yesterday afternoon, with no lava extending outside the walls of the cone and no flows heading down the spillway. HVO reported that on 2nd of September, seismicity remained low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. Earthquakes, probably aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May, continue on South Flank faults. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), incandescence was observed in the fissure 8 cone yesterday afternoon (09/01) with reports of activity extending into early evening. In addition to a persistent spot of spattering, lava slowly covered the 65-by-15 m (210-by-45 ft) crater floor by evening. Webcam views showed weak incandescence occasionally reflected on the eastern spillway wall from the crater overnight suggesting that the lava in the crater remained active. This morning, ground crews have no view of the crater inside the fissure 8 cone, but report the fissure 8 cone is quiet when viewed from a safe distance with no visible fume. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at the summit, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate (< 1,000 t/d) is lower than at any time since late 2007. Friday (08/31), LERZ emission rates were still too low to measure. HVO reported that during an overflight on 25 August a small lava pond was visible deep within the vent at Kilauea's Fissure 8 cone; the pond was no longer visible on 27 August. Lava continued to ooze into the ocean and produce minimal laze plumes, but by 27 August only a small single breakout from the Kapoho Bay lobe was active. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin ( 24th of August - 20:30 UTC) reported that seismicity and ground deformation are negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), only a few ocean entries were oozing lava and laze plumes were minimal from overflights early this week. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007. On Tuesday, the SO2 emissions from the LERZ were too low to measure although SO2 smells were noticed. HVO bulletin (19th of August - 22:39 UTC) reported that the lull in activity at Kīlauea Volcano continues. At the summit, seismicity and deformation are negligible. On the lower East Rift Zone, the only incandescence is at the coast near Ahalanui where a few ocean entries are oozing lava. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007 HVO reported that during 8-14 August activity at Kilauea was characterized by a slowly-circulating lava pond deep within the Fissure 8 vent (though the pond was crusted over by 14 August) and a billowing gas plume, and a few scattered ocean entries. The summit area was quiet except for occasional rockfalls into the crater. Fresh black sand from fragmented lava was transported SW by the ocean current, and accumulated in the Pohoiki harbor, creating a sandbar. The westernmost ocean entry was about 1 km NE of the harbor. Earthquake and deformation data indicated no magma movement or pressurization in the system. HVO bulletin ( 9th of August - 19h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from Fissure 8 remains low and there have been no signs of reactivation or new intrusion. Up-rift of Fissure 8, Fissures 9, 10, and 24, and down-rift Fissures 13, 23, 3, 21 and 7, continue to steam. Ground crews and overflights continue to monitor these for signs of new activity. This morning's overflight crew observed a crusted lava pond deep inside the steaming cone at a level significantly lower than when viewed Tuesday morning. HVO bulletin (7th of August - 23h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from fissure 8 remains low. The morning overflight crew observed a small active lava lake within the fissure 8 cone, a weak gas plume, and a drained upper lava channel. The surface of the lava lake was about 5-10 m below the spillway entrance. There were a diminishing number of small active ooze outs near the coast on the Kapoho Bay and Ahalanui lobes and the laze plume was greatly diminished. Active lava remains close to the Pohoiki boat ramp but has not advanced significantly toward it. As of the 3rd of August, HVO reported tha fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the channel leading northeastward from the vent. Multiple overflows developed late yesterday afternoon and evening, one of which headed north toward Noni Farms Road, starting a small fire. Field crews determined the advancing overflow had ceased by 21:00 HST but that fires were still burning. Further downstream overflows were concentrated in the wide lava field west and south-southwest of Kapoho cone, also igniting small fires in adjacent vegetation. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 18-24 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that continued to spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and entered the ocean at Ahalanui. Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred about every other day (38.5 and 53.5 hours in between a few of the events). Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low. Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele's hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater; lava occasionally overflowed the channel, and on 28 July ignited nearby vegetation. Small plumes of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles) were generated at several points along a broad 2-km-wide flow front at Ahalanui. The westernmost edge was less than 175 m NE of the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park (by 30 July). HVO bulletin ( 16th of July - 19:31 UTC) reported that Fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. The channel is full but not quite up to the rim; there were no significant overflows this morning. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. Explosions were reported from the main ocean entry this morning with at least one being quite strong. Fissure 22 did not appear active this morning but sounds were heard from it last night. No other fissures are active this morning. HVO bulletin (July 15th - 21:21 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Lava levels in the upper channel increased briefly following this morning's summit collapse-explosion event at 3:26 a.m. Another short-lived overflow of the channel at the vent spread east-southeast this morning, but did not advance beyond the existing flow field. The channelized ʻaʻā flow west of Kapoho Crater continues to be the main ocean entry at the southern edge of the flow front. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. No other fissures are active on the morning. At 3:26 a.m. HST July 15, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath the summit of Kīlauea with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.2 earthquake. Seismic activity at the summit decreased immediately following the event, but is beginning to increase at this time. Earthquakes in the summit area have resumed following 12th of july collapse/explosion event at 2:42 PM HST, which had an energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. (updated map 12th of July). HVO bulletin ( July 10th - 19:57 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava steadily into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Disruptions to the mid-channel occurred yesterday afternoon producing localized overflows along the margins of the flowfield, mostly atop earlier lavas. A significant overflow north of the cinder quarry advancing yesterday and last night towards Cinder Rd. has stalled. An overflow lobe moving around the west side of Kapoho Cone remains active this morning and small brushfires are reported along the margins. Downstream, lava appears to be reoccupying the channel leading to the ocean entry were multiple fingers of lava are active. The southern margin of the ocean entry shows little sign of movement. Yesterday's channel disruption and overflows were caused by blockages that developed along the channel. Additional blockages and resulting overflows are likely to occur as long as the activity continues. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin ( July 10 - 3:05 UTC) Early on afternoon observers reported multiple overflows occurring along both sides of the main lava channel, in an area extending from near the "Y" intersection at Pohoiki Road eastwards to an area just west of Kapoho Crater. Overflows on the upper part of the channel did not extend beyond areas previously covered in lava. Overflows further down the channel have reached beyond the flow field, including one flow lobe that is moving northeast from the main channel towards Cinder Rd. Residents are urged to heed warnings and notices from Hawaii County Civil Defense. Based on information from ground observers and morning and afternoon overflights, the lower part of the main lava channel has undergone significant reorganization. In particular, the channel that had been open near Four Corners is now mostly crusted over, and plumes from ocean entry are significantly reduced. It is likely this is due to a blockage that formed in the early morning in the main channel upstream of Kapoho Crater. Flow volumes coming out of Fissure 8 remain significant, and it is possible that changes in flow channels will continue to occur in the coming days. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. At 9:20 AM HST on July 9, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath Kilauea caldera with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. The number of earthquake dropped from 25-40/hr to less than 10/hr. We expect the earthquakes to increase over the next day until the next collapse/explosion tomorrow. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halemaʻumaʻu continues in response to the ongoing subsidence at the summit. HVO bulletin ( 4th of July - 18: 53 UTC ) Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. ( video vortex ) At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing pasty lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Ag and Beach Lots. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the flow front. As shown by the July 02 thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is oozing from the flow's molten interior into the ocean along most of its broad front. Temporary channel blockages of the Fissure 8 channel causing minor overflows were observed just north of Kapoho Crater by USGS and Civil Air Patrol overflights. Fissure 22 is spattering about 50-80 m above a conical spatter cone and feeding a short lava flow that is moving slowly to the northeast along the edge of earlier flows. (updated map - 30th of June) . HVO bulletin ( 29th of June - 8:28 pm ) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. These overflows rarely extend beyond the existing flow field. No active overflows were observed during this morning's helicopter overflight.The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots and a few burning areas were observed on the south side of the flow and west of highway 137. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the entry area. As shown by yesterday's thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is moving beneath the crust and into still-molten interior of earlier flows before it enters the sea. HVO bulletin ( 27th of June - 8:07 pm) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. Small overflows on both sides of the upslope portion of the channel occurred shortly after midnight, June 27. None of these overflows extended past the existing flow field. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The morning overflight revealed that the northern margin of the flow field at the coast is oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots. HVO bulletin (June 26th of June - 7:13 pm) reported that funtains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern portion of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 0.6 mi wide area with multiple laze plumes from smaller oozing lobes. Fissure 22 showed weak spattering and tiny flows around the base of the cone. This morning's overflight crew also observed minor incandescence at Fissure 16/18. HVO bulletin ( June 25th - 10:59 pm) reported that the eruption in the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) continues with no significant change during the past 24 hours. Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area marked by billowing laze plumes. Fissure 22 is weakly active and Fissure 16/18 was not observed on the morning.At 4:12 p.m. HST on June 24, after approximately 17 hours of elevated seismicity, a collapse explosion occurred at the summit producing an ash-poor steam plume that went undetected by the weather radar. Visual observations suggested the plume rose less than 2000 ft above the caldera before drifting downwind to the southwest. The energy released by the event was equivalent to a magnitude 5.3 earthquake. HVO bulletin 23rd of June - 18:40 UTC) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. During an overflight early this morning, geologists observed incandescence from Fissure 22, but no associated spattering or flow. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The entry areas are marked by billowing laze plumes. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 13-19 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was occasionally noted, and spattering was visible at Fissure 6 on 16 June. Hawai‘i County Civil Defense reported that by 17 June a total of 533 homes had been destroyed due to lava flows. HVO bulletin (June 17th - 8:15 UTC) reported that the Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption in Leilani Estates continued with little change. Fountains from the Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to feed lava into the well-established channel that flows to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava and mild spattering from Fissure 15 was observed late in the day. The flow field is relatively stable with little change to its size and shape for the past few days. HVO bulletin (16th - 2:59 UTC) reported that lava fountains from Fissure 8 reached heights between 100 and 130 ft with bursts up to 180 ft while the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 170 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. The early afternoon overflight found the Fissure 8 vent, channel, and entry stable with a small amount of expansion at the southern boundary of the flow near the coast and south of Vacationland. Fissure 24 (southeast of Fissure 8) seemed to be steamier and emitting more fume. Fissure 9 (southeast of Fissure 24) appeared hotter and will be checked on the ground this afternoon. HVO bulletin (June 15th - 8:27 UTC) reported that fssure 8 lava fountains reached heights of 200 ft in the afternoon, and the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 160 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (14th of June - 8:21 UTC) reported that lava fountains reaching heights of 53 m (174 ft) were observed at Fissure 8 in the late afternoon. Lava from Fissure 8 continues to flow through the well-established channel to the ocean at Kapoho, with rare, small overflows of the channel levees. A laze plume at the ocean entry was blown onshore this afternoon, and areas of upwelling offshore were present throughout the day. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (13th of june- 2:12 UTC) reported that line of closely spaced vents at Fissure 8 are continuing to erupt producing fountains encircled by a 115-ft spatter cone. This activity continues to feed the fast moving channelized flow that is entering the ocean at Kapoho. Weak lava activity continues at Fissures 16/18 as has been noted for the last several days. Incandescence was noted at Fissures 15 and 22. Lava was entering the ocean over a broader length this morning with several minor incandescent points and small plumes and two larger entries and corresponding plumes. The upwelling areas were also more dispersed than yesterday. (updated map 13th of June) . HVO bulletin (12th - 2:09 UTC) reported that three closely spaced lava fountains at fissure 8 are erupting with fluctuating heights from below the 115 ft high spatter cone around it up to 180 feet. Lava continues to be fed into the channelized flow trending north and then east to a single ocean entry at Kapoho. Weak lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was observed last night. This morning's overflight confirms that fountaining continues at Fissure 8 and that its channel is nearly full with no spillovers. Minor steam explosions were observed at the ocean entry. HVO bulletin reported that Fissure 8 now consists of three closely-spaced lava fountains, the tallest of which reached heights of 130-180 feet, feeding a strong channel to the northeast and then east to the ocean entry. During the day, minor spillovers have dribbled over the Fissure 8 channel levees but have generally stalled before reaching ground not covered by previous lava flows. Yesterday's measurements show that gas emissions from the fissure system have nearly doubled, possibly indicating an increase in eruption rate from Fissure 8. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 continued. HVO bulletin (June 9th - 8:49 UTC) reported thatLava continues to erupt from Fissure 8, with vigorous fountains reaching heights of about 200-220 feet. Observers on the late afternoon overflight reported no significant changes in the Fissure 8 flow field, which continues to supply lava to the ocean entry at Kapoho. Two vigorous steam plumes are rising from the ocean flow front and being blown inland. Strong thermal upwelling was noted in the ocean extending up to 1000 yards out to sea from the visible lava front. Heavy gas and steam emissions were noted at fissures 9 & 10, but lava emission is occurring only at Fissure 8. Low level ash emissions continue at the summit with slowly increasing seismicity, indicating that another small explosion is likely in the next several hours. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continues in response to ongoing subsidence at the summit. The number of houses destroyed since the beginning of this eruption has reached 600 including the areas of Leilani, Kapoho and Vacationland; This isthe most destructive eruption for Hawaii, listed in modern times, according to the mayor of the County. HVO bulletin ( June 8th - 8:24 UTC) reported that lava fountaining at Fissure 8 fluctuated with heights varying between 190 and 215 feet. This activity is feeding a lava channel flowing east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. The noon overflight found that the delta is about 1.2 mi wide in the Vacationland/Waopae area and observed the flow was expanding northward through Kapoho Beachlots. A large area of upwelling offshore suggests the presence of lava flowing on the ocean floor in that area. HVO bulletin ( June 7th - 00:34 UTC) reported that on the morning, lava fountaining at Fissure 8 continued to reach heights of 150-180 feet, feeding a stable channel to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Lava is entering the ocean in the Vacationland subdivision. Vacationland has been completely covered by lava, and overnight the flow expanded north by 100 m within Kapoho Beach Lots. The lava delta that formed at Kapoho Bay extended slightly overnight. The northern lobe of the Fissure 8 flow shows no signs of activity this morning, and there is only wispy smoke at the flow front. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin (June 6th - 8:28 UTC) reported that persistent lava fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching heights of 150-180 feet. This eruptive activity continues to feed a channel transporting lava to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Minor breakouts along the channelized flow have been very small and stagnated before travelling any significant distance. HVO's late afternoon overflight showed that the Fissure 8 flow is continuing to form a lava delta with limited continuing advances into the surviving parts of the Kaphoho Beach Lots and Vacationlands neighborhoods. The northernmost lobe of the Fissure 8 flow is advancing very slowly to the northeast. No other fissure vents are active. HVO bulletin (June 5th - 5:30 UTC) reported that fountaining at Fissure 8 continued feeding a robust lava channel to northeast along Highway 132 to the ocean entry in Kapoho bay. As of late afternoon the lava entry had built a delta extending approximately 700 yards into the bay. A laze plume is blowing inland from the ocean entry but dissipating quickly. The lava flow front is about 600 yds wide. A lava breakout was also occurring upslope of the Kapoho cone cinder pit but stalled about 300 yards southeast of the intersection of Railroad Avenue and Cinder Road. Sluggish lava flows are present in the vicinity of Fissure 18; all other fissures are inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 4th - 5:07 UTC) reported that fissure 8 fountaining persisted throughout the day to heights up to 220 feet, and the channelized flow continued to deliver lava northeast along Highway 132 to the Kapoho area. Lava is advancing along a 0.5-mile-wide front towards the ocean at Kapoho Bay between Kapoho Beach Road and Kapoho Kai Drive. As of 5:45 PM HST, the lava flow was about 245 yards from the ocean at its closest approach point. Other branches of the Fissure 8 lava flow were inactive. All other fissures are inactive, although observers on the late afternoon overflight noted abundant gas emission from Fissures 9 & 10 and incandescence without fountaining at fissures 16 & 18. HVO bulletin (June 2nd - 8:29 UTC) treported that fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching 180 - 220 feet in height and continues to feed a channelized lava flow to the northeast along Highway 132 and down into the Four Corners region (at the intersection of Highways 132 and 137). Small overflows from the channel are occurring along its length, including in a few places near the intersection of Highway 132 and Pohoiki road. As of 9:50 PM HST the flow front was approximately 0.28 miles from the intersection. The more western branches of the Fissure 8 flow either stalled or advanced only short distances. Fissure 18 appears to be crusted over or inactive. The flows that had been moving toward Highway 137 are either inactive or moving very slowly. Fissure 22 appears to be inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 1st - 4:41 UTC) reported that the fissure 8 continued to produce persistent fountains that reached heights up to 260 feet. A small spatter cone is forming on the downwind side of the fountain and is approximately 100 feet high. The fountains are feeding flow activity to the northeast, and minor overflows from the Fissure 8 channel are occurring along its length. One overflow covered the remaining northern part of Makamae Street in Leilani Estates. This overflow crossed Kahukai street, filling in a low area between Makamae and Luana streets. The front of the Fissure 8 flow near Noni Farms road advanced at rates up to 100 yards/hour. At 12:30 PM HST, the flow front was 1.9 miles from the Four Corners area. High eruption rates from Fissure 8 have led to the formation of a leveed channel along the western edge of the lava flow. Failure of flow levees could result in rapid advance of flows. Flow margins are extremely hazardous and should not be approached. Fissure 18 feeds the upper part of a lava flow that extends to 1.5 mi from Highway 137; the lower portion of the fissure 18 lava flow stalled about 0.5 mi from the highway. Fissure 2 is weakly active and is pooling lava around the vent. HVO bulletin (May 31st - 5:24 UTC) reported that fissure 8 maintained high fountains through Wednesday with sustained heights exceeding 200 feet and the presence of multiple secondary fountains that reached to 60 feet. This fountaining continued to feed a lava flow that moved downslope along Highway 132. Advance rates were less than 100 yards/hour for the three lobes of the flow. The flow moved north of Highway 132 in the vicinity of Noni Farms and Halekamahina roads, from which the two easternmost lobes advanced in a more east northeasterly direction while the westernmost lobe advanced in a northeasterly direction. The Fissure 18 flow also remained active, moving downslope toward Highway 137 at rates of much less than 100 yards per hour. During the day, sporadic bursts of activity were also observed from Fissures 22, 6, and 13. HVO bulletin (May 30th - 2:51 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissure 8 remained very active today fountaining to heights of 200 feet at times and feeding a lava flow that advanced atop the Fissure 8 ʻaʻā flow that was active Sunday night/Monday morning. The first lobe of this flow crossed highway 132 just before 2 pm HST Tuesday. Lava continues to advance toward the northeast. Visual observations early Tuesday afternoon also confirmed continued weak activity at Fissures 18 and 19. Fissure 18 has produced channelized flows which have advanced 1.6 mi toward the coast. HVO bulletin (May 29th - 2:35 UTC) reported that the lava flow from Fissure 8 reached Pohoiki Rd. this morning and stalled as the Fissure's activity abruptly diminished. A few fissures reactivated briefly during the day. As of the 1 pm overflight, Fissure 8, 18, 20, 22, 6/13, and 7/21 reactivated with Fissure 7/21 having the highest fountains. The reactivated fissures have not yet erupted enough lava to reach the coast so the two ocean entry sites were relatively inactive. Only a minor ooze of residual lava was entering the ocean from the Eastern channel. (map) HVO bulletin (May 28th - 4:20 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissures 22 and 13 continue to feed lava flows extending south to the lava ocean entry. Signals recorded on stations in the LERZ indicate that the lava ocean entry remained active overnight. This morning, lava activity at both vents has diminished and the ocean entries are weaker than yesterday. Fissure 6 is no longer active. Fissure 21 has been intermittently active. Fissure 7 activity is very active, producing a large spatter rampart over 100 feet tall from fountains reaching 150-200 feet. The fountains fed two perched channels--the north channel fed a lava flow that advanced toward pad E of the PGV property and the south channel a flow that was advancing to the southeast along the west border of the fissure 22 flow.Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the Overlook crater, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the Kīlauea summit, the largest occurred around noon producing an ash column to nearly 10,000 ft. The Fissure 7 north channel fed a flow that advanced into PGV property and approached pad E before it stalled this morning; however, the flow was refreshed by lava from the vent and, about noon, started to advance again covering a portion of pad E and also producing a narrow flow to the north of pad E. These flows continue to be active as of this posting. HVO bulletin (May 26th - 2:56 UTC reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that also reaches the coast, making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a lava flow that has advanced northeastward crossing Kahukai St. at about 3:30 pm this afternoon and continuing to the northeast at a slow pace. Fissure 17 is barely active.At the summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 4:17 pm sending ash as high as 12,000 feet above sea level. HVO bulletin (May 25th - 3:12 UTC) reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fairly tall fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that reached the coast yesterday making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a pahoehoe flow that has advanced eastward covering most of the area bounded by Leilani Blvd, Mohala St., and and the fissure line. Fissure 17 continues weak spattering, Fissure 19 and 23 are no longer active. At the summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after the recent explosive eruptions, are again slowly increasing. At this time, based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. HVO bulletin (May 24th - 2:47 UTC) reported that fissure 6 through 22 continue erupting lava fountains. The fountains from Fissure 22 feed a single lava channel that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. The actual point of entry has continued shifting to the west. Fountains erupted from Fissures 5, 6, 13, and 19 continued to feed a lava flow advancing to the south along the west side of the Fissure 22 flows and may reach the ocean this afternoon or evening. Fissure 17 continue weak spattering, Fissure 8 reactivated briefly this morning to erupt two small pahoehoe flows over the initial `a`a flow. At the Kilauea summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 10:30 this morning. Additional explosions are possible at any time. HVO bulletin (May 23rd - 8:22 UTC) reported that eruption of lava and ground cracking continues in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision. Over the course of the day, the most active eruptive activity in the Lower East Rift Zone shifted to the middle portion of the system of fissures. The most active fissures were 22,19, 6, 5, and 23. Fissure 17, at the northeastern end of the fissure system is only weakly active now. Fissure 6 is feeding a flow to the south, roughly parallel to the western flow from fissure 22. Fountaining of fissures 5 and 23 fed flows in the eastern part of Leilani Estates. Small ash emissions from the Overlook crater have been occurring frequently today. Moderate trade winds were blowing to the southwest and noticeable ashfall may happen in downwind locations. HVO bulletin ( May 22nd - 2:11 UTC) reported that fissure 22 is erupting a short line of low lava fountains that feed a channelized flow that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. Spattering continues from a reactivated Fissures 6 that intermittently feeds a short lava flow. Fissures 17 and 19 continue weak spattering.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents. ( video -Photos ) . At the summit One explosive eruption of ash occurred at about 1 am this morning. Several smaller ash emissions have also taken place and produced abundant ash. HVO bulletin ( May 21st - 0:15 UTC) reported that spattering continues from Fissures 6 and 17 with significant lava flows being erupted from Fissures 20. Two of these lava flows from Fissure 20 reached the ocean along the southeast Puna coast overnight; however, a crack opened under the east lava channel early this morning diverting the lava from the channel into underground voids. This may cause changes downslope in the channel system and the ocean entry.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents.At the Kilauea summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after explosive eruptions on Saturday afternoon and Sunday noon, are again slowly increasing. Based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is still billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. . HVO buletin (May 19th - 5:53 UTC) that the eruption of lava and ground cracking in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision continues. Late on afternoon, a fast-moving pahoehoe lava flow emerged from fissure 20 and traveled southeast where it crossed Pohoiki Road. Estimates from Hawaii County Fire Department aerial video at 6:30 pm indicate advance rate of 300-400 yards per hour; this rate may change with time and USGS crews are in the area to try and monitor flow advance. Other fissures remain weakly active and volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind. Smoke from burning vegetation as lava flows advance is also contributing to poor air quality. . HVO bulletin (May 18th, 2:54 UTC) reported that after the summit explosive eruption early morning seismic levels have been gradually increasing, but as of this report no additional explosions have occurred. No earthquakes greater than magnitude 3.5 have occurred in the past day.Volcanic gas emissions at the summit remain high. At the Lower East rift zone tThis afternoon, fissure 17 is still actively spattering but the flow is nearly stalled. In addition, fissures 18, 19, and 20 have reactivated and a new fissure (21) has opened between fissures 7 and 3. An area 50-100 yards wide, parallel to and north of the line of fissures between Highway 130 and Lanipuna Gardens, has dropped slightly. This long depression is currently being filled by pahoehoe lava flows from fissures 20 and 21. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. HVO bulletin (May 17th - 2:47 UTC) reported that ash emission from the Overlook crater within Halema`uma`u has generally decreased since yesterday. Although varying in intensity, at times the plume contains enough ash to be gray in color. The cloud is rising an estimated 3 to 4,000 feet above the ground, but altitudes are varying with pulses of emission. The ash cloud is drifting slowly northward from the Kilauea summit and ashfall may occur in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Volcano Village. Communities downwind may receive ashfall and should take necessary precautions. Several magnitude 3 or stronger earthquakes occurred beneath the summit today. The earthquakes were at shallow depth and resulted in cracks in Highway 11 near the entrance to Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. Some facilities within the National Park were damaged as well. The explosive eruption of 1924 at the Kilauea summit was also marked by hundreds of felt earthquakes as magma drained from the caldera. This afternoon, eruptive activity remained concentrated at fissure 17 but the spattering was decreasing in vigor. The advance of the flow has slowed significantly since yesterday afternoon; the flow remains nearly 2.5 km (1.5 mi) in length. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. Magma continues to be supplied to the lower East Rift Zone as indicated by the continued northwest displacement of a GPS monitoring station. Elevated earthquake activity continues, but earthquake locations have not moved farther downrift in the past couple of days. HVO bultetin (15th of May 23:27 UTC) reported that as of early this morning, eruption of ash from the Overlook vent within Halemaumau crater at Kilauea Volcano's summit has generally increased in intensity. Ash has been rising nearly continuously from the vent and drifting downwind to the southwest. Ashfall and vog (volcanic air pollution) has been reported in Pahala, about 18 miles downwind. NWS radar and pilot reports indicate the top of the ash cloud is as high as 10,000 to 12,000 feet above sea level, but this may be expected to vary depending on the vigor of activity and wind conditions. Ash emission from the Kilauea summit vent will likely be variable with periods of increased and decreased intensity depending on the occurrence of rockfalls into the vent and other changes within the vent. HVO bulletin (14th of May 18:36 UTC) reported that on the morning, activity is dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter more than 100 feet into the air, and an advancing lava flow from fissure 17 at the northeast end of the fissure system. As of 630 am the fissure 17 flow had traveled just under a mile roughly east-southeast parallel to the rift zone. It is turning slightly south and at this time is about one half mile south of Highway 132. Fissure 18 that became active late yesterday is weakly active. A fissure 19 has been spotted very near fissure 15 as of about 8 am just northeast of Pohoiki Road and north of Hinalo Street at the east end of Lanipuna Gardens. It is producing a sluggish lava flow. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the vents. Yesterday with the onset of activity at fissure 17, powerful steam jets have occurred intermittently near the west end of the fissure. These jets may be responsible for some of the loud sounds reported by residents and emergency workers. HVO reported that as of late today (May13rd), activity was dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter bombs hundreds of feet into the air, and several advancing lava flow lobes moving generally northeast from fissure 17 at the downrift (northeast) end of the new fissure system. As of about 7 pm, one lobe was 2 yards thick and advancing roughly parallel to Highway 132. The flow front was just over a half mile southeast of the intersection of Highway 132 and Noni Farms Road. Based on overflight images late this afternoon, additional lava from fissure 17 was also moving slowly southeast. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated. At the Kilauea summit Deflationary tilt continues. A robust plume of steam and volcanic gas, occasionally mixed with ash, has risen from the Overlook crater within Halemaumau. HVO bulletin (May12th, 2:39 UTC) reported that Volcanic unrest in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. While no lava has been emitted from any of the 15 fissure vents since May 9, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Communities downslope of these fissures could be at risk from lava inundationHVO bulletin (May 11th 4:51 UTC) reported that High levels of unrest related to the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continue. While no lava was noted erupting today from any of the 15 fissure vents formed thus far, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Earthquake activity was high in the area today. Continuing ground deformation and located earthquakes were mostly in the area around and northeast of Fissure 15 at Pohoiki Road indicating that the intrusion is migrating further to the northeast. Steaming ground cracks in the vicinity of Highway 130 continue. HVO bulletin (May 10th, 2:55 UTC) reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Visible activity this early afternoon was again focused on the northeast portion of the fissure area. Fissure 15 broke ground across Poihiki Road, generating a pahoehoe flow about 20 m (66 ft) long. During an overflight of the area about 3 p.m. HST, geologists observed a new steaming area uprift (west) of Highway 130. During a second overflight at 4:30 p.m., the area was still steaming. Rates of motion increased late this morning on a GPS station 1.5 km (1 mile) southeast of Nanawale Estates. The direction of motion is consistent with renewed movement of magma in the downrift direction (to the northeast). Rates of seismicity changed little throughout the day; located earthquakes were mostly uprift (west) of Highway 130. Gas emissions remain elevated in the vicinity of fissures. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past week and the lava lake level continues to drop. At about 8:32 a.m. HST, a large rockfall from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake triggered an explosion that generated an ash column above the crater; the ash was blown toward the south-southwest. Rockfalls and explosions that produce ash columns are expected to continue. HVO bulletin (May 8th, 18:15 UTC ) reported that of 7:00 am, the eruption along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision has paused. Strong emission of gas continues from the fissure system that is now about 2.5 miles long. This pause is likely temporary and resumption of lava emission or additional fissure outbreaks are possible at any time. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from Friday's magnitude-6.9 earthquake continue and more are expected. Rockfalls into the Overlook vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater are producing intermittent ash emissions. Seismicity at Kīlauea's summit remains elevated. USGS/HVO continues to monitor the situation 24/7 in coordination with Hawaii County Civil Defense and other authorities. Field crews are onsite this morning examining the fissure vents, lava flow of yesterday, and searching for any signs of new or resumed activity. As of the 8th of May (3:59 UTC), HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. The location of activity today was focused on the southwest portion of the area. This morning, two new fissure segments broke ground. The first (fissure 11) opened in a forested southwest of Leilani Estates about 9:30 am and was active for only 3 hours. The second (fissure 12) opened about 12:20 between older fissures 10 and 11. By 3:15 pm, both new fissures were in active but the west end of fissure 10 was steaming heavily. Cracks on Highway 130 widened from 7 cm to 8 cm over the course of the day and additional cracks were found just west of the highway on trend with the eruptive fissures. As of the 7th of May (6:59 UTC) HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Fissure 8 erupted lava fountains until about 4 p.m. HST, and the aa' flow advanced slowly northward through the afternoon, even after the lava fountains shut down. Geologists reported this early evening that the flow crossed Ho'okopu Road, a distance from fissure 8 of about about 1.1 km (0.6 miles). They also reported new ground cracks in the vicinity of fissures 8 and 9 that were emitting thick steam and gases, but no lava spattering was observed by the time of this status report. Rates of seismicity and deformation decreased in the past day. The absence of additional deformation in the past day suggests a pause in magma acculumation in the distal part of the intrusion. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past several days. Corresponding to this deflationary trend, the summit lava lake level in Overlook crater dropped about 2 m (6.5 ft) per hour during the day. The lake level has dropped an estimated 220 m (722 ft) since the collapse of Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater on April 30. Rockfalls from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake continue to produce ashy plumes above Halema'uma'u crater. Rockfalls and ashy plumes are expected to continue as the lake level drops. Earthquake activity in the summit remains at elevated levels. In the past 24 hours, about 31 magnitude-2 earthquakes occurred at depths less than 5 km (3 miles) beneath the summit area (compared to the 24-hour period when 152 magnitude-2 and magnitude-3 earthquakes. These earthquakes are related to the ongoing subsidence of the summit area and earthquakes beneath the south flank of the volcano. HVO bulletin ( Saturday, May 5, 2018, 21:54 UTC) reported that active eruption of lava and gas continues along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision. Additional fissure vents producing spatter and small lava flows developed early this morning, and additional outbreaks in the area are likely. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from yesterday's M6.9 earthquake continue and more should be expected, with larger aftershocks potentially producing rockfalls and associated ash clouds above Puʻu ʻŌʻō and Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Residents of the Puna District should remain alert, review individual, family, and business emergency plans, and watch for further information about the status of the volcano. Video. According to latest HVO bulletin (Saturday, May 5, 2018, 02:04 UTC) eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Several additional eruptive fissures or vents - each several hundred yards long - have opened over the past day. No significant lava flows have yet formed. Spatter and lava are accumulating primarily within a few tens of yards of the vent. The sixth and most recent fissure is on the eastern edge of the subdivision. Not all fissure vents remain active and no far-traveled lava flows have formed. For maps showing the locations of these features : https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_maps.html .HVO geologists will be in the area overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity using various monitoring data streams. Seismicity and deformation are consistent with continued accumulation of magma within the rift zone. Additional outbreaks of lava are expected. According to report from HVO (Friday, May 4, 2018, 08:13 UTC) the eruption in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano that began in late afternoon temporary ended by about 6:30 p.m. HST. Lava spatter and gas bursts erupted from the fissure for about two hours, and lava spread a short distance from the fissure, less than about 10 m (33 ft). At this time, the fissure is not erupting lava and no other fissures have erupted. HVO geologists are working near the fissure overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity. Geologists reported this evening that the presence of sulfur gas is quite noticeable around the fissure, typical of active and recently active fissures. The concentration of sulfur dioxide gas is high within tens of meters (yards) of the fissure. Lava flows did not advance more than about 10 m (33 ft) from the fissure. The flows are no longer active. At this time, no other fissures have erupted from along the rift zone. Tiltmeters at Kīlauea's summit continue to record deflationary tilt and the lava lake level has dropped about 37 m (121 ft) in the past 24 hours. Seismic activity has not changed significantly during the day or since the brief fissure eruption. Previously, HVO reported that the intrusion of molten rock into the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano reached the surface in the late afternoon on May 3 in a part of Leilani Estates. A fissure about 150 m (492 ft) long erupted mostly spatter and intermittent bubble bursts for about 2 hours.Lava did not travel more than a few m (yards) from the fissure.Hawaii County Civil Defence is coordinating needed response including evacuation of a portion of the Leilani subdivision. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory deployed geologists to the eruption site overnight, and other scientists are monitoring various data streams telemetered to the observatory 24/7.As of the 30th of April, in a special report HVO reported that following weeks of inflation, the floor of the crater of Pu'u O'o collapsed on April 30, 2018, between 14h and 16h30 in two episodes visibles on a thermal camera located on the edge of the crater. Bad weather conditions prevented the observatory teams to fly over the crater and cannot observe this activity.The collapse caused the release of a large amount of reddish ash around the Pu'u O'o for several kilometers on the 61 g lava flow. Following this collapse, seismometers and tiltmeters recorded an increase in seismic activity and deformation from the summit area of ​​Kilauea to an area between 10 and 16 km east of Pu'u O'o; during the night, this activity continued to spread along the rift zone to the east and the highway 130 to 30 km ... marking an area potentially at risk of eruption.The strongest earthquake of the sequence was of magnitude 4, south of Pu'u O'o 'on April 27 at 2:39. A new ladder crack, of 1 km long, has opened to the west of Pu'u O'o, characterized by heavy outgassing. its released a small amount of lava, according to the presence of small areas of spatters; it is no longer active. The level of the upper lava lake, located in the Halema'uma'u crater, has dropped 15 meters, suggesting an intrusion from the summit area during the weekend into the Pu'u O'o magmatic system towards the East; summit deflation supports this mechanism.The volcanic alert level remains at Watch and the aviation code is orange. Residents of Puna must remain alert and monitor information on the status of the volcano.During 18-24 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, and by late on 21 April had overflowed the S crater rim. As of midday on 23 April the new flows has covered about 16 ha of the floor, or about 30%. Overflows of the crater rim continued through 24 April, flowing as far as 375 m onto the N, SW, and S parts of the crater floor. HVO noted that the overflows were the first significant ones since May 2015. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 18 April geologists observed the pit crater on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, noting that overflows had built up the crater rim to several meters above the crater floor and 7 m higher compared to late March. During 11-17 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, with spattering visible from HVO and Jaggar Museum; by 16 April the lake level was 10 m below the rim of the Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 11 April a moderate swarm of over 200 earthquakes occurred at depths of 7-9 km below the summit. The largest event was a M 2.4. Seismicity returned to background levels at 0230. Three minor ledge collapses were detected on 12 April, one at 1157 and two just after 1830. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali; on 13 April most scattered breakouts were within 2.2 km from Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and one was about 5 km away. During 4-10 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand through 6 April. A rockfall at 1028 on 6 April triggered an explosion in the lava lake, damaging the webcam power system on the crater rim. During 28 March-3 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island. The Webcam images, which are updated every five minutes, can be accessed at : http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/cams/NCcam/ . From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

USA - Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaian islands)

April 24th, 2020

As of the 23rd of April, HVO reported that over the past week, HVO seismometers have recorded 78 small-scale earthquakes on the summit of the volcano and its elevation flanks. Most of these earthquakes occurred at shallow depths less than 8 km (~ 5 miles) below ground level. The largest earthquake was magnitude 2.3 under the southern caldera. Global positioning system (GPS) measurements show continued slow top inflation, consistent with magma supply from the volcano's shallow storage system. Gas concentrations at the Sulfur cone monitoring site in the southwest rift zone remain stable. The temperatures of the fumaroles measured both at the sulfur cone and at the top did not change significantly. As of the 19th of March, HVO reported that over the past week seismometers have recorded approximately 87 small magnitude earthquakes under the upper altitudes of the Mauna Loa volcano. Most of these events occurred at shallow depths less than 5 km (~ 3 miles) below ground level. The strongest earthquake during this period was a magnitude 2.3 event on the morning of March 19. This earthquake was located in the area of ​​the radial vents to the west of the summit caldera within the volcano.Global positioning system (GPS) measurements show continued slow inflation of the summit, consistent with magma supply from the volcano's shallow storage system.Gas concentrations at the sulfur cone monitoring site in the southwest rift zone remain stable. The temperatures of the fumaroles measured both at the sulfur cone and at the top did not change significantly. The volcanic alert remains at Advisory and the aviation code at Yellow. Mauna Loa is not erupting. HVO reported that the deformation and seismicity rates have not changed significantly over the past week and remain above long-term background levels. HVO seismometers recorded around 70 small magnitude earthquakes under the higher altitudes of the volcano. Most of these events occurred at shallow depths less than 5 km (~ 3 miles) below ground level. HVO reported that over the past week 14th to 21st of February , seismometers have recorded 44 small magnitude earthquakes under the upper altitudes of the Mauna Loa volcano. The strongest was a magnitude 2.2 event on February 16, about 7 kilometers below the surface. Most of the events occurred at shallow depths less than 5 km below the surface of the volcano.Global positioning system (GPS) measurements show continued slow top inflation, consistent with magma supply from the volcano's shallow storage system.Gas concentrations at the sulfur cone monitoring site in the southwest rift zone remain stable. The temperatures of the fumaroles measured both at the sulfur cone and at the top did not change significantly. These signals show that magma is entering the shallow storage system. However, these data, as well as the seismicity and SO2 emission rates do not suggest an impending eruption. As of the 6th of February, HVO reported that deformation and seismicity rates have not changed significantly over the past week and remain above long-term background levels. HVO seismometers recorded 134 small magnitude earthquakes below the higher altitudes of the volcano; the strongest was a magnitude 2.4 earthquake on February 3. Most earthquakes occurred at shallow depths less than 5 km below the surface of the volcano. Global positioning system (GPS) measurements show continued slow top inflation, consistent with magma supply from the volcano's shallow storage system. Gas concentrations at the sulfur cone monitoring site in the southwest rift zone remain stable. The temperatures of the fumaroles measured both at the sulfur cone and at the top did not change significantly. Previous news 2019 - As of the 20th of September HVO reported that during the past week, about 90 low-magnitude earthquakes (all below M2.5) have been detected beneath the Mauna Loa peaks, nearly double the number recorded the previous week. Most earthquakes occurred at shallow to intermediate depths less than 10 km below ground level.Global Positioning System (GPS) and Synthetic Interferometric Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements show continued peak inflation, consistent with the magma feed of the volcano's shallow storage system.The latest HVO activity report of Mauna Loa of 25 July / 20h14 UTC confirmed for the past week high deformation and seismicity ratios. The Mauna Loa is not erupting, but the Volcano is Advisory and the Yellow Aviation Code.At the seismicity level, 75 earthquakes, mostly of magnitude less than 2.0, occurred during the week under the summit zone and the upper southwest rift zone, at a depth of less than 5 km. No change in Sulfur degassing cone over the southwest rift zone was measured. HVO raised the alert code to yellow (advisory) and the aviation code for Mauna Loa on 2nd of July to Yellow due to increased rates of inflation and seismicity under the summit and Soutwhest Rift zone.Deformation Data since the end of the Kilauea eruption shows a steady increase in inflation. For the past several months, earthquake and ground deformation rates at Mauna Loa Volcano have exceeded long term background levels. An eruption is not imminent and current rates are not cause for alarm. However, they do indicate changes in the shallow magma storage system at Mauna Loa. Following a significant earthquake swarm in October 2018, HVO seismic stations have recorded an average of at least 50 shallow, small-magnitude earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa's summit, upper Southwest Rift Zone, and upper west flank. This compares to a rate of fewer than 20 per week in the first half of 2018. Shallow earthquakes are occurring in locations similar to those that preceded Mauna Loa's most recent eruptions in 1975 and 1984. During this same time period, GPS instrumentation and satellite radar have measured ground deformation consistent with renewed recharge of the volcano's shallow magma storage system. The current rate and pattern of ground deformation is similar to that measured during inflation of Mauna Loa in 2005 and again from 2014 - 2018. Together, these observations indicate the volcano is no longer at a background level of activity. Accordingly, HVO is elevating the Mauna Loa alert level to ADVISORY and the aviation color code to YELLOW. Massive Mauna Loa shield volcano rises almost 9 km above the sea floor to form the world's largest active volcano. Flank eruptions are predominately from the lengthy NE and SW rift zones, and the summit is cut by the Mokuaweoweo caldera, which sits within an older and larger 6 x 8 km caldera. Two of the youngest large debris avalanches documented in Hawaii traveled nearly 100 km from Mauna Loa; the second of the Alika avalanches was emplaced about 105,000 years ago (Moore et al. 1989). Almost 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is covered by lavas less than 4000 years old (Lockwood and Lipman, 1987). During a 750-year eruptive period beginning about 1500 years ago, a series of voluminous overflows from a summit lava lake covered about one fourth of the volcano's surface. The ensuing 750-year period, from shortly after the formation of Mokuaweoweo caldera until the present, saw an additional quarter of the volcano covered with lava flows predominately from summit and NW rift zone vents. (GVN/GVP)

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U.S.A. - Bogoslof volcano island (Aleutian islands)

February 20th, 2018

End eruption report - The AVO has put online a 3D multispectral image of Bogoslof, resting since August 30, 2017, end of the eruption 2016-17. The approximately 60 explosive episodes characterizing this period have significantly modeled the Bogoslof's morphology. The island has grown by a factor of three, reaching 1.6 km², but new pyroclastic materials and surge deposits are not consolidated; erosion modifies the contours of Bogoslof permanently, and in December, the lagoon of the vent opened on the ocean on the north coast, marking a gradual return to more modest dimensions ... general problem of news or remodeled volcanic islands: construction and destruction. Previous news - On 6 December AVO decreased the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Bogoslof to Unassigned, noting that no significant activity had been observed in seismic, infrasound, satellite, or lightning data during the past three months. The last detected explosive activity occurred on 30 August 2017. On 27 September AVO reported that the last explosion at Bogoslof was detected on 30 August, and no new volcanic activity was observed in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since then. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that during 20-26 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 22-23 September, indicating ongoing unrest. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 13-19 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 13-14 and 16-17 September, indicating ongoing unrest. On 17 September discolored ocean water was visible in satellite data, possibly representing outflow from the crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 6-12 September nothing significant was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. The 8 September report noted that the crater lake had been bisected by a narrow isthmus of land. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in one satellite image during 10-11 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at 0405 on 30 August and continued intermittently until 0555; the event produced a low-level ash plume that rose to around 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. Later that day seismic and infrasound data showed quiet conditions, and a low-level plume (likely steam) drifted almost 65 km SSE. Satellite, infrasound, and seismic data showed nothing notable during 31 August-5 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Three short-duration eruptive events occurred during 27-28 August. The first, a two-minute-long explosion at 1508 on 27 August, produced a volcanic cloud that rose 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The second event started at 0323 on 28 August and lasted 25 minutes. The resulting small cloud drifted ESE and quickly dissipated. The third event was detected at 1117 on 28 August and generated a small volcanic cloud that rose 7.6-9.1 (25,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were observed in a few satellite images during 28-29 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a satellite image of Bogoslof acquired at 0628 on 24 August showed elevated surface temperatures and a small plume that was most likely steam drifting 17 km S. During 24-25 August a robust steam plume drifting 70 km SE and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data. A four-minute-long explosion that began at 1629 on 26 August generated an eruption cloud that rose 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The event was also observed in seismic and infrasound data, and one lightning stroke was detected. . AVO reported that photographs of Bogoslof taken during an overflight on 15 August showed that the vent area (which had dried out during the 7 August eruption) had refilled with water. Seismicity decreased on 16 August and remained low at least through 18 August. Weakly elevated surface temperatures consistent with a warm lake were identified in satellite data during 19-20 August. Satellite data acquired on 21 August showed an approximately 125-m-diameter lava dome within the intra-island lake, just W of the 1992 lava dome. A cold volcanic plume, likely from the lava dome, drifted about 55 km S of the island. Some minor explosions were detected in infrasound data at about 0410 on 22 August. The lava dome had grown to 160 m in diameter. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that on 9 August seismic and infrasound data suggested low-level eruptive activity at Bogoslof; weakly elevated surface temperatures and a minor steam emission were identified in satellite images. No significant activity was observed in cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data during 10-13 August. Two short pulses of tremor were detected (at 0853, lasting five minutes, and at 0913, lasting three minutes) in seismic data; seismicity returned to baseline levels afterwards. A sequence of seismic events began at 0000 on 15 August; no activity was observed in infrasound, lightning, or satellite data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and theVolcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that during 2-6 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. An explosive eruption began at 1000 on 7 August, following more than an hour of increased seismicity. A pilot reported that an ash cloud rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l., prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. The eruption lasted about three hours, and was longer lived than most of the events in the eruptive sequence that started in December 2016. At 1341 AVO noted that the ash plume had formed a continuous cloud which stayed attached to the volcano and drifted S. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 8 August. Satellite images acquired on 8 August showed a significant expansion of the island towards the N with thick tephra deposits around the vent area forming a new crater lake. AVO reported that during 26 July-1 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in partly cloudy to clear satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 19-25 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 12-18 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images; weakly elevated surface temperatures were noted on 12 and 16 July. In addition no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code Aremained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Avo reported that two new explosions occurred at the Bogoslof on 10 and 11 July. The first one consists of a series of explosions that began on July 10 at 7:47 UTC and ended on 10.07 at 10:35 UTC, the AVO has passed the alerts to RED / Warning. A small cloud of ashes associated with the first episode reached 6,000 meters, and quickly dissipated in a southeasterly direction. A rapid decline in seismicity around 11:00 UTC lowered alert levels to ORANGE / Watch. - The second period of activity began around 6 pm UTC: seismicity and infrasound were increased for 8 minutes. No significant emissions were detected by satellite.On July 11, at 01:06 UTC, the seismic network recorded an eruption that lasted about 15 minutes. No volcanic clouds, lightning or infrasound were detected. Alert levels remain unchanged until data is evaluated. AVO reported that an explosion at Bogoslof was detected at 0124 on 30 June and lasted about 20 minutes. A small cloud from the event drifted about 16 km N and by 1815 had dissipated. Seismicity declined afterwards but continued intermittently at low levels. Beginning at 1248 on 2 July a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data. The event lasted about 16 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Following the eruption seismicity declined and no signs of volcanic unrest were detected in seismic, infrasound, on satellite data on 3 July; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. The ACC and VAL were again raised to Red and Warning, respectively, following an explosive event that began at 1651 on 4 July and lasted 13 minutes. An eruption cloud rose as high as 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. An 11-minute-long eruption began at 1907 on 4 July, producing a small cloud that rose 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. AVO reported that a new significant explosive eruption occurred at 20:48 UTC July 2 (12:48 AKDT July 2). AVO is raising the Aviation Color Code to RED and Alert level to WARNING for Bogoslof volcano. Satellite data and pilot reports shows a volcanic cloud with an estimated altitude of 36,000 ft asl moving towards the east. Seismic and infrasound data suggest that the ash emissions are no longer continuing. AVO reported that slightly elevated surface temperatures at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images on 23 June, and steam emissions were occasionally observed the previous week. Beginning at 1649 on 23 June a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data that lasted about 10 minutes. It produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 400-490 km E. The event prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Four additional explosions were detected, during 1918-1924, 2013-2021, 2104-2112, and 2152-2155, though any resulting ash plumes were not detected above the cloud deck at 8.5-9.1 km (28,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. On 25 June the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. At 1645 on 26 June an eruption which lasted about 14 minutes produced an ash plume that rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic and lighting data indicated that a significant explosion began at 0317 on 27 June, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. The event lasted 14 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Following a significant explosive eruption this 24 June at 0h49 UTC / 23 June 16h49 AKDT, the Bogoslof  has changed to a red aviation code. It produced a plume rising to about 36,000 ft, and was accompanied by a strong seismicity, flashes and infra-sons. The eruption lasted 10 minutes. The satellites located the volcanic cloud at 1:30 UTC, at 36,000 ft, moving northeast.AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures and a small steam emission at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were detected on 16 June, and a 13-km-long steam plume was visible on 18 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a new lava dome at Bogoslof breached the surface of the ocean on or around 6 June, and was the first observation of lava at the surface since the start of the eruption that began in mid-December 2016. The dome was an estimated 110 m in diameter on 7 June, and then grew to 160 m in diameter by 9 June. An explosive eruption began at 0318 on 10 June with a series of short infrasound signals which then, starting at about 0416, transitioned into several minutes-long continuous seismic and infrasound tremor signals. The events generated an ash-rich cloud that rose to an estimated altitude of 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. The eruption ended at 0528. Satellite data indicated that at least part of the volcanic cloud was more ash-rich than most in the current eruption period. On 11 June AVO noted no detectable activity in seismic or infrasound data after the event the day before. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Satellite image acquired on 10 June and a photograph from an observer aboard a jet aircraft on 11 June suggested that the lava dome was no longer above the surface of the water, and was destroyed during the 10 June event. A series of explosive events, each lasting 10-30 minutes, began at 1747 on 12 June and ended around 2035. Ash plumes rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. At 0817 on 13 June a six-minute-long explosion was detected in seismic and infrasound data. A plume was not observed, likely because it was too small or below detection limits. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that a short-duration (less than 10 minute) explosion at Bogoslof began at 1842 on 31 May based on seismic and infrasound data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted WNW, and dissipated over the Bering Sea. The explosion was preceded by a several hour-long swarm of very small earthquakes. Seismicity decreased in the hours prior to the explosion and remained below the detection threshold. A sulfur dioxide plume from an explosion on 28 May was visible in satellite data drifting over the Hudson Bay region of Canada on 2 June. A short-duration explosive event at 0750 on 5 June produced a small volcanic cloud observed by a pilot. Low-amplitude tremor was detected in seismic data beginning at about 1229 on 5 June but then decreased to background levels. A vessel in the area reported vigorous steaming and a white plume rising several thousand feet above sea level. A brief explosive event was detected at 0600 on 6 June. The event likely produced a low-level (less than 3 km or 10,000 ft a.s.l.) emission; a possible plume at 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. was identified in a satellite image following the detection of the activity in seismic and infrasound data, but quickly dissipated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. On 29 May the ash cloud continued to drift NE. No detectable activity was observed in data from seismic or infrasound stations located on nearby Islands, and no new activity has been observed in satellite data. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that the eruption at Bogoslof which began at 2232 on 16 May lasted about 73 minutes. Trace amounts of ash fell in the community of Nikolski on Umnak Island. Later that day the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch; no further ash emissions were detected and seismicity was low. Satellite data showed that the event altered the N coastline of the island. The crater lake was breached with a 550-m-wide gap along the N shore, and the NE shore had been extended 300 m from new tephra deposits. AVO reported that an increase in seismic and infrasound activity from Bogoslof was detected from stations on nearby islands starting at 2232 on 16 May, suggesting the beginning of an explosive eruption. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Watch. A pilot reported an ash plume rising as high as 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l., and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network detected lightning associated with the cloud. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. The eruption lasted about 73 minutes. On 19 April AVO noted that no new volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since a short-lived increase in seismicity on 15 April; AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and theVolcano Alert LevelIncreased seismicity at Bogoslof was recorded by stations on nearby islands starting around 1501 on 15 April, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The seismic activity subsided a few hours later; there was no evidence of renewed eruptive activity from infrasound, lightning, or satellite data during 15-18 April. On 5 April AVO reported that the Aviation Color Code for Bogoslof was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory based on the absence of detected activity at the volcano for the past three weeks; the last large explosion occurred on 8 March. No significant volcanic activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data during 6-11 April. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 29 March-4 April, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 28-29 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 22-28 March, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 15-21 March, and satellite views were either obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 20-21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 2236 on 7 March, indicated in seismic, lightning, and infrasound data, and lasted about three hours. Though ash was not immediately visible in satellite data, AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Later, satellite images showed a large ash cloud rising to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E. This event was the first detected eruptive activity since 19 February, and more than 1,000 lightning strokes related to the volcanic eruption cloud were detected during this event, by far the highest number observed to date. In addition the seismic levels were among the highest detected since the beginning of the eruption. Satellite images from 8 March showed that the W part of the island had grown significantly. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 9 March. Two earthquakes swarms were detected during 9-11 March; the first began at 1750 on 9 March and ended at 1400 on 10 March, and the second was detected from 1900 on 10 March to 0500 on 11 March. Mildly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 10-11 March. A third swarm began at 0500 on 12 March. A short-duration event, from 1131 to 1143 on 13 March, produced a small ash cloud that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. AVO noted that after the event, the level of seismic activity declined and the repeating earthquakes, detected for much of the previous several days, stopped. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images from 13 March. A photograph taken by a pilot showed a low-level, billowy steam plume rising from the general area of the intra-island lake. AVO reported that a new explosive eruption began on March 8 at 7:36 UTC / 7 March at 22:36 AKST at Bogoslof, characterized by about three hours of significant ash emissions. Activity was observed via seismic, infrasonic and lightning detection networks. A large ash cloud was seen by the satellites, moving east to an altitude of 10,700 meters asl. The volcano remains at a high level of instability, and its current aviation alert level is red. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in seismic, infrasound, or mostly cloudy satellite data during 22-28 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.AVO reported that during 15-16 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0955 on 17 February seismic data indicated the beginning of an explosive event, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Individual pulses of seismicity was recorded until 1140, and then afterwards seismicity was low. Satellite images and pilot observations indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. The event was also verified by infrasound and lightning data. Another short-lived explosive event began at 1546, detected in infrasound and seismic data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion at 0450 on 18 February was detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The seismic data suggested that ash emissions lasted several minutes, and then seismicity decreased. A preliminary evaluation of satellite data indicated that a cloud rose at least as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.; the cloud drifted SW. On 19 February the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Later that day seismic and infrasound data recorded a series of short-lived explosive pulses during 1708-1745. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. A plume identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 160 km SE over Unalaska Island. AVO geologists on the island described the cloud has having a white upper portion and a slightly darker lower portion. Storms in the region impacted data communications at AVO's facility in Dutch Harbor on 20 February, limiting AVO's ability to forecast and detect eruptions at Bogoslof. AVO reported that during 8-12 and 14 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0724 on 13 February seismicity significantly increased, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Satellite images acquired through 0930 showed no ash emissions above the 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. cloud deck, and no lightning was detected. AVO concluded that, despite the intensity of seismic activity, a significant ash emission was not produced during this event; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0520 on 31 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. A burst of tremor lasting nine minutes was detected starting at 0457 on 3 February. A second burst, starting at 0533 and lasting 20 minutes, was also detected by infrasound instruments, indicating an explosion. No ash cloud was detected above the meteorological cloud deck in satellite data. An event that began at 1642 produced a small volcanic plume that drifted about 40 km N below an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic tremor significantly decreased later that evening. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images acquired on 5 February, possibly related to hot deposits from explosive activity the day before. On February 3, at 13:57 and 14:33 UTC, two episodes of tremor were detected; The second, accompanied by an infrasonic signal, indicates an explosion, without cloud of ash observed by satellite.Several short bursts of seismic activity were detected at 0520 and 0608 on 30 January. An infrasound signal accompanied the first event indicating an explosion; an eruption cloud was identified in satellite data at 0530, rising to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. later that day AVO noted that bursts of explosive activity continued and intensified; more than 10 short-duration explosions were detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. Ash plumes rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 125 km SE. Trace amounts of ashfall and a sulfur odor were reported in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor (98 km E). By the next day the explosions had subsided or ended. Satellite images acquired on 31 January showed significant changes to the island. AVO stated that freshly erupted volcanic rock and ash had formed a barrier that separated the vent from the sea, suggesting that the change had resulted in the more ash-rich emissions occurring during 30-31 January. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0453 on 24 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. An hour-long seismic increase began at 0134 on 25 January though no evidence of eruptive activity was evident. Based on lightning and seismic data an explosive event began at 0650 on 26 January, and another burst of seismicity was recorded at 0706. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. An ice-rich cloud, first identified in satellite data at 0700, likely contained ash, and rose as high as 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE at lower altitudes, and NE at altitudes above about 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Lightning and seismic data again indicated an explosive event at 0824 on 27 January, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. An ice-rich cloud that likely contained ash rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E; seismicity related to ash emissions remained elevated for 48 minutes. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 1320 on 18 January, generating an ash plume that rose at least to an altitude of 9.4 km (31,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The dark (ash-rich) plume was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot, and produced lightning strikes and infrasound signals detected by sensors in Sand Point and Dillingham. Analysis of a satellite image suggested the presence of very hot material (lava) at the surface immediately surrounding the vent, which was the first such observation since the beginning of the eruption. AVO raised theAviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert level (VAL) to Warning. A second lower-altitude cloud was visible in satellite images around 1400, likely corresponding with an increase in seismic tremor that occurred from 1340-1355. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch the next day. Another explosion was detected at 1317 on 20 January, following an approximately 30-minute-long increase in seismic activity, based on seismic data and lightning detected from the World Wide Lightning Location Network. Pilots observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. Satellite images indicated an ice-rich plume and lava present at the vent. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, but were again lowered one level to Orange and Watch, respectively, the next day. Several lightning strikes north of Bogoslof indicated that an explosive event began at 1409 on 22 January. An ash plume identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, and again lowered one level the next day. Following a period of increasing seismicity, an explosive event began at 0453 on 24 January, as indicated in seismic data and lightning detection, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. Seven minutes later an ice-rich plume which likely contained ash rose too altitudes of 7.6-10.7 km (25,000-35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO reported that photos taken by a pilot on 10 January showed Bogoslof covered with dark gray ash, and a roughly 300-m-diameter submarine explosion crater on the E side of the island. Unrest continued during 11-17 January. Two short-lived explosions (five to six minutes long) were seismically detected at 1123 and 1230 on 12 January and observed by pilots. The estimated altitudes of the first and second plumes were 5.5 and 4.4 km (18,000 and 14,500 ft) a.s.l., respectively. Seismicity again increased at 2126 on 14 January and remained elevated. Six explosive events were detected between 2216 on 14 January and 0350 on 15 January. No volcanic clouds were identified in satellite data, although one lightning strike was recorded at 2232 on 14 January. Increased seismicity on 17 January indicated minor explosive activity; steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose no higher than 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.The last eruption of this volcano took place from July 6 to 24, 1992. It had Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 3 and produced a new dome.Bogoslof is the emergent summit of a submarine volcano that lies 40 km north of the main Aleutian arc. It rises 1500 m above the Bering Sea floor. Repeated construction and destruction of lava domes at different locations during historical time has greatly modified the appearance of this "Jack-in-the-Box" volcano and has introduced a confusing nomenclature applied during frequent visits of exploring expeditions.The present triangular-shaped, 0.75 x 2 km island consists of remnants of lava domes emplaced from 1796 to 1992. Castle Rock (Old Bogoslof) is a steep-sided pinnacle that is a remnant of a spine from the 1796 eruption. Fire Island (New Bogoslof), a small island located about 600 m NW of Bogoslof Island, is a remnant of a lava dome that was formed in 1883. (USGS-AVO)

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U.S.A. - Shishaldin volcano (Alaska)

May 3rd, 2020

AVO issued an advisory volcanic alert and Yellow aviation code, the troubles continue with possible sulfur dioxide emissions detected by satellite and vapor in the crater visible on high resolution satellite images. The views of the web cameras were obscured by the clouds and no significant activity was detected on local seismic stations or regional infrared sensors. Although disturbances are currently at low levels, activity could intensify with little warning, and additional eruptive activity in the summit crater, lava flows, lahars and ash-producing eruptive events could happen.On 16 April AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin had decreased during the past two weeks, though it remained slightly above background levels. Additionally, satellite images showed no new lava nor changes in the crater area, and a decrease in surface temperatures. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 8-13 April characterized by occasional low-frequency earthquakes. Minor steaming from the summit crater was sometimes seen in satellite and webcam data. A small thermal anomaly was visible in satellite data during 8-9 April. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 1-7 April 2020 characterized by weak continuous tremor and occasional low-frequency earthquakes. The webcam recorded steam plumes rising from the summit crater on 1 April. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images on a few days. The Volcano Alert level remained at Watch and theAviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 25-31 March characterized by continuous low-level tremor. Steam-and-gas plumes rising from the summit crater were occasionally recorded by the webcam and identified in satellite images. Weakly- to- moderately elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 29-30 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that seismicity remained high with low level continuous tremor recorded in the past week.A weak gas plume was commonly observed on webcam images when the views were clear, and high surface temperatures were observed on satellite images.Eruptive activity appears to be confined to the summit area during this latest period of unrest, which began in mid-March. However, activity could increase with little or no warning, causing lava flows outside the crater, lahars and ash emissions.The volcanic alert is Watch, and the aviation code orange. AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin was characterized as near-continuous tremor during 18-20 March and continuous tremor during 21-24 March. Steam-and-gas plumes rising from the summit crater were recorded daily by the webcam and sometimes identified in satellite images. Elevated surface temperatures, consistent with lava in the summit crater, were also identified in satellite images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that eruptive activity continues at Shishaldin. Minor explosive activity has decreased over the past 24 hours, but seismicity remains high with almost continuous tremors. Satellite views have been obscured by clouds, and a small plume of vapor from the summit has been observed in a clear web camera image in the past 24 hours. At this time, eruptive activity appears to be confined to the summit area, but activity could increase with little or no warning, causing lava flows outside the crater, lahars, and ash emissions. The current aviation color code: ORANGE. AVO reported that weak but elevated seismicity was also recorded along with small explosion signals during 14-17 March. Elevated surface temperatures, consistent with lava in the summit crater, were identified in satellite images during 15-17 March. A small steam plume rising from the summit crater was visible in a webcam image on 17 March. AVO raised the alert level of the Shishaldin to Watch and the aviation code to orange on March 14 at 10:31 pm, following the observation on a high resolution satellite image of lava, and of what appears to be a new cone in the summit crater. A weak tremor is also detected. On 6 February AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin decreased during the previous week (though remained slightly above background levels), along with the surface temperatures at the summit identified in satellite data. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory since the eruption appeared to have paused or ceased. AVO reported that seismic activity at Shishaldin remained above background levels during 29 January-4 February. Weakly- to moderately-elevated surface temperatures were sometimes identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that seismic activity at Shishaldin remained above background levels during 22-28 January. Elevated surface temperatures continued to be identified in satellite images, though became weak during 26-28 January. Infrasound data suggested that minor explosions were occurring at the summit during 22-23 January. Small steam plumes from the summit were visible on 22, 23, and 26 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 20-21 January elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, though the N-flank flow was not active. Seismicity remained above background levels, and coincided with detections in infrasound data that suggested small explosions at the vent. Steaming from the summit was visible in webcam images. AVO reported that seismicity dropped sharply to low levels around 3:30 p.m. on January 19, 2020, and ash production increased at about the same time, producing an ash plume that reached 9,000 meters. The eruption continued to produce ash until about 10:00 p.m. when activity slowed. High surface temperatures are still apparent on the satellite images this morning. Webcam images captured after sunrise on the southeast side of the volcano show a weak plume of vapor at the top, new tephras and / or lava deposited on the upper flanks of the cone and a dusting of ash on the snow throughout the area.AVO reported that an increasing in seismicity was observed on January 7, 2020 around 5 a.m. AKST, accompanied by ash emissions; the ash cloud was visible on satellite images at a height of 7,000 meters, drifting east-northeast. The seismicity then weakened for a few hours, before increasing sharply. The plume was loaded with ashes, justifying an increase in warning levels to red aviation code, around 14:20 AKST. Satellite images show very high surface temperatures, and three lava flows are observed; volcanic lightning and infrasound are detected by regional measurement stations. Around 24:00 AKST, the seismicity fell again, and the ash emissions decreased. The alerts returned to Watch, with an orange aviation code. Ash falls are expected on the communities located to the northeast. AVO reported that the volcano still produces lava flows on the upper flanks and is the site of a short-lived explosive activity. This December 3 around 9:30 am AKST, the seismicity started to increase, to lead to a brief period of emission of ash; the ash cloud reached an altitude of 7,300 meters asl.drifting southeast, with lightning bolts. The seismicity then abruptly decreased. Thermal anomalies considered as very high, with a maximum at 1443MW, indicating a continuous effusion. The aviation code is maintained at Orange, accompanied by a SIGMET up to an altitude of 7,300 meters established by the National Weather Service. Previous news 2019 - AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 25-31 December. Seismicity was elevated with weak explosions recorded by the network during 26-27 December. The seismicity decreased to relatively low levels on 27 December and remained low through 31 December. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were periodically identified in satellite images, indicating continuing lava effusion; AVO reported that low-level explosive activity continued near the summit and effusion of short lava flows. Elevated seismicity and surface temperatures were recorded throughout the week. Satellite images December 25 and 26 confirmed an active lava flow extending ~1.5 km (1 mile) to the northwest and tephra deposits on the upper flanks of the volcano. Weak explosions were detected on a regional infrasound network over the last 24 hours. AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 18-24 December. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, though clouds sometimes prevented views. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by ongoing tremor and periodic weak explosions. Satellite imagery indicated that the active summit cone had grown after collapsing the week before. Minor ash emissions drifted S on 19 December and E at 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 21 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and theVolcano Alert Level remained at Watch.As of the 21st of December AVO reported that the low-level eruption continued. Seismicity remains elevated. Elevated surface temperatures were observed in partly cloudy satellite data. Minor ash emissions were reported drifting east at ~15,000 ft from the volcano's summit consistent with low-level eruptive activity. On the morning, increasing tremor coincided with a field team in Cold Bay reporting a new lava flow on the northern slope of the volcano.As of the 19th of December, AVO reported that the eruptive activity started at the end of July in Shishaldin continues, with this week a lava flow reaching about 2,500 meters on the northwest flank. Explosive low-level activity rebuilt the summit cone, which had collapsed a week before, and covered with ash the southern flank of the volcano.High surface temperatures were observed in the first part of the week, before decreasing while the activity of the lava flows decreased. The seismicity on the volcano remains high, with continuous tremors and weak explosions. AVO reported that the seismicity remained elevated through 16 December and elevated surface temperatures continued to be detected. A plume appearing to contain ash drifted from the summit on 14 December. A lava flow was reported by a pilot on 16 December; the next day satellite images showed a 2-km-long flow on the NW flank. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that eruptive activity intensified on December 13, with a possible collapse of the spatter cone and lava flows on the north and northwest flanks. The episode was accompanied by an ash cloud at 7,600 meters asl. Surface temperatures are observed by satellite.A plume of steam was visible at the top, as well as night glow. As of the 12th of December, AVO reported that a small eruption occurred and produced a plume of ashes reaching 6000-7600 meters asl, dispersing to the northwest.A burst of tremor was observed on December 12 at 7:10 a.m. local (4:10 p.m. UTC) and lasted 3 minutes, as well as lightning. A flow is visible on the satellite images and on the photos taken from Cold Bay. AVO reported that the eruption either slowed or paused during 6-7 December as evidenced by decreased seismicity and slightly elevated surface temperatures in satellite data. Temperatures again increased and were slightly elevated during 7-9 December, likely signifying renewed lava effusion. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that the thermal anomalies recorded on December 5 at Shishaldin are consistent with an ongoing lava effusion. The continuous tremor is also rising. Small emissions of steam and a little ash are observable by the webcam on the summit and the north flank. AVO reported that on December 4 afternoon and evening high surface temperatures, related to an effusion of lava, confirmed by an increase in seismicity. A lava flow on the flank of the volcano was observed by a pilot; no ashes were emitted. AVO reported that seismic levels at Shishaldin were variable but elevated during 26 November-3 December. Weather clouds sometimes obscured satellite image views and mostly prevented webcam views, though elevated surface temperatures were still visible in multiple satellite images. An active 1.5-km-long lava flow on the NW flank was visible in satellite images on 1 December. Continuous tremor transitioned to episodic bursts during the morning of 2 December, but by 3 December a decrease in seismic activity and surface temperatures suggested another pause in lava effusion. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Satellite image analysis indicates that a partial collapse of the summit cone occurred early on November 25th. This resulted in a pyroclastic flow extending up to 3 km from the summit, on the northwestern side of the volcano. A new lava flow was also generated during this period of activity that extended for 1 km along the northwest flank of the volcano.Seismicity decreased but remained elevated during 25-26 November. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were identified in multiple satellite images, and incandescence from the summit was occasionally visible in web camera images overnight. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that seismicity increased during the day of 25 November and small explosions were detected at local and regional infrasound stations. Very high surface temperatures were observed in several images. Together, these data indicate that low-intensity eruptive activity has resumed in Shishaldin. No ash plume has been detected. A partial collapse of the summit cone sometime around 1430 on 24 November produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled as far as 3 km down the NW flank. A new lava flow on the NW flank was several hundred meters long. AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued at variable levels during 13-19 November. Seismicity increased during 13-14 November, and elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite and webcam data. Minor ash emissions were visible and likely resulting from spatter cone collapses. Lava and debris flows had not advanced since 8 November; lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km and a large branched network of debris flows extended at least 5.5 km NE. Strongly elevated surface temperatures and a steam plume drifting more than 100 km SE were visible on 15 November. An incandescent lava flow on the NE flank was recorded in webcam images. Activity during 17-18 November was characterized by low seismic tremor and weakly-to-moderately elevated surface temperatures, consistent with cooling lava flows. Seismicity and surface temperatures again increased during 18-19 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that activity significantly increased during 10-11 November with lava fountaining visible in webcam views throughout the evening and night. Strongly elevated surface temperatures at the summit and along the flanks were visible in satellite data. Ash emissions reported by pilots and visible on webcam images rose as high as 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Activity decreased during 11-12 November. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were consistent with cooling lava flows. Seismicity decreased during the evening of 11 November and remained low. Minor steam-and-ash emissions were visible in webcam images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. .Since November 10th, high surface temperatures have been reported at the summit and on the flanks. Thermal anomalies were measured by Mirova on November 11, between 446 and 1,652 MW.Seismicity has increased over the past few days to find lower levels today. AVO reported that eruptive continued; the lava overflows the crater and feeds a flow on the north-west flank in elongation. This one developed in two branches on November 3rd each of them extending on approximately 1.000 meters. Debris flows / lahars also extended, extending up to 2 km on the north and south flanks; Sporadic glow was observable at night on webcams, and satellites showed hot spatter deposits on the summit cone in relation to explosive activity and / or fountaining. Small explosions were observed on the seismic and infrasonic networks. The volcanic alert remains at Watch and the aviation code at orange A pilot observed a lava flow in the morning of 2 November. Sporadic incandescence recorded by the webcam overnight during 2-3 November suggested minor explosive activity and/or lava fountaining. On 3 November lava overflowed the summit crater and traveled at least 400 m down the NW flank and 300 m down the SE flank. By 4 November the flow on the NW flank had branched and lengthened to 1 km. Lahars were as long as 2 km on the N and S flanks. Spatter deposits from explosions or fountaining were visible on the summit cone. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that Low-level eruptive activity continued during 26-29 October. Seismicity remained elevated, with periods of high-amplitude tremor. Small explosions were recorded during 27-28 October. A satellite image from 28 October showed a 850-m-long SWIR anomaly on the NW flank from a lava flow. A central spatter cone was visible. Spatter deposits on the snow at the upper flanks was evident, and tephra deposits extended about 2.5 km N. The lahar on the NW flank branched extensively at lower elevations and was at least 5 km long. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that satellite data from October 23 showed that the lava now fills the summit crater and begins to sink on the edge of the north crater at two locations.On October 24th, a 200 m (600 ft) long lava flow melted the snow and produced a large 2.9 km (1.8 mile) lahar which spreads on the north flank, reaching about 1230 m. m (~ 4000 ft) altitude. A small lava flow produced a lahar about 1 km long on the northeast flank.The 2857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." A steady steam plume rises from its small summit crater. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, it is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the west and NE sides at 1500-1800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century. Webcam . (GVN/GVP)

USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

June 3rd, 2020

AVO reported that a small explosion occurred on June 1st at 10:32 am AKST; it was detected by the infrasonic surveillance network, the local surveillance stations being offline. It was accompanied by a small plume of ash observed at more than 6,000 meters asl. drifting south. Aviation code is orange. AVO lowered both the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code for Cleveland to Unassigned on 7 May, noting that explosive activity on 9 January 2019 (and subsequent lava extrusion in the summit crater) was followed by an overall decrease in detected surface temperature and no further surface changes. Previous news 2019 - AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow on 15 November, noting that new satellite data and reanalysis of previous data over the past week showed that lava effusion likely had not begun on 8 November. Regional seismic and infrasound data showed no evidence of eruptive activity during 8-19 November; weakly-to-moderately elevated surface temperatures were sometimes identified in satellite images and steam plumes were sometimes visible in webcam images. AVO reported that the aviation color code was raised to ORANGE and the WATCH volcano alert level by AVO in the day of November 8, 2019, regarding images from satellite that the slow lava spilling into the summit crater had probably begun. High surface temperatures have been observed throughout the week and their intensity has increased significantly over the past day. Mirova recorded thermal anomalies on November 8 of 6 and 2 MW.This activity is interpreted as being due to the recovery of the lava effusion. Vigorous steam has been observed in the webcam data over the last few days, which also corroborates the interpretation that the lava has been erupted. The presence of a lava dome in the summit crater can be used to pressurize the system, which could lead to a small explosive event and associated minor ash emissions. Previously, AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 20-24 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Satellite data showed continued subsidence of the lava dome with no evidence of new lava. On 25 February the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 13-19 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that analysis of recent satellite data suggested that the lava dome in Cleveland’s summit crater first observed on 12 January may have stopped growing on 16 January, and since then the center of the dome slowly subsided. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were evident in satellite data during 28 January-4 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the volcano alert level remained at Watch.During the past week, the latest satellite observations showed of high surface temperatures date from January 19-20, before the views of the volcano were obscured by clouds. No explosion was recorded by the seismic station and the infrasonic system.The aviation code remains orange, the possible explosions of the dome may present a danger for aviation. AVO has raised the alert level to Watch, and its aviation code to Orange on January 17, 2019. Satellite data show the existence and growth of a new lava dome since January 12, and its presence could be linked to explosive activity, commonly noticed without warning. AVO reported that a brief explosion was detected this December 29, 2018 at 3:17 UTC / December 28 at 18:17 AKST in Cleveland; a cloud of ash was spotted by a pilot at an altitude of 17,000 ft asl .Typical explosions of this volcano, small clouds of ash dissipate within hours of their emission. The aviation code is orange. AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite data on 15 December. A new small explosion which occurred at 0737 on 16 December generated a minor ash cloud that drifted NE. AVO reported that a small explosion was detected by the local seismic network in Cleveland, in Aleutian Islands, on 12 December at 11:53 am AKST / 20:53 UTC, justifying a watch / orange warning adjustment. The weather conditions did not allow the observation of n ash cloud. Previously, Low-level unrest at Cleveland continued, though on 22 August AVO noted a pause in activity and lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. Another small explosion at Cleveland was recorded by the seismic network at 1155 on 8 December. The report noted that elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images the previous day, suggestive of hot gas emissions from the summit crater vents. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 15-20 August, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Steaming from the crater was sometimes visible in clear webcam views, and elevated surface temperatures were occasionally identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. .The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

USA - Great Sitkin volcano - Andreanof Island (Alaska-Aleutian Islands )

March 7th, 2020

AVO reported that the unrest continued with a volcanic advisory alert and aviation yellow code. The seismicity was slightly elevated for much of the past week. On Friday March 6, 2020 at 6:31 a.m. AKST (3:31 p.m. UTC), a relatively large and shallow magnitude 3.5 earthquake occurred 1 km from the summit. Since then, seismicity has returned to levels comparable to those recorded at the start of the week. Although this earthquake represents a significant increase in the seismic activity of the volcano, it does not mean that an eruption is imminent. There has been no evidence of activity in the satellite data over the past week, although sightings have been limited by cloud cover. AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had increased during the previous month and by 26 February was above background levels; the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory. No eruptive activity was evident in geophysical or satellite data. Previous news 2019 - On 15 July AVOreported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased to background levels during the past few weeks with no evidence of eruptive activity in geophysical or satellite data. TheAviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alet level was lowered to Normal.AVO reported that a small steam explosion at Great Sitkin was detected in seismic data at 1318 on 7 June. The Aviation Color Code remains at yellow and the Volcano Alert at advisory. AVO reported that a small steam explosion was detected at Great Sitkin, in the Aleutian arc on June 2 at 5:40 UTC; This volcano is monitored by a seismic system in real time, which motivated the AVO to change the volcanic alert to Advisory and the aviation code to Yellow. On 25 February 2019 AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased to background levels during the past month and there was no evidence of explosive activity. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal. The 1740-m-high Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The 1740-m-high summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 meters. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Great Sitkin since the late-19th century. (GVN/GVP)

U.S.A - Pavlof volcano (Alaska)

March 4th, 2020

AVO reported that seismic activity at Pavlof had decreased during the past several weeks, and no eruptive activity or summit emissions had been observed since minor steaming in late February. AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal and the Aviation Color Code to Green on 3 March. Previous news 2019 - As of the 30th of December, AVO reported that in the past few days, seismic activity has increased. No eruptive activity or emission from the summit was observed. However, the seismic activity represents an increase compared to the background levels and the levels were raised at Yellow / advisory on December 28 / 20h43 Z. AVO reported that a small eruption occurred at Pavlof on October 19, detected by infrasound and seismic networks. Cloud cover does not indicate whether ashes have been emitted, but if so, they should only concern the summit area. Due to higher than normal settings, the alert level was changed to Advisory and the aviation code to Yellow. On 12 June AVO reported that elevated levels of seismicity at Pavlof, recorded since mid-May, had declined to background levels. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal. The report noted that vapor plumes were occasionally visible in webcam views and elevated surface temperatures in the summit crater were sometimes identified in satellite images; both are common occurrences at Pavlof. AVO reported that low-frequency tremor was detected at Pavlof during 14-15 May and a vigorous steam plume rising from the summit was visible in webcam images on 15 May. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow and the Volcano Alert level was raised to Advisory primarily because of increased seismicity. Steam plumes recorded by the webcam, low levels of seismic tremor, and warm surface temperatures identified in satellite data continued during 16-19 May; AVO noted that steam emissions and warm surface temperatures are common at Pavlof.The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavlof, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing Strombolian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode, when a fissure opened on the N flank, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.(GVN/GVP)

U.S.A. - Veniaminof volcano (Alaska)

August 14th, 2019

AVO reported that seismic unrest at Veniaminof continued during 7-13 August with low-frequency earthquakes being common. Satellite and webcam views showed nothing unusual. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. Low-level tremor at Veniaminof coincided with a pilot observation of a steam plume at 1230 on 1 August, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. On 2 August AVO noted that tremor had subsided, though low-level seismicity persisted at least through 6 August. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. A small steam plume was also visible on 3 August. On 30 April AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code for Veniaminof to Green and the Volcano Alert level to Normal, noting that signs of unrest had continued to decline over the previous four months since the eruption ended in early January. Low-level tremor, slightly elevated surface temperatures, and minor steam emissions continued and considered typical activity for a post-eruptive period. Previous news 2018 - AVO reported that a strong thermal anomaly was visible in satellite and webcam data during 14-15 December, and together with an eruption plume, was consistent with lava fountaining at the summit vent. By 16 December a lava flow was erupting from the vent. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that on December 10th, the lava emission by the intracaldeira cone from Veniaminof, in the Alaskan Peninsula, stopped, although explosive activity still occurs. Until December 13, there is no evidence of eruptive activity observed on the webcam and satellite images. On Thursday, December 13th, the tremor reappeared intermittently, gradually becoming continuous. Since then, a plume has been observed and more vigorous activity has resumed, given the high temperatures recorded by the webcam and satellites, consistent with fountaining. AVO reportred that the eruption of lava continued during 4-5 December. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures. Steam plumes with possible diffuse ash were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images. On 6 December seismicity changed from nearly continuous, low-level volcanic tremor to intermittent, small, low-frequency events and short bursts of tremor, possibly indicating that lava effusion had slowed or stopped. Variable seismicity continued through 12 December, though there was no visual confirmation of lava effusion. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that the eruption of lava rom the cone in Veniaminof’s ice-filled summit caldera continued during 27 November-3 December. Satellite and webcam data showed eevated surface temperatures. Steam and diffuse ash plumes were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images. During 27-28 November acoustic waves were recorded by regional infrasound sensors. Continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded until the network went offline following a M7 tectonic earthquake near Anchorage on 30 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). Ash emissions from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera significantly increased overnight during 20-21 November, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning (the highest levels on four-level scales). Ash emissions rose to below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 240 km SE. On 21 November observers and webcam views in Perryville (35 km SE) indicated continuous ash emissions through most of the day; ash plumes drifted SE, extending as far as 400 km by around 1445. A short eruptive pulse was recorded during 1526-1726, and then afterwards ash plumes rose to below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Low-altitude ash emissions on 22 November drifted 100 km S. Minor ashfall was reported in Perryville. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level to Orange and Watch, respectively, because of decreased ash emissions. Elevated thermal anomalies were identified in satellite data overnight, and incandescence was visible from a Perryville webcam, suggesting continuing lava effusion which had been obscured by the increased period of ash emissions. Lava effusion was persistent through 27 November. AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera, continued at low levels during 14-20 November. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and lava effusion. Relatively continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded. Steam and diffuse ash plumes were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images; plumes rose as high as 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. on 16 November. Recent satellite data showed that the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera, continued at low levels during 7-13 November. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and lava effusion. Continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded. Steam and diffuse ash plumes periodically identified in webcam and satellite images rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and W. Recent satellite data showed that the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera, continued during 31 October-6 November. Satellite data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and flows. Low-amplitude continuous tremor was recorded. The webcam in Perryville, 35 km SE, periodically recorded diffuse ash emissions and incandescence from the cone. Based on a pilot observation and satellite data, a diffuse ash plume rose to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 5 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). As of the 30th of October, AVO reported that the eruption continues characterized by minor spattering and effusion of lava from the intracratal cone, confirmed by satellite temperature measurements.Diffuse ash emissions have been observed on the webcam during previous days; ashfalls occurs sometimes on the surrounding communities depending on the wind conditions. Based on satellite data acquired on 25 October the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent, and the area of the flow field had doubled in the past month. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that on October 18, the emissions were particularly strong, with a plume dominated by steam, with the presence of sulfur dioxide and a small amount of ash, and extending for 30 km to the northeast. The effusion of lava continues, as indicated by a relatively continuous tremor.Constant steam emissions can be seen on the Perryville webcam. AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 10-16 October, as evidenced by elevated surface temperatures in satellite data, and low-level continuous tremor. Satellite data indicated that the E part of the S-flank flow field remained active. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface. (GVN/GVP)

U.S.A. - Semisopochnoi volcano ( Alaska)

April 2nd, 2020

AVO reported that seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated during 25-31 March and no surface activity was observed on most days, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that activity at Semisopochnoi had decreased compared to the previous week. Seismicity remained elevated during 19-24 March and no surface activity was observed on most days, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. A steam plume was visible in a satellite image on 21 March and weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in one satellite image during 21-22 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. As of the 16th of March, AVO reports that the increased seismicity of Semisopochnoi is in transition to continuous tremor, with small explosions. Satellite images show a robust plume of steam and minor ash deposits in the vicinity of the northern edge of the Cerebus crater. The volcanic alert level is Watch, and the aviation code is orange. AVO reported that seismicity has increased in recent days, characterized by almost continuous tremor and frequent signals of small explosions.The AVO consequently raised the volcanic alert to Watch on March 15 and the aviation code to orange.No signs of eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi were detected in infrasound and satellite data over the previous several weeks, prompting AVO to lower the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 26 February. A robust steam plume rose from the main vent that same day. Short bursts of tremor and earthquakes persisted during 26 February-3 March. AVO reported that intermittent, low-level tremor was detected at Semisopochnoi during 19-25 February. Brief periods of elevated tremor were recorded during 19-20 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. A series of explosions and tremor bursts at Semisopochnoi were detected by the seismic network beginning on 14 February, prompting AVO raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the volcano alert level to Watch. Tremor bursts lasting from three to twelve minutes every few hours were recorded the next day. Ash plumes were not visible, though a weather cloud deck persisted between 1.5 and 4.6 km (5,000 and 15,000 ft)a.s.l. Seismic data continued to record small explosions and tremor bursts lasting from six to ten minutes every few hours on 16 February, but by 17 February there were almost no events recorded. Weather clouds continued to obscure views of the volcano.AVO raised the alert level to WATCH this February 15 at 12:19 p.m. AKST following an increase in its activity, characterized by a series of small explosions and earthquakes. Tremor puffs last 3 to 12 minutes every hour/ As low-level ash emissions can accompany these explosions, and be masked by cloud cover between 1,500 and 4,500 meters, the aviation code has changed from Yellow to ORANGE. On 9 January AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code for Semisopochnoi to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory, noting that explosions had not been detected since 19 December 2019. In addition, seismic tremor had last been recorded on 29 December 2019; seismicity subsequently declined but remained above background levels. Previous news 2019 - AVO reported that during 17-20 December seismicity was characterized by tremor bursts and small explosions, though cloudy weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. Elevated seismicity was recorded on 21 December. Nothing significant was detected during 22-24 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 10-17 December activity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated, with bursts of tremor and small explosions detected in both seismic and infrasound data. An 80-km-long gas-and-steam plume possibly containing ash was visible in satellite images during 11-12 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a strong tremor at Semisopochnoi was recorded by local seismic and regional infrasound networks beginning at 0026 on 7 December, heralding the start of an eruption and prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The meteorological cloud deck over the volcano was at around 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.; no ash signals were detected above this altitude. A period of intermittent explosions was detected, and afterwards seismicity remained elevated at least through 9 December. Previously, AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level for Semisopochnoi to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow on 18 September noting a decrease in seismic activity over the past few weeks and an absence of tremor since 15 September. Low-levels sulfur dioxide emissions persisted, and the crater lake continued to fill with water. AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi possibly continued during 4-10 September. Seismic activity was relatively minor and characterized by intermittent low-frequency earthquakes. Satellite images were mostly cloudy, though a low-altitude steam plume drifting 50 km S was visible on 8 September. The Volcano Alert level remained at Watch and theAviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that during 17-23 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes; seismic data went offline starting sometime on 17 August, though was available by around 22 August. Ground-coupled airwaves, indicative of explosive activity, were sometimes recorded in seismic data; an infrasound signal was recorded during 23-24 August. Cloudy weather often prevented satellite views of the volcano, though a steam plume was visible on 18 August and sulfur dioxide emissions were detected during 21-22 August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that during 14-17 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes; seismic data became unavailable starting sometime on 17 August. Cloudy weather often prevented satellite views of the volcano, however some recent clear views indicated that the N cone crater had a smooth featureless area, indicating water or tephra at an elevation several meters below the previous floor. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that during 7-13 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes. No unusual activity was observed in satellite images, though views were often cloudy. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that during 31 July-6 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of weak, continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes. Satellite images were mostly cloudy, though a possible steam plume was visible during 5-6 August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. On 24 July AVO reported that satellite data from the previous week indicated that the 100-m-wide crater lake in the N cone of Semisopochnoi’s Cerberus three-cone cluster was gone, and a new shallow inner crater about 80 m in diameter had formed on the crater floor. The lake had persisted since January 2019. Seismicity during 25-30 July was characterized by periods of continuous tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, and small explosion signals. Small steam plumes were visible in periodic, cloud-free satellite images, along with minor sulfur dioxide emissions. The Alaska Volcano Observatory raised the level of the Semisopochnoi to Watch / Orange Aviation Code on July 18 around 10:38. An increase in seismic activity began during the night. A strong tremor signal, and an infrasonic signal are reported east of Adak Island at 23:39 AKDT: this event probably resulted in ash emissions and, at the current level of persistent disturbances, similar events could occur without Warning. The weather cloud is located approximately 10,000 ft (3,000 m) above Semisopochnoi and no ash signal has been detected above this height. A small plume extending 18 km from the Cerberus vent was visible in yesterday's satellite data but did not contain an ash signal.An increase in seismicity above background levels on 4 July at Semisopochnoi prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). Elevated seismicity continued through at least 9 July. No eruptive activity was detected in regional infrasound data, and cloudy conditions obscured satellite views of the volcano..Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is 1221-m-high Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island's northern part. The three-peaked 774-m-high Mount Cerberus volcano was constructed during the Holocene within the caldera. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the northern flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the southern side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical 855-m-high Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented historical eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone within the caldera could have been active during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

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ITALY - Etna volcano ( Sicily)

May 25th, 2020

For a few days, the activity of the crater of the Voragine had strongly decreased. This morning May 24, 2020, activity showed a slight increase for a few hours, and one of the explosions produced this magnificent ring of vapor, seen from the region of Monte Grosso, on the south side of the volcano.INGV Osservatorio Etneo, reported that from 02:12 UTC, strombolian activity increased in the saddle cone of the new crater of south-eastern of Etna. Explosive activity produced a cloud of volcanic ash reaching 4,500 m (above sea level) dispersed by the wind to the southwest. The VONA went red at 07:12 hours, before finding the Orange level at 13:16 hours. Explosive activity also continues at the Voragine crater with periodic emissions of ash, which disperse rapidly near the summit area. The magnitude of the volcanic tremor, compared to yesterday, has undergone a moderate increase, with large fluctuations around medium and high values. Currently, the amplitude values ​​are high and the source of the tremor continues to be located near the New SE crater. The infrasonic activity has shown a moderate increase and the sources are mainly located in the New SE crater. The soil deformations do not show significant variations.INGV reported thatt Strombolian activity was recorded by surveillance networks at 12:12 local time (10:12 UTC) at the saddle cone located between the old and the new cone of the Crater of South-East of Etna. Strombolian activity began to increase from 08:45 UTC in the New Southeast crater, and is accompanied by a modest emission of volcanic ash, which is blown by the wind towards the northeast. From a seismic point of view, since 09:20 UTC, the amplitude of the volcanic tremors has shown an increase in high values. The source of the volcanic tremor is located near the new southeast crater about 2,900 m above sea level. The infrasonic activity also showed a slight increase, with events being located at the new southeast crater. The deformation on the ground shows no significant impulsive variation associated with continuous activity. However, a trend of northward movement at the Pizzi Deneri and Northeast crater stations initiated in early May continues.INGV reported that From 00.45 hours UTC on May 16, 2020, the surveillance cameras revealed an explosive strombolian activity in the New Crater of SE of Etna, with regard to the vent called the "saddle". This activity quickly intensified, producing a modest cloud of ash that the winds dispersed at high altitude to the north. From the seismic point of view, there is no significant variation in the recorded signals. The source of the volcanic tremor is located at the new SE crater, at a depth of about 2900 m above sea level. From 6:45 h UTC, the strombolian activity at the NCSE ceased. The explosive activity remains at the Voragine crater, although it has decreased in intensity and frequency, according to the location by INGV staff on May 15. INGV reported that during the first hours of May 10, 2020, a new episode of modest Strombolian activity took place in the "saddle cone" of the New Crater southeast of Etna. The INGV also reported that the surveillance networks recorded at 03:27 hours (01:27 UTC), a continuous strombolian activity, with an ejection of products beyond the crater. Some blocks partially accumulate at the edge of the crater while others roll along the slopes. At the same time as the eruptive activity of the New Southeast Crater, there is also an increase in the eruptive activity of Voragine, with ballistic ejections beyond the crater edge. From approximately 04:00 hours, there was a significant decrease in Strombolian activity in the New Crater of Southeast, where a strong degassing remains. At La Voragine crater, an explosive activity was less strong and frequent than the previous hours. As for the amplitude of the volcanic tremor, it showed a sudden increase from 11:30 p.m. UTC on May 9, reaching its maximum value around 12:30 p.m. UTC on May 10, and then remained at high values. A rapid decline was observed, with a return to waaverage levels around 02:20 UTC on May 10. The location of the source of the tremor was located near the area of ​​the New Southeast Crater, at a depth of about 2800-3000 meters above mean sea level. INGV reported that activity was characterized between 1st to May 7th, 2020 by a continuous degassing of the BN / VOR / NEC crater sectors (Bocca Nuova, Voragine, NE crater) and SEC / NSEC crater (SE crater and new SE crater). Explosions continue from the easternmost slag cone inside Voragine. This activity is often violent with the projection into the atmosphere of coarse pyroclastic fragments. Strombolian activity continues at the bottom of the northeast crater. Since around 5:00 p.m. on May 8, there has been a slight increase in ash emissions from the NSEC, this pulsating activity has formed a plume of diluted ash towards the ESS. INGV personnel present near the new southeast crater observed a strong degassing, with deep roars and associated ash emissions. As for the amplitude of the volcanic tremor, it oscillates on medium-high values; the source of the tremor is located near the new southeast crater, at a depth of about 2,800 to 3,000 meters above mean sea level. INGV reported that during the week of April 27 to May 3, Etna presented a strombolian activity to Voragine (VOR) and to the new southeast crater (NSEC). At La Voragine, an inspection on April 30 revealed that the effusive activity of the vent of the principal cone had stopped, in progress since September 12, 2019, and the lava field is being cooled. Strombolian activity continues on the other hand at the level of the intracrateric cones of the VOR, with gray-black ash emissions several hundred meters high, during the main cone explosions. During the night of May 3-4, the strombolian explosions from the VOR crater appeared particularly energetic, and the coarse material produced fell outside the edges of the crater, settling on the southern flank of the Bocca Nuova crater. It was also observed that the depression that formed inside the BN of the crater has increased compared to what was observed during the inspection of April 18, 2020. During the week, a pulsatile degassing of the new Southeast crater continued. The presence of flashes at night showed that strombolian activity continued at the level of the "saddle cone", without expelling incandescent materials. Sometimes this activity was accompanied by the emission of reddish ash, quickly dispersed in the atmosphere. INGV reported that eruptive activity at the new southeast crater on April 19 began around 06:30 UTC local 8:30 am with a sudden increase in the tremor, showing strombolian activity at the "saddle cone" of the NSEC; from 07:15 h UTC, it gradually evolved into a pulsating lava fountain. From 07:50 UTC, modest lava flows are observed at the top of the NSEC and remain confined to the upper eastern and southern flanks of the cone. The activity generated the emission of an ash plume which was quite weak at the beginning and which gradually increased in intensity from 08:45 UTC, reaching around 5,000 meters in height. The ashes fell on the eastern side of the volcano for the most part in the Bove Valley and fallout of fine materials were also reported on the city of Zafferana. From 09:55 UTC, the lava fountain activity gradually diminished until it stopped. Finally, it was reported that strombolian activity at the crater of La Voragine, which started in September 2019 continued with slight fluctuations compared to what has been communicated so far. From a seismic point of view, after a significant drop in the tremor, the eruptive episode was announced by a rapid increase in the volcanic tremor from 5.40 hours GMT - 7.40 local hours, which reached the highest energy level at 7.00 hours GMT (9.00 local time). The sources of the signal were located in the area of ​​the New Southeast Crater at shallow depth. The episode was accompanied by remarkable infrasound activity, which is also decreasing. The INGV announced at 23:55 (21:55 UTC), the return of parameters to normal activity. Previously, INGV reported that from 20.50 hours UTC on April 17th, we observe at Etna a sudden increase in the magnitude of the volcanic tremor which reached the maximum value at 21.26 hours UTC, attesting to high values. This activity was accompanied by a moderate increase in infrasound activity, which is localized in the area of ​​the SEC / NSEC craters. In addition, from the network of surveillance cameras, it is possible to observe, with regard to the "saddle cone" of the New Crater of Southeast, gleams attributable to an intracrateric strombolian activity, associated with an accentuation of the thermal anomaly that has long characterized the same area. Strombolian activity at La Voragine crater, which began in September 2019, continues with small fluctuations; The lava emitted by the cone complex of Voragine filled the crater of Bocca Nuova, where a new pit crater / collapse well is present in the central part. INGV reported that strombolian and intracrateric effusive activity continued at Etna, between April 6 and 12 from the Voragine crater. Strong degassing of the new southeast crater and the northeast crater was noticed during the same period. The activity inside the Voragine crater, in progress for 7 months, continued with slight fluctuations. This activity consists of three-mouthed Strombolian explosions, which build slag cones in the crater and an effusive activity, mainly from a mouth located on the south side of the largest cone. The explosive activity was more continuous at the largest cone, formed as the first, from September 12, 2019. As of the 11th of April, INGV reported that activity at three of the four summit craters of Etna continues, although slightly decreased compared to the last weeks. This activity consists of Strombolian explosions and emission of an intracratric lava flow with Voragine (VOR), an intense and very noisy degassing in the Northeast Crater (NEC), and a fluctuating incandescence with a strong degassing in the "cone of the saddle "from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC).INGV reported that for the period from 9 to 15 March an abundant degassing activity could be observed of the upper craters: the northeast crater (NEC), produced emissions of ash which immediately dispersed into the atmosphere on March 13, and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was also characterized by sporadic ash emissions accompanied by audible roars even at long distances.In the intra-crater area of ​​Voragine, a strombolian-like eruption continued. This activity was produced by two separate ash cones. In the main cone, active since September 12, 2019, the explosive activity was generated by a single mouth located in its summit crater and characterized by sporadic events of high intensity with bombs and shreds of lava expelled between intervals of several minutes of rest. INGV reported that during the period from March 2 to 8 activity of the upper craters of Etna was mainly characterized by Strombolian explosions and an effusion at the level of Voragine (VOR), and degassing with intermittent intermittent ash emission of strombolian ash from the new south-east crater (NSEC) and the north-east of the crater (NEC). At the seismicity level, there was a low seismic fracturing activity and a stationary state of the volcanic tremor parameters. The infrasonic activity remained moderate. No significant deformation. The flow of SO2 was at an average level. The flow of CO2 from soils is at medium-low levels. INGV reported that between February 24 and March 1, 2020, activity was characterized by an effusive strombolian activity in the crater of Voragine, and an activity of the northeast craters and the new southeast crater, characterized by discontinuous ash emissions and discontinuous strombolian activity. A drone observation shows a cone of slag in the Voragine, flanked on the south side, by a mound provided with a mouth feeding active lava flows. These flows have formed a large, partially cooled lava delta in recent months. At the NEC, sporadic explosions and emissions of ash were observed, and occasional intracratric strombolian activity is reported at the vents located at the bottom of the crater.Activity at the NSEC level is reported at the level of the saddle cone, strombolian, with continuous ash emissions; the soil is fractured and produces fumaroles. INGV monitoring data between February 17 and 23, reported that a strombolian and effusive intracrateric activity occurred in the Voragine crater. Discontinuous ash emissions were observed at the northeast crater and at the new SE crater. Low seismic fracturing activity was reported; amplitude of the volcanic earthquake in the middle level. The Etna soil deformation monitoring networks have not shown any significant change to report during the last week. INGV reported that during he week of February 10th to 16th, 2020 eruptive activity was characterized at Etna by a strombolian and effusive intracrateric activity of the Voragine crater, an episodic strombolian activity in the New Southeast Crater, and an ordinary degassing activity with soft and discontinuous ash emissions from the northeast crater. INGV reported that during the week of February 3rd to 9th, Etna activity was mainly characterized by eruptive activity from the Voragine crater (VOR), by discontinuous ash emissions from the northeast crater (NEC) and new South-East crater (NSEC) and ordinary degassing of the other summit craters. Intra-crater strombolian activity at the VOR crater continues, emitting shreds which extend beyond the edge of the crater by a few hundred meters and which has led to a further increase in the ash cone, particularly in the northern part.The effusive activity flowing from the southern flank of the intracraterial cone continues in the adjacent Bocca Nuova. Field observations and images recorded during the helicopter's overflight revealed that lava filled the eastern sector (BN-2) and reached the crater of the western well (BN-1). INGV reported that strombolian activity continues on January 30.INGV reported continuing eruptive activity at Etna's Voragine Crater (VOR), New Southeast Crater (NSEC), and Northeast Crater (NEC) during 21-26 January. Intracratric eruptive activity continued in Voragina during the period from January 20 to 26, with Strombolian explosions and the emission of a lava flow, which rises on the south side of the intracratric cone, with spill in the adjacent Bocca Nuova. By the end of the week, lava had completely filled the eastern well of the Bocca Nuova (BN-2). During the week, an increase in the frequency of Strombolian explosions is observed, which led to rapid growth of the cone, especially in its northern part.The cone in VOR produced Strombolian explosions which increased in frequency and resulted in rapid cone growth (especially the N part). Lava traveled down the S flank of the cone and into the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater, filling the E crater (BN-2). Activity at NEC was characterized by discontinuous Strombolian activity and periodic emissions of very diffuse ash plumes. During 21-22 January there were several episodes of ash emissions at NSEC, originating from the vent that had opened on 11 December 2019 on the side of the saddle area. Ash emissions rarely rose form the E vent. INGV reported that activity of Voragine intensified during the night from 10th to 11th of January with a lava flow in the direction of Bocca Nuova, separated in two arms.The thermal anomalies, noted by Mirova, are between 32 and 177 MW. On the day of January 10, a plume of ash also rose above the southeast crater. INGV reported that the pyroclastic cone, which has been building since September in the Voragine crater, emitted a small lava flow on January 9 in the afternoon; it pours into the crater of Bocca Nuova. In the evening of January 8, the INGV noticed a glow in the Northeast craters and Voragine. On January 9, around 6:20 am local, a glow was observed at Voragine and at Bocca Nuova, followed by a Strombolian explosion at Voragine at around 6:23 am local. At 7:03 local, this January 9, an explosion is observed thanks to the thermal camera with the cone of the Selle of the new south-eastern crater. INGV reported that low summit activity continued. On January 1, ash emissions and a Strombolian explosion were observed at the Voragine crater. Emissions of ash are captured at the "saddle cone" of the NSEC in the afternoon of January 1.On January 2, a Strombolian activity marks the Northeast crater at 6.30 local time. On January 3, hot spots at the NE and VOR craters can be observed on the Sentinel-2 satellite image. Previous news 2019 - INGV reported that during the period from December 16 to 22, 2019, the activity marked the NSEC, NE and Voragine craters: of strombolian type in the New Southeast Crater - of strombolian type intra-crater with sporadic ash emissions in the north crater and at the crater of Voragine.INGV observed a moderate increase in seismicity due to fracturing; the amplitude of the tremors fluctuated between medium and low values.Low infrasound activity was noted.No significant variation to report on the deformation side, but a trend towards inflation continues SO2 fluxes were at an average level. The CO2 flux from the soil was at average values, showing a recovery compared to last week.The partial pressure of CO2 in the aquifer does not show significant variations. INGV reported that during the night of December 11 to 12, 2019, Etna showed a strombolian activity at the crater of Voragine, two vents of the new southeastern crater (NSEC) and the crater northeast. Also reported the opening of a new small vent on the eastern flank of the "saddle cone" of the NSEC, which from the end of December 11 produced intermittent and weak strombolian activity, sometimes simultaneously and sometimes alternately with the more oriental vent of the same NSEC. INGV reported that four craters showed activity between 2 and 8 December 2019 : Strombolian activity characterized the Voragine, the Bocca Nuova and the new crater southeast, and the crater northeast. From December 7, the amplitude of the tremor increased. Sulfur dioxide flows remained at a moderate level, and those of carbon dioxide in the soil have a slight tendency to increase. At NSEC level, there are small black ash puffs on December 9 and night glow, also visible at NEC and Voragine. INGV reported that from 18:00 UTC on 6 December, the cameras of the CCTV system of the INGV show, in addition to the Voragine / Bocca Nuova activity, a gradual intensification of Strombolian activity at the New Crater of South-East of the Etna, who manifested already from 16:00 UTC with weak and discontinuous explosions. The activity produces, for the moment, the fallout of incandescent material along the slope of the cone. An increase in the tremor is observed around 22:10 local.This activity continued on December 7, characterized by thermal anomalies between 71 and 169 MW, according to Mirova. On December 8th, values ​​of 54 and 144 MW are recorded at 0:15 and 1:50. This morning, ashes are emitted by the crater northeast. INGV reported that since the 6th of December in the morning, a Strombolian activity occurred at the Voragine and a new lava flow was observed from the base of the cone of scoria located in this crater; lava flowed in the Bocca Nuova. INGV reported that this phenomenon has already been observed on 18-20 September2019. An explosion was recorded by the thermal camera at the eastern mouth of the new southeastern crater / NSEC. From 18:00 UTC, CCTV cameras showed a gradual intensification of strombolian activity at the New Southeast Crater, which has already manifested itself since 16:00 UTC with weak and discontinuous explosions. The activity produced the fallout of incandescent material along the slope of the cone. An increase in the tremor was also observed around 22:10 local. INGV reported that eruptive activity at Etna's summit craters continued during 25 November-1 December. Strombolian explosions at Voragine Crater (VOR) occurred at intervals of 5-10 minutes, and many incandescent jets rose above the crater rim. Some explosions created incandescent flashes in emissions rising above the crater rim. A cone which had started forming on the crater floor in mid-September had continued to grow according to observations by field guides. Sporadic ash emissions began at New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on the evening of 30 November, and a single Strombolian explosion was recorded on 1 December. Incandescence from Bocca Nuova Crater was intermittently visible at night. INGV reported for the period from 4 to 10 November that the Strombolian intra-crateric activity of Bocca Nuova (BN), Voragine (VOR) and the new crater South-East (NSEC) of Etna were maintained, accompanied by modest emissions of ash; the Northeast Crater (NEC) degasses, with occasional ash emission. At the seismicity level, earthquakes linked to fracturing remain low, and tremor levels oscillated between medium and high.The deformation does not showed significant variations from the previous period. INGV and Etna Guides reported that the activity of the summit craters was still relevant during the past week. The NEC / Northeast crater is home to Strombolian activity and regular ash emissions - The NSEC / new southeastern crater continued degassing. - The central crater continued an explosive activity from five vents that eject bombs and scories that exceed the edge of the crater; the explosions were still violent and accompanied by strong detonations. INGV reported that the volcano continued to emit ash from the summit craters, particularly the northeast crater and Voragine, on 16 October from 05:30 UTC; the fine ashes are scattered to the east. The aviation color code is orange. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor is maintained at average values, without significant variations. INGV reported that on themorning of October 5th a gradual increase in ash emissions occurred to the northeast crater of Etna; the ash clouds have spread to the east. The intensity of the tremor has no significant variation. An overflight on the same day of the summit craters allowed to observe continuous emissions of brown ash by the NEC, as well as an explosion with a small plume of ash by the Voragine. INGV reported that a pulsating ash emission was observed at craters Northeast and Voragine on October 1st, 2019. It has intensified since 8:50 GMT on webcams images. The INGV also reported that the amplitude of the tremor does not show significant variations from the previous days. As of the 27th of September, INGV reported that from 5:00 GMT an emission of ash was observable at the crater northeast of Etna. The ashes dispersed to a south sector.This activity follows the last week which was characterized by explosive strombolian and effusive intracrateric activity at the crater of Voragine, coupled with sporadic ash emissions at the NEC; the other craters continued the normal degassing.ESA's Sentinel satellites analyzed sulfur dioxide emissions and thermal anomalies over the same period. INGV reported that Strombolian activity from vents at the bottom of Etna's Voragine Crater (VOR) continued during 16-22 September. On 18 September guides observed intensified explosive activity at VOR characterized by the ejection of scoria and ash from several vents to heights of tens of meters. A lava flow from the cone had descended the W flank of the cone to its base, and then flowed several hundred meters S and branched into the Bocca Nuova Crater. Similar activity was observed on 19 September, though by 22 September the lava flows were cooling and Strombolian activity from VOR vents had become less frequent. Gas emissions rose from Northeast Crater (NEC); an ash emission was noted on 22 September. .INGV reported that regarding the location of the source of volcanic tremor that, on Saturday, September 14, was mainly below the crater Voragine, it is located since the beginning of September 15 essentially under the crater Northeast. The volcanic tremor source is currently at an altitude of 2700-2900 m above sea level, with a tendency to deepen. During the weekend, infrasound activity showed a slight increase in the frequency of events. The sources of the events are mainly Voragine and, to a lesser extent, Bocca Nuova and the Northeast crater. INGV reported that on September 13, ash emissions were observed at the NEC, scattered in the summit area. Strombolian activity, with emission of coarse materials, animates the Voragine; it continued in the evening of 14 September, with some explosions, visible from Tremestieri Etneo. The flux of SO2 measured by the FLAME network of Etna on the 13th at 15:30 UTC showed a daily average value of about 2000 t / day, which is below the attention threshold of 5000 t / day. As of the 12th of September, INGV reported that as of 10:00 UTC the eruptive activity at Voragine Crater has intensified further, going from occasional ejections of ash to strombolian activity almost continuous, which does not produce significant ash emissions. Strombolian activity is accompanied by strong detonations in Zafferana Etnea, Aci S. Antonio, Pedara and surrounding areas. The SO2 stream measured over the FLAME Etna network at 12:00 UTC recorded an average daily value of about 4800 t/g, at the limit with the attention threshold of 5000 t/g. SO2's intraday data indicated maximum flow values between 6000 and 8000 t/g. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor remains at high values, the location of the source of the tremor is confined to the area of Voragine Crater, at altitudes ranging between 2800 and 3000 meters on the sea. As of approximately 09:00 UTC, infrasonic activity has increased in the rate of occurrence, which is located at voragine Crater. Soil deformation monitoring networks found no particular anomaly.The emission of ash from the northeast crater ended on 25 August 2019 at 8:38 am local time, according to the monitoring networks of INGV. The average magnitude of the volcanic tremor shows average and low values, comparable to those of last week. Even the infrasound signal does not show any significant changes. The clinometric and GPS (HF) networks show no significant changes and show a trend similar to that which existed before the ash activity of the Northeast crater. INGV reported that since last August 6, there has been ash emissions from the Northeastern crater (NEC) of Etna. Sometimes these emissions are more dense and abundant, forming a plume which is dispersed by the wind mainly near the eruptive vent toward the south and east of the volcano. Due to these events, much of the NEC's inner north wall collapsed. INGV and Etna Observatory, reports that monitoring and surveillance systems have detected a sudden increase in the average magnitude of the volcanic tremor on the 27th in the morning from 05.30 h. UTC. This increase continued with steady growth until 08.15 h. UTC, the surveillance cameras showed intense branching gas emissions at the base of the south side of the new crater of the Southeast. From 09:20 h. UTC, a further increase in the average magnitude of the volcanic tremor was observed, accompanied by explosive activity located on the new crater of the Southeastand signaling the opening of an eruptive mouth. Explosive activity resulted in the formation of a dense ash-rich gas plume that dispersed, drifted by the wind, on the eastern part of the volcano, at a maximum altitude estimated at about 4500 meters at sea level. At 11:10 UTC, INGV field team staff reported that explosive activity affected the entire extent of the eruptive fissure, which extends from the NSEC summit to its southern base. The explosions succeeded each other without a break in continuity and generated dense emissions of volcanic ash. From the southern part of the eruptive crack emerged a lava flow that extended to the southwest and to the south. At 11.35 UTC, the most advanced front reached and passed the northern base of the Barbagallo Mountains, at about 2.850 m at sea level, with a spread towards the bottom of an area between the Frumento Supino mounts and pyroclastic cones from 2002-2003.With regard to the deformation, one records at the same time as the increase of the tremor, slight variations of inclination at the top stations of the crater of Piano (about 2 MRAD) and Pizzi Deneri (some tenth of microradiants). GPS stations show no significant variation. At 12:21 UTC (1421 local time), a sequence of powerful explosions occurred at the NSEC, producing a cloud of ash rising 7.5 km above sea level. At the same time, eruptive activity continued without notable variations in the area adjacent to the "saddle cone" (active in January-April 2017) and on the southern flank of the NSEC. Around 2 pm UTC, the INGV personnel present in the summit area informs that the lava flow is well fed and is developing rapidly, with a front advancing rapidly towards the valley, after having passed the pyroclastic cones of 2002-2003. A helicopter flight by Joseph Nasi / Butterfly helicopters, around 16:30, reveals the activity spread between the "saddle cone" of the new southeastern crater and the two fractures to the south and southwest. The explosive activity continued in the evening from the two vents immediately under known as the "Cone of saddle" (active between January and April 2017), and activity of "Spattering" and emission of lava of two fracture on the south and southwest sides of the new south-east crater. This activity is similar to some of the eruptive episodes of the March-April 2017 period, but the most advanced lava flow has developed much more rapidly between the 2002-2003 cone (monte Barbagallo) and the old cone of monte Frumento Supino. As of the 21st of July INGV reported that since 20th inthe afternoon of July , eruptive activity ceased from the new Southeast crater. Lava is no longer being emitted from the vent on the north flank of the NSEC and the lava flow emplaced during the past few days does not show any movement and is cooling. Sporadic emissions of brownish ash continue from the Bocca Nuova crater. INGV, Observatoire Etnéen, reported that the intense Strombolian activity at the new crater South-East (NSEC) of Etna, which had resumed the afternoon of July 19, suffered a drop brutal between 20:10 h and 20:15 h. UTC, to stop at 20:30 h. During the night, the rate of lava emission from the effusive vent on the north side of the NSEC, and the lava fronts that were at about 2200 m stopped and are being cooled. However, although at a very low rate, the effusive activity continued, and at 21:30 h 21:30 UTC started a very large emission of ash from the Northeast crater (NEC) duration up to at 02:25 UTC this 20th of July. During the night, there were also some small explosions at the NSEC. As of 03:30 am UTC, the visual and thermal surveillance cameras recorded a further increase in explosive activity at the NSEC. Since then, this activity has continued with fluctuations between Strombolian explosions and ash emissions; the emission of lava from the effusive vent on the north side of the NSEC continues. Currently, the active flows are in the upper part of the Leone Valley, around an altitude of 2600 m. Emissions of ash from the new vent and the SEC are also observed.The analysis of MODIS images shows an increase in heat flux over the last 24 hours: thermal anomalies went from 1,746 MW on July 19 at 9:25 am to 4,878 MW the same day at 8:30 pm; They drop to 1,632 MW on July 20 at 0:45, and to 337 MW at 21:15 (source Mirova).This activity disrupted the operation of Catania International Airport on Saturday. Osservatorio Etneo, of INGV, announced that moderate eruptive activity, which began on 14 July at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC), is continuing and has shown a gradual intensification. On July 17, there was frequent ash emissions, which produced only minor anomalies in the images recorded by the thermal surveillance cameras. Since the beginning of the morning, however, the activity consists of Strombolian explosions, which occur every 1 to 2 minutes, but every 20 to 30 seconds, at the end of the morning. The explosions projected glowing pyroclastics a few tens of meters above the vent located in the eastern part of the NSEC. The ejectas frequently fell on the upper flanks of the cone. With respect to the volcanic tremor, a gradual increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor has been recorded since 2030 UTC, from low to medium. This was accompanied by migration and superficialization of the volcanic tremor source to the NSEC region, as well as an increase in the frequency of infrasonic events.This activity continued in the day of 18 July, and remained stable, without emitting ash or lava flow until around 23h. On July 19, a vent was opened around 01:07 at the NSEC's west base, in the same way as at the beginning of the May 30 eruption. A small lava flow is visible at first light of dawn.In addition, at 05:48 UTC, an ash emission occurred in the northeastern crater, causing a plume to form that quickly dissipated into the atmosphere. The first issue was followed by other smaller issues that continued during the production of this report [but ceased thereafter]. In contrast to the NSEC activity, ash emissions from the northeast crater produced no abnormal signals in the images recorded by the thermal surveillance cameras. INGV reported that since the morning of July 14, 2019, a weak explosive activity was in progress at the new crater of the Southeast Etna / NSEC. At first, it was brown ash emissions, but during the day, this activity became Strombolian. This activity continued on July 15th and 16th in the morning. INGV and Etnéan Observatory, reports that at 10.33 UTC hours on 6 July, there is a sudden increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor. INGV staff observed a Strombolian activity in the field at the new crater southeast of Etna, with products falling down the sides of the crater.INGV reported that an explosive pulse, accompanied by ash emission, was observed at the northeast crater of Mount Etna on June 2 at 10:06 UTC (local-2). The ash emitted quickly dispersed into the summit area.A low-frequency seismic signal and a transient infrasonic signal were recorded. INGV reported that an explosive activity occurred with ash emission began at Voragine crater of Etna in the afternoon of June 13, with a frequency and intensity very variable and discontinuous over time. The phenomenon is located on the crater bottom of the Voragine, where a new mouth has opened, which produces ashes that disperse quickly in the summit area. Associated with the ash, we also have material fallout on the terrace of the crater. A visit of the INGV teams on the morning of June 15 confirms the emission of ash, spaced between 1 and 10 minutes; the explosions are for the most part silent, sporadically accompanied by noise and emission of materials which concerns in part the outside of the crater rim. Regarding the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, no significant variation was recorded. However, in recent hours, while remaining confined to low values, there appears a slight and gradual upward trend. Infrasonic signals attest to a low level of activity.On the 13th and 14th of June, plumes of ashes, then emissions of water vapor, gas, and a little ashes were noticed at the Etna's crater of Voragina; they come from a new vent located on the northwest wall of the crater, distinct from the collapse pits opened in August 2016 and between January and April 2019. INGV reported that the eruptive activity that lasted from May 30th until the night of June 5-6, 2019 changed the shape of the new southeast crater cone of Etna.The thermal image shows, at the base of the cone, an eruptive vent. In addition, the southeast flank of the cone is cut by a "dry" fracture (which did not emit lava), and ends up in a rather warm zone, affected by intense fumarolic activity and sulfur deposits. INGV reported that the northern lava flow stopped, while the southern one stopped on June 6. The eruption was finally declared finished by INGV at 11.01 am local time.INGV reported that the analysis of the surveillance camera's images and the observations made by the INGV staff during the morning of May 5, 2019 have revealed that the explosive activity of the segment of the eruptive fissure at 2850 m altitude has ceased (for the moment). Only a slight outgassing persists.The emission of lava by the mouth, at an altitude of 2850 m, is in sharp decrease and remains confined near the mouth itself. The lava field is generally cooling.During the last 24 hours, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor did not show any significant changes, showing small fluctuations between the low and average values. INGV reported that from the analysis of the webcams images and field visits carried out on3 of June in the evening and the 4th of June in the morning showed that eruptive activity was continuing from the eruptive fissure at the altitude 2,850 meters .The explosive activity has decreased, and the spattering reaches about ten meters high. The active lava fronts are located between 2,500 and 2,300 meters approximately.The amplitude of the tremor seems to have stabilized after a decline on May 30 in the morning, and a small rise on June 4. INGV reported that a small explosive and effusive activity continued on June 3 at the open vent opened May 30 at the southeastern base of the new southeastern crater. As of the 2nd of June in the evening, INGV reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing . On 1st of June INGV reported that the sustained Strombolian and effusive activity was still continuing at the two fissures that opened in the north-east and south-east sectors of the New Southeast Crater (Nuovo Cratere di Sud Est). The northern lava flow extends toward the northern wall of the Valle del Bove and subsequently turns eastward, reaching a maximum distance of about 2 kilometers on the morning of May 31, at an estimated altitude of about 2050 meters. The second, southern lava flow is apparently more vigorously fed than the earlier, and emerges from a ground crack near the upper portion of the eruptive fissures that fed the eruption of December 2018. This flow expands towards the southeast along the western internal wall of the Valle del Bove, partially covering the lava flows of 2018. After skirting Serra Giannicola Piccola, in the early hours of 31 May the flow reached the bottom of the valley, with advancing lava fronts at about 1700 meters above sea level. Its estimated total length is about 3 kilometers.INGV reported that the eruption which began in the early hours of 30 May 2019 from new fissure vents on both the NE and SE sides of the New Southeast Crater continued with little change. Two lava lava flows, well fed, are moving into the Valle del Bove accompanied by loud strombolian activity at the vents. INGV reported that in the early morning (aroud 5:40 AM) on May 30, a new subterminal eruption (almost summit) started at Etna. Two eruptive fractures were opened: one on the northeast flank of the new southeastern crater, the other at the south-south-east base of the NSEC, where a modest Strombolian activity and the emission of small lava flows. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor began to increase towards the end of the evening on May 29th. INGV reported that gas emissions of variable intensity were observed rising from Etna’s summit craters during 14 and 17-19 May; weather conditions prevented views on the other days during 13-19 May. Ash emissions periodically rose from vents in the S and E parts of New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Several Strombolian explosions at NSEC ejected incandescent pyroclastic material a few dozen meters above the crater rim during 17-18 May. INGV reported that during 22-28 April ash emissions rose from Etna’s Bocca Nuova Crater, Northeast Crater (NEC), and from the E vent in New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Pulsating incandescence from NSEC’s E vent was recorded at night by webcams. A new vent on the inner wall of Voragine Crater was noted on 30 April. Strombolian activity from the BN-1 crater deep within the Bocca Nuova Crater was visible on 28 April and continued through 5 May; field inspections on 30 April revealed that two vents in BN-1 were active and producing explosions at a rate of one every 2-3 seconds. Bombs and lapilli were ejected above the crater rim but deposits remained mostly within the confines of the crater or near the rim. Strombolian activity was visible at NSEC during 29 April-5 May. On 2 May, beginning at 0131, discontinuous explosions at the E vent produced emissions of fine tephra that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and quickly dissipated. During 5-6 May the frequency of explosions increased for brief periods in conjunction with a slight increases in volcanic tremor amplitude. INGV reported that an explosion occurred at the north-eastern crater of Etna on April 26 at 18:39, accompanied by an ash emission towards Linguaglossa. Small falls of ash were reported.The NE crater did not show much since the collapse of its southwestern edge on February 22nd. INGV reported that during 8-14 April gas emissions of variable intensity rose from Etna’s summit craters. During each night webcams recorded pulsating flashes from the E vent in New Southeast Crater (NSEC) which became more intense towards the end of the week. A minor ash emission from Bocca Nuova Crater was visible at 0520 on 8 April. On 19 February INGV summarized Etna's fissure eruption that occurred high on the SE flank during 24-27 December 2018, noting that 3-4 million cubic meters of lava erupted and covered an area of 1 square kilometer. After the event seismicity gradually decreased. The last significant event was a ML 4.1 recorded on 8 January 2019; afterwards seismicity was characterized as frequent events with modest magnitudes. Since the beginning of January ash emissions intermittently rose mainly from Northeast Crater (NEC) and more sporadically from Bocca Nuova. News sources noted that the Catania Airport (Aeroporto di Catania di Sicilia) was closed during 26-27 January. Preliminary assessments of some of the ash deposits showed they contained no juvenile material. During 11-17 February ash emissions of variable intensity rose from NEC and were notable on 14 and 18 February. Volcanic tremor amplitude did not significantly vary compared to the previous week, having average values overall. The Catania Airport announced the partial closure of airspace and flight delays during 17-18 February due to ash emissions. INGV reported that during 6-10 February webcams at Etna recorded gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and Voragine Crater, and occasional ash clouds from Northeast Crater INGV reported that strong strombolian explosions were observed at the northeast crater from 8:40 am on February 8, accompanied by a dense ash plume pushed by the wind blowing from the north to an east and south-east sector.INGV reported that ash emissions from the northeast crater and Bocca Nuova continue; a few falls of ashes are reported on Pisano and Zafferana Etnea. The fallout of ash on the top of the volcano reveals a two-color landscape well sliced, black and white !INGV reported that ash emissions were still ontinuing on January 22nd from two summit craters, the Northeast crater and the Bocca Nuova. According to an local information an opening of a new vent occurred in the central crater; it is about 40 meters northwest another opened in August 2016. INVG reported that on January 11, and last night, Etna experienced different explosions on Voragine and / or the northeast crater, accompanied by large ash plumes.Details about eruptive phase provided by the INGV : The eruptive fissure extended from the southeastern base of the new southeast crater to the west wall of the Valle del Bove, reaching a minimum altitude of about 2,400 meters above sea level. A second small eruptive fissure opened a little further north, at about 3,000 meters above sea level, between the new southeastern crater and the northeastern crater, and produced almost exclusively low Strombolian activity. for a few tens of minutes.During its propagation, the open eruption fissure in the Valle del Bove fed lava flows that completely crossed the west wall of the valley, reaching its bottom and settling at 17:00 UTC on December 24, at varying altitudes of 1650 and 1800 meters.In the early hours of December 25, the eruption is still in progress. A lava flow continues to flow into the Valle del Bove, fed by the eruptive fracture whose lower mouth is located at about 2400 m altitude, along the western wall of the valley.Summit craters, particularly New Bocca craters and Northeast craters, produce continuous Strombolian activity that feeds a gaseous plume rich in volcanic ash. The seismic swarm that accompanies the eruption continues; since yesterday morning, in about twenty-four hours, more than 900 seismic shocks have been recorded by the seismic network of the INGV Osservatorio Etneo.During the night, from midnight, seven earthquakes were recorded, including one of M 3.3 at 01:09, with its epicenter 4 km north of Aci Sant'Antonio; an earthquake of M 4.8 at 3:18, with its epicenter 2 km north of Viagrande, was felt by the population and caused damage to Santa Venerina, Fleri and Lavinaio. Previous INGV report noted that the new eruptive phase, started yesterday December 24 , is the first flank eruption of Mount Etna for more than ten years on this site. the new fissure opened in the morning at about 3,000 meters above sea level at the base of the new south-east crater on the western flank of Valle del Bove, feeding a lava flow.The entire summit area is deformed, and strombolian activity also concerns the northeast crater and the Bocca Nuova. The present activity poses no danger for the inhabitants; only ashes and lapilli issued to a southeastern sector forced the partial closure of the Catania airport at 13:00 UTC, diverting incoming flights to other locations. Ashes falls and lapilli were reported on Zafferana, Santa Venerina and the south-east sector.Previously, INGV reported that on 24th of December, from 8:50 am local time, an intense seismic swarm is observed on Etna. During the first three hours, more than 130 earthquakes occurred, the largest of which were of magnitude Ml = 4.0 (at 13:08), located in the area of ​​Piano Pernicana, on the northwestern side of the volcano, 2 km deep and 6 km west. from Zafferana Etnea) and Ml 3.9 (located in the area of ​​Monte Palestra on the NW side of the volcano). The seismic activity was accompanied by a gradual increase in degassing from the summit crater area, initially with sporadic ash emissions from the Bocca Nuova and the Northeast crater, which ended around 12.00 pm to a dense and continuous plume of black ashes.After about five minutes, intense Strombolian activity began at the south base of the new south-east crater, probably triggered by an eruptive fissure, and with the opening of several mouths towards Serra Giannicola (flank eruption). At the same time, Strombolian activity is also increased at Bocca Nuova and Crater Nord-Est. At 12:01 local time, the Etneo Observatory Office (OE-INGV) issued a Red VONA for the issuance of ashes to the aeronautical authorities.Geodetic networks, GPS and inclinometers, show obvious deformations of the area of ​​the summit. As of the 19th of December, strombolian and effusive activity continues in the growing cone of the "Puttusiddu" of the NSEC / New southeast crater of Etna.The Bocca Nuova has night glow, and a thermal anomaly always marks three craters: the NSEC, the Bocca Nuova and the northeast. INGV reported that during 3-9 December activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian explosions at the cone in NSEC became more frequent on 4 December. In addition, lava effusion became continuous with small overlapping flows traveling about 500 m down the E flank of the cone. Incandescent blocks generated by the lava flows rolled to the base of the cone, and occasional small collapses produced minor ash plumes. Strombolian activity and occasional ash emissions were characteristic of vents in the W part of Bocca Nuova’s (BN-1) crater floor. Gas emissions at Voragine Crater continued from a vent on the E rim of the crater, and Strombolian explosions were evident at NEC. As of the 6th of December, Sentinel data reported that three craters were still active , the Northeast, the Bocca Nuova and the new crater Southeast and its lava flow, marked by thermal anomalies reported by Mirova between 16 and 162 MW they days. INGV reported that three craters were still active this November 22 at the top of Mount Etna: a Strombolian activity occured at the Bocca Nuova, and the "puttusiddu" of the new crater southeast. The crater northeast was also continuing its activity.INGV reported that a seismic swarm hit the western part of Etna between 05:55 and 15:21 (local time) today, 20 November 2018. The monitoring networks of the INGV-Osservatorio Etneo have recorded more than 40 seismic events. with a magnitude of Ml between 1.6 and 3.5.The earthquake of greater magnitude (Ml = 3.5) occurred at 6:06 am and was located about 5 km northeast of the municipality of Adrano, at a depth of about 22 km. Meanwhile on 20th of November INGV reported that weak trombolian activity continues at the craters at the top Bocca Nuova, Crater Northeast and Nuovo Crater Southeast, which continued for several weeks. In particular, the small scoria cone present in the eastern vent of the New Southeast Crater (NCSE) also emits, on the evening of November 20, a small lava flow that remained however confined in the eastern vent of the same place. NCSE.INGV reported that during 29 October-4 November activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), SE Crater (SEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian explosions at NSEC occurred from a few minutes to a few hours. The explosions sometimes produced ash emissions that quickly dispersed; ashfall was deposited around the crater and in the Valle del Bove. Strombolian activity and gas emissions were characteristic of the N vent in the W part of Bocca Nuova's (BN-1) crater floor. Spattering from the southernmost vent was also visible, as well as gas emissions. Gas emissions at Voragine Crater from a vent on the E rim of the crater were less intense compared to previous months. NEC activity was characterized by Strombolian explosions sometimes accompanied by minor ash emissions. .According to local news several explosions on October 30 at the end of the day at the New Crater Southeast. INGV reported that during 15-21 October activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), Southeast Crater (SEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian activity at the N vent in the W part of Bocca Nuova's (BN-1) crater floor ejected incandescent material higher that the crater rim. Spattering from the southernmost vent was also visible. Gas emissions increased at Voragine Crater from a vent that formed on 7 August 2016 on the E rim of the crater, and the crater continued to gradually widen and deepen. NEC activity was characterized by gas emissions and explosive activity of variable frequency and intensity. Fumarolic plumes rose from the rim and crater walls of NSEC and SEC. The E vent in NSEC produced Strombolian explosions and ash emissions which rapidly dispersed. INGV reported that during 24-30 September activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian activity at the N vent in Bocca Nuova (BN-1) ejected incandescent material almost as high as the W crater rim. No eruptive activity was observed at BN-2, though it produced explosions deep in the crater. A new high-temperature vent producing gas emissions was noted on 1 October in the same place a fumarole had been observed the previous week. Ash emissions from NSEC were sometimes accompanied by ejected incandescent material. Gas emissions increased at Voragine Crater from a vent that formed on 7 August 2016 on the E rim of the crater. NEC produced frequent brown-gray ash emissions, and ejected blocks and bombs, from a vent located in the W part of the crater floor. Activity at New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was characterized by modest and occasional explosions and Strombolian activity. Beginning at 1700 on 23 August Strombolian activity from the cone in the saddle between the Southeast Crater (SEC) and NSEC cone complex rapidly intensified; explosions ejected tephra 100-150 m above the vent rim. At 1730 Strombolian activity occurred at NSEC's E vent, and a lava flow from the same vent traveled a few hundred meters towards the Valle del Bove. Just after 1730 lava overflowed the vent in the saddle cone and flowed N; Strombolian activity at that vent continued through the night and then stopped no later than 0620 on 24 August. At 0622 Strombolian activity from a vent on the S flank of NSEC produced a small lava flow that traveled a few dozen meters. During 25-26 August the activity at the saddle cone gradually decreased, and ash emissions were weak and occasional. INGV reported that during 6-12 August activity at Etna was similar to the previous week, characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, Strombolian activity, and ash emissions. Strombolian explosions continued from vents in Bocca Nuova, and were particularly visible at night. Activity at Northeast Crater (NEC) consisted of frequent ash emissions and Strombolian explosions. Explosions at the E crater on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) generated gray-brown ash plumes that sometimes rose several hundred meters above Etna’s summit and quickly dissipated. Based on two field inspections and webcam data, INGV reported that during 30 July-5 August activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters and Strombolian activity. Three vents at the bottom of the Bocca Nuova crater were active, with gas emissions rising from two vents and sporadic Strombolian activity occurring at a third. Three vents were also active at the bottom of Northeast Crater (NEC); one produced ash emissions, one steam emissions, and Strombolian explosions at the third ejected incandescent material as high as the crater rim. After several months of quiet conditions, explosive activity resumed at the E crater on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). The activity began at 0608 on 1 August with a brownish-gray ash emission that rose several hundred meters above the summit. The event was followed by more ash emissions and then Strombolian activity in the evening. INGV reported that during 9-15 July gas emissions continued to rise from Etna’s summit craters. Visibility of the fairly continuous, low-energy, Strombolian activity deep within the Northeast Crater (NEC) and Bocca Nuova was sometimes hindered by gas emissions. Ejected incandescent material fell back into the crater. Strong and prolonged roars (up to several tens of seconds) from NEC were sometimes accompanied by gray-brown and reddish ash emissions. Collapses of the crater’s inner walls widened the crater. Gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) were weak and sometimes pulsating.Following the latest INGV report about four new degassing vents in the northeast crater of Mount Etna, a Strombolian activity can be heard at Bocca Nuova, whose crater is filled with swirling gas on July 12th.Thermal anomalies were reported on July 12th and 13th, respectively by 2-6 MW and 24 MW, by Mirova.That is the first manifestation of the volcano since the eruption at the new crater southeast / NSEC. Previous news - On Etna, the "puttusiddu" vent has continued to emit small ash emissions since February 16, at an accelerated frequency of 1 to 2 episodes per hour; these emissions also include the ejection of incandescent fragments. Previously, INGV reported that activity at Etna during 22-28 January was relatively unchanged compared to the previous weeks and was mainly characterized by variable-intensity gas emissions from the summit craters. Weak and sporadic ash emissions rose from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). On 22 January ash fell in areas on the S flank and also in Catania, though the crater which produced the ash emission was unknown due to poor visibility. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank. (webcam). . www.ct.ingv.it . Live cam Etna - Etna monitoring page - New Etna Southwest crater webcam

ITALY - Stromboli volcano (Eolian Islands)

May 9h, 2020

INGV reported that during the week from May 1st to May 7th, 2020, the explosive activity remained stable at a low level and was mainly localized in the SW crater until May 1, then decreased slightly and mainly moved towards the central crater. This activity is accompanied by a slight swelling (max 40 mbar) also located in the C-SO secctor. The number of VLP events stable at high values ​​until May 5 then increased to average values ​​(between 10.5 and 10.9 events / hour). The seismic tremor is stable on the average values. INGV reported that volcanic activity of Stromboli was characterized between 17 and 23 April by Strombolian explosions rich in pyroclastic material located mainly in the NE crater and continuous degassing in the C / SW crater. This activity is associated with a high to very high number of VLP earthquakes and acoustic pressures with variable values ​​between between medium and high (max 1.08 bar).INGV and LGS reported that on April 14, at 4:12 UYC, the LGS surveillance network recorded a deflation of the ground, presenting all the typical characteristics of the lava overflows recorded in 2014 and March 31, 2020. The webcams did not corroborated the effusion, which is most likely intracratric, and concerned small volumes. The INGV OE reported on April 15 from 7:16 UTC a lava overflow from the north crater of the Stromboli terrace. Glowing blocks detach from the lava front and roll into the Sciara del Fuoco. A VLP seismic signal is observed and reported by the LGS, comparable in amplitude and frequency to the signal recorded on March 31 which accompanied a small lava overflow. The signal is associated with a fall of blocks of approximately 20 minutes (7:16 a.m. - 8:00 a.m. UTC). The depth of the VLP seismic source is compatible with a magmatic column which has been very shallow for weeks. The VLP seismic signals remained at very high values. Explosive activity at the NE crater, increased over the past week, has rapidly decreased overnight, starting at 23:00 UTC yesterday. The thermal anomalies of April 14 are between VRP 10 and 14 MW, those of April 15, between 21 and 73 MW. Previously, INGV informed that the surveillance networks recorded from 23:40 hours UTC approximately on March 30, 2020, a lava overflow from the crater terrace of Stromboli; lava reached the coast line at approximately 1:50 a.m. UTC on March 31. At the same time as volcanic phenomenology, there is a seismic signal associated with episodes of rolling incandescent blocks along the Sciara del Fuoco and small landslides that generate clouds of dust. LGS of the Department of Earth sciences of the University of Florence recorded an increase in the seismic tremor at Stromboli, accompanied by events of roll (such as "rockfall"), the longest of which (approximately 3 minutes) took place on March 29 at 16:57 UTC. This phase of increase in tremors is associated with an overflow, that is to say an overflow of lava, from the NE crater as in the images of the Labronzo camera and caused the collapse of small portions of the edge of the crater. At the moment, there is no significant change in the other parameters monitored. This activity is still ongoing. INGV reported that during the period from March 16 to 22, 2020, the explosive activity was mainly produced by at least 3 (three) eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and at least 3 (three) eruptive vents located in the area of Center-South crater. All the vents are placed inside the depression which occupies the crater terrace.In the northern zone, the explosions were mainly of low to low intensity (less than 80 m high) to high (more than 150 m high) of coarse materials (lapilli and bombs); the abundant fallout has covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del fuoco and the blocks are rolled until they reach the coast line. The INGV specifies that on March 19 from 2:50 p.m. UTC and until 4:30 p.m. UTC, intense spattering activity animated one of the north mouths overlooking the Sciara del fuoco, and gave birth to a modest rheomorphic flow in the upper part of the Sciara for a few hundred meters. the average frequency of explosions in the North zone was variable, between 7 and 9 events / h. The explosive activity of the Center-South zone caused explosions of mainly fine materials (ashes) mixed with large grains of medium to high intensity (150-250 m in height). The frequency of explosions from the CS area was variable, between 5 and 16 events / h. INGV reported from 9th to 15th of March, the explosive activity of Stromboli was mainly produced by at least 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and by at least 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. All the mouths are placed inside the depression which occupies the crater terrace. In the North zone, the explosions were mainly of variable intensity, from low (less than 80 m high) to high (greater than 150 m high) of coarse materials (lapilli and bombs). in numerous explosions, abundant fallout products covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del fuoco and the blocks rolled to the coast. The average frequency of explosions in zone N varied between 8 and 11 events / h. The explosive activity of the Center-South zone produced explosions of mainly fine materials (ash) sometimes mixed with coarse medium intensity (less than 150 m high) sometimes high (the products exceeded 250 m in height). The frequency of explosions in the CS zone varied between 6 and 14 events / h. INGV reported that between February 24 and March 1, 2020, an explosive activity of normal Strombolian type continued accompanied by degassing activity; the hourly rate of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(11 / h on 26.02) and high average values ​​(17 / h on 24.02). At least three vents, in the area of ​​the North crater, expelled bombs and lapilli, which covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del Fuoco, where blocks rolled to the sea. Three vents, in the center-south zone, were the site of mainly fine material explosions.All the vents are located in the depression of the terrace. Normal activity was observed during period from 17th to 23rd of February with explosive strombolian type accompanied by degassing. The hourly rate of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(12 events / h on February 21) and high values ​​(21 events / h on day February 17). The intensity of the explosions was mainly medium to high in the region of the North Crater and medium in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. In the morning of February 21 and 22, 2020, INGV-OE staff carried out an inspection to monitor the explosive activity and the orphological changes of the crater terrace. INGV reported that a normal activity was observed during the period from February 10th to 16th, 2020. Explosive strombolian type, accompanied by degassing; the hourly rate of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(12 events / h on February 11) and average-high values ​​(18 events / h on February 16). The intensity of the explosions was mainly medium-low in the region of the North crater and medium-high in the zone of the Center-South crater. INGV reported that as of the 3rd of February from around 08:20 h UTC, via surveillance cameras, a modest overflow was observed from the northern area of ​​the Stromboli crater terrace, which is currently confined to the summit area. The flow front disintegrates on steep slopes and causes the rolling of material along the Sciara del Fuoco. The magnitude of the volcanic tremor does not show significant associated variations.The daily number of VLP earthquakes is high (18 episodes / hour). The thermal activity recovered from the cameras is average. The flow of SO2 results in low values ​​(59 t / d), like the flow of CO2 (121 t / d). The explosive activity is centered on the NE crater sector, with the emission of gas, ash and slag. The Central and SW crater sectors are characterized by continuous degassing. INGV reported a small lava flow on January 18 from 9:36 pm UTC located in the northern area of ​​the Stromboli crater terrace; it remains confined in the summit area, and following an overflow at the very beginning of the day on January 19, materials roll in the Sciara del Fuoco. This activity did not last and is considered to have ended in the report from 19.01 at 10:03 UTC. Normal seismicity persists and the deformations of the soil do not show significant variations. News 2019 - .INGV reported that activity of Stromboli has increased slightly in recent days. The number of VLP earthquakes remains high, with 19.4 episodes per hour on 28.12 - 18.8 on 29.12 - and 20.4 on 30.12 (standard values: 5-12 / h.) The amplitude of the tremor is middle, and the exit speed of the pyroclasts is around 24 m / s, average, and estimated by the images of thermal cameras. Tiltmeters do not show significant deformation. Thermal activity remains average. The flow of sulfur dioxide in the NE sector of the terrace fluctuates between 115 and 20 tonnes / day. According to the L.G.S., volcanic activity remain stable at an average level. INGV reported that a normal activity was observed during the period from December 16 to 22, 2019, of explosive Strombolian type, accompanied by degassing and splashing activities; the hourly frequency of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(13 events / h on December 17) and very high values ​​(32 events / h on December 20). The intensity of the explosions was mainly at a medium-low level in the area of ​​the North crater and medium-high in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. The seismological parameters do not show significant variations.No change to report on the deformation side.SO2 flux is at medium-high level The isotopic ratios of dissolved helium in the thermal layer remain unchanged at the mid-low values.As of the 23rd of December INGV reported that during the past 24 hours, explosive activity occurred from the crater sectors southwest and northeast, with about twenty explosions per hour, very noisy (sound pressure of more than 5.4 bar compared to normal around 1 bar). The seismic tremor is high.INGV reported that during the week of December 2 to 8 eruptive activity was characterized by explosive Strombolian explosions, at an average rate of 12 hourly episodes (06.12) to 24 hourly episodes (08.12), accompanied by degassing and spattering located in the north and south-central crater areas. Seismicity and deformation do not showed significant variations. The sulfur dioxide flux remained at a medium-high level. INGV reported that during 25 November-1 December activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity mainly from three vents in Area N (north crater area) and at least three vents in Area C-S (south central crater area). Low-to-medium-intensity explosions from Area N occurred at a rate of 7-11 events per hour and ejected lapilli and bombs 80-150 m above the vents. Ejected tephra fell onto the flanks and some blocks rolled a few hundred meters along the Sciara del Fuoco. Medium-intensity explosions from Area C-S occurred at a rate of 4-8 events per hour and ejected coarse material to heights less than150 m above the vents. Material was deposited along the upper parts of the Sciara del Fuoco. INGV reported that a normal Strombolian explosive activity accompanied by degassing continued; the frequency of explosions remains between medium to high with 16 to 23 episodes per hour. The parameters of seismicity and deformation do not show significant variations. The flow of SO2 remains at an average level. The Civil Protection has raised the alert level from orange to yellow on November 7, without changes in the prohibited navigation zone in front of the Sciara del Fuoco, nor concerning the prohibition of access above 290 meters. As of the 24th of September, INGV reported that normal Strombolian explosive activity and degassing continued. In the northern crater zone, 5-6 explosions per hour, with a peak at 9 episodes, between 80 and 150 meters high, produced coarse materials, lapilli and bombs, which rolled into the Sciara del Fuoco.Activity in the south-central zone was characterized by an average explosive of 11 episodes per hour, with peaks at 15 episodes, and an expulsion at heights of up to 200 meters of fine to coarse material. Seismology and deformation do not show significant changes and the sulfur dioxide flux remains at an average level. INGV reported that the typical strombolian activity continued and affected the north and south-central of the crater terrace.Drone surveys, conducted from 11 to 13 September, identify at least seven active mouths in the northern zone and eight in the central-south zone. The number of VLP earthquakes was 31 episodes / hour on average. There was no significant variation in soil deformation. Degassing was characterized by a characteristic low-average level. INGV reported that, during the flight over August 30 by the INGV staff and through camera image analysis, it was observed that the south-central lava flow had ceased. It started around 01:50 UTC on August 30th. As a result, the lava field gradually calms down. The flow of SO2 detected by the FLAME network from 09:00 UTC showed a moderate decrease placing the degassing regime at a medium-high level. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor over the past few hours has shown a gradual decrease, reaching values ​​comparable to those observed before the explosive sequence described in update release number 32. Currently, the amplitude shows fluctuations around mid-high values. On 29 August 2019 at 20:43:41 UTC, the geophysical monitoring network recorded a new powerful explosive event at Stromboli , associated with geophysical parameters (seismic, ground deformation and sound pressure) that are higher than the ordinary explosive activity .The seismic event (speed of 4.0 x 10-4 m / s and displacement of 4.5 x 10-5 m) exceeds the values ​​of ordinary activity The infrasonic network indicates that the explosion generated pressures of about 250 Pa, at a distance of 450 m, and located the explosive event in the area in relation to the Central / SW crater. This event was accompanied by a strong signal of soil deformation (1.17 μrad in the OHO inclinometer of Rina Grande), preceded by about 2 minutes of a net swelling of the soil. Following the explosion, there is an increase in seismic tremor to very high values ​​and an increase in the lava flow from the crater NE crater of Sciara del Fuoco. As of the 28th of August a second paroxysmal explosions occurred at Stromboli. . Similar to that of July 3, 2019, although less strong. INGV noted that Stromboli has already experienced such explosions separated by several years, or decades, but never in a lapse of so short time. This strong explosion occurred at 10:17 UTC without any particular changes in the monitored parameter levels before and after the episode, which remained high to very high. Only an increase in SO2 flux (264 t / d) is reported from high to very high values ​​that preceded the paroxysmal event of a few hours. A strong deformation of the ground was observed ( inflation) has been recorded onlyl five minutes before the explosion. The MODIS image at around 10.15am (UTC) measured a very high thermal anomaly of 3.799 MW, equivalent to effusive flows of about 15 m3 / s, an order of magnitude higher than the effusive flows recorded from the July 3, 2019 (0.3-3 m3 / s). The paroxysm generated an eruptive column of 2,000 meters in height and the ejection of large ballistic material up to 200-300 meters from the coast; a pyroclastic flow occurred in the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco and spread over several hundred meters on the surface of the sea, creating a small tsunami; according to the images of the webcams and the weather, its approximate speed was 180 km / h. Then, INGV reported that strombolian activity on the crater terrace was slightly down. An aerial observation from an helicopter of the coastguards of Catania on August 23, showed the opening of many igneous vents in this area. INGV reported that from 18 August at 0h35 UTC, the thermal camera of Punta Dei Corvi / on Stromboli, showed the resumption of effusive activity from a probably ephemeral vent at altitude 550-600 meters, above the area of ​​the central crater . The products issued run along the Sciara del Fuoco. A Modis image at 1:50 UTC records a thermal anomaly of 125 MW to 148 MW, compatible with this activity.The explosive activity continues without significant modification. INGV reported that Stromboli's crater terrace activity was analyzed during 5-11 August through webcam views, and field inspections during 7-8 August. At least nine vents in Area N (north crater area, NCA) were active on 7 August, three of which had well-formed spatter cones, with Strombolian activity ejecting material 150 m high. A large scoria cone in Area C-S (South Central crater area) jetted material 200 m high. Lava from Area C-S vents continued to travel down the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, reaching 500-600 m elevation. INGV and LGS reported that the explosive activity of Stromboli has increased since the beginning of August at the level of the central craters / south-west and the cones of the NE sector, with explosions rich in ash and scoria at 200 meters height above the terrace; these materials accumulate in the crater zone and on the Sciara del Fuoco, where they produce frequent rock slide events. The effusive activity in the SW sector shows an increase in the supply rate which has now reached values ​​of about 1.2 m³ / s, and corresponds to an increase in SO2 levels. All measured parameters suggest a new phase of feed rate increase and the arrival at the surface of a gas-rich magma coinciding with phases of sharp increases in both peak explosive activity and ratios. effusion. INGV and LGS reported that the volcano is still showing a high explosive activity, mainly in central / southwest and northeast craters, with ash-rich explosions and ejection of centimeter sized projectiles. An active overflow of lava marks the upper area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco, visible on July 30 at 12:49 local / 10:49 UTC on the thermal camera on the northern edge of the Sciara at 400 m. altitude, and from the ROC camera at 11:52.The parameters are consistent with the explosive and effusive activity: oscillations of the tremor at high values, an average of 28 VLP earthquakes / hour, thermal anomalies between 202 MW and 49 MW, tendency of the flow of sulfur dioxide to the increase. Thermal data from satellites and cameras recorded during the last 12 hours on July 17 indicate an increase in the effusive activity of the south-west crater of Stromboli. MODIS images acquired over the last 12 hours, in favorable meteorological and satellite conditions, show elevated thermal anomalies up to 744 MW (01:50 UTC) which correspond to an increase in effusive activity, with effusive velocities (TADR) estimated at about 2 m3 / s (+/- 0.6 m3 / s).The increase in thermal luminance measured by MODIS is confirmed by the SENTINEL image acquired at 10:00 UTC on 17/07/2019, which shows a clear increase in the lava front surface. From the images, it is possible to estimate a maximum stream length of about 600 m and a maximum width of 80 m. The lava front is installed at an altitude of about 300 m. In line with the increase in effusion activity, there is a further increase in the SO2 flux measured by the UV Roccette camera which attests to a very high level. This increase is visible on the images of the Ginostra thermal camera, showing a well-fed and organized flow in several branches.The LGS reported for July 14th and 15th an increasing in thermal activity which corresponds to an increase in effusive activity: from 276 MW at 21:05 UTC on the 14th, it has risen to 347 MW at 1:20 UTCINGV reported that a powerful explosive and effusive activity continues in Stromboli. This magmatic feed continues at a very shallow level and fills the crater terrace which is now much wider than the geometry preceding the explosion of July 3, 2019. Due to the absence of parts of the edges of the crater terrace, the Magma escapes in recent days through a series of overflows both in the western portion (Ginostra side) and in the central area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco (eastern crater side).Since 6 am UTC on July 15, there has been characterized by an increasing of the release of gas from the NE portion of the crater terrace, with SO2 flux reaching very high values ​​(254 t / d, at 9:45 UTC)On the evening of July 12, the northern crater area was more active, with a series of overflows in the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco, while the emission of a modest lava flow continued from the center-south crater zone. According to the INGV's surveillance cameras and field observations, strombolian this activity continued from the north and south-central zones of the terrace. Lava flows are emitted from the central-south zone and reach the mid-slope in the Sciara del Fuoco. The July 12 Sentinel 2 image shows hot spots on the terrace and in the Sciara del Fuoco. LGS inspection carried out in Punta dei Corvi at 15:30 on 10 July with the help of the thermal camera has allowed to observe several active lava overflows at the summit, from which two flows start along the central and south part of Sciara del Fuoco.The southern front rises to about 600 m., while the front of the central part of the Sciara reaches about 400 m. altitude. These flows bring hot materials to the bottom of the slope where they accumulate as small deltas. INGV reported that from 8 pm local time on July 8, 2019, an overflow of lava from the south-west crater of Stromboli generated a lava flow of up to 500 m along the Sciara del Fuoco. The overflow is also confirmed by the analysis of the images of the thermal camera of Punta Dei Corvi, restored after the paroxysmal explosion of July 3th, 2019.A thermal anomaly of 125 MW recorded at 20:50 UTC on 08.07, and 211 MW at 01h UTC, by Mirova This heat flux value is in agreement with the current lava overflow, indicating an effusion rate of about 0.5 mc /s (LGS - 08.07.2019). INGV reported that a paroxysmal eruption occurred on 3 July 2019 – at 16:46 Local Time (UTC+2). The eruptive column, at least 2-km-high, produced severe ash and lapilli fall-out on the volcano flanks, affecting especially the village of Ginostra located in the eastern part of the island. In particular, two main explosive events were distinguished at 14:46:10 H and 14:46:40 H UTC, respectively. The sequence was preceded at 14:44 h UTC by lava overflows of all the active vents of the crater terrace towards the Sciara del Fuoco. One person died during hiking on the trail “Punta del Corvo” downward to Ginostra and several other persons would be injured. The fall-out has also triggered several fires in various sectors of the upper/intermediate volcano flank .After the paroxysm of 14:46 UTC, no other high intensity explosive event was observed. The seismic route returned to the levels preceding the explosive sequence and, thanks to the surveillance cameras, it was possible to observe normal strombolian activity and cooling of the relapsed material deposited along the Sciara del Fuoco, which produces continuous rolling towards the coast. INGV reported that a major eruption occurred on 25th of June at about 11 PM involving the central Southern area of the terrace.Pyroclastics material has fallen onto the Sciara del Fuoco and inside the crater terrace. The seismic signal associated at this event lasted 4 mn. After this strong eruption, no further explosive event occurred. INGV reported that during 3 and 6-9 June activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian explosions and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace. Explosions from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N (north crater area, NCA) occurred at a rate of 1-4 per hour, ejecting material 80 m high and producing ash plumes. Explosions from two vents (S1 and S2) in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 3-8 per hour, ejecting material 80-150 m high. Gas plumes rose from vent INGV reported that during 15-21 April activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace, though activity intensified on 19 April. Explosions originated at a rate of 3-16 per hour mainly from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N (north crater area, NCA) and at least four vents (including C, S1, and S2) in Area C-S (South Central crater area). Explosions from the N1 vent ejected lapilli and bombs mixed with ash no more than 150 m high. Low-intensity explosions at the N2 vent ejected tephra to heights under 80 m. Vent C produced gas emissions. Incandescent material from S1 jetted as high as 150 m above the crater. Explosions from two vents at S2 ejected tephra more than 150 m high. Previously on 21st of January, the Italian Experimental Geophysical Laboratory / LGS reports strong Strombolian activity at the northeastern vent of Stromboli, and strong explosions at the other six vents on the platform.The new cinder cone that has recently been built around the northeastern vent shows spattering and a strong nocturnal incandescence, and explosions with projections at about 150 meters, sometimes up to 250-300 meters, every 10- 20 minutes. INGV reporterd that since December 24, 2018, Stromboli has recorded seismic signals of frequency and waveform compatible with a phenomenon of fracturing in the summit zone spattering has been on the rise since December 26, at the crater terrace, where seven vents are active. The Civil Protection issued an advise of "early warning" on January 4, defining a "high level of activity", motivating the ban on access to the volcano above 400 meters above sea level, except in the context of operations monitoring.The level of activity increased further in the evening of January 5, 2019, especially in the northeastern vents, where a new cinder cone grew and produced explosions and spattering. Previously, a new " strong explosion" was recorded on August 18 on Stromboli by the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV). Particulary, at 17:08 (local time), an intense explosion involved the vent of the south-central zone located on the crater terrace. The explosion produced a small cloud of ash, which dispersed rapidly, and the ejection of pyroclastic material, which fell mainly on the crater terrace and on top of the Sciara del Fuoco. The seismic signal associated with the event lasted a little over 4 minutes. Subsequently, the volcano returned to its normal Strombolian activity.INGV reported that activity at Stromboli during 9-15 July was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents. Explosions mainly from two vents in Area N (north crater area) and three vents in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 14-19 per hour, except four per hour were recorded on 15 July. Low-intensity explosions from the N1 vent (NCA) ejected lapilli and bombs as high as 80 m. Explosions at the N2 vent (NCA) ejected tephra 120 m high. Vent C (Area C-S) produced gas emissions and sporadic spattering. Low-intensity explosions at S2 (Area C-S) ejected tephra less than 80 m high. INGV reported typical activity at Stromboli from 7 to 13 May, with 2-4 hourly low-intensity explosions to heights of less than 80 m (300 ft) above the crater, in the North crater area. Fine ash as well as lapilli and bombs were ejected. The South Central crater area vents produced between 5-12 hourly, low-intensity explosions, also to heights of less than 80 m above the crater. Continuous degassing was also observed from these vents. On 13 May there was an increased frequency of explosions, with 16 events/hour. No significant variations were reported in seismological, deformation, or geochemical parameters. INGV reported that on the morning of April 24, an intense explosive sequence occurred on the Stromboli volcano that involved the vents of the south-central zone located on the crater terrace.A first explosion occurred at 11:05 local / 09:05 GMT, emitting abundant ash mixed with incandescent material and large blocks of lava fallen in the summit area and along the Sciara del Fuoco. The delivered products have exceeded a height of 250 m above the crater terrace, as evidenced by the video surveillance cameras Observatory Etneo INGV-OE.This explosion was followed by a second explosive event on 11.06, characterized by a modest fountain.At 11:10, the closing event of the sequence with an ejection of pyroclastic materials of lower intensity, compared to the first explosion.Overall, this explosive sequence produced a cloud of ash that quickly dispersed into the southeast quadrants of the island. The ejection of coarse pyroclastic materials was radial with fallout on the crater terrace and along the Sciara del Fuoco. This highly explosive sequence has been associated with geophysical parameters, seismicity, soil deformation and sound pressure, which can be classified as major explosions, more violent than those developed during ordinary Strombolian activity.INGV reported that a high-energy explosive sequence began at vent C at 2027 on 19 March and lasted about 40 seconds. The first explosion ejected ash and incandescent material that fell in a radial distribution around the crater. Two subsequent explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 80 m. Tephra fell along the Sciara del Fuoco, towards the NE parts of the island. At 2028 an explosion at N2 ejected lapilli 100-120 m high. INGV reported that on the evening of 18 March 2018 , a violent explosive sequence involved the eruptive vents of the crater terrace of Stromboli. A first explosion at 19:27 from the vent of the south-central zone was accompanied by the emission of ashes, incandescent materials and large lava blocks, more than 350 meters above the terrace that fell on the summit area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco.A second explosion, 40 seconds later, occurred from the vent in the northern zone, with ash and material emitting at about 100 meters high; the ashes dispersed to the east.This episode was accompanied by a strong signal of ground deformation, preceded by about 2 minutes of soil inflation. Similar violent explosions, more violent than those of a typical Strombolian activity, occurred several times in 2017: March 7th, July 26th, October 23rd, November 1st and December 1st. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean."Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout historical time. The small, 926-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a horseshoe-shaped scarp formed as a result of slope failure that extends to below sea level and funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli since Roman times.www.ct.ingv.it - Live webcam

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Iceland - Reykjanes peninsula

June 1st, 2020

IMO reported that seismic activity has resumed on the Reykjanes peninsula since May 30. The IMO reports about 300 earthquakes since midnight, the strongest of M 2.7 felt in Grindavik.During the week of May 20 to 27, 120 earthquakes were counted. New GPS, InSAR, and radon measurements taken on May 26 indicate soft re-inflation near Þorbjörn; a longer-term series of measures is necessary to understand the processes and assess the risks. The phase of uncertainty declared by the Protecton Civile is still in force. IMO reported that uplift detected in the Thorbjorn area decreased in the beginning of April and stopped later in the month. Seismicity, which had occurred across three main volcanic systems: Eldey, Reykjanes-Svartsengi, and Krisuvik, had significantly decreased. These data indicated that the injection of magma beneath Thorbjorn had stopped, though there were indications of deformation over a larger area. On 4 May the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. IMO reported that seismic swarms continue. On April 11 at 9:55 am, an earthquake of Magnitude 3.2 occurred 4.6 km northwest of Grindavik, preceded by another of M2.8 at 9:32, both felt in Grindavik. Seismicity remains continuous in the Reykjanes peninsula, probably according to the IMO following three magmatic intrusions as reported on April 3. IMO reported that GPS measurements, along with detailed analysis and model calculations of the available data, now testify to a new magma deposit west of the Reykjanes Peninsula under Rauðhólar and Sýrfell.IMO reported that on March 25, at 9:44 am, an M3.4 earthquake occurred just north of Grindavík. The earthquake was felt in Grindavík. Considerable seismic activity has continued in the region in recent weeks due to the deformation of the region. The phase of uncertainty due to the uplift by Mt. Þorbjörn that declared civil protection is still in force.This confirms the data that was collected in collaboration with the Institute of Earth Sciences, ÍSORs, HS Energy and the Icelandic Meteorological Office after the start of activities in Thorbjörn.One model places the magmatic intrusion about 8-13 km deep, which is probably deep in the earth's crust at a depth considerably higher than the two magma deposits at Thorbjörn. IMO reported that activity in Grindavík remained high during the week of March 16 to 22 after a swarm of earthquakes that started on March 12. This is the same area as where previous earthquake swarms occurred earlier this year. About 1,000 earthquakes have been located on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The biggest earthquake of the week was M4.2 on March 18, about 5 km NW of Gunnuhver on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The earthquake was widely felt in the southwestern part of Iceland. On March 19, an M3.5 earthquake occurred 3.5 km NW of Grindavík. An M3.0 earthquake occurred on March 20 by Kleifarvatn on the Reykjanes Peninsula, where a small swarm of earthquakes occurred on the same day. IMO reported that on March 20, at 8:30 p.m., an earthquake swarm started close to Krysuvik. By midnight, 60 earthquakes had been detected in the region. The biggest M3 happened at 9:21 p.m. No reports were received. Then the activity decreased.IMO reported that on March 19 at 16 h 53, an earthquake of M3.3 was detected approximately 3 km NW of Grindavik. Few aftershocks followed. The IMO has received feeling reports from the Reykjanes Peninsula. On March 18 at 03:42 am, an M3.0 earthquake occurred approximately 5 km VNV from Grindavík. The uncertainty phase due to the uprising in Reykjanes is still valid according to the Ministry of Civil Protection. The latest distortion results around Mount Thorbjorn on the Reykjanes Peninsula indicate that inflation causing an uprising in the region has resumed. The uprising is slower than when it was measured in January, but seems to be in the same place. The most likely explanation for the signal is that the influx of magma has started again. IMO reported that at 10:32 a.m. on March 18, an M4.2 earthquake was detected approximately 3 km northwest of Gunnuhver on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The latest distortion results around Mount Thorbjorn on the Reykjanes Peninsula indicate that inflation causing an uprising in the region has resumed. The uprising is slower than when it was measured in January, but seems to be in the same place. The most likely explanation for the signal is that the influx of magma has started again. IMO reported that on March 12, 2020 at 10:26 a.m., an M5.2 earthquake occurred about 5 km from the NE in Grindavok. Several aftershocks have been detected. This earthquake was the largest earthquake detected on the Reykjanes Peninsula since October 2013 when an M5.2 earthquake occurred near Reykjanes. the earthquake was felt in large areas southwestern Iceland. Two earthquakes occurred at 18:40 (M3.4) and 18:42 (M3.3) about 3 km ENE from Grindavok. Reports were received from Grindavok that they had been felt there. IMO reported that on March 4th, seismic activity increased again at the southwest tip of Reykjanes, where a seismic swarm started on February 15. Three earthquakes of magnitude greater than 3 were detected, the strongest of 3.4 M, out of the 300 earthquakes of the day.On the other hand, the seismic activity near Thorbjorn is in significant decrease. Inflation is no longer observed, likely following the cessation of the magmatic influx. The state of uncertainty declared by the Civil Protection is still current. IMO reported that the earthquake in Reykjanestá continued and was the most active, with around 450 earthquakes detected this week and there was also the largest earthquake of the week, M3.1 on 22 February.On 25 February IMO reported that seismic activity at Reykjanes, in an area N of the town of Grindavik had significantly decreased during the previous few days, and inflation was not detected in GPS and InSAR data. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. Preliminary data suggested a small deflation signal beginning mid-February, though further analysis was needed for confirmation. The report warned the public not to explore lava tubes in the Eldvarp area as gas measurements showed a dangerous level of oxygen depletion; there are no pre-unrest measurements existing for comparison. As of the 17th of February, IMO reported that the seismic activity north of Grindavik has decreased, but is still above average. The last strong earthquake detected last week is of magnitude3.2 (11 fecal at 6:46 pm west of Þorbjörn.Crustal deformation is still relevant, decreasing. The explanation given by scientists for inflation and seismic activity is a magmatic intrusion located between 3 and 5 km deep west of Þorbjörn. This activity will likely stop without a rash. IMO reported that continuous seismic activity was measured near Grindavík, on the Reykjanes Peninsula. Since midnight on February 2, about 150 earthquakes have been detected, the strongest of magnitude 3.3 at 9:00 a.m. Since January 21, more than 1,000 earthquakes have been located in the region, including about 700 during the weekend and most were located in the SW / NE direction, about 2 km from Grindavík.The latest GPS analysis shows inflation in the area west of Thorbjörn. In total, the land has risen more than 4 cm since January 20. Satellite images show the same evolution.The IMO note that these events could end without the emission of external lava. IMO reported that continued seismic activity was observed in the vicinity of Grindavík on the evening of January 31. At 10:22 pm, an earthquake of magnitude 4.0 and at. 22:24 was another size of 4.3, both about 5 km northeast of Grindavík. Seismic activity spreads some cracks north of Grindavík. Considerable seismic activity is expected to continue. The earthquakes were reported in Reykjanes, in the capital region and in Borgarfjörður. These are the largest earthquakes that have been detected in the hryvnia.The ground in Thorbjörn is still rising, inflation is 3-4 cm at the highest bridge. Previously, IMO reported that the inflation trend is similar to that seen since the start of the seismic swarm on January 21; it is measured at more than three centimeters.Seismic activity has been reduced since the morning of January 29. Continued seismic activity is however expected in the region and the biggest earthquakes still concern the region near Grindavik. As of the 29th of January, IMO reported thatIn the Reykjanes peninsula, the seismic swarm continues. The largest earthquakes were M3.7 and M3.6 on January 22 and> M3 on January 27.The aviation code is yellow. IMO reported that an inflation has been measured since January 21st and it‘s centered just west of Mt. Thorbjorn on Reykjanes peninsula. The inflation is unusually rapid, around 3-4 mm per day and has accumulated to 2 cm to date. It has been detected both on continuous GPS stations and in InSAR images. The inflation is most likely a sign of magma accumulation at just a few km depth. If the signal is indeed a magma accumulation it is very small, first volume estimate is around 1 million cubic meters (0,001 km3).The activity has only been ongoing for a few days and it is uncertain if it will escalate to more serious activity. The inflation is occurring on plate boundaries and within the volcanic system of Svartsengi which is either considered a separate system or part of the Reykjanes volcanic system. The last known eruption was during Reykjanes fires, which occurred between 1210-1240 AD. Within that period a several eruptions occurred within that system, thereof there were three eruptions in Svartsengi system. The eruptions were effusive (non-explosive) fissure eruptions erupting on 1-10 km long fissures. No explosive eruptions are known from this system. The largest eruption in the swarm, from 13th century, formed Arnarseturshraun lava (estimated 0,3 km3 and 20 km2). The duration of these eruptions are usually from a few days up to several weeks. Seismic activity is very common in this area and is linked to the plate boundaries, geothermal activity and possible magma intrusions. The largest earthquakes measured in this area are about M5.5.

Iceland - Oraefajokull volcano

July 15th, 2018

The IMO changed the status of Öraefajökull on 13 July. This volcano shows clear signs of instability, coupled with a phase of inflation for a year and a half, reflected by an increase in seismic activity and deformation, which are persistent. The probable cause of this inflation is one injection of new magma, with an estimated volume of about 10 million m³, a volume comparable to the intrusion under the Eyjafjalajökull before the eruption of 2010.Despite a drop in geothermal activity since the end of December, new resistivity measurements indicate the presence of altered rocks at superficial levels within the caldera due to high temperatures. IMO reported a seismic swarm is in progress at Öraefajökull; it began on June 26, 2018 with a magnitude 3.1 earthquake and continues with earthquakes of lesser magnitude.A magnitude 2.1 earthquake occurred outside the volcano, while appearing connected to it. Previous news 2017 - On 22 December 2017 IMO reported that activity had been fairly stable during the previous weeks, though still above background levels; the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. In December the largest earthquake detected was a M2.5, but most events were smaller than M1. Earthquakes were located close to the caldera 2 and 10 km. The Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that that on 17 November the Aviation Color Code for Oraefajokull was raised to Yellow because satellite images and photos showed that a new ice cauldron had formed within the caldera the previous week. The new cauldron was about 1 km in diameter and 15-20 m deep, and signified a recent increase in geothermal activity. Scientists conducted an overflight on 18 November; in addition, while on the ground, they took water samples, measurements of electrical conductivity, and gas levels at the Kvojokull outlet-glacier, a valley glacier on the SE flank of Oraefajokull . There was no obvious sign of flooding in the Kvoro river. A sulfur odor, which had been reported for about a week, was also noted. An increase in the seismic activity was recorded for the last few months (the largest earthquake, an M 3.4, occurred on the 3 October), but was low for the past few days. IMO noted that there were no signs of an imminent volcanic eruption, though there was considerable uncertainty about how the situation will evolve. Oraefajokull Iceland's highest peak, is a broad glacier-clad central volcano at the SE end of the Vatnajokull icecap. A 4 x 5 km subglacial caldera truncates the summit of the dominantly basaltic and rhyolitic volcano. The extensive summit icecap is drained through deep glacial valleys dissecting the SW-to-SE flanks. The largest-volume volcano in Iceland, 2119-m-high Oraefajokull was mostly constructed during Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods. Holocene activity has been dominated by explosive summit eruptions, although flank lava effusions have also occurred. A major silicic eruption in 1362 CE was Iceland's largest historical explosive eruption. It and another eruption during 1727-28 were accompanied by major jokulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) that caused
property damage and fatalities. (GVN/GVP)

ICELAND - Bardarbunga volcano

April 28th, 2015

On 26 April the Icelandic Met Office (IMO) lowered the Aviation Color Code for Bardarbunga to Green (the lowest on a four-color scale). No further signs of unrest had been noted since the end of the eruption on 27 February; seismicity within the caldera and the associated dyke intrusion continued to decline.Previously, the Icelandic Met Office reported that the eruption at Bárdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, which began on 31 August 2014, had ended on 27 February; the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow. During an overflight scientists did not see any incandescence from the vents, although gas emissions persisted. Radar measurements showed that no increase in the extent of the lava field had been detected since mid-February.During 17-19 February, Icelandic Met Office reported continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, though the overall intensity of the eruption continued to decrease. Only one active vent was present in the crater, and the lava level in that crater continued to sink. The eruption plume rose no more than 1 km above the ground and drifted NE, and the lava channel was crusted over beyond the uppermost 200-300 m. The lava tube continued to feed the N and NE parts of Holuhraun, inflating the lava field. The reduced effusion rate was no longer able to sustain active breakouts in an area 17-18 km ENE from the vent. A 24 February report noted that the rate of subsidence was less than 2 cm per day and lava flows decreased substantially. Seismic activity continued to decrease although it was still considered to be strong. During 11-17 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; the overall activity was persistent, but lower compared to recent weeks and months. Seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 85 square kilometers on 14 February; measurements from 4 and 12 February showed almost no changes in the extent of the field. During 4-10 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A 6 February statement noted that although there was a visible reduction in activity during the previous two weeks, seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS easurements showed that subsidence continued.During 27 January-3 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, with a lava-flow rate of about 100 cubic meters per second. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. On 27 January the plume rose an estimated 1.3 km. A map made on 21 January showed that the lava field was thickening and not expanding significantly; the erupted volume was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers (15% uncertainty). During 21-27 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Ba¡rdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded along the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Very high values of sulfur dioxide, about 84,000 mµg/m3, were recorded at the eruption site on 21 January; this value was the highest recorded at ground level since the eruption started. Total subsidence of the Bárdarbunga surface since mid-August was 61 m, and the volume of erupted lava was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers. The lava field covered 84.7 square kilometers on 22 January. A report issued on 27 January stated that the average rate of lava emission during the previous three weeks was just less than 100 cubic meters per second, herefore the intensity of the eruption was slowly decreasing.During 14-20 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.3 square kilometers on 15 January. During 7-13 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.1 square kilometers on 10 January. During 31 December-6 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Subsidence continued at a rate of 25 cm/day. The lava field covered 83.4 square kilometers on 6 January. Preliminary analysis of radar measurements taken during an overflight on 30 December showed that the lava is on average 10 m thick in the E part, 12 m thick at the center, and about 14 m in the W part. The maximum thickness, near the craters, was about 40 m at the E margin of the lava lake. A preliminary estimate for the volume of the lava was 1.1 cubic kilometers. Total subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga surface since mid-August was 59 m. During 24-30 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. The lava field covered 82.8 square kilometers as of 29 December.During 10-16 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A decreased rate of subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field covered just over 78.6 square kilometers on 15 December.During 3-9 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection reviewed data from the beginning of the eruption on 31 August to 3 December and found a decreased rate of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera from up to 80 cm/day to 25 cm/day, with most of the subsidence concentrated at the center of the caldera. Data also showed a decline in the intensity of the eruption at Holuhraun, although seismic activity remained strong. After 100 eruptive days the lava field covered just over 76 square kilometers on 9 December, making it the largest lava field in Iceland since the Laki eruption (1783-1784). Additionally, the gas emissions have had an impact all over Iceland for the first time in 150 years.During 26 November-2 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Based on a field report from 25 or 26 November the activity was characterized as pulsating; lava surged from the vent for 2-3 minutes, every 5-10 minutes, causing bulges in the upper parts of the lava channel. Measurements obtained during an overflight on 26 November indicated that the total amount of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera was about 50 m, with an estimated volume of 1.4 cubic kilometers. The rate of subsidence in the center of the caldera had decreased slowly compared to the first month of the eruption. Observers in Dyngjusandur, NE of the vent, photographed the plume at 1441 on 27 November and indicated that the top of the plume was 3.1 km above Dyngjusandur, and the base of the aerosol-laden lower part of the plume was about 1.4 km above the sand plain. A thermal image from 1 December showed several changes to the lava field: in just over 24 hours a new lava extrusion at the NE margin traveled 450 m; a new flow traveled N, just W of the lava lake; and a new flow was forming S of the lava lake, and then to the E of that flow. The lava field covered just over 75 square kilometers on 1 December. During 18-25 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; FLIR thermal images of the craters on 18 November showed that the most intense area of thermal convection was at the northern part of the eruption site, called Heimasjta. Lava flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. On 20 November observers characterized the eruption as pulsating explosions in the crater every 10-15 minutes, followed by a gush of lava down the main channel with splashing on either side During 12-18 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; lava from the lava lake in the main vent, Baugur Crater, flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Seismicity remained strong, although a report on 14 November noted that the number of earthquakes over M 5 seemed to be decreasing. The lava field covered 71.9 square kilometers on 14 November.During 5-11 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued, and seismicity remained strong. The lava field was 60 square kilometers on 9 November. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted.During 29 October-4 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued; by 31 October the depression was about 42 m. The lava field was 65.7 square kilometers on 31 October. As of the 28th of october, effusive activity is still continuing. Lava is still issuing and is covering about 0.79km2/day. caldera subsidence continued at a rate 50cm per day. During 15-21 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued at a rate of 30-40 cm per day, concentrated in the NE part of the caldera, and on 15 October was an estimated 0.75 cubic kilometers. On 18 October a M 5.4 earthquake was detected at 0940 in N Bardarbunga making it one of the biggest earthquakes since the start of the eruption. The lava field continued to grow and the lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 60.7 square kilometers on 19 October. From 15th to 16th of October seismic activity increased. About 130 earthquakes were recorded. Lava flows are still running to the North ans to the East. During 8-14 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field continued to grow, with lava production unchanged. Seismic activity was low in the N part of the dyke and around the eruption site.During 1-7 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued. Seismic activity at the N part of the dyke and around the vents declined, although the lava field continued to grow and lava production continued at the same output. Lava field measured more than 50 km2. On 5 October a new lava front at the S edge of the main lava flow advanced E. During 23-30 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga caldera continued and had reached 27-28 m by 24 September. On 29 September the subsidence rate slowed slightly and was about 40 cm per 24 hours. Lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 46 square kilometers on 30 September. During 17-23 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Chemical analysis and geophysical modeling indicated that the source of the magma was at a depth of more than 10 km. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera and crustal movements signified that the volume of magma in the dyke slightly increased. On 21 September the lava field measured 37 square kilometers. Field scientists estimated that about 90% of the sulfur dioxide gas from the eruption originated at the active craters and the rest rose from the lava field. Dead birds were also found around the eruption site. A report on 22 September noted that the total volume of the erupted lava was 0.4-0.6 cubic kilometers and the flow rate was 250-350 cubic meters per second. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bárdarbunga caldera; the volume of the depression was an estimated 0.6 cubic kilometers on 23 September During 10-16 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Lava flows continued to advance at a consistent rate toward the E and W, and by 13 September, the lava field measured 24.5 km2. The main flow had entered the river bed of Jokkuls Follum and continued to follow its course; steam rose from the river where the lava was in contact but no explosive activity occurred. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera; approximately 23 m of total subsidence was measured during a survey on 14 September. Seismicity persisted mainly around the caldera and the Dyngjujokull glacier. The largest earthquakes, M 5.5, M 5.3, and M 5.0, were detected on 10, 11, and 15 September respectively. IMO reported continued elevated SO2 emissions during 10-16 September and issued warnings to the public in the municipality of Fjarjarbyggen on 13 September. As of the 4th of September in the afternoon IMO reported that eruptive activity was continuing. Lava fountaining slightly increased during previous hours et lava emissions continued. (total covered surface is now about 10.8 km2. Lava tongue strench about 4km distance to the Northeast. During the past hour a graben formed below the Dynjujokull icecap. The seismicity remained at a high level. As of the 3rd of September, IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing and characterized by small lava fountaining above the central part of the fissure and lava flows emissions around. In the morning the lava rate emisssions was 150 m3/s. The surface covered from the beginning of the eruptive phase is 6,5 km2 and the total volume between 30-40 millions/m3 (about 1/10 of the estimated dyke volume). Seismic activity remained important and a strong eartquakes mag 5.5. occurred in the morning located close the caldera. During 27 August-2 September the Icelandic Met Office reported ongoing seismic activity at Bárdarbunga volcano. On 27 August an overflight showed a 4-6-km-long row of cauldrons 10-15 m in diameter S of Bárdarbunga. The Aviation Color Code remains at Orange. As of the 1st of September in the morning , IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing, characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emission along the fissure. As of the 31st of August IMO reported that a new eruptive phase (second one) started probably on Sunday early morning. At 5:49 AM webcam showed an eruptive activity at the same place of the previous activity along the fissure. Eruptive activity was characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emissions. Seismic activity remained important, mainly concentrated along a - 15 km line strenching from from Dynjujokull icecap to the area of the 29th of August eruption. As of the 30th of August, IMO reported that the first fissural eruptive phase ended. The new bulletin reported that the eruptive activity culminated between 00:40 AM - 1:00 AM, then dropped. At about 4:00 AM the short lava flows were not longer supplied. Alert level lowered from red to orange. Previously, as of the 29th of August, IMO reported that an 100 m -long eruptive fissure opened at midnight at about 10 km North Vatnajokull. Webcam images showed red glowing and small lava fountaining above the basaltic fissure. Later bulletin reported that the fissure strenched 400 m to 1 km long. The activity dropped at 2:40 AM . On the morning webcam showed only a small gas plume issued from the fissure. On 26 August the location of the seismicity was located primarily along the 10 km long tip of the dike that extended 5 km beyond the glacier margin. During 22-26 August several earthquakes in the 4.7-5.7 magnitude range had been detected at or near the volcano. On 23 August seismic tremor indicated a small lava-eruption 150-400 m beneath the Dyngjuj0kull glacier, prompting a change in the Aviation Color Code to Red. On 24 August observations from an overflight indicated there was no eruption and the Aviation Color Code was changed to Orange. However the seismic activity remains important with 700 eathquakes from Sunday 00 AM to 2:30 pm (two with more than 5 in magnitude). As of the 23rd of August, RUV reported that a possible mall sub-glacial volcanic eruption has started near Bardarbunga volcano, under the icecap of Dyngjujökull glacier in the northern part of Vatnajökull Glacier, according to the Icelandic Met Office. All air traffic is now prohibited in a large radius around the volcano. The National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police has raised the alert phase to emergency phase accordingly. Furthermore, the Met Office has raised the aviation color code from orange to red resulting in the air space above the eruption site being closed. The eruption is considered a minor event at this point. Because of a pressure from the glacier cap it is uncertain whether the eruption will stay sub-glacial or not. The Coast Guards aircraft, TF-Sif, is currently monitoring the area and there are no visible signs of a plume at this moment. Nothing indicates floods because of the eruption. At this stage measurements taken are based on a small event. The Jökulsárgljúfur canyon has been closed and evacuation of tourists in that area and around Dettifoss waterfall has started. The situation at this stage does not call for evacuation of habitants in Kelduhverfi, Öxarfjördur and Núpasveit. People in those areas are encouraged to watch news closely and have their mobiles switched on at all times.This story, by the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV), was updated on 23 August 2014, at 15.13 GMT - Previously, during 13-19 August the Icelandic Met Office reported increased seismic activity at Bardarbunga volcano. On 16 August more than 200 earthquakes were reported under the NW Vatnajokull ice cap, and GPS stations have shown an increasing signal upward and away from the volcano since early June 2014. On 16 August the Aviation Color code was increased to Yellow. On 18 August the Icelandic Met Office reported an earthquake swarm to the E and another to the N of Bardarbunga. A M4 earthquake was recorded that was the strongest in the region since 1996. By 18 August there had been 2,600 earthquakes detected at the volcano; earthquake locations from N and E swarms had been migrating NE, but in the evening activity of the N swarm had decreased significantly. That same day the Aviation Color code was raised to Orange. The large central volcano of Bárdarbunga lies beneath the NW part of the Vatnajokull icecap, NW of Grimsvotn volcano, and contains a subglacial 700-m-deep caldera. Related fissure systems include the Veidivotn and Trollagigar fissures, which extend about 100 km SW to near Torfajokull volcano and 50 km NE to near Askja volcano, respectively. Voluminous fissure eruptions, including one at Thjorsarhraun, which produced the largest known Holocene lava flow on Earth with a volume of more than 21 cu km, have occurred throughout the Holocene into historical time from the Veidivotn fissure system. The last major eruption of Veidivotn, in 1477, also produced a large tephra deposit. The subglacial Loki-Fogrufjoll volcanic system located SW of Bárdarbunga volcano is also part of the Bárdarbunga volcanic system and contains two subglacial ridges extending from the largely subglacial Hamarinn central volcano; the Loki ridge trends to the NE and the Fogrufjoll ridge to the SW. Jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods) from eruptions at Bardarbunga potentially affect drainages in all directions. ( Icelandic Met Office) - Webcam and seismic recording

ICELAND - Askja volcano

November 13rd, 2019

On 13rd of November the Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that seismic swarm which started on Thursday, November 7, just east of Askja, continued. This morning at 7:30 am, an M3.1 event occurred in Askja. About 1000 earthquakes have been recorded in the area since the beginning of the swarm. The largest earthquake was M3.4 and occurred on November 9th. In addition to this swarm, an earthquake> M3.0 has been detected during the swarm so far and about 20 earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 2.0. No volcanic tremor has been detected in the area. This is more like fragile-type tectonic earthquakes related to continental drift. Swarms of earthquakes occur regularly around Herðubreið and Askja. IMO monitors the activity 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Askja is a large basaltic central volcano that forms the Dyngjufjöll massif. It is truncated by three overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 8 km wide and may have been produced primarily from subglacial ring-fracture eruptions rather than by subsidence. A major rhyolitic explosive eruption from Dyngjufjöll about 10,000 years ago was in part associated with the formation of Askja caldera. Many postglacial eruptions also occurred along the ring-fracture. A major explosive eruption on the SE caldera margin in 1875 was one of Iceland's largest during historical time. It resulted in the formation of a smaller 4.5-km-wide caldera, now filled by Öskjuvatn lake, that truncates the rim of the larger central caldera. The 100-km-long Askja fissure swarm, which includes the Sveinagja graben, is also related to the Askja volcanic system, as are several small shield volcanoes such as Kollatadyngja. Twentieth-century eruptions have produced lava flows from vents located mostly near Öskjuvatn lake. (GVN/GVP) - Icelandic volcanoes data base


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CAPE VERDE - Brava volcano island

August 11th, 2016

According to the Universidade de Cabo Verde in a report posted on 4 August, Instituto Nacional da Meteorologia e Geofisica (INMG) recorded increased seismicity at Brava beginning at dawn on 2 August. In response authorities evacuated 300 people, based on a news report. Earthquakes were felt by residents during 3-4 August. Scientists and technicians from the
Universidade de Cabo Verde (UniCV), Instituto Vulcanologico das Canarias (INVOLCAN), and Serviso Nacional da Protecion Civil (SNPC) began monitoring carbon dioxide emissions though found nothing unusual during 4-7 August. . Brava Island, 20 km west of Fogo, is the westernmost of the southern Cape Verde islands. The 10-km-wide island contains 15
morphologically youthful craters located along two or three lineaments intersecting along the crest of the island. The youthfulness of the craters and numerous minor earthquakes in recent years indicate that a significant volcanic hazard still exists (Wolff and Turbeville, 1985). Most of the younger eruptions originated from the interaction of phonolitic magmas with a large groundwater reservoir contained within an older volcanic series characterized by thick welded ignimbrites and block-and-ash flow deposits. Carbonatitic lavas are also found on Brava.

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FRANCE - Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion island)

April 15th, 2020

OVPF bulletin of April 14, 2020, reported a resumption of inflation (swelling) in the summit area. The GPS of the summit area recorded an inflation, witnessing the pressurization of a surface and deep source ... For two days, a resumption of inflation and a significant presence of CO2 were noted. This means that the magma is still present and going up. OVPF reported that sharp drop in the intensity of the tremor was observed on 06/04/2020, around 1:30 p.m. local time (09:30 CET;, heralding the end of the surface eruption. No hypothesis is ruled out as to the future situation (final shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity at another site), taking into account the high seismicity recorded since the day of 5/4/2020 00h (TU time) and until 09:00 (TU time; 13:00 local time) on this day: with 243 superficial tectonic earthquakes (2km deep) recorded under the summit craters. Although since the end of the eruption seismic activity has decreased considerably. Following a reconnaissance flight of the SAG and the PGHM carried out on 6th of April in the morning at around 10 a.m. local time, the flow front was able to be precisely located. The active front (south flow arm) was 360 m above sea level, about 2 km from National Highway 2 (compared to 550 m altitude and 2.7 km from the road yesterday at 10:30 a.m. for the north flow arm). Thermal images acquired last night by an OVPF/IPGP team estimated a speed of 40-60 m/h of the flow front on the evening of 5/4/2020. As of the 6th of April - 7:30 am OVPF reported that the eruption that began on 02/04/2020 on the eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise, at around 12:20 p.m. local time, continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively stable over the last 24 hours.A strong seismicity is still recorded at Piton de La Fournaise. Since the day of 5/4/2020 00h (TU time): 189 surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes (2km deep) have been recorded under the summit craters. These earthquakes are still located under the southeastern part of Dolomieu Crater. These earthquakes testify to the weakening of the environment, either by a flow of fluid or the emptying of a reservoir, most certainly in connection with the power of the eruptive site and its resurgence of activity. Given this fragility, a risk of collapse of the Dolomieu crater (or part of the crater) is not excluded.Estimated surface flows, from satellite data via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne) and MIROVA (University of Turin) platforms, although still strongly disturbed by cloud cover around piton de la Fournaise, are still on the rise. Over the last 12 hours, average flows have been estimated at 30 m3/s.The thermal images made by an OVPF team yesterday evening and the images of the webcams of the OVPF of that night show that the lava front is still very active (Figures 4 and 5). Last night, the OVPF team on site reported that the northern-most flow fronts had stopped, with activity focusing on a new lava arm to the south. The flow front on this new flow arm certainly progressed tonight. OVPF reported that on April 3, at 6:25 a.m., the lava front could be estimated at around 1,000 m above sea level at the top of the Grandes Pentes, and 3.8 km from the national road, according to visual feedback from the webcam of the OVPF / IPGP located in Piton Cascades. The eruption has stabilized on the central part of the eruptive fissure. The number of fountains is reduced little by little and soon the eruption will only be active on one or two mouths. In the meantime, the projected pieces of lava fall back and build a spatter-rampart which has already grown well.The estimated surface flows, from satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) are greatly disturbed by the cloud cover around the Piton de la Fournaise. Estimates since the start of the eruption fluctuate between 2 and 45 m³ / s with an average around 7-10 m³ / s. As of the 2nd of April 4:30 pm , OVPF reported that the eruption that started on April 2, 2020 around 12:20 local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues. Following the seismic crisis, no earthquake had been recorded. This particular case of propagation without seismicity is to be related to an environment already weakened by the eruption of February 2020 and those of 2019, which took place on the same flank. A second particular characteristic: the eruption started very quickly, in less than 2 days from the first warning sign, because very little magma had been emitted on the surface in February, making it available quickly. An overview of the SAG and the PGHM confirmed the opening of a crack on the eastern flank of the volcano about 1.7 km from the center of the Dolomieu crater at around 1900 m above sea level. This crack is located slightly below the eruption of February 10-16, 2020. During this overflight, the lava fountains did not seem to exceed 30m in height. A significant signal of sulfur dioxide, with 31.37 DU, is observed by Tropomi above La Fournaise. The estimated surface flows, from satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) are greatly disturbed by the bad weather conditions observed around Piton de la Fournaise. The rare measurements carried out, relate to flows of the order of 4 m³ / s but these are probably underestimated. As of the 2nd of April, 12:45 pm OVPF reported that following the morning's seismic crisis, between 8:15 a.m. and 8:51 a.m. local time, and after a lull of more than 3 hours, a volcanic tremor, synonymous with the arrival of magma at near the surface, has been recorded since about 12:20 p.m. local time. According to the OVPF records, the source of this tremor is located on the eastern flank, at inside the Enclos.OVPF reported that seismic crisis was recorded on the instruments on April 2, with 92 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes detected between 8:15 am and 8:51 am local time. This seismic crisis was accompanied by rapid deformation (of the order of 10-20 micro-radians). This indicates that magma has left the surface magmatic reservoir and has spread to the surface. OVPF bulletin 17th of February - Following the stop of the volcanic tremor on 16/02/2020 at 14:12 local time, no resumption was observed. The eruption stopped on 16/02/2020 at 14:12. No earthquakes have been recorded since the eruption stopped. Note that a satellite acquisition on 16/02/2020 at 10:35 a.m. local time still showed a thermal anomaly at the eruptive vent. This anomaly, as well as persistent gas puffs on the morning of 16/02/2020, indicated low residual subsurface activity until the final stop of the trestle at 2:12 p.m.OVPF report - OVPF report 16 th of February 4am - After falling rapidly during the day yesterday (15/02/2020) from 14:00 (local time), a residual tremor was recorded on the seismological stations closest to the eruption until 14:12 local time (6/02/2020). Since then only a few sporadic puffs of gas are recorded on seismological stations. OVPF bulletin 16th of February 8:30 am -Aerial observations this morning by helicopter company pilots report that no more surface activity was visible at around 7:30 a.m. to 8:00 a.m. local time at the eruptive site. Nevertheless, a residual tremor whose intensity has been increasing since about 4:40 a.m. local time is still recorded on the seismological stations closest to the eruption as well as a degassing, meaning that there is still magma close to the surface at the eruptive site level. 14th of February - 2pm - The eruption continued. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively stable over the last 48 hours Note the presence of some fluctuations, certainly related to a resonance effect within the volcanic cone that was closing laterally. Two volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded today under the summit craters.The lowest-altitude (1400 m) lava front observed at the beginning of the eruption was no longer active during the day yesterday and the maximum extension of the now active flows was around 1900 m altitude, below the bottom of Marco Crater. Last night's observations from the RN2 confirmed that the active flow front has only little progressed. OVPF report - 13th of February (3:30 pm) noted that improved weather conditions provided access to the eruptive site on foot and overflight. These two missions showed tonly the eastward flow was still active. Its front was at about 12:00 (local time) below Marco Crater at an altitude of about 1900 m, about 6.5 km from the RN2. A cone less than 30 m high, began its construction around the 3 vents remaining active in themorning. These vents, located at an altitude of about 2200m, produced modest lava fountains of 10 to 15 m in height (above the volcanic cone under construction). As of the 12th of February OVPF reported that he eruption continued. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively stable over the last 24 hours (Figure 1). The increase in the tremor observed at around 3 a.m. local time (11 p.m. GMT) was related to the arrival of a rainy and stormy front on the volcano that noises the signals.An accurate mapping of the lava flow dated 10/02/2020 in the evening by the OI2 platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) from satellite data showed a larger extension of the flows than previously estimated, with a lava field on the upper part of the terminal cone and a flow arm that has flowed southward. During the flyover on 10/02 between 1 3pm and 1.30pm, the high part of the summit, which was heavily cloudy, had not been able to observe them. These most upstream and southern flows were most likely not active until the first hours of the eruption. Currently only the north arm that flows eastward remained active. This new mapping shows a lava front at an altitude of about 1400 m. It is noteworthy that the highest fissuresat altitude (not visible during the 10/02 flyover and now inactive) opened in the same area as the fissuresin the eruptions of February 18 and June 11, 2019. This location shows that the dike ("superficial conduit set up in a reservoir and allowing the flow of magma to the surface") that fed this eruption has partially taken up in depth a "path" already opened during previous eruptions, explaining the speed that magma took to reach the surface (23 minutes between the beginning of the seismic crisis and the opening of the first eruptive cracks on the surface). As of the 11th of February, OVPF reported that the eruption, which began on 10/02/2020 at around 10:50 a.m. local time, continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption), after decreasing continuously and relatively stable since 20:00 local time (16:00 GMT) on 10/02. OVPF report 10th of February - 4:30pm - Following an aerial reconnaissance in the early afternoon, the fissures were able to be located. Several fissures opened on the eastern flank of the terminal cone between the upper part of the terminal cone and 2000 m altitude (at Marco Crater). All of these fissures extend for a distance of about 1 km. During the flyover (1pm-1.30pm local time), the lava fountains did not exceed 10 m in height. Due to the location of the eruptive fissures and steep slopes in the area, the lava flows had reached 13:15 local time 1700 m above sea level and the flow front was less than 150 m from the broken of the main slopes. Nevertheless, the lava front was severely slowed by a flat zone.Previous morning news : OVPF reported that following a seismic crisis on February 10th, 2020, 10:27 am local time on February 10, 2020, accompanied by rapid deformation, the volcano erupted around 11 a.m. on Monday morning as confirmed by the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory. the site of the eruption is located on the eastern flank of the volcano."The eruption is visible from the National Road at the level of the Burned. The eruptive vent is located at 2000 meters above sea level. The first photos and videos showed a flow emanating from a fissure, which quickly divides into several arms and which has already traveled a good distance on the slope. Previous news - OVPF reported that following the short seismic crisis recorded on January 7 between 9:28 p.m. and 9:44 p.m. UT, seismic activity continued under the Piton de la Fournaise (with respectively 8, 9, 11 and 1 volcano-tectonic earthquake (s) ( s) superficial (s) registered under the summit craters on January 8, 9, 10 and 11). On January 12, between 6:17 p.m. and 6:24 p.m. UT, a new seismic crisis was recorded under the summit area of ​​Piton de la Fournaise with 41 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes. A total of 51 earthquakes were recorded during the day of January 12. OVPF reported that the number of volcano-tectonic earthquakes wasincreasing: 14 on January 6, and 40 on January 7, 2020 under the summit cone. The OVPF reported a magnitude of 1.04 / duration 8.96 sec. for the strongest on 07.01. - Previous news 2019 - In the bulletin of December 30 OVPF reported that , CO2 concentrations in the far field (plain sectors of Cafres and plain of Palmists) have been increasing since October 25-27, in agreement with an increase in magma towards the surface. The alert level remains vigilant for the moment.OVPF reported that for the past week of December, inflation (swelling) of the base and the top of the volcano has been observed again by the deformation network. This resumption of volcano inflation is synonymous with the prelsurization of a deep source located under the summit craters.In parallel, the CO2 concentrations in the far field soil (Plaine des Cafres and Plaine des Palmistes sectors) are still increasing since the end of the eruption of October 25-27. These CO2 concentrations are in agreement with a deep rise in magma. These two parameters CO2 concentration and resumption of inflation) are in agreement with a pressurization of the surface magmatic reservoir (located between 1.5 and 2.5 km deep) due to its re-supply by fluids deeper magmatic. For the moment the seismicity does not show a significant increase: only 9 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded in the last week (between 23 and 29 December). As of the 27th of October at 5PM OVPF reported that the eruptive activity started on October 25, 2019 at 2:40 pm local time stopped on October 27, 2019 at 16:30 local time, after a phase of activity in" gas piston "of about 1 hour however no assumption is discounted as to the evolution of the situation to come (final shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity further downstream), given the observables following: - 29 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded during the day yesterday,- "Piston gases" are always registered,- very little lava was emitted on the surface..Previously, the day before, OVPF reported the front of the lava flow was at 17:00 on October 26 about 250m from the national road 2. The front of the flow has increased by about 150m in 9h. The progression of the flows is now on average slopes of 19% (against 16% on the morning). The slow progression of the lava front of these last hours is explained by the decrease of surface flows and by the slopes which are lower than those traversed by the lava during the day of 25/10/2019. On the morning of October 27, the activity is generally located at a single fountain of lava from the eruptive cone; a third lava front, which had rounded Piton Tremblet on Saturday afternoon, stopped; and the lava front near the RN2 has frozen and no longer glows. Previously, OVPF reported that two eruptive fissures opened at around 14:40 on October 25 at an altitude of 1,400 meters near the southern rampart near the Piton Passage (1976), and least two lava flows were formed advancing very rapidly in the Grandes Pentes. The activity was intense, with lava fountains about thirty meters high, and the progression of the front of the main stream was of the order of 250 meters per hour. The location of the eruption is very close to the position of the previous eruption, and low in altitude. Around 17h local, the main flow was under the Piton Tremblet, evolving at the interface of the 2007 flows and the forest area; following overflows in the vegetation, fires broke out, quickly taken into account by firefighters. Three passages of the Dash 8 with retardant product release were made to limit the magnitude of the fires.The lava then flowed in the Grand Brûlé. Various parameters will influence its progression: the feed and the flow down slightly, the nature of the terrain less steep. On the morning of October 26 at 8 am local lava was located 400 meters from the lava road. The OVPF / IPGP teams are on site to perform the first lava sampling and temperature measurements. As 11am local time the eruptive activity time continued. After 3 hours of stability, the intensity of the tremor began a gradual decline that continues this morning. Since the beginning of the eruption, 37 summit surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded. No earthquakes were recorded in the eruption area. Yesterday, OVPF reported that since 4:15 local time on October 25, a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise.This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. An eruption is likely in the near future in the next minutes or hours.The prefecture has decided to go on alert 1 of the specific device ORSEC volcano from 07:00 this morning. Previous news - OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption of August 11-15, inflation was recorded again. CO2 fluxes in the soil also remain important.This shows that magma continues to accumulate in the superficial reservoir and that an eruption is possible in the medium term (days / weeks). OVPF reported that since the eruption stopped on 15/08/2019 at approximately 22:00 local time, 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded. These earthquakes are located under the summit zone. The deformations recorded by the OVPF measuring devices on the ground do not show any discernible signals since the end of the eruption.It should be noted that the deformation field associated with the eruption of 11-15 August 2019 did not extend outside the Enclos Fouqué (as of 15/08/2019 5:47 a.m., the date of the satellite acquisition. Previously OVPF reported that the eruption stopped again on August 15th, 2013 at approximately 22:00 local time, after a little more than 6 hours of activity of "gas piston" or "puffs of tremor". The eruptive activity on the surface is currently stopped, only persistent degassing at the level of eruptive fissures and glowing at the lava flows that are being cooled. Following the eruption stopped on 15/08/2019 at about 04:20 local time, the eruptive tremor resumed at 8:30 a.m. This was confirmed by on-site observations, the activity of lava fountains resumed within the same eruptive cone.OVPF reported that the eruption that began on 11/08/2019 at 16:20 local time stopped on 15/08/2019 at about 04:20 local time.The eruptive activity on the surface is stopped for the time being, only a degassing at the level of eruptive fissure and redness at the lava flows that are being cooled. Howeve ra residual tremor wasstill recorded on the NTR station, located on the Tremblet's Coupé Nose and the recording of deep earthquakes that indicate that deep magma movements are still present.Bulletin of the OVPF (13th of August - 11AM) reported that the eruption continues. After a decline in the late afternoon yesterday, the intensity of the eruptive tremor was relatively constant since 21:00 local time (17:00 UT). An aerial reconnaissance was carried on the morning with the help of the SAG and the PGHM. In total, two eruptive fissures, about 1400 m apart, opened on 11 August 2019 in the eastern, south-east sector of the upper Slopes at 1700 and 1500 m above sea level. On the morning at 09:30 (local time), only the lowest fissure at altitude was active which formed three separate cones by accumulation of lava fountain deposits. An area of fumarole not related to an eruptive crack or lava flow was observed between the two fissures at an altitude of about 1100 m. The three active flows from these cones joined in a single channel whose front was on the morning at 09:30 at 665 m altitude (near Piton Tremblet), about 2.1 km from the road . Estimated surface flows, based on satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), are in the range of 2 to 9 m3/s at the beginning of the eruption. Small fires were observed along the lower part of the flow as a result of its entry into a heavily vegetated area.An overflight of the eruptive site on August 12 at 9:15 found that only the lowest elevation crack (1500 m) was active and fed a flow whose front was at 665 m altitude, or 2.1 km from the road. As of the 12th of August the bulletin of the OVPF (4PM local time) reported that the eruption began on August 11, 2019 at around 4:20 p.m. local time and continues. The intensity of the eruptive tremor (witness to the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively constant since 08:00 local time (04:00 T.U). At 3 p.m. local time, the lava front was visible from the RN2 and had reached an altitude of about 1000 m (200 m, taking into account the uncertainties associated with remote observations). OVPF reported that after 9:30 of seismic crisis, the volcanic tremor, synonymous withspread deep from the southeastern edge of Dolomieu crater towards the east flank, southeast. At 4:00 pm local time), the spread continued in this direction.The source of this tremor is located on the eastern flank, southeast, inside the Enclos Fouqué, in the sector of the Great Slopes / les Grandes Pentes.No visual confirmation of a start of eruption could be made at 16:04 UTC on webcams due to poor weather conditions and OVPF could not not confirmated the arrival of lava on the surface. Nevertheless the presence of a tremor shows the emission of hot and incandescent gas on the surface, and the possibility of lava emission in the short term or already in progress. Previously OVPF reported that on Sunday 11th of August since 07:00 local time, a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis was accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. An eruption was likely in the near future. Previously,a fter a sustained activity during the night of the 20th-30th of July, the eruption has weakened and stopped this day, the 30/07/2019 at 04:30 local time (00:30 T.U), after a gradual decline of the volcanic tremor.The eruption started on July 29, 2019 continued during the day. The intensity of the eruptive tremor (witnessing the intensity of the eruption) has decreased by a factor of 2 since the beginning of the eruption.Three fissures, open in echelon, on the northern flank of the volcano (600 m from the Formica Léo) over a total length of about 450 m, poured lava on the remains of the July 2018 flow, and built by accumulation three small slag cones.The first observations, on site and by helicopter, of the OVPF teams always showed at 17h (local time) an activity on the three fissures with lava fountains of the order of 20-30m high maximum and flows of aa type lava extending for a short length (about 500 m) given the relatively flat topography.As of the 29th of July (12:15 local time) OVPF reported that following the seismic crisis started that day at 05: 13 local time, volcanic tremor synonym of arrival of magma near the surface is recorded since 12:00 hour local. Records of the OVPF, the source of the tremor is located on the northern flank.No visual confirmation of an eruption early could be carry out for the moment on the webcams of the fact of the bad weather conditions and we cannot confirm the arrival of the lava to the surface. However the presence of a tremor shows the show the possibility of emission of lava and gas hot and glowing surface, short term. Previously OVPF reported that since 5:13 am local time on 29.07.2019 , a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. According to OVPF an eruption is likely in the near future in the next minutes or hours. Previously : The eruption started on June 11, 2019 at 06h35 (local time) stopped on June 13, 2019 around 12:00 pm local time. Records only detected noise associated with bad weather on the volcano. SO2 levels in air at the OVPF stations, located on the perimeter of the Fouqué enclosure, have returned to background noise values. On June 12, the OVPF did not report any significant deformation or volcano-tectonic earthquake. A decrease in sulphur dioxide levels was observed, and CO2 emissions from the soil showed high and stable values in the distal zone (plains of the Cafres) and were again increasing in the proximal zone (Gîte du Volcan). The images of the OVPF's webcam located in Piton des Cascades allowed to locate the lava front this morning at around 1200-1300 m altitude. OVPF reported trhat the second eruption of the year is still continuing. The lava spreads at the foot of the summit cone on a shelf, fed from a vent at 2200-2250 meters; it will have to cross this zone before reaching the Great Slopes and be visible from the RN2. The OVPF reported for Tuesday, June 11 a total of 178 volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit cone, the strongest being of magnitude 1.38 and lasting 13.4 sec.As of the 11th of June, OVPF reported that after a restless month of May (359 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes between 0 and 2 km deep, 3 deep earthquakes with more than 2 km, and 229 collapses in the crater Dolimieu and the ramparts of Enclos), and a crisis Seismic recorded from 6:03 local June 11, the Piton de La Fournaise erupted at about 6:35. OVPF reported that following a reconnaissance this morning (around 09:30 local time), the eruptive site could be confirmed. At least four eruptive fissures opened on the south-south-east external slope of the Dolomieu crater. The cloud cover did not allow to see the presence of other vents especially at lower altitude, nor to locate the front of flows. Lava fountains less than 30m high and well-drained lava flows escaped from the three lowest cracks. The two highest cracks, near "Petit Plateau" were no longer active or in extinction when flying over. A rapid progression of the flows on the east flank was observed because of the steep slopes in this sector.  According to Aline Peltier, OVPF director " this second eruption of the year started exactly in the same place as that of February, but it takes a different direction, the last one has spread towards the North-East, this one goes towards the South. " A rapid progression of the flows on the east flank was observed because of the steep slopes in this sector. Previous eruption - OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption on March 10th, glowing areas were always observed on the surface, three days later on the image Sentinel 2 bands 12,11,4 ... the coatings remaines warm. As for geophysical and geochemical records, seismicity has dropped and CO2 emissions from the ground are decreasing in the proximal (Gite du Volcan) and increasing distal (Plaine des Cafres) on March 16th. The obsservatoire reports 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit cone and 10 landslides for the enclosure and the summit cone. OVPF reported that following the stop the surface eruptive activity on March 10 at 6:28 local time, a seismicity is still recorded under the summit area of ​​the volcano. About 26 superficial superficial earthquakes and 1 deep earthquake have been recorded since the end of the eruption on March 10 at 6:28 am local time and 19:30 local time. Because of this seismicity, no hypothesis is disregarded as to the evolution of the future situation (final shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity on another site). The sudden stop of this eruption was preceded by a very intense surface activity and lava fountains a hundred meters high were postponed to 23h on 9 March. The lava volumes emitted on the surface between February 18 and March 10 could be estimated at about 14.5 (+ or - 5) Mm3 from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) and MIROVA (University of Turin). OVPF reported that the front of lava progressed quickly this Friday night 8th of March and went from 1.000 meters of altitude this Friday morning with 700 meters of altitude towards 22h.OVPF also reported that the intensity of the eruptive tremor continues the rise started 48 hours ago. Over the last 36 hours, the surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 50 m3 / s (these measurements can be affected / reduced by cloud cover). It should be noted that most of the measurements remain however less than 30 m3 / s and that following the cloud cover these measures are no longer possible since 9:30 this morning. Previously, OVPF reported that the activity was intense during the night with a reverberation of the incandescence on the clouds, visible from the 4 webcams. The Mirova site lists a very high thermal anomaly on March 7th at 10:20 pm, of 3,281 MW. As of the 6th of March, following the opening of a new crack yesterday, new eruptive fissures opened this morning. 6 points of emission were visible this morning around the Piton Madoré. The OVPF will perform aerial reconnaissance as soon as weather conditions permit.As of the 6th of March, OVPF confirmed the opening of a new crack, upstream of the eruptive site, on the northwest flank of Piton Madoré.This new lava emission point was probably opened on March 5th between 9:00 am (local time, crack not present during the flight of an OVPF team) and before 7:00 pm (local time, time of day). acquisition of a satellite image on which an extremely weak signal can be detected at the level of the new crack (OI2 data, Clermont Auvergne University). On the morning, according to the photos and satellite images just provided, a small cone was already being formed and a new flow had begun to progress north of the main eruptive site. Due to the location of this new crack in the vicinity of the active vent since February 19 and associated low flow rates, its seismic signal coincides with that of the 19 February vent. As of the 5th of March, OVPF reported that the eruptive activity continued. Despite slight fluctuations in intensity and an upward trend in recent days, the intensity of the tremor has remained at a relatively constant level for 24 hours. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 7 m³ / s. Note that low values ​​(or zero values) are recorded when cloud cover does not allow acquisition.The cone closed laterally but still has an open vent at its summit On the morning around 8:30 local time, the cone had a base 100 m in diameter, a height of 25m and an eruptive vent at the top of 50m about diameter. As of the 4th of March OVPF reported that despite slight fluctuations in intensity and relative consistency since February 25, an upward trend seems to be emerging in recent days. Now, the crater in cone at the foot of Piton Madore is blocked and lava comes out through tunnels. The total SO2 emissions to the atmosphere recorded by the OVPF's NOVAC network since the beginning of the eruption are estimated at 2.5 kton, a value in the norm of the average of the Piton de la Fournaise eruptions.A cartography of the lava flow dated 01/03/2018 carried out by the OI2 platform (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne) from satellite data shows that a third pouring arm has been put in place to the north. between 28/02/2018 and 01/03/2018. During this time the other two arms already in place do not seem to have progressed.A new satellite acquisition on March 1st shows that this new arm split in two during the day of March 1st. As of the 1st of March OVPF reported that despite slight fluctuations in intensity since February 25, the eruptive tremor remained relatively constant for several days. Over the last 36 hours, 3 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 16 m3 / s. Note that low values ​​(or zero values) are recorded when cloud cover does not allow acquisition. A mapping of the lava flow dated 28/02/2018 carried out by the OI2 platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) using satellite data confirmed the slow progression of the lava flow (300 m in 5 days). The casting front is located 1200m above sea level and only the north arm is currently active. OVPF reported that on 27th of February, despite some fluctuations, the intensity of the eruptive tremor remained relatively constant, and the flows fluctuate in an area below 15 m³ / sec.Over the past 36 hours, 8 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded.After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals.The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high.The flow went down slowly towards the sea. As of the 26th of February, OVPF bulletin reported that the eruptive activity that began on February 19, 2019 continues. Despite some fluctuations, the intensity of the eruptive tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) remains relatively constant. Over the last 36 hours, 11 upper superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high.Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC-University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 13 m3 / s. According to Mirova, the radiative power remains high, with 1927 MW this 25 February. OVPF reported that over the past 36 hours, 10 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the volcano related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between 2.5 and 13 m3 / s. Observations from the OVPF webcam located in Piton des Cascades show that the casting front has not progressed or very little since 21 February. According to the observations carried out during an overflight on the 22nd of February in the morning of the eruption zone, by OVPF, showed that the contour of the flow has slightly changed even if its propagation remained is slow. The eruptive cone continued to grow and is now occupied by a lava lake from which ejecta escape during the explosion of bubbles arriving at the surface. A well-channeled flow escapes downstream of the cone. After 1 km (and 200 m of negative elevation) it is no longer one but two lava arms that are observable. The separation of the flows is at the level of Guyanin crater. The longest lava arm has traveled a distance of 1900 m from the eruptive vent and is still 4.3 km from the road and 5.3 km from the ocean. The different lava fronts are currently in the Grandes Pentes. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were between 2.5 and 15 m³ / s. The amount of lava emitted since the resumption of activity on 19/02/2019 is between 1 and 3 million cubic meters.Observations from the RN2 by an OVPF team, on February 20th, showed that the flows continued their progression in a discontinuous way (with periods of stagnation - stagnation of the lava front - and periods of faster progression) and that the main pouring front had crossed the "broken of the Great Slopes". A point was made this February 22 around 7:30 on the advance of the lava flow, following an overflight by a team of the OVPF. Over the last 24 hours, the lava front changed and was still located in the upper sector of the Grandes Pentes. On the other hand, the flow showed two visible arms on the s morning, one to the north and the other to the south of the Guyanin piton. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were between 2 and 8 m3 / s.The eruptive tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) is relatively stable since February 20 at 06h local time.OVPF reported that effusive activity continued on the 20th of February. The eruptive tremor remained relatively stable since 6am local / 2h UTC. Only one crack was active and the eruptive activity has built a cone rampart breached towards the lava flow. According to OVPF the lava is at 1,200 ° C, and the gases are measured up to a temperature of 1,000 ° C. In the evening, the incandescence could be observed on the Cascades webcam; Mirova noted a thermal anomaly of 1,357 Mw at 6:15 pm, a little stronger than that recorded at the beginning of the phase on 19.02 at 19:10, of 1.072MW. 5 volcano-tectonic earthquakes and inflation were recorded by OVPF, testifying to the pressurization of a superficial source and a distant source. As of the 20th of February, in the morning OVPF point reported that the crack opened yesterday at 1800 meters altitude on the east side of the Dolomieu, and an active fountain feeds two lava flows, whose front advances at a speed of about 1 km / h. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne), remain low and are between 3 and 7 m3 / s. The first flow cuts the crater Madoré and stops upstream of the crater Guyana,forming a small lava lake. The second lava arm descends the slopes to join the part of the Grand-Brûlé destroyed by the fire of January 2019. It spreads over 1,600 meters, and to continue towards the sea, depends on a sufficient supply upstream. As of the 19th of February, following the eruptive pause, OVPF reported renewed activity : at 3 pm local this February 19, a new seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is for the moment accompanied by no rapid deformation. Around 17h, tremor occurred and opening of a new crack began just above the Cassé des Grandes Pentes and the the lava flowed rapidly and descended the slopes .At 17:50, the first observations showed a gas plume by a team of the OVPF in the area of ​​"Signal de l'Enclos" (south-east flank). OVPF reported that the eruption stopped on 18/02/2019 at 22:00 local time. Some lava flows glowing remained nevertheless visible, but these will probably gradually cool down with the end of their feeding by the eruption. At this time, no assumptions are possible about the evolution of the future situation (definitive shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity further downstream), given the persistence of seismicity. As of the 18th in the afternoon OVPF reported that the eruption started on February 18, 2019 continued, with a slight drop in tremor intensity observed since 14:45 local time (10:45 UTC). This drop in tremor may be linked to a drop in activity on one or other of the two cracks. Surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were included at the beginning of eruption between 25 and 40 m3 / s, values ​​classically observed in beginning of eruption at Piton de la Fournaise. The flows were visible from the Route des Laves, and the webcam of Piton Cascades. As of the 18th of February 2019, OPVF reported that following the new seismic crisis started at 09:16 local time and always accompanied by rapid deformation. the volcanic tremor, synonymous with the arrival of magma near the surface, has been recorded since about 9:48 am local time and an eruptiion started.  But in the first time the fog prevented the exact counting of the fissures and their precise location. According to latest news at 10 AM from OVPF at least two eruptive fissures and a dozen lava fountains" are located on the eastern flank of the massif. Previous news 2018 - The cone of the last eruption, from September 15 to November 1, was named after the writer and storyteller Creole Daniel Honoré, who died on October 18, 2018 at the age of 79 years.As of the 1st of November, OVPF reported that on midnight UT, which is 4:00 local time, on 01 November 2018, no more signs of activity was recorded at Piton de La Fournaise. The eruption started on September 15, 2018 at 4:25 am local time seems stopped on November 01, 2018, at 04:00 local time. As of the 30th of october OVPF reported that eruptive activity is still slowly continuing. The volcanic tremor dropped since 24h ago. As of the 25 of October OVPF reported that the eruption started on September 15 continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor is stable since 24h ago. As of the 19th of October, OVPF reported that the effusive eruption is still continuing. The volcanic tremor dropped slowly since several days ago. Previous observations carried out on 8th of October from Bert Piton and from the air by OVPF teams located the lava front. Since September 30, the northern front has progressed of 1.8 km and was, on October 8 at 08:00 AM local time, 500m of the great slopes, the southern and central fronts did not move. On the morning the north lava front was less than 120 m from the southern wall of Enclos Fouqué.OVPF bulletin (4th of October) reported that the eruption is still continuing. The volcanic tremor increased since yesterday 10 pm ( local time) and then doubled. The surface activity remained weak. As of the 3rd of October (2 am - local time) OVPF reported that eruptive activity was still continuing. - Estimated lava flux on the surface from stallite data, via HOTVOLC (OPGC – Université Clermont Auvergne) was between1 m3/s et 3 m3/s during the past 24h. OVPF bulletin ( 2nd of October) reported that the the eruptive activity is still continuing. The intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained stable during th"e past 24h. OVPF reported that the eruption continues.An overflight of the eruptive site by a team of the OVPF, reported a falling surface activity with rare lava projections at the level of the eruptive vent, and resurgences of lava from the main lava tunnel of small extensions (<600 m). Apart from a slight increase in early afternoon on September 30, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity at the surface) has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) were less than 2 m3 / s over the last 24 hours. OVPF reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing on 28th of September. The tremor remained stable during past 24hthAs of the 27th of September, OVPF reported that the eruption continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours. Estimation of the lava effusion rate on the surface from satellite data , via HOTVOLC (OPGC – Université Clermont Auvergne) are still between 1 m3/s et 3 m3/sduring the past 24h.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded during the day of 25 September or during the current day.No significant deformation is noticeable.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne) are maintained and are always between 1m3 / s and 2m3 / s over the last 24 hours. The cone continue to growth; The lava flows are running by a tunnel and emerge by resurgences located about 150m downstream of the cone. As of the 26th of September, OVPF reported that the eruption started on September 15th is still continuing. Following a slight increase at the beginning of the day, the intensity of the volcanic tremor has returned to a relatively stable level with some minor fluctuations. The surface flows were estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne),between 0.5 and 5.3 m3 / s on September 24th..The cone continues to growth and main lava flow is still running toward the south then heading south-east. As of the 24th of September, OVPF reported the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity on the surface) has slightly increased since 8:00 am local time (04:00 UTC time) and thus doubled in intensity during the day.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded during the current day. No significant deformation are noticeable since the onset of the eruption. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) are maintained and are always between 1 m3 / s and 3 m3 / s over the last 24 hours.The decrease in SO2 flux by a factor of about 6 compared to the beginning of the eruption is maintained and is confirmed by the notable decrease in SO2 pollution at the summit of Piton de la Fournaise; the plume is now smaller and almost confined in the Enclos Fouqué and drifted to the south and west. The cone is still growing and a lava flow is still issuing to the south from an opening, then heading to the south-east. The eruption began September 15 at 4:25 local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues. The volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity on the surface) has undergone many fluctuations in the last 24 hours.A deep volcano-tectonic earthquake (about 2.6 km below sea level) was recorded under the east flank of the volcano during the day of 21 September. No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded during the current day.No significant deformation are noticeable since the onset of the eruption.Surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) are between 1 m3 / s and 3 m3 / s over the last 24 hours.OVPF reported that after several hours of increased seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise a seismic crisis began at 0145 on 15 September, accompanied by rapid deformation. Tremor began at 0425, contemporaneous with the opening of fissures on the S flank near Rivals Crater. Around 1000 an estimate of the lava flow rate, based on satellite data, was 30 cubic meters per second. During an overflight about an hour later observers noted five fissures. The central fissure was the most active, producing lava fountains 30 m high; two lava flows that merged downstream had already flowed more than 2 km towards the wall of the Enclos Fouqué. By the afternoon of 16 September the estimated flow rate was between 2.5 and 7 cubic meters per second. Only three vents were active and a cone had started to form. lava flows continued to advance during 16-18 September.Previous eruption : OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption on July 13 at 22:00, strong seismic activity is still recorded at Piton de La Fournaise. Since the end of the eruption and until 15:30 July 14th, 51 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (<2 km below the surface) have been recorded, an average of about 3 events per hour. The majority of these earthquakes are located under the northern edge of the crater Dolomieu. This shows that the feeding system of the deep volcano remains under pressure. No significant deformities were observed this day. The OVPF survey this morning made it possible to map all the lava flows emitted during the July 13 eruption (Figure 1) and to estimate its volume at around 0.3 million m3. These flows covered approximately 400 m of markers on the hiking trail leading to the summit. OVPF reported that the eruption started on July 13, 2018 between 03:30 (beginning of the tremor recorded on the OVPF seismic stations) and 04:30 (first light visible on the OVPF webcams) local time was decreasing on July 13 around 18 h , with only three zones of explosions and not very active flows; it stopped this July 13 at 22:00 local time, after a phase of continuous dercreasing of the tremor and about 3 hours of gas pistons. No more glow was visible on the OVPF webcams at the level of eruptive cracks, only a few glows remained perceptible at the level of uncooled lava front.Previously, OVPF reported that following the seismic crisis that began shortly before midnight on July 12, the volcanic tremor appeared very gradually on the seismic recordings at about 03:30. local time on July 13th. According to the OVPF recordings, the source of this tremor is located on the northern flank of the volcano.The first glowing of the eruptive activity appeared on the OVPF webcams at 4:30 local time. Four fissures opened over 1 km long in the Rosemont Chapel area. On the first photos they can see a fissures sections already surrounded by spatter walls, and the lava flows running on the ground.The Prefecture has the alert 2-2 "eruption ongoing in the enclosure". Access to Enclos Fouqué and the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose trail are prohibited. Previous eruption - Latest OVPF bulletin (June 1st - 15h local time) reported that the eruption started on April 27, 2018 at 23:50 local time, stopped today at 14:30, after more than 18:30 of piston gas phase. OVPF bulletin ( May 31st - 14h30 ) reported that the eruption is still continuing. The main cone reached about 22-25 m high. a strong degassing still occurs from the vent of the main cone. Measured temprature showed about 800-900°C. The lava flows are almost exclusively in tubes.OVPF bulletin (May 30th - 15h30 local time) reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing but the volcanic tremor continued to decrease slowly. previously, OVPF reported that field observations made of May 25th, confirmed a weak activity. The lava flows are almost exclusively in tubes and at nightfall, a single incandescent zone in the lava field near the vent could be observed. A strong, almost continuous degassing continues. The tremor has stabilized at a relatively low value, the inflation of the volcano has stopped and the surface flows estimated yesterday are very low, less than 0.03 m³ / s. OVPF bulletin (May 24th - 15h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing. Only the main cone emits a few surface lava ejection. No active flow could be observed on the surface, most of the activity taking place in lava tubes.Surface discharges could not be estimated from satellite data in the past 24 hours due to cloud cover on the volcano. OVPF bulletin ( May 21st - 16h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing but the volcanic tremor decreased slowly since 72 h ago. The effusive activity is still occurring mainly in lava tubes. OVPF bulletin (18th of May - 15h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing. the intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours.The effusive activity is still predominantly in the lava tunnel. The flow activity is still predominantly in lava tubes but the resurgences are more numerous these past two days, especially at the foot of the secondary cone. During the last two days, the morphology of the main cone (the most active) has evolved with the building of a small outgrowth at its summit and a narrowing at the vent. The lava projections have become rare. The SO2 flux (recorded on the OVPF NOVAC stations) continues to decrease, consistent with a decrease in surface lava flow. Nevertheless, CO2 concentrations in the top air and CO2 concentrations in soil in the Plains region remain high. OVPF bulletin (May 11th, 15h local time) reported that the eruption was still continuing without change. As of the 10th of May ( 18:30 h local time) OVPF reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing. The volcanic tremor remained at the same level during the past 24 h. Main activity is still occurs from the central cone and charactérized by lava ejection at about 10 - 20 m m high above the cone and a lava flow emission in the lava tube. According to aerial photo (stereophotogrammetry process) the main cone reach about 21 m high with a diameter at the base of 100 meters. As of the 7th of May (3:30 pm local time) HVO reported that the intensity of tremor continue to slighly decrease. Fieldwork carried out the day before, showed that the main eruptive activity was concentrated on the central cone vent characterized by ejection of lava at about 10 m high and emission of lava flow from a main lava tube.As of the 6th of May, OVPLF reported that the intensity of the volcanic tremor has decreased very slightly since 24 hours. An overflight of the eruptive site carried out on the morning indicated at 10:30 (local time) activity mainly in lava tubes. Only two lava arms were visible from the main tunnel of the central vent, which is now the only one to show regularly projection of lava.The lava front has not progressed in recent days.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded today were between 1 and 2.5 m3 / s. As of the 5th of May, OVPF reported that the tremor remained relatively stable. The field reconnaissance carried out yesterday showed an activity mainly focused on the central vent with a cone now completely closed from which lava projections escape. The activity in the lava tunnel is now well developed and frequent breakthroughs in the roof of these tunnels let escape many little flows. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin), recorded today were between 1 and 3.5 m3/ s. It should be noted that these measures are only partial as a result of the bad weather conditions on the Fournaise massif during the last 24 hours. A very slight deflation of the volcano is still recorded on the OVPF deformation sensors. As of the 4th of May, OVPLF reported that the eruptive activity was continuing. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity at the surface) is still relatively stable.As of the 2d of may, the surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded this day were in the order of 1 to 3 m3 / s. A very slight deflation of the volcano begins to be recorded on the OVPF deformation sensors. This parameter will be followed in the next few days.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded in the last 24 hours under the Piton de la Fournaise volcano. IRT- OVPF HD Webcam direct - During 29-30 April tremor levels were relatively stable, with a few fluctuations related to morphological changes at the eruptive site such as cone building. During an overflight around 1020 on 30 April scientists observed three active vents (S of Rival Crater). The third vent, in a 5-m-high cone, was mostly closed over, though it continued to produced lava flows. The middle and most active cone was about 30-40 m long and 10-15 m high, and had a vent with a lava lake. Large bubbles of lava rose from the lake and exploded into lava fountains. Lava fountains from the northernmost vent rose no more than 15 m high. Lava flows had traveled 150 m and 1.2 km; the longer lava flow had reached the S rampart and traveled an additional 400 m E along it. . Satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded today were between 2 and 6 m3 / s.On the morning, three eruptive vents were still active with lava flows emission toward the Southwest. The lava front has reached the base of the rampart.No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. Previously, as of the 27th of April OVPLF reported that following the seismic crisis started at 20:15 local time on Friday, April 27, 2018, the Piton de la Fournaise erupted at 11:50 pm According to the first observations of the Volcanological Observatory, the eruption started on the south flank of the volcano, in the Rivals crater area, and was characterized by a very active eruptive fissures with lava fontaining and lava flows emission .Three other eruptive fissures also opened with emission of lava flows. These differents arms joined and a large lava flow was running south towards the rampart which extends to about 200- 300 meters. Previously, as of the 4th of April the morning bulletin of the OVPLF reported that following a decreasing of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) at 1 o'clock (local time, 21h UTC), surface eruptive activity started on April 3, 2018 at 10:40 am local time stopped. day, April 4, 2018 at 4:00 am (local time, 00h GMT), after a gas piston phase. As of the 3rd of April a new afternoon bulletin of the OVPLF reported that following a reconnaissance made by a team of the OVPF at the ramparts of the Enclos, the eruptive activity has been located on the north flank of the volcano against the top of the broken slopes. A helicopter overflight of the eruptive site by a second team of the OVPF in the middle of the afternoon allowed to locate more precisely the eruption. A long crack about 1km long opened in 7 distinct segments, two with emissions of lava fountains. The last active segment is just at the foot of the rampart close the bottom of the Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose. At 16:00 local time, many landslides were recorded by the OVPF network in the rampart at the Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose area, and many fumaroles were observed on site at this level. This situation presents a real and imminent danger of collapse. As a result, the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose trail is currently closed to pedestrian traffic from Piton Partage. Previous news - OVPLF recorded since 5:50, Tuesday, April 3, 2018, an increase in the number of earthquakes of increasing intensity and persistent deformations at the top of the volcano. Just before 11:00, the monitoring system of the volcanological observatory recorded an eruptive tremor towards the rampart at the level of the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose. A strong seismic signal indicating that the lava was close to the surface recorded by the observatory or already at the surface. Previous news 2017 - OVPLF reported that since mid-October 2017 , a change is observed on the recordings of the volcanological observatory with: a renewed of inflation of the volcano: The GPS of the summit zone and in far field record an inflation, probably in relation with reactivation of the pressure of a superficial and a deep source. - low concentrations of SO2 (coupled with CO2) and H2S (coupled with H2O vapor) observed in the summit emissions of Piton de la Fournaise. - a slight seismicity under the summit craters. On 24th of October, 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VT) were recorded under the summit cone, including a magnitude of 0.27 with a duration of 3.72 sec. All these parameters will be followed and confirmed in the next days.Previously, The OVPF confirmed the end of the eruptive phase at Piton de La Fournaise on August 28, 2017 at 3:00 pm / 11 pm UTC on 27.08., following the disappearance of the tremor signal. However, since the end of this eruptive phase, a recovery of the activity, observed usually outside the eruptive phase, could be observed. No hypothesis are made about the future situation, taking into account the following observations: - Five volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded under the southeastern area of ​​the Enclos since the end of the eruptive phase. - No distortion is no longer noticeable. - CO2 concentrations in the soil at the site remain high.Despite the end of activity from the geo-physical data and the stopping of the feed (end of the tremor, vibration associated with the passage of magma and gas containing ), no hypothesis is excluded, a new eruptive activity could be occurs in the days and hours ahead. During the 45 days of the eruption, from July 14 to August 28, 2017, less than 10 million m³ of lava were released on the surface. After high lava flows (22-30 m³ / s) recorded on the first day of the eruption, the average flows estimated by satellite thermal imaging via the MIROVA (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) platforms, decreased gradually throughout the eruption, from 5 to <1 m³ / s. This gradual decline in lava flows was accompanied by a decrease in SO2 flows into the air. Previously mainly based on seismicity, OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 14 July continued during 16-22 August; weather clouds prevented visual and satellite observations most of the week. Volcanic tremor rapidly increased in the early evening on 15 August, concurrent with the presence of ephemeral lava fountains, at the cone and another area, visible in webcam images. The signal fluctuated at high levels until the evening of 19 August, when it began to stabilize at low levels. Satellite data from 19 August indicated a decreased lava-flow rateAs of the 18th of August OVPLF reported that the eruption continues, with variations in the tremor and surface activity. The slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano since the beginning of August (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption) seemed stopped . On the morning of August 18th, weather conditions are better and we can see, on the webcam of Piton de Bert, a degassing at the eruptive site and at various points of the lava flow. As of the 16th of August, OVPLF reported that the eruption that began on 14 July continues. The volcanic tremor increased rapidly in early night on August 15th. Then, since the beginning of the day (the 16.08 / 00h local), characterized by variation with a periodicity of approximately 4 minutes. The slight inflation of the terminal cone of the volcano observed so far (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption) appeared to be decreasing. Despite unfavorable weather conditions, the camera in place at Piton de Bert allowed to associate these changes in the level of the volcanic tremor with changes in surface activity: fountains of lava, ephemeral, could be observed both at the level of the eruptive cone than from the eastern end of the lava flow essentially at the beginning of the night. As of the 13th of August, OVPLF reported that after a month of eruption, the tremor was stabilized since 48 hours, following a phase of slight increasing. No volcano-tectonic earthquake was recorded under the summit craters during the day of 13 August. The slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano was always observed (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption). Despite the bad weather conditions of the weekend, some observations were carried out on the site on 13.08 afternoon by OVPF team. No more projections were observed even if gas puffs were heard and were visible in the form of flares. Further downstream, about 2 km from the eruptive mouth, about 400 m from the Crater Gros Bénard and 500 m from the lava pond, pahoehoe flows were observed. The presence of clouds, this WE and today, unfortunately did not make it possible to carry out the estimates on the flow by the use of satellites. As of the 11th of August, OVPLF reported that the tremor remained at a low level of intensity, and a slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano is observed, less than 1 cm from the beginning of the eruption, and far field, witness of the pressurization of a source in surface and in depth. OVPF reported that the eruption continued through 8 August, though tremor levels and surficial activity slowly declined. Satellite data indicated a minimum flow rate of 1-2 cubic meters per second. Some active lava flows were visible at a distance of 520 m from the cone, though most of the flow activity was confined to lava tubes. There were some breakouts from the lava tube; a substantial breakout on 5 August fed a lava flow that traveled hundreds of meters over several hours. During 7-8 August small amounts of material was ejected from a small vent on the N flank of the eruptive vent. As of the 3rd of August OVPLF reported that the eruption continued, but the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) continued to decline very gradually. The decline in the eruptive tremor is reflected on the ground by a decline in activity. During an overflight carried out on 2 August by the OVPF, no projection was visible at the level of the eruptive cone. The main vent, active these days, is now completely blocked. The second vent, of smaller size, showed an extremely low level of magma with strong degassing. At 10.30 am (local time), only a few lava arms were visible on the surface, the nearest being 520 meters from the eruptive cone, with the rest of the activity occurring in the lava tube.As of the 31st of July OVPLF reported that , the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) remains at a level equivalent to 50% of the value observed at the beginning of the eruption. No earthquakes have been recorded in the past 48 hours.The ground reconnaissance carried out on July 30, with the assistance of the Air Force Section and the PGHM, enabled the OVPF members to carry out various surveys on site. The eruptive cone continues its edification, it is now completely closed and presents a main vent characterired by intermittent projections. A second, smaller vent on the northern edge of the cone is significantly less active, only a few projections are rarely observed. Most of the activity occurs now in lava tunnels. Fractures within these tunnels allow escape arms of lava flows with a small lateral extension. This activity remains confined in the near part of the effusive cone. The flow front has not changed since the last survey and is still 2.8 km from the eruptive vent. Estimates carried out by satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) show a minimum flow rate of 1-2 m3 / s. The trend observed on deformation sensors, in particular GPS, seems to stabilize or reverse (to deflation). Previously, as of the 29th of July, OVPLF reported that the intensity of the tremor has increased in the last 48 hours. The intensity reached sixty percent of the value observed at the beginning of the eruption. A slight inflation continued, and the flows carried out by satellite methods are of minimum 2 m³ / s. OVPLF reported that the intensity of the tremor has risen slightly since the 25th at the beginning of the day, although it is necessary to take account of noise caused by bad weather conditions. A team observed yesterday in the field the continued growth of the cone; At 17:30 local, two mouths were visible, a main breached on south-east side, and a secondary one on the north wall of the cone. A main channel is clearly visible downstream of the cone and has overflows; The lava also flows through tunnels, with vertical growth of the lava field. A slight recovery in inflation is recorded both at the level of the summit zone and the far field, reflecting the pressurization respectively of a superficial and deep source. A volcano-tectonic earthquake is reported under the summit cratersBy 21 July several lava tubes had formed, and fractures within the tubes produced small lava flows. During an overflight on 22 July scientists noted that the lava flow was over 2.8 km long with a maximum width of 0.6 km; the front of the flow had not advanced in the past seven days. Three main vents were active within the main cone and a fourth was just sporadically active. As of the 21st of July, OVPLF reported that observations carried out on 21 July by the OVPF teams showed that the eruptive cone downstream of the eruptive fissure continued its edification Three main eruptive vents were visible on the inside. On the morning only the central eruptive vent remained active towards the east. No earthquakes were recorded this day. A slight deflation was always observed at the top of the terminal cone. Estimates carried out by satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) show flow rates between 1 and 3 m3 / s. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) has been increasing for 24 hours. This is to be related in particular to the closure of the cone which increases the pressure on its walls. Numerous lava tunnels have been formed downstream of the cone. Fractures within these tunnels allow many lateral extension arms to escape. As of the 19th of July, OVPLF reported that At after a sharp drop in its intensity during the night of 17 to 18 July, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of surface eruptive intensity) is relatively constant on July 18th, intensity equivalent to that observed on the second day of the eruption. This decrease of the volcanic tremor is to be related to a morphological change of the eruptive cone that is being formed. Compared to the observations of the previous day, a collapse has breached the cone to the east, leaving an easier opening and flowing of lava on the surface. Currently the activity focuses on 6 vents inside the cone.A slight deflation was observed at the top of the terminal cone. Since July 16, SO2 fluxes at the eruptive vent are decreasing and CO2 concentrations in the soil measured at the Volcano gîte at low level. Deflation of the summit zone as well as low CO2 concentrations in the soil mean that there is currently little or no deep feeding. HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin) estimations carried out by satellite methods indicate flow rates between 1 and 4 m3 / s. OVPLF reported that the eruption begun on July 14 at 00:50 local time continues. After an increase in intensity during the night from July 15th to 16th, the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) has been held on July 16 at a constant level since 8h local time (4h UTC). On July 17th, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) decreased between 7h and 13h local time (3h-9h UTC) before experiencing again phases of major fluctuations. These variations in the intensity of the tremor are conventionally recorded during the first days of eruption of the Piton de la Fournaise and correspond to the formation of the eruptive cone at a single point. This eruptive cone undergoes phases of construction and wall collapses which modify its morphology and the pressure at its center, explaining these variations of the tremor. An earthquake was recorded on yesterday's day near Piton Crac on the eastern flank of the volcano. A slight deflation (deflation) is observed at the top of the terminal cone. Estimations carried out using satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) report minimum flows similar to those of the previous day in the order of 1 to 3 m3 / s. OVPLF reported that seven lava fountains were visible at the beginning of the eruption, but only 3-4 remained active o 14th of July in the evening, located at the low point of the eruptive fissure. According to the MIROVA site, the thermal anomaly, which decreased in intensity (871 MW on 14.07 at 19:20 against 5,897 MW on 14.07 at 7:10 am), is reported about 4 km from the summit which suggests a lava flow length of about 3,000 meters. OVPLF reported that on July 13, at 10:10 pm, the seismicity increased markedly, and about 10:30 PM, a seismic crisis accompanied by a rapid deformation were recorded and the magma roses towards the surface. At 0:50 local on July 14, one (or some) eruptive fissures opened on the southern flank of Piton de La Fournaise. .At 0930, the eruptive fissure extended over 450 meters. Seven lava fountains with a maximum height of 30 meters were active. The fountain the most downstream began to build a cone from which escaped two arms of lava flow. The front of the flows could not be located because of the cloud cover on the east of the volcano. The prefecture raised the alert to level 2-2. Few later the eruptive fissure emitted two distinct lava flows. Since July 10, 2017, the seismic activity, on the verge of the summit area of ​​Piton de la Fournaise, has resumed significantly. Thus 155 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (<2 km deep) were recorded under the summit zone during the last 7 days. The majority of these earthquakes are located below the southern edge of the Dolomieu crater between 500 and 1000 m above sea level..The previous last activity bulletin of the OVPF dated on 24 May indicates that the volcano has resumed its inflatory process. Over the past 36 hours, three superficial volcanic tectonic earthquakes, less than 2 km deep, have been recorded below the summit. The recent measurements carried out by the observatory teams highlight two new areas of fumaroles, located along the path of the magmatic intrusion. It spread to the edge of the Enclosure and its degassing via dry fractures, generated the tremor recorded on May 17th. The alert level 1 / eruption probable or imminent, remains in effectDuring a field visit on 22 May scientists mapped the deformation associated with the 17 May event and measured displacements that did not exceed 35 cm. On 23 May OVPF reported that the 17-18 May activity resulted in two new zones of fumaroles that followed the trends seen in seismic and deformation data. According to the OVPLF the situation of the Piton de La Fournaise remains unpredictable, which can evolve towards an end of the intrusion as towards the propagation and opening of fissures more or less distant. The Observatory reports a high seismicity, with, since 18 May at 01h local time, 51 superficial VT earthquakes (0-2 km deep) and 26 deep VT earthquakes (> 2 km deep), located under the summit zone and the sector NE of the Enclos, notably at the foot of the Piton de Crac. Deformations slowed down, and carbon dioxide concentrations stopped rising at high levels. On 18 May, the appearance of H2S, SO2 and CO2 in the fumaroles of the summit zone testifies to the continuation of an injection from the summit zone.   Previously, after a lull since early March, inflation has picked up at Piton de La Fournaise, at a relatively low rate compared to 2015, 2016 and early 2017; The OVPF indicates an elongation between the top stations of 0.1-0.2 mm for 0.5-1 mm previously. The resumption of inflation is accompanied by a slight seismicity: 22 superficial volcanic-tectonic earthquakes were recorded from 1 to 17 April, between 0 and 2 km below the summit craters, 10 of them on the one day of 14.04. Two deep earthquakes were recorded under the eastern flank of the volcano at 2-3 km below sea level. In parallel, CO2 concentrations in the soil measured on the western flank of the volcano (at the volcano house and at the level of the Plaine des Caffres) show an upward trend.Previously, OVPLF reported that the inflation of the terminal cone, that was maintained during the eruption, continues.One week after the end of the eruption of 31 January - 27 February 2017, the Piton de la Fournaise volcanological observatory recorded two superficial volcanic tectonic earthquakes (0 to 2 km deep) in one week under the summit craters.OVPLF reported that the volcanic tremor stopped around 10:10 local time on February 27, 2017. At midday, the projections stopped to leave place to an active plume of light color. After nine hours of persistent residual degassing, the eruption stopped at 19:30. However, the terminal cone inflation continues at both the top and bottom levels (recharge of the superficial magma chamber), and carbon dioxide concentrations in the soil at the heel remain high.During this eruption, less than 10 million m3 of lava flows were emitted on the surface (between 3 and 8 Mm3 according to the estimation methods). The outlines and the volumes of the surface runoffs have changed little during the last two weeks of eruption due to extremely low surface flows in the second half of the eruption (<1 m3 / sec). The deformations associated with magma migration to the eruptive site (January 31st) focused on the southern and eastern part of the volcano and did not exceed 30 centimeters. During the eruption and since its eruption on 27 February, inflation (swelling) of the terminal cone continues continuously (about 1 cm of elongation of the summit in one month). At the same time, CO2 concentrations in the soil at the level of the volcano deposit remain high and the deep seismicity (ca -20 km below sea level) under the western flank of the volcano (Plaine des Palmistes) began to increase Since about 17 February. These parameters demonstrate depth pressurization and upwelling of fluid from the deep to the more superficial storage areas below the summit craters (ca. 2 km below the surface). Previously, as of the 26th of February, OVPLF reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing but the Tremor dropped since several days. No seismicity was recorded during the day. Since the night of last Friday, the volcanic tremor is slightly increasing; The inflation of the volcano in its summit area continues. A slight inflation at the base of the cone (bottom of the enclosure) is now perceptible. On the other hand, outside the enclosure, no deformation is currently observable. Visual observations from Piton de Bert during the night from Saturday to Sunday show a few projections at the active vent, a lava flow mainly in lava tube, and rare outlets for lava at level of the flow. Some skylights (opening in the roof of a lava tunnel) were also observable. As of the 20th of February, OVPLF reported that the downward trend of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of surface eruptive intensity) observed over the last few days is confirmed, as well as a resumption of inflation of the volcano in its summit zone. Given the weather, no observations could be made on the ground during the day by the observatory teams. OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise fluctuated during 14-20 February. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, and a few branches at end of tube were active. As of the 16th of February OVPLF reported following the decline that occurred the day before, the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) is constant again, at a level equivalent to that at the beginning of the eruption. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the summit of Piton de la Fournaise. No significant distortions have been observed over the last few days. Observations made on the ground this morning by the observatory teams indicate that the activity is continuing mainly in "lava tubes". Only a few flows of small extensions were visible a hundred meters downstream of the eruptive cone.OVPF reported that during 10-14 February volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise was high, with levels reaching those observed at the onset of the eruption on 31 January. The eruptive vent was perched on top of a cone that was 30-35 m high and 190 m wide (at the base). The lava level inside of the cone was low, or about half of cone's height, and incandescent material was ejected from the vent. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, though a few branches at end of tube were active. As of the 10th of February, the eruption continued at Piton de La Fournaise. The volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) remains at a high level of intensity. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the summit of Piton de la Fournaise. The inflation of the building continues, reflecting the pressurization of the surface reservoir and the maintenance of a rise of fluids. SO2 fluxes are relatively low. A well designed cone of 30-35 m. high and 190 m. wide, has been erected, capped by a single active mouth, from which escape projections contribute to its growth. He was unofficially named Piton Carlos by the local media. The level of the lava is approximately half the height of the cone (February 10, 8:50 am) and the thickness of the lava accumulation at the outlet of the vent is about 14 m. Most of the activity is done by lava tube, and surface flows are therefore low (estimates between <1 and 2.4 m3 / s according to the satellite data of the HOTVOLC platforms (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin). Only a few small arms are visible at the exit of some tubes. These observations are consistent with the low flux of SO2. Outlet temperatures at the vent are between 1200 and 1250 ° C. Larger shots identified the main channels and highlighted tubes areas.The flow front at the top of the "Grandes Pentes" is frozen and no longer progresses. As of the 8th of February, according to the OVPLF, the volcanic tremor (surface eruptive intensity indicator) remains at a high level of intensity comparable to that seen at the beginning of the eruption (note that the higher values ​​recorded over the last 24 hours may be Influenced by wind and rain which disrupt the signals). No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise. Concerning the long-term deformations, the tendency to a slight recovery of the inflation of the building seems to be clarified. This parameter will be followed and confirmed in the next few days.The storm prevented field observations, but the processing of the COSMO-SkyMed radar satellite images (carried out by the OI2 platform - OPGC Clermont Ferrand) made it possible to carry out a mapping of the lava flow as it was at 07 February . This technology and the applied treatment make it possible to identify the surfaces newly covered by the flows and to get rid of the presence of clouds. On the other hand, the resolution of the rendered contours is less than that of the treatments applied in aerial photographs. The length of the lava flows reached an extension of the order of 2,800 meters in eight days ... or at a relatively slow speed of about 15 meters per hour, and is located in the heights of the "Grandes Pentes". As of the 6th of February the eruption at Piton de La Fournaise was still continuing without a drop in activity. The volcanic tremor continues to increase gradually reaching a level higher than that observed at the beginning of the eruption. No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise. The distal stations of La Plaine des Cafres (site of the observatory and Piton Bleu) of measures of concentration of CO2 in the soil register a decrease since the beginning of the eruption. The bad weather conditions and the pre-alert cyclone did not allow any recognition by the members of the observatory. OVPLF reported that the eruption of the Piton de La Fournaise, begun on January 31, 2017 at 7:40 pm local time, continued as mentioned with the bulletin of the OVPF of 3 February at 16h local: The volcanic tremor (surface eruptive intensity indicator) was maintained at an average level of about 24 hours (about half that observed at the beginning of the eruption) before experiencing fluctuations again around 11 am local time ( 07h UTC) today. No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise building. Analysis of the previous day's data indicates the construction of an eruptive vent of 128 m in its longest length and about 35 m high in its highest part (02/02/2017). It should be noted that this morphology is subject to rapid variations; In fact the growth of a cone at the beginning of the eruption is always rapid and then subjected to sets of stabilization / destabilization.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data over the last 24h, via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin) platforms range from 5 m3 / s to 10.1 ± 2.5 m3 / s. As of the 2nd of February, according to OVPDLF the volcanic tremor remains at an average level (about half that observed at the beginning of the eruption), with less fluctuations in the last 8 hours compared to the first 24 hours - No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. - No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise building. - The CO2 concentrations in the soil at the Volcano Gîte remain at high values.The observations and observations made this morning 3rd of February by the observatory allowed: - Shooting of thermal images. Outlet temperatures at the vent are between 1200 and 1250 ° C . - Monitoring the edification of the eruptive cone. The eruptive cone continues its edification. A main fountain is at the origin of the construction of a southern wall more prominent than the north wall. A second lava fountain is always visible. Surface flows estimated from satellite data via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (Turin University) platforms range from 3 m3 / s to 7 m3 / s. First eruption 2017 of Piton de La Fournaise: Following signs of seismicity at the end of January, a seismic crisis was triggered on the 31st of January from 15:22, justifying the passage on alert 1 / probable or imminent eruption. The volcanic tremor, and the arrival on the surface of the magma, is recorded since 19:40. The Orsec-volcano plan goes on alert 2-2 / eruption in progress. Access to the Enclos Fouqué and the installation of a helicopter in the area of ​​the volcano are prohibited. The first images of the webcam of Piton de Bert suggest two active vents and the glow of a lava flow. In the morning, the images show an active zone downstream on the crack, characterized by several 20-30 meter lava fountains, located at 1,100 meters at the SSE of Château-Fort. The height of the eruptive vent is estimated at about ten meters. It lets escape a flow a'a which separates in several arms; At 7:40 local, the lava flow covered a distance of 600 to 750 m. with respect to the vent. Cracks open at the beginning of the eruption are no longer active, but remain marked by fumaroles. Previous last year activity : -as of the 18th of September, OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise stabilized during 14-17 September. Field observations on 15 September revealed that the two volcanic cones that had formed on the lower part of the fissures had begun to coalesce. Lava from the northernmost cone flowed N and NE, and by 0900, was active midway between Piton Partage and Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose. The height of the lava fountains grew in the afternoon, rising as high as 60 m, likely from activity ceasing at the southernmost cone and focusing at one main cone. On 16 September the main cone continued to build around a 50-m-high lava fountain; lava flows from this vent traveled NE. Tremor rose during the night on 17 September, and then fell sharply at 0418 on 18 September, indicating the end of surficial activity. During 11-18 September the erupted volume was an estimated 7 million m3. . As of the 11th of September a bulletin of the OVPLF reported that seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise was low in August, following an elevated number of volcano-tectonic events the second half of July. Gas emissions were low and dominated by water vapor; CO2 emissions had been elevated during 21-27 July. Inflation had stopped in early August and slight deflation was detected through 2 September. Seismicity increased on 10 September, and elevated levels of SO2 at fumaroles were detected. A seismic crisis began at 0735 on 11 September, characterized by several earthquakes per minute. Deformation suggested magma migrating to the surface. Volcanic tremor began at 0841, synonymous with the beginning of the eruption. Several fissures opened in the N part of the l'Enclos Fouqué caldera, between Puy Mi-côte and the July 2015 eruption site, and produced a dozen 15-30-m-high lava fountains distributed over several hundred meters. Tremor levels decreased by a factor of four, and by 2100 were stable. The eruption continued on 12 September. . - (OVPLF ) The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Reunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. (OVPF information) - Journal de l'île de la Réunion - ). Live webcam - IPGP

FRANCE - Soufriere Guadeloupe

May 15th, 2020

OVSG reported that since the beginning of 2018 a cyclical process of injecting deep magmatic gases at the base of the hydrothermal system of the Soufrière of Guadeloupe, at a depth between 2 and 3 km below the summit. It generates a recurrent process of overheating and overpressure of the hydrothermal system which results in disturbances in the circulation of hydrothermal fluids; the evolution of the activity of fumaroles at the summit, as evidenced by the projection of hot, acid mud over a few meters; increased swarm volcanic seismicity; some volcanic earthquakes felt, four between February and April 2018, including an earthquake of magnitude M4.1 on April 27, 2018, the strongest since 1976, deformations of small amplitude and limited to the dome of La Soufrière of the order of 3- 7 mm / year and the continued opening of summit fractures, the fluctuation of the flow rates of fumarolic gas from a pressurized hydrothermal reservoir, an increase in thermal anomalies in the soil at the top of La Soufrière. These phenomena are not yet clearly associated with an anomaly in the other monitoring parameters which could indicate a possible rise in magma. The latter would typically, but not systematically, manifest itself through numerous deep or felt earthquakes, large-scale deformations beyond the dome, and the emission of sulfur gases at high temperature (> 150 ° C). La Soufrière de la Guadeloupe volcano occupies the southern end of Basse-Terre, the western half of the butterfly-shaped island of Guadeloupe. Construction of the Grand Découverte volcano about 0.2 million years ago (Ma) was followed by caldera formation after a plinian eruption about 0.1 Ma, and then by construction of the Carmichaël volcano within the caldera. Two episodes of edifice collapse and associated large debris avalanches formed the Carmichaël and Amic craters about 11,500 and 3100 years ago, respectively. The presently active La Soufrière volcano subsequently grew within the Amic crater. The summit consists of a flat-topped lava dome, and several other domes occur on the southern flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from NW-SE-trending fissure systems that cut across the summit and upper flanks. A relatively minor phreatic eruption in 1976-77 caused severe economic disruption when Basse-Terre, the island's capital city, which lies immediately below the volcano, was evacuated. (GVN/GVP)

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TANZANIE - Lengai volcano

October 30th, 2012

News and recent photos taken in September 2012 at the summit crater. Previously, as of the 22nd of February 2010 GNN/GVP reported that periodic eruptions from a small fissure and steam emissions from an area of the crater rim next to a part that had collapsed were observed on 11 February, and three fresh black hornitos were noted on the W part of the crater floor, a cone-shaped grey hornito in the middle of the floor and a new black lava flow to the S were seen during 14-15 February. Previous Informations : June-August 2009: a few reports received during the summer, including ones documenting visits in August by Thomas Holden , in July by David Gregson , and in June by Tobias Fischer , indicate that Lengai continues to produce small effusive eruptions within the pit crater. Thomas Holden reported that on his climb in late August (exact date unknown) he saw active lava flows. Tobias Fischer witnessed flows and a small lava lake ~5m in diameter in June.  David Gregson did not see significant activity but heard sounds of activity at depth. Although the activity appears to have returned to the typical eruptions of fluid natrocarbonatite lava for which Lengai is so well known, no samples of the new flows have been obtained for analysis due to their inaccessability deep inside the pit crater.  It is not known how similar the new lava is in composition to the lavas produced prior to the 2007-2008 eruption. (From Fred Belton website) Previous information : qccording to Frederick Belton team which climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on 18 June 2009reported that the new active cone covered the former crater floor entirely except for an area N of the summit. The new cone's W, N, and E sides stood about 30 m above the rim of the former crater and enclosed a deep crater. The visitors saw a few small vents on the crater's floor. Frequent emissions of ash-poor plumes originated from the SW part of the crater's floor, producing light ashfall. They heard continuous loud rumbling noises, occasional gas-jetting sounds, and rockfalls. As of the 21st of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania erupted on 19th of February, according to an aviation report. Ash was observed to 38,000 ft. Pilots have been advised to avoid flying near the volcano. The activity at Lengai seems to be increasing. In the past two weeks, explosions have ejected ash plumes rising several kilometers. On 15 Feb., Dutch pilots observed and photographed an eruption plume rising to estimated 12 km (36,000 ft). The Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 15 February and rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 24th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a visitor to Ol Doinyo Lengai informed that it erupted on 14 January. According to this visitor "shower of stones" fell at their location about 50 m from the summit and a lava flow went another direction. Typical ash eruption from the new ash cone in the N crater. A small group from Volcano Discovery , local mountain guides and partners stayed near and on Lengai volcano during 17-21 January. During this period, Lengai continued to erupt ash to several 100 metres above the new ash cone during phases lasting several hours alternating with periods of quiet when only a weak plume of very fine gray ash and gas was issuing out of the new ash cone. Photos from an eruptive phase of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano consisting in near continuous ash emissions from its new crater and taken from the summit during a recent expedition in January 2008 have been posted at the Discovery: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcano-tours/photos/lengai/0108.html . These photos also document the impressive recent changes on the volcano and help to illustrate the significant hazards present when climbing Lengai or staying at its top. The Toulouse VAAC reported previously that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by visiting scientists on 20 December and rose to an unreported altitude. As of the 20th of October, John Seach has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes. As of the 7th of September, according to Matthieu Kervyn De Meerendre, University of Gent (Belgium) has reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai has re-erupted again. A large eruption (?) seems to be taking place at Lengai volcano, this time for real On 4 September 2007, reports started coming in that a large (natrocarbonatite) lava flow is descending the West flank. A considerable ash plume was visible on satellite data. Over 30 thermal anomalies have been detected by the MODIS team since August 23 - more than during the large eruption in March 2006. On 4 and 5 Sep, the thermal anomaly at the summit was extremely strong. From this and satellite imaginery, it seems that there was a short overflow to the East and a major overflow to the West starting on September 1st (it could be a bush fire on the volcano flank ignited by lava). New overflows on 5 Sep seem to be taking place on the W and NW flanks. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep craters walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

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CONGO - Nyamulagira volcano

August 2nd, 2019

The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that collapses of Nyamuragira's inner crater walls observed in May 2019 continued during 1-31 July. Lava fountaining from a small cone was visible. The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during early April Nyamuragira’s lava lake, which had returned in April 2018 after almost a year of quiet, continued to be active. Beginning on 12 April 2019 seismic and lava-lake activity both declined. MIROVA data showed that the thermal radiative power was at moderate levels the first half of the month then declined to low levels during the second half. Previously according recent news the activity in progress since 18 April 2018 has continued; the zone of activity in the caldera is located in a pit crater, almost full. A recent helicopter expedition took place in Februar and taken an aerial photo of the caldera and its activity. Slight thermal anomalies were detected by Mirova, when cloud cover permitted, between 3 and 21 MW on 23 February 2019. Previous news 2018 - As of the 22th of July 2018 the new eruptive phase occurred at the the volcano where  a small lava lake has formed, the magma is a few meters from the surface and seems to fill the whole surface of the crater; this activity is spectacular but without danger ". Previous news 2014 - On 29 June 2014 NASA reported that Nyamuragira vented steam and other volcanic gases and there was a glow from the lava lake. NOAA reported that an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite detected high SO2 concentrations above Nyamuragira. The University of Hawaii reported that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite data detected thermal anomalies and issued six MODVOLC alerts for the volcano's N side. Previously, according to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January 2014 showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyamuragira. Previous 2012 news about last eruption - As of the 28th of January, MODVOLC is still recording thermal anomaly on the volcano and probably the eruptive activity is still going on. (photos from M.Rietze).The initial scoria cone appeared inactive and second cone formed to the N of the first cone. Both cones were about 300 m high. The second cone was extremely active during the duration of the observations (about 15 hours) with fire fountains over twice the height of the cone; lava flowed N. The observers, about 1.5 km away, felt the heat from the eruption as well as lapilli fall. The VolcanoDiscovery Team observed the fissure eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November 2011 during 22-25 January 2012 from the newly formed cinder cones located about 10 km E of the summit crater. They reported three coalescent cones with the largest cone containing a small lava lake. The lake ejected spatter every few seconds as high as 200 m above the summit; individual bombs reached the base of the cone. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout about 2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow about 20 m wide. Burning forests were reported to the NNE. Satellite imagery acquired on 3 January from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed an active lava flow to the NE of the central vent over the fissure located 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater. A sulfur dioxide-rich plume was also detected.According to OMI data, SO2 plume is still rose above of the volcano suggesting tha the eruption is continued. As of the 8th of December, the eruptive activity is still continuing. Thermal anomaly and gas plume are still visible from satellite image. On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. An observer aboard an overflight a few days before noted that the lava did not appear to have moved any further N. A photo taken from the Rumangabo headquarters (7.5 km NE of the eruption site) on 16 November showed a tall cinder cone with lava fountains rising above the rim. The eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November, after two days of intense seismic activity, was located along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of the main crater, close to one of the 1989 eruption sites. Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. After a 3-hour hike, the team viewed the eruption from the S and noted roaring and lava fountains, as well as thunder and lightning. The observers also noted that the ground was covered by black pumice. On 11 November about 100 people, including staff, rangers, carpenters, porters, and volcanologists, traveled to a similar but safer location to set up a camp for visitors. The eruption site was described as a flat area with a 500-1,000-m-long fissure, oriented perpendicular to the Albertine (Western) rift. Lava fountains rose as high as 300 m above a cinder cone. Slow-moving lava traveled N. GORISK noted that radar images acquired on 11 November showed the largest deformation ever detected by the method (InSAR) since the early 1990's over Nyamuragira. A very preliminary analysis of the observed deformation suggested an affected area of more than 250 square kilometers. The ground rose more than 50 cm at the eruptive site where the spatter cone was developing. Another 15 cm of deformation was detected within the Nyamuragira caldera accompanied by deflation on the flanks. Satellite images acquired on 12 November showed that the lava flow had traveled approximately 11.5 km during the six days of the eruption. As of the 15th of November, The eruptive activity was still continuing characterized by lava fountain about 300 m high and lava which overflowed on the North flank of the volcano.(video) .As of the 7th of November, Rangers from the Virunga National Park reported that an eruption began last night on Nyamuragira in the Democratic Republic of Congo in central Africa. The eruption was observed from the park headquarters and it was reported that it appears to be a flank eruption. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira (Also spelled Nyamulagira) is a massive basaltic shield volcano N of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 sq km of the East African Rift. The 3058-m-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. About 40 historical eruptions have occurred since the mid-19th century within the summit caldera and from numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

CONGO - Nyiragongo

December 10th, 2019

As early December On-site observer reported that the vent opened in March 2016 on the upper terrace surrounding the lava lake showed a important activity in early December, with fountaining and intracratory flowsThe Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during 1-31 July the level Nyiragongo's lava lake had dropped, making it not visible in the daytime. Incandescence from the lake continued to be visible at night. Activity also declined at a small eruptive cone that formed in the crater in 2014. The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during 1-28 April Nyiragongo’s lava lake continued to be active, extending the episode of ongoing activity to almost 17 years. A secondary cone which had formed on 29 February 2016 was also active, as well as three other vents surrounding it. Sulfur dioxide emissions reached a high of at least 5,000 tonnes per day, greater than March highs of 2,900 tonnes per day, but still below the alert threshold. The Nyiragongo lava lake is still subject to sporadic overflows : on March 30 and 31st, 2019, an overflow was reported by local observation and confirmed by thermal camera images, indicating that the lava would recover the bottom of the crater, as well as the activity at the level of the small intracalderic cone.The thermal anomalies are considered by Mirova as "very high" since the end of March, with a VRP of 1919 MW on March 30, and 1145 MW on April 1st. Previous News 2017 - After the lateral eruption in 2002, the lava lake had re-formed and was contained in the pit crater, with rose and drop elevation.The lava lake was surrounded by spatters formed during its projections and overflows in 2010. At the end of February 2016, a new vent opened. Its activity quickly formed a spatter cone, leaning against the wall of the crater, and surrounded by lava flows. In 2017, the bottom of the Nyiragongo crater rose of 45 meters after the eruption of the little volcano in 2016, leaving the lava lake 85 meters below the second terrace.Previous news 2016 - On 12 April 2016 the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma reported that activity at Nyiragongo had declined since 6 April, and that the level of the lava lake had dropped. A report dated 17 April stated that some volcanic earthquakes had been located within 5 km E and 10-15 km N of the crater; continuous volcanic tremor was recorded during 0200-0400 on 17 April. In a photo dated 19 April an incandescent vent atop a spatter cone appears to be in the same location as a lava lake that had been first noted on 1 March. Since Monday, February 29, 2016 around 4 AM, we were alerted by the Virunga National park, the operators of the stations and the surrounding population Nyiragongo volcano rumbles heard every minute from the volcano. On urgent request from the provincial committee of security in North Kivu, the team of scientists from the Goma Volcano Observatory sits on the summit of Nyiragongo crater since  March 1st, 2016 until now for direct observations of the activity of the lake lava of the volcano. Preliminary results of these observations are: Appearance of a secondary lava lake on the East side of the crater of Nyiragongo. Weakening of the eastern part; collapses source platforms to the origin of the often heard by the surrounding population rumblings that volcano.   The manifestations of this new secondary active lava lake are in the extension of the fracture that connects the Nyiragongo to its Baruta adventive cone toward to the direction of   Kibumba  zone.   Nyiragongo volcano is in a phase of intense activity and require a particular  attention. This activity is concentrated within the central crater towards the East (towards the Kibumba area) where a new secondary  lava lake is observed. From : PRELIMINARY REPORT OF CURRENT ACTIVITY OF  Nyiragongo VOLCANO FROM  29 FEBRUARY TO 2 MARCH 2016. KASEREKA MAHINDA, SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR OF GVO. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. (From GVO) - Nyiragongo Photos gallery - January 2011 (German group)
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ETHIOPIA - Erta Ale volcano

January 2nd, 2020

Sentinel2 and Mirova noted that the thermal activity of Erta Ale changed slightly between December 25 and 30, 2019. The hot spots reappeared at the southern pit crater, and south of the caldera, but at a position more to the west than previously. Mirova notes moderate thermal anomalies between 8 and 44 MW for the above-mentioned period, and 35 Mw for 01.01.2020 / 22.35. According to observation and photo on early December, an activity resumes in the pit crater south, with lava flow emitted by a hornito.The northern pit crater is still degassing, and small warm spots are visible south-east of the caldera in the "new" lava field. Some thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova: between 10 and 61 MW, the highest on November 30th. Previous news - Sentinel-2 images showed that thermal anomalies in the far field have disappeared. On August 17th, 2019, large lava flows are visible about 3.5 km southeast of the caldera, which has a larger hot spot at the lava lake. As of the 29th of April, Mirova and Sentinel 2 satellite images showed that the activity was divided into two parts: a degassing at the level of the old lava lake in the caldera, and some radiative spots in the far field, of VRP between 10 and 117 MW. As of the 23rd of March, the Mirova site reported a "high" thermal anomaly at 19:20, with a VRP of 117 MW. On the Sentinel 2 satellite image of March 20, there are three hot spots: - the first, weak, at the level of the southern pit crater of the caldera, masked by an important degassing; - the second, at the SSE of the caldera, caused either by an overflow of lava, or even visible thanks to a skylight, the distribution of lava being mainly in lava tunnels; - the third, on active flows, about 15 km from the summit, north of the distal lava delta. Previous news 2018 - As of the 12th of May 2018 information reported that the thermal anomaly, discribed in recent days by Mirova and the Sentinel 2 satellite SWIR, remained high and comes mainly from the distal lava field and the intracaldeira pit crater.A weak manifestation of breakout between the position of the "new" lava lake, which no longer radiates on these images, and the distal field. Previous news 2017 - The last Sentinel2 image dated December 12 illustrated a strong outgassing of the caldera pit crater and thermal activity at the lava zone on the flank and in the northeast lava field. According to recent news in December there are three active lava lakes more or less connected. A previous clear image of the Erta Ale massif in Ethiopia, taken on October 16 by Sentinel 2, showed the changes in the current lava flows.The northeastern lava field, which had enlarged at the beginning of October in the distal part, shows a front divided into several arms; two of them have reached the sedimentary plain, a rare phenomenon. If there is no significant difference in elevation, the lava field will probably slow down in the days to come. Skylights are visible between this lava field and the source, located on the rift zone. The southwest lava field is no longer visible, due to a weakening of supply for weeks. The lava lake, present in the pit crater of the caldera, is still active. According to recent information following the flooding of the lava lake in February - March 2017, a collapse occurred in April and the eruptive activity of the volcano shaped a new volcanic landscape. A second lava lake formed south of the caldera fed lava flows and lava fields to the northeast and southwest. In September 2017, the southwest lava field does not grow, but continues to thicken. In the northeast, the lava flow continued to feed the lava field, whose front is more than 16 km from the point of emission. Previous news - A photo taken on 17th of August by the satellite Sentinel showed a developping lava flow. The flow has increased by nearly 2,000 meters on the northeast side, the lava flows being essentially through tubes, with only some surface effusions. On the south-west side, the flows have not really progressed, but have widened. The lava originates from the new lava lake located off caldera. The new flank eruption continued to be active throughout the first half of 2017 and greatly intensified in early June when overflowing of the ca 200 m diameter lava lake created new pahoehoe lava flows both in northeasterly and southwesterly direction. Satellite images confirm that there has been a continuous outpour of lava from the new fissure eruption which seems to be building a new shield with different active vents from where pahoehoe lava flows, but not much fountaining or degassing occurs.ESA/Copernicus Sentinel 2 satellite images of the Erta Ale volcanic rangeshow that between 8 and 18 June 2017 the SE fissure lava field drastically increased, with the most active lava flow growing from a ca 950 m to about 3200 m length in the timespan of 10 days. Previously, Satellite images acquired and processed by Planet Labs showed the new lava flows and gas-and-steam emissions from several vents (about 1.5 km SE from the overflow area at the SE caldera rim) on 23 January, and more new lava flows on 27 January. Both images showed lava flows advancing WSW, about 2.5 km S, and about 3 km NE. According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 26 January showed two distinct infrared hotspots representing the SE lava flows. On 27 January Simon Carn stated that the eruption produced the largest SO2 emissions from Erta Ale ever measured from space. On the morning of the 18th, all the vicinity of the south pit crater was covered with lava. In the afternoon of the 18th and the 19th, the outbreaks were more sporadic, the level of the lake fluctuating and fountains of lava Have reached more than 50m high. During the evening of 20 January explosions of very large gas bubbles ejected spatter 30 m high. Crater rim collapses affected the N crater where a new oval-shaped pit crater (150 x 30 m and 20 m depth) formed during a 24-hour period. A large collapse also occurred in the S part of the crater. The activity was accompanied by ash emissions that rose as high as 800 m. The report noted that on 21 January new fissures opened SSE from the summit caldera, producing large amounts of lava. The thermal anomaly observed by Mirova shows a maximum recorded on January 21, with 13,434 MW, passing on January 22nd between 7368 MW and 5882 MW, then decreasing the 23.01 from 5.2013 MW to 1.900 MW. As of the 16th of January 2016, according to Volcano Discovery correspondents from Ethiopia, the lava lake of Erta Ale has overflown. The first lava over-spilled the rim of the containing crater at midnight of 15-16 Jan 2016.On January 16th, from 3pm on January 17th, the lava has overflowed 70% of the edge of the lake, feeding flows that quickly covered up to 1 km ² of the caldera. It seems that the situation is similar to the spectacular events in November-December 2015 when the lava lake last overflowed. More details will be posted as soon as possible. During Volcano Discovery expedition November-December , the level of the lake had already been occasionally as close as only 1 meter beneath the rim. for three continuous days (19-21 November 2015). Upon team arrival on the morning of the 19th, the lava lake was only about 2-3 m below us. Local guide explained that the lava lake had been very active in the past few weeks and risen so highly for the first time since its overflow in late 2010. Previous News 2012 - According to a member of Activ website, and following a recently 2012 fieldtrip a lava lake lies within the South pit-crater of the Erta Ale caldera. This lake was about 15 m depth with 50-60 m diameter. Important degassing occured from incandescent hornitos within the North pit-crater. News 2010 - As of the 5th of March 2010, according to Rafael Werndli reports an unusually hight lava level in the pit crater on Erta Ale in mid February 2010. The lake surface was approximately 20m below the pit's edge. The lava lake had a diameter of 100 to 110m. Occesional floodings of the uppermost terrace were observed. In addition a hornito was active in the north crater, ejecting scoriae and small lava flows. PREVIOUS INFORMATION AND REPORTS : As of the 20th of February 2008, the Stromboli-On-Line website has reported that upon their return to volcano Erta Ale, they found it to be in eruption on the 8th of February and have confirmed this information. Volcanologique de Geneve (SVG) trip on 8-9 February 2008 noted extensions of ropy lava in the N crater. The lake was little changed from the group's last visit in 2005. The group visited the N Crater, and, given its constant degassing, was able to take gas samples. They also measured the lake's surface temperature (700°C). The descent into this crater, seemingly easy, was made difficult by a mantle of very unstable lava scoria. An elevated level of the lava lake halted a subsequent descent.Previous information reported that on 7th of October 2005, according to Ethiopian newspaper an earthquake measuring 4.2 on the Richter scale, jolted northern Ethiopia (Teru area in Afar) on Tuesday triggering eruption of the Erta Ale. According to M; Manahlo Belachew, an expert in the seismology department of Addis Ababa University, the quake which strick the remote region afar is the 11th tremblor to rumble across the region since last month. As of 5th of October a hot spot was visible on the Erta Ale from the MODIS images which could confirmed an eruptive activty this day. Previous new report about recent activity of the Erta Ale : group of scientists assessed the visible changes at Erta Ale on 26 September after activity began around 24 September. In comparison to observations made in November 2004, they found that the southern main crater/pit had widened significantly, with portions of the previous crater walls having collapsed into the lava lake. A new cone-shaped construct had grown within the southern main crater where there had been a platform. A lava lake occupied the entire width of the inner crater/pit. In the northern crater/pit, there was a solidified lava bulge and abundant “smoking” along the crater walls. No incandescent lava was visible in the pit. Based on descriptions by local residents of seeing “red and glowing light shooting and rising into the air above the volcano,” the scientists believe that a Strombolian eruption probably occurred, emitting a significant volume of fresh magma within, and possibly out of, the pit. As of 4th of 0ctober, Personal source reported from Addis Ababa University that the recent earthquake that occured in Afar state has caused landslide and big fissure in Teru locality kebele 02 of the state near the active volcano Mount Erta Ale, a team of geologists who have just returned from the site disclosed. The earthquake observed from September 10 -24, 2005 is the culmination of volcanic activities in the area since millions of years ago, geologists Dr. Derge Ayalew and Dr. Gezahegn Yirgu told WIC. The geologists said the landslide and fissure are indicators that there would be a possible volcanic eruption in the future. The Physical Observatory of the Addis Ababa University recorded on Sunday earthquake that measured 5.5 on Richter scale following earthquake. In Erta Ale the volume of material inside the Crater is actually increasing i.e. rising up to the Crator rim. Due to all this recent geological activity the government is starting to evacuate the people residing around these areas. Previous Erta Ale visit : an international team led by SVE carried out a new visit at the Erta Ale from 22nd of January to 23rd of January 2005. During these two full days at the summit the eruptive activity showed no significant change since our previous observation carried out in November- Décembre 2004. Degassing activity was still occuring from 3 of the 4 coalescents hornitos located in the SW part of the South crater, but decreased slightly in comparison with our December observations. There were about 10 m high and represented the only portion of the lava crust covering the crater floor where gas emissions were in evidence. One of the hornitos contained glowing molten lava visible from a window located in the upper part. During the clear day of Sunday 23rd of January, members of the team abseiled down within the crater to collect recent lava poured out from the hornitos during partial collapse. Degassing activity (mainly SO2) from the North crater has also slightly decreased in comparison with early December 2004. From a small terrace located in the NW part of the crater it was possible to observe the degassing activity from several hornitos ( some of them were several meters high in the central part of the " lava bulge ") - Near the NW wall of the crater two small red glowing areas were visible at the summit of two other hornitos. Seismic activity of the volcano, together with infrasound signals were recorded by a portable system of the University of Hamburg. Preliminary results of this deployment will be reported soon at this place. Informations : Henry Gaudru, SVE Geneva ; Alexander Gerst , University of Hamburg, Germany ; Georges Kourounis, Derek Tessier, Brian Fletcher (Toronto - Canada) , Motomaro Shirao (Tokyo- Japan) . A previous visit of the SVE-SVG group (4th of December 2004) have permits to observe an important change in the activity of the volcano. The lava lake activity stopped within the South pit crater and a solidified lava crust has filled the whole part of the crater floor (about 15 m below the crater rim). Three (4) coalescent hornitos (about ten meters high) have built on the solidified lava crust in the SE part of the South crater. During the night between 4th of 5th of December, some incandescent degassing lava was visible at the summit of two hornitos. Moreover, we have also noted that a new activity has recently occured within the North crater. A solidified lava bulge uplifted and filled more than 4/5 of the crater floor (about 20-25 below the crater rim). Strong and noisy degassing activity was occcuring in the central part of the lava bulge from several small hornitos. From the smell and bluish color, these gases contained a high quantity of SO2. During the night , ten small incandescent vents were visible at the periphery of the lava bulge. In the morning, two plumes rose above the volcano. Information : Henry Gaudru (SVE) and Co (SVG) - Erta Ale report in case of problem with this link look directly at "articles page" Recent Erta Ale photos 2011

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INDIA - Barren Island volcano - Andaman islands

October 28th, 2019

A slight activity still occurs at the Barren Island since Sept. 25, 2018.Thermal anomalies were identified by Mirova on October 24 and 27, 2019, when cloud cover allowed, and a hot spot was visible on the Sentinel-2 images of October 24th. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 and 16 March ash plumes from Barren Island rose to altitudes of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) and 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l., respectively, and drifted W and SW. Based from Sentinel2 and Mirova data the volcano is still active in early March.The intensity is moderate, marked by a few small thermal anomalies at 5 and 10 Mw, respectively on March 5th and 6th. A Sentinel 2 image of March 7 shows a hot spot at the cinder cone's crater, located in a caldera covered with lava and pyroclasts. Based from Sentinel2 and Mirova data the volcano is still active in end of February. The satellite images of the last days show small plumes of ash, and a glow targeted on the crater. Mirova confirms a thermal anomaly of 22 MW on February 27th. A probable intermittent phase of Strombolian activity continued. Darwin reported intermittent ash emissions with a plume rising over 900 meters traveling westward.Low to moderate thermal anomalies are identified by Mirova on January 24 and 25, 2019.This activity is part of a new eruptive phase started around September 25, 2018. Previously, information reported that the effusive eruption continued on Barren island. An image of the Sentinel 2 satellite of 23 October 2018 showed the active lava flow to the north-west of the cone and significant degassing at the upper vent and lesser at the peripheral level, where the flow is likely to reach the ocean.Thermal anomalies were detected by Mirova, between 204 and 10 MW for 22, 23 and 24 October. According to the Mirova sites and the Sentinel 2 images, a new eruption started on September 25, 2018. A lava flow is visible on the north flank, associated with a strong thermal signal, on the satellite photo of September 28, taken by Sentinel 2; she probably reached the north-west coast. Previously, The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), part of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), reported that a new eruption at Barren Island began on 23 January 2017. Scientists aboard a research vessel were collecting sea floor samples when they observed a sudden ash emission. The team moved closer, about 1.6 km from the volcano, and noted small eruptive episodes lasting 5-10 minutes. Ash emissions were visible in the daytime, and lava fountains feeding lava flows on the flanks were visible at night. The team revisited the volcano on 26 January and observed similar activity during the four hours they stayed. They sampled sediments and water in the vicinity of the eruption and recovered volcanic ejecta. The eruptive' phase ended on May 2017. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the center of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.

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Mayotte - Submarine volcano

March 22nd, 2020

REVOSIMA reported A strongly felt earthquake in the order of M5.8 was recorded on March 21, 2020 at 06:42 UT (09:46 local time Mayotte) by the Mayotte volcanological and seismological monitoring network (REVOSIMA). The epicenter was located this time between the islands of Mayotte and Anjouan, 50 km NW of Mayotte and 30 km deep.REVOSIMA reported that Between 16 and 29 February 2020, 592 earthquakes -"Volcano-Tectoniques" (high frequency), 288 earthquakes -"Long Period" (low frequency) and 16 earthquakes -"Very Long Period" (very low frequency) were detected. That's 896 seesimes in total! Long-period signals, a new category, have already been observed since the beginning of the crisis, but they were not classified until now. The main seismic activity is still concentrated 5-15 km from Petite-Terre, at depths of 20-45 km. An earthquake was reported to be felt on February 23 at 1:20 p.m. Surface movements measured since the beginning of the crisis by Mayotte GPS stations indicate: - a movement of The Mayotte GPS stations eastwards of about 20 to 22 cm - a subsidence of about 9 to 17 cm depending on their location on the island - a slowdown in travel has been observed since April-May 2019. REVOSIMA bulletin 13 (16-31 of January 2020) -reported that during the last fifteen days of the underwater volcano of Mayotte The number of earthquakes has decreased by 35% compared to the previous fortnight, with main seismic activity still concentrated 5-15 km from Petite-Terre, at depths of 25-45 km. This drop is to be qualified due to breakdowns in the “RaspBerry Shake” seismometer network, which resulted in an increase in the threshold for automatic detections. A lower seismicity in number and energy (low magnitude between 1 and 2.5), already visible on the sea bottom recordings in February 2019, is also still recorded near Petite-Terre about 5 km east (at depths of 25-40 km) or even under Petite Terre. Two earthquakes were reported as felt: one on January 26, 2020 / 5:43 a.m. UT from M3.5, the other on January 28 / 11:06 a.m. UT from M4. The REVOSIMA always records seismic signals of very long period VLP type (very low frequency, between 5 and 100 seconds) similar in particular to the event recorded on November 11, 2018. Over the past 15 days, 3 VLP Earthquakes have been recorded. These VLP signals are usually associated in the literature with resonances and fluid movements (magmatic or hydrothermal). The surface displacements measured since the beginning of the crisis by Mayotte GPS stations indicate: - a movement of all GPS stations from Mayotte to the east of approx. 19 to 22 cm east; - a subsidence of about 9 to 16 cm depending on their location on the island. A slowdown in travel has been observed since April-May 2019. Complete bulletin www.ipgp.fr/fr/actualites-reseau. According to REVOSIMA bulletin # 9 - 16 at 30.11.2019 - the new underwater eruption site in Mayotte has produced at least 5.1 km3 of lava since the beginning of its construction.Over a period of 11 months (July 2018 - beginning of surface deformations recorded in Mayotte - June 2019), the eruptive lava flow is about 150-200 m3 / s.Since the discovery of the volcanic edifice, three new remote exit points have been identified that have produced:- in the south about 0.2 km3 of lava in 28 days (18 May-17 June 2019) for an average minimum flow of about 83 m3 / s;- in the west, about 0.3 km3 of lava in 44 days (between June 17 and July 30, 2019) for an average minimum flow of 79 m3 / s;- north about 0.08 km3 of lava in 20 days (between July 31 and August 20, 2019) for an average minimum flow of about 44 m3 / s.These eruptive flows remain high. These eruptive volumes and flows, especially at the beginning of the crisis, are exceptional and, given the uncertainties, are generally the highest observed on an effusive volcano since the eruption of Laki (Iceland) in 1783 whose average eruptive flow had been estimated at 694 m3 / s over 245 days of eruption.REVOSIMA reported that the underwater eruption located 50-60km east of Mayotte is still characterized with seismic activity centered at 5-15km from Petite Terre, at depths of 25-47km. Epicentres are also located 5km or even below Petite Terre, due to the emptying of the magma chamber.The seismic activity remains stationary with a still high number of earthquakes, 544 from 16 to 31 October, an average of 38 per day, with the recording of a clear recrudescence of seismic energy released.Since the beginning of the crisis, the GPS stations recorded a displacement towards the East of the island of 19 to 21 cm, and a subsidence (subsidence) of 8 to 16 cm, more to the East than to the West of the island. Previous news - August 2019 - Local journal reported that the latest scientific data reported no significant evolution during the last month, main seismic activity still concentrated at 5-15 km from Petite-Terre, at depths of 20-50 km. A lower seismicity in number and energy (low magnitude between 1 and 3) is also still recorded near Petite-Terre about 5 km to the east (at depths of 20-50 km), as well as the data. sea-bottom seismometers have shown this since February 2019. Previous information : operation Mayobs 2, from 11 to 17 June 2019, aimed at improving knowledge of the new underwater volcano off the island of Mayotte, has just given an initial assessment. In summary, three sources of volcanic origin are identified to date. 1) At 50km to the east, a volcano 800m high and 4km in diameter grew in 10 months. 2) To the south a lava flow 2km long and 75 meters high formed in one month.3) The earthquake swarm remains located about ten kilometers east of Petite Terre but deep, between 20 and 50km in the Earth's crust. Above the swarm zone, a probable plume of gas was detected, but without magma outpouring. This gas, which apparently emerges from faults, will be analysed through deep samples. It does not rise to the surface. Sources: Mayotte Prefecture press release, and Journal de Mayotte. Since May 2018, a succession of earthquakes has mobilized scientists, and missions including the installation of new measuring devices and an oceanographic campaign carried out by the ship Marion Dufresne, returning to Mayotte on May 15, 2019 in order to explain these events. Recent several French missions have highlighted a new underwater volcano 50 km from Petite-Terre; located at a depth of 3,500 meters, it has a base of 4-5 km in diameter and a height of about 800 meters. A 2 km plume of volcanic fluid sits over it, but does not reach the marine surface.Mayotte, also known as Mahore, Maore, or Ngazidja by the Comorians, was formed in four main stages: a) there are 8 Ma: The emersion of two shield volcanoes and the formation of phonolitic lava domes: Mount Choungui - b) Between 1.8 and 1.4 Ma: Combani and M'Tsapéré formation; c) - 500,000 years ago, an explosive volcanism formed the craters Kawéni and Kavani - d) - A very recent explosive volcanism, dated to 80,000 years, forms the small earth with the Dziani.

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Piton de la Fournaise - Eruptive fissure - 16th November 2002 - Photo Laï-Yu (JIR)

PHILLIPINES - Mayon volcano

May 14th, 2020

PHIVOLCS issued a vigilance notice on May 13th, 2020 due to the risk of lahars. Prolonged and abundant precipitation caused by tropical storm Ambo is likely to generate post-eruption lahars in the main drainages, in particular the Miisi, Binaan, Anoling, Quirangay, Maninila, Masarawag, Muladbucad, Nasisi, Mabinit, Matan-ag and the canals of Basud. In question, the remobilization of the materials deposited by the pyroclastic density currents and the ashes of the eruption from January to March 2018. The Mayon is still on alert level 2 / moderate level of instability. The volcano emits white plumes of vapor, and has a weak night glow. Inflation of the middle to high part of the volcano, started in late 2019, continues today. PHIVOLCS reported that during 7-14 April white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon rose as high as 400 m above the summit and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that the seismic monitoring network recorded two (2) volcanic earthquakes and one (1) rockfall event during the 24-hour observation period, as of April 8. Moderate emissions of vapor-laden white plumes that crept downstream before drifting west-southwest, northeast, and north-northwest were observed. On April 9th, moderate emissions of white plumes loaded with vapor, are reported from a height of 400 meters, before drifting to the northwest and west-northwest. A faint glow at the summit crater could be observed at night. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 339 tonnes / day on April 07, 2020. Recent electronic tilt data showed inflation of the middle to upper parts of the volcanic edifice that began in last quarter of 2019. This follows a trend inflation that started in February 2019 as recorded by continuous GPS monitoring. PHIVOLCS reported the that on 4th and 5th of February during the last two nights , glowing was observed at the summit crater probably caused by hot magmatic gases, and the slow rise of magma towards the surface. The emission of a plume of white vapor, weak to moderate is reported, crawling on the slopes before dissipating towards a western sector. No volcanic earthquake was recorded; Sulfur dioxide emissions are measured at an average of 115 tonnes per day, and inflation has persisted since early 2019. The alert remained at 2. Previous news 2019 - PHIVOLCS reported on July 2, 2019 for the Mayon, sixteen volcanic earthquakes and six episodes of rock falls observed in the last 24 hours; On the day of July 3, 7 volcanic earthquakes and six rock falls were recorded. Inflation has marked the volcano since June 2018, confirmed by measures between 9 and 14 April 2019.The latest sulphur dioxide levels measured on June 14, 2019 are 680 tonnes per day. The alert level remains at 2/moderate level of instability. previously, PHIVOLCS reported that during 13-19 March white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted mainly W and SW, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. PHIVOLCS reported that the phreatic activity continues at the Mayon. At the seismicity level, 6 volcanic earthquakes and 3 episodes of rock falls were recorded. Between the eruptions, a plume of steam was visible. Sulphur dioxide emissions were measured at 763 tonnes/day, and the nocturnal filament noted. On 14 March, at 18h55, a new phreatic episode was accompanied with a plume of ash at 500 metres above the summit, then drifting towards the southwest. Six phreatic events on 13 March, recorded at 0906, 0939, 0946, 0955, 1000, and 1059, produced ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted W. A phreatic event at 1855 on 14 March generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that three eruptive phreatic episodes on March 12, respectively at 3:10 pm, 3:18 pm and 3:34 pm; three volcanic earthquakes accompanied these explosions, which generated small plumes of ash at 500 m., 1,000 m. and 500 m above the summit, then drifted southwest. Emissions of gas and steam have been observed from early morning until early afternoon, initially creeping, then rising 250 meters above the summit. Nighttime glow could be observed. The alert level is at 2 / level of moderate instability. PHIVOLCS reported that 6 volcanic earthquakes and 2 rock falls occurred during the last 24 hours.Two of these earthquakes were related to episodes of phreatic eruptions of March 7 at 8:11 AM and March 8 at 6:27 AM, which generated gray ash plumes at a height of 500 and 300 meters, respectively. Moderate steam plumes were then emitted. The alert level remains at 2. PHIVOLCS reported that the activity was characterized on March 6 and 7 by a daily volcanic earthquake; on March 7th 2019, nocturnal glow was observed, as well as a fall of rocks.Networks of deformation measurements were still recording mid-slope inflation since June 2018. The alert level remains at 2. Previously in 2018 - PHIVOLCS reported that during 5-11 December white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted mainly WSW. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night. A four-minute long event recorded by the seismic network began at 1224 on 9 December, and produced a grayish-brown ash plume that drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 27 November-4 December white steam plumes rose daily, and crater incandescence was visible almost nightly. At 0533 on 27 November a phreatic event generated a grayish-white ash plume that rose 300-500 m and drifted SW. A one-minute-long event that began at 0941 on 30 November produced another grayish-white ash plume. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.PHIVOLCS reported that crater incandescence was visible at night during 24-27 November. Two phreatic explosions were recorded during 0759 and 0805 on 26 November. The events generated grayish ash plumes that rose 300-500 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that two phreatic eruptions occurred on November 26, respectively at 7:59 and 8:05 accompanied by a plume of gray to gray-white ash rising between 300 and 500 meters above the summit. The sulfur dioxide flux was measured at an average of 1,943 tonnes / day on 25 November. Inflation of the south-east sector was measured between October 22nd and 31st, 2018, while a sector north is deflating it, following a magmatic intrusion deep in the volcano.The Phivolcs reminds not to enter the zones of permanent danger of 6 to 7 km according to the sectors. The alert level remains at 2. PHIVOLCS reported that during 14-20 November white steam plumes emitted from Mayon drifted downslope and then in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that at 1243 on 8 November and at 0739 on 12 November small, short-lived brownish ash plumes from Mayon, associated with a degassing events, drifted WSW and SW, respectively. There was no accompanying seismic or infrasound record from these events. On 11 November a volcanic earthquake was associated with a short-lived lava fountaining event at 0840. The event lasted for 36 seconds based on the seismic record and produced a brownish-gray ash plume that drifted SW. Crater incandescence was visible most nights during 7-13 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. As of the 6th of November 2018, Phivolcs reported, on the basis of the Mayon seismic survey, three volcanic earthquakes, a current of pyroclastic density and two avalanches of rocks occurred during the last 24 hours.Sulfur dioxide emissions are measured at an average of 800 tonnes per day at the end of October, as well as inflation in the southeast sector of the volcano, following a possible aseismic magmatic intrusion.PBeautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2462 m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. Historical eruptions at this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from strombolian to basaltic plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1200 people and devastated several towns.

PHILIPPINES - Bulusan Volcano

January 28th, 2020

PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Bulusan to 0 (on a scale of 0-5) on 25 January 2020, noting that activity at the volcano was at baseline levels. Specifically, sulfur dioxide flux had been below detectable levels since 2018, the frequency of volcanic earthquakes had been at baseline levels (0-2 earthquakes/day) since May 2019, and overall ground deformation data indicated that there was no pressurization from subsurface magma. Weak gas emissions from hydrothermal activity continued. PHIVOLCS reminded the public of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).Previous news 2017 - PHIVOLCS reported that the volcano generated a small phreatic eruption on 5 June at 22:29 local; The episode lasted 12 minutes after the seismographic recordings, and follows three volcano-tectonic earthquakes in the last 24 hours. Traces of ash, smell of sulfur and rumblings were reported to Brgys, Monbon and Cognon on Irosin. Then, moderate emissions in the form of a steam plume surmounted the active vents of 50 meters. The level of alert remains at 1 / abnormal, and a prohibited area of ​​4 km radius is reminded to the public, given the dangerousness and the suddenness of the phreatic eruptions. Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that a weak phreatic eruption at Bulusan occurred at 1357 on 2 March. The event was recorded by the seismic network as an explosion-type earthquake followed by short-duration tremor that lasted approximately 26 minutes. Visual observations were obscured by weather clouds, although a small steam plume rising from the SE vent was recorded by a webcam. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS reported that a phreatic explosion occurred at 1440 on 29 December from a vent on Bulusan's upper SE flank. The seismic network recorded the event as an explosion-type earthquake that lasted about 16 minutes. A grayish ash plume rose 2 km above the vent and drifted WSW, causing minor amounts of ash to fall in areas downwind including the barangays of Cogon, Tinampo, Bolos, Umagom, Gulang-gulang, and Monbon of Irosin, and Caladgao and Guruyan of Juban. Residents of Guruyan, Juban, Monbon, and Tinampo of Irosin noted a sulfur odor. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). As of the 28 December 2016, PHIVOLCS reported that. Mt. Bulusan in Sorsogon, Bicol had a phreatic eruption Thursday, launching a plume of ash about two kilometers high. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology noted the explosion was "recorded as an explosion-type earthquake" that lasted 16 minutes from 2:40 p.m. The 2,000-meter, white-to-grayish ash plume drifted west- northwest, Phivolcs added. Before this, Bulusan generated a seismic earthquake in the last 24 hours and showed increased seismic activity between December 22 and 29. Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that a phreatic explosion occurred at 0458 on 19 October from the vents on Bulusan's upper SE flank. The seismic network recorded the event as an explosion-type earthquake that lasted nine minutes. Dense weather clouds obscured views although limited observations indicated that the plume rose 1 km. A 20-minute-long phreatic explosion occurred from the summit crater at 1234 on 21 October. A thin layer of ash was reported in Casiguran and Gubat, and trace amounts of ash fell in barangays in Barcelona, Casiguran, and Gubat. At 1531 on 23 October a 15-minute-long phreatic explosion from the summit vent produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted WSW. Small pyroclastic flows traveled about 2 km down the flank. Trace ashfall was reported in multiple barangays in Irosin Town, ashfall 0.5 mm thick was reported in the municipality of Juban, and the most ash, 1 mm thick deposits, were found in barangay Puting Sapa, Juban. A second and much smaller explosion was recorded at 1539 from the SE vent and generated an ash plume that rose 500 m. Rumbling and a sulfur odor was noted in several nearby areas. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).. Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 36,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century. Information : PHIVOLCS -

PHILIPPINES - Taal volcano

April 23rd, 2020

As of the 23rd of April, PHIVOLCS reported that In the past 24 hours, the Taal surveillance network has recorded thirty-nine (39) volcanic earthquakes, mainly associated with rock fracturing processes under and around the volcano. Twenty-four of them were volcano-tectonic earthquakes in the municipality of Mabini and Balayan Bay. The largest of these events occurred yesterday at 11:06 a.m. and 11:19 a.m. and was recorded at magnitudes M4.5 and M4.6 and was felt at Intensity I respectively at Agoncillo and Lemery, in the province of Batangas, and Intensity III to Mabini and Bauan. , Intensity II in Taal and San Nicolas, and Intensity I in Agoncillo and Lemery, province of Batangas. Low vapor emission or fumarolic activity was observed in the main crater vents and in the crack vents along the Daang Kastila trail. Alert level 1 (abnormal) is maintained on the Taal volcano. PHIVOLCS reported that during 8-9 April steam plumes rose 100-300 m above the Taal's main vent and drifted SW. Weak steaming (plumes up to 20 m high) from ground cracks was visible during 8-14 April along the Daang Kastila trail which connects the N part of Volcano Island to the N part of the main crater. PHIVOLCS had lowered the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) on 19 March and recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone. PHIVOLCS reported that on March 29th, 93 volcanic earthquakes occurred, associated with the fracturing of rocks, including 6 of magnitude between M1.8 and M3.4, felt in the barangays Banyaga, Bilibinwang and Subic Ilaya. Low emissions of steam plumes are observed at the main crater and at the vents along Daang Kastila Road. On March 30, the emissions observed reached only 50 to 100 meters in height, drifting to the southwest. THE number of volcanic earthquakes has decreased and is now only 17 events.The alert level remains at 1 / abnormal; the prohibited zones remain around the main crater and the Daang Kastila crack. As of the 19th of March PHIVOLCS lowers the alert status of the Taal volcano from alert level 2 to alert level 1; alert level 1 means that the volcano is still in an abnormal state and should not be interpreted as the disturbances have ceased or the threat of an eruption has disappeared. Surface activity decreased with a low emission of plumes loaded with steam from 50 to 100 meters high from fumaroles or active gas conduits on the main crater and along the crack of Daang Kastila on the northern flank from Volcano island.PHIVOLCS reported that during 4-10 March weak steam plumes rose 50-100 m above Taal’s Volcano Island lake and drifted SW and NE; moderate steam plumes rose 300-500 m and drifted SW during 8-9 March. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 4,212 people in 11 evacuation centers, and an additional 32,631 people were staying at other locations as of 6 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 5th of March - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50-100 meters high before drifting southwest. The Taal Volcano Network recorded twenty-eight (28) volcanic earthquakes that are mostly associated with rock fracturing processes and that included two (2) low frequency events that are associated with magmatic fluids beneath the edifice.PHIVOLCS reported that during 26 February-2 March steam plumes rose 50-300 m above the vent and drifted SW and NE. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 4,314 people in 12 evacuation centers, and an additional 132,931 people were staying at other locations as of 3 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone. PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 29th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 meters high before drifting northeast. The Taal Volcano Network recorded forty-five (45) volcanic earthquakes that are associated with rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLC BULLETIN 28th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 meters high before drifting northeast. The Taal Volcano Network recorded twenty-two (22) volcanic earthquakes that are associated with rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 26th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 meters high before drifting northeast. The Taal Volcano Network recorded thirty-two (32) volcanic earthquakes that are associated with rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLCS reported that during 19-24 February steam plumes rose 50-100 m above the vent and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were below detectable limits during 19-20 February. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 4,113 people in 15 evacuation centers, and an additional 191,451 people were staying at other locations as of 25 February. PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone. PHIVOLCS bulletin 19th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100 meters high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection due to weak plume activity. The Taal Volcano Network recorded thirty (30) volcanic earthquakes that are associated to rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN - 18th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100 meters high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection due to weak plume activity. The Taal Volcano Network recorded forty-one (41) volcanic earthquakes that are associated to rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLCS bulletin 17th of February 8am - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 100 to 200 meters high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 58 tonnes/day on February 16, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded sixty-five (65) volcanic earthquakes that are associated with rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLCS Bulletin 15th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection due to weak plume activity. The Taal Volcano Network recorded seventy-seven (77) volcanic earthquakes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater. Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection due to weak plume activity. The Taal Volcano Network recorded seventy-seven (77) volcanic earthquakes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 14th of February - After step-down to Alert Level 3 last 26 January 2020, Taal Volcano’s condition in the succeeding three weeks has been characterized by less frequent volcanic earthquake activity, stabilizing ground deformation of the Taal Caldera and Taal Volcano Island (TVI) edifices and weak steam/gas emissions at the Main Crater. DOST-PHIVOLCS is lowering the alert status of TaalVolcano from Alert Level 3 to Alert Level 2 to reflect the overall decreasing trend in the level of monitoring parameters. PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 13th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 59 tonnes/day on February 12, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded seventy-one (71) volcanic earthquakes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater. PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 12th of February reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 67 tonnes/day on February 11, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred-one (101) volcanic earthquakes including four (4) low frequency events. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 11th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 105 tonnes/day on February 10, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded eighty-seven (87) volcanic earthquakes including one (1) low frequency event and two (2) harmonic tremors having durations of one (1) to three (3) minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 10th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 20 to 50m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 116 tonnes/day on February 8, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded seventy-seven (77) volcanic earthquakes including eleven (11) harmonic tremors having durations of one (1) to four (4) minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 17,088 people in 110 evacuation centers, and an additional 211,729 people were staying at other locations as of 10 February. PHIVOLCS bulletin 8th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by moderate emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes rising 200 to 300m high before drifting southwest. Weak steaming from fissure vents along the Daang Kastila trail is currently ongoing. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 54 tonnes/day on February 7, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred fifteen (115) volcanic earthquakes including three (3) low-frequency events. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS bulletin 7th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by moderate emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes rising 200 to 300m high before drifting southwest. Weak steaming from fissure vents along the Daang Kastila trail is currently ongoing. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was again below instrumental detection due to weak plume activity. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred eighteen (118) volcanic earthquakes including five (5) low-frequency events and one (1) harmonic tremor that lasted less than three (3) minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS bulletin 6th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes 50 to 100 meters high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred thirty-two (132) volcanic earthquakes including three (3) low-frequency events and eleven (11) harmonic tremors having durations of two (2) to three (3) minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS blletin - 5th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes 50 to 100 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 55 tonnes/day on February 4, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one-hundred fifty-six (156) volcanic earthquakes including two (2) low-frequency events and eighteen (18) harmonic tremors having durations of one (1) to three (3) minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS bulletin - 4th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes 50 to 500 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 231 tonnes/day on February 3, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded two hundred twenty-three (223) volcanic earthquakes including eight (8) low-frequency events and one (1) harmonic tremor that lasted nearly three minutes long. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS bulletin - 3rd of February reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by moderate to voluminous emission of dirty-white to white steam-laden plumes rising 800 meters high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 97 tonnes/day on February 1, 2020. Taal Volcano’s seismic monitoring network recorded one hundred thirty-four (134) volcanic earthquakes during the 24-hour observation period including one (1) low-frequency event. Two of these events at 4:20am and 5:42am registered respectively at magnitude M3.2 and M2.3, the first having been felt at Intensity IV in Laurel and Agoncillo, Intensity III in Lemery, Batangas and Intensity II in Tagaytay City. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater. As of the 1st of February, PHIVOLCS reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by wispy to weak emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes 50 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 65 tonnes/day. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred eighty-two (182) volcanic earthquakes including one (1) low-frequency event and one (1) harmonic tremor that lasted 3 minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS bulletin - 31st of January - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by moderate emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes 500-700 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection. For the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, recorded one hundred sixteen (116) volcanic earthquakes including two (2) low-frequency events. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.As of the 30th of January, PHIVOLCS bulletin reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes 300 - 500 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection. For the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, recorded one hundred thirty-seven (137) volcanic earthquakes including two (2) low-frequency events and one (1) harmonic tremor that lasted for 97 seconds. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.As of the 29th of January PHIVOLCS bulletin reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by moderate to voluminous emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes 600 - 800 meters tall that drifted northeast. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 64 tonnes/day. For the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, recorded one hundred twenty three (123) volcanic earthquakes including three (3) low-frequency events. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater. As of 28th of January bulletin, PHIVOLCS reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak to voluminous emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes 100 - 800 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection. The Philippine Seismic Network (PSN) plotted a total of seven hundred fifty-five (755) volcanic earthquakes since 1:00 PM, January 12, 2020. One hundred seventy-six (176) of these registered at magnitudes M1.2-M4.1 and were felt at Intensities I-V. Since 5:00 AM on January 27, 2020 until 5:00 AM today, there were three (3) volcanic earthquakes plotted that registered at magnitudes M1.5-M2.2 with no felt event. For the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, recorded ninety-two (92) volcanic earthquakes including four (4) low-frequency events. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater. PHIVOLCS bulletin on January 27th, 2020 reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak to moderate emission of white steam-laden plumes 50 to 800 meters high that drifted northeast. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 87 tonnes/day. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred seventy (170) volcanic earthquakes including four (4) low-frequency earthquakes. Alert Level 3 is maintained over Taal Volcano. PHIVOLCS reported that Taal activity over the past 24 hours was only characterized by low to moderate emissions of white vapor plumes 100 to 800 meters high; sulfur dioxide emissions are measured at an average of 409 tonnes per day. This apparent calm seems contradicted by seismicity: the seismic network of Taal recorded 420 volcanic earthquakes, including 11 low-frequency earthquakes ... meaning that the magmatic intrusion could be still present. Alert level 4 remains effective, as well as the order to evacuate the area of ​​14 km radius around the crater. As of the 24th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that the activity in the main crater of the Taal volcano over the past 24 hours has been characterized by a low to moderate emission of white plumes loaded with vapor at 50 to 500 meters in height from the main crater which drifted to the southwest. Sulfur dioxide emissions were measured at an average of 224 tonnes / day. In the past 24 hours, the Taal volcano network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the NHP, has recorded four hundred eighty-six (486) volcanic earthquakes, including four (4) earthquakes. low frequency earth. As of the 22nd of January, PHIVOLCS reported that a low to moderate emission of white plumes loaded with vapor at 50 to 500 meters in height was observed at the main crater of Taal, drifted towards the southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 141 tonnes / day. In the past 24 hours, the Taal seismic network, which may record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, has recorded four hundred sixty-seven (467) volcanic earthquakes, including eight (8) earthquakes to low frequency.Alert level 4 remains in effect on the Taal volcano. Activity in the main crater of Taal in the past 24 hours has been characterized by a low emission of white plumes loaded with steam at a height of 50 to 500 meters from the main crater which drifted to the southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 153 tonnes / day.In the past 24 hours, the Taal seismic network has recorded 481 volcanic earthquakes, including 8 of low frequency. The alert level remains at 4. PHIVOLCS Bulletin 21st of January - 8AM - reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak steam emission that generated ash plumes 500-600 meters tall and dispersed ash southwest of the main Crater. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 344 tonnes/day. The Philippine Seismic Network (PSN) plotted a total of seven hundred eighteen (718) volcanic earthquakes since 1:00 PM, January 12, 2020. One hundred seventy-six (176) of these registered at magnitudes M1.2 – M4.1 and were felt at Intensities I – V. Since 5:00 AM on January 20, 2020 until 5:00 AM today, there were five (5) volcanic earthquakes plotted, registered at magnitudes M1.6-M2.5 with no felt event. For the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, recorded four hundred forty-eight  (448) volcanic earthquakes including seventeen (17) low-frequency earthquakes. Such intense seismic activity likely signifies continuous magmatic intrusion beneath the Taal edifice, which may lead to further eruptive activity. Alert Level 4 still remains in effect over Taal Volcano. This means that hazardous explosive eruption is possible within hours to days. DOST-PHIVOLCS strongly reiterates total evacuation of Taal Volcano Island and high-risk areas as identified in the hazard maps within the 14-km radius from Taal Main Crater and along the Pansipit River Valley where fissuring has been observed. PHIVOLCS reported that activity in the main crater over the past 24 hours has been characterized by a steady emission of steam and rare weak explosions that have generated ash plumes 500 to 1,000 meters tall and ash scattered at southwest of the main crater. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 4,353 tonnes / day.In the past 24 hours, the Taal volcano network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the NHP, has recorded six hundred seventy-three (673) volcanic earthquakes, including twelve (12) earthquakes in low frequency. Such intense seismic activity probably means a continuous magmatic intrusion under the Taal building, which can lead to additional eruptive activity. Alert level 4 remains in effect on the Taal volcano. As of the 19th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that activity in the main Taal crater, in the Philippines, in the past 24 hours has been characterized by a steady emission of steam and rare weak explosions that have generated white to white ash plumes of 500 to 1,000 meters from height and scattered ash southwest of the main crater. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 1442 tonnes / day. In the past 24 hours, the seismic network of the Taal volcano which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, has recorded seven hundred eighty-seven (787) volcanic earthquakes, including fifteen (15) earthquakes earth at low frequency. Such intense seismic activity probably means a continuous magmatic intrusion under the Taal building, which can lead to additional eruptive activity. Displacement maps for the Taal area were established by combining the ascending and descending interferograms provided by Sentinel; they show a larger extension than the vertical deformation. Alert level 4 remains in effect on the Taal volcano.As of the 18th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that activity in the main crater of the Taal volcano over the past 24 hours has been characterized by a steady emission of steam and weak weak explosions that have generated white to white ash plumes 50 to 600 meters high and ash scattered southwest of the main crater. Yesterday, sulfur dioxide emissions were measured at an average of 360 tonnes / day, which corresponds to the low activity of the plume in the main crater. From 5 a.m. on January 17, 2020 until 5 a.m.on January 18, thirty-two volcanic earthquakes have been plotted, recorded at magnitudes M1.5 -M3.3. The cracks, generally oriented NE-SW, have a tendency to lateral and / or vertical displacements.PHIVOLCS reported that the activity of the Taal volcano during the day of January 16 was characterized by a low emission of plumes loaded with vapor at 800 meters above the main crater, followed by a drift towards a southwest sector. A total of 9 explosions, weak and inconspicuous (Phivolcs), were recorded by the surveillance network. They generated plumes of dark gray ash 100 to 800 meters high and scattered ash from the southwest to the west of the main crater. No additional cracks have been mapped or reported. It has been observed that the existing cracks identified in the barangays of Lemery, Agoncillo, Talisay and San Nicolas in the province of Batangas (north and west of Lake Taal) widened by a few centimeters. A smoking crack was recently observed on the northern slopes of the island of the Taal volcano.Shoreline retreat was observed throughout Lake Taal.The main crater lake has disappeared, and only fumaroles have been observed during a drone overflight .From 5 a.m. on January 16, 2020 until 5 a.m.on January 7th, there have been sixty-five (65) traced volcanic earthquakes, two (2) of which were recorded at magnitudes M1.3 - M3.1 and have both were felt at intensity I. The Taal volcano network recorded nine hundred forty-four (944) volcanic earthquakes, including twenty-nine (29) low frequency earthquakes. PHIVOLC report - 16th of January 8AM : At 6:17 and 6:21 AM, Taal Volcano erupted short-lived dark gray ash plumes 500 meters and 800 meters high, respectively, that dispersed ash southwest to west of the Main Crater. Activity in the past 24 hours has generally waned to weak emission of steam-laden plumes 700 meters high that dispersed ash to the southwest.The Philippine Seismic Network plotted a total of five hundred sixty-six (566) volcanic earthquakes since 1:00 PM, January 12, 2020. One hundred seventy-two (172) of these registered at magnitudes M1.2 – M4.1 and were felt at Intensities I – V. Since 5:00 AM on January 15, 2020 until 5:00 AM today, there were one-hundred three (103) volcanic earthquakes plotted, fourteen (14) of these registered at magnitudes M1.4 -M4.0 and were felt at Intensities I – III. Such intense seismic activity likely signifies continuous magmatic intrusion beneath the Taal edifice, which may lead to further eruptive activity.Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 4186 tonnes/day on 15 January 2020. Alert Level 4 still remains in effect over Taal Volcano. As of the 15th of February, PHIVOLCS reported that during the past 24 hours, the activity of the Taal volcano has been characterized by a continuous but generally weaker eruption of the main crater due to magmatic and hydro-volcanic processes. This ongoing eruption generated dark gray plumes loaded with vapor that reached approximately 1,000 meters high and scattered ash to the southwest of the main crater. The crater lake seems to have largely emptied after the phreatic episode of Sunday, and the fountaining of Monday morning. Volcano island is covered with ashes.New fissures and cracks have been observed at Sinisian, Mahabang Dahilig, Dayapan, Palanas, Sangalang, Poblacion, Mataas na Bayan, Lemery; Pansipit, Bilibinwang, Agoncillo; Poblacion 1, Poblacion 2, Poblacion 3, Poblacion 5, Talisay and Poblacion, San Nicolas. A crack crossed the road connecting Agoncillo to Laurel, Batangas. From 05:00 on January 14, 2020 until 05:00 today, there have been one hundred fifty-nine (159) volcanic earthquakes and twenty-eight (28) have been felt with intensities ranging from Intensity I to III . Such intense seismic activity probably means a continuous magmatic intrusion under the Taal building, which can lead to additional eruptive activity. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 1,686 tonnes / day on January 14, 2020.These SO2 emissions from January 12 and 13 dispersed over the western Pacific. A Sentinel-5P TROPOMI image from January 14 suggests a high and partially stratospheric altitude As of the 13th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that the eruption continued at the main crater characterized by magmatic and hydrovolcanic activity; it generated lava fountains 500 meters high surmounted by dark gray plumes charged with vapor reaching about 2 kilometers high which scattered ash to the southwest and west of the main crater. Volcanic lightning was observed at the base of the degassing plumes this morning. New vents have opened on the northern flank where short 500 meter lava fountains and in the main crater where plumes of steam have emanated. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 5,299 tonnes / day on January 13, 2020. The lava fountains generated dark gray plumes loaded with steam of 800 meters high which drifted towards the general southwest on January 14th in the morning. Heavy ash falls from the continuous activity of the Taal volcano are reported in the municipalities of Lemery, Talisay, Taal and Cuenca, Batangas.There have so far been no reports of major casualties or damage. A truck, however, skidded and fell to the side on an ash-covered road, killing the driver and injuring three companions in the southern province of Laguna in an accident that police said could be linked to slippery road conditions . Government disaster agency and other officials have reported that more than 30,000 villagers have fled their homes in the hard-hit province of Batangas and neighboring Cavite, but officials expect as the number increases, hundreds of thousands more diverge from danger. Some residents were unable to leave the ash-covered villages immediately due to lack of transportation and poor visibility. Others refused to leave their homes and farms.The Philippine Seismic Network recorded a total of two hundred and twelve (212) volcanic earthquakes in the Taal region at 2:00 p.m. on January 14, 2020. Eighty-one (81) of these earthquakes were felt with intensities ranging from intensity I - V to Tagaytay City, Cavite. New cracks or fissures were observed at Sinisian, Mahabang Dahilig, Dayapan, Palanas, Sangalang, Poblacion, Lemery; Pansipit, Agoncillo; Poblacion 1, Poblacion 2, Poblacion 3, Poblacion 5, Talisay and Poblacion, San Nicolas. A crack has also been documented across the road from Agoncillo to Laurel, Batangas.The intense seismic activity coupled with a cracking in the caldera region probably means a continuous intrusion of magma under the Taal building, which can lead to additional eruptive activity. Alert level 4 remains in effect on the Taal volcan. PHIVOLCS reported that following a few hours of a phreatic eruption at the Taal volcano, characterized by an impressive plume of 10-15 km high on January 12th around 5.30 p.m. with a pouring of wet ash on the north of the island to Quezon . Subsequent phreatomagmatic explosions occurred, producing a plume reaching 17,000 meters and traversing numerous lightnings.Volcanic tremor episodes have been continuously recorded since 11:00 a.m. and two volcanic earthquakes of magnitudes M2.5 and M3.9 were felt at Intensity III in Tagaytay City and Alitagtag, Batangas, recorded at 6:15 p.m. and 6:22 p.m. PST, respectively. The DOST-PHIVOLCS strongly reiterates the total evacuation of the island from the Taal volcano and the additional evacuation of high-risk areas against pyroclastic density currents and volcanic tsunami within a radius of 14 kilometers around the main crater of Taal.The northern regions of the Taal volcano are advised to protect themselves against the effects of heavy and prolonged ash falls. Lapilli falls, between 2 and 64 mm in diameter are reported in the areas of Tanauan, Talisay, Batangas; Tagaytay City; Nuvali and Sta. Rosa, Laguna. Airports have been closed. On January 13, following a brief weakening of activity, lava fountains appeared between 2:49 and 4:28 am, as well as hydrovolcanic activity, generating plumes charged with vapor from a height of 2,000 meters; new side vents have opened on the northern flank from which emanate 500-meter lava fountains.Heavy ash falls are still reported on the southwest of the volcano. The seismic network recorded a total of 144 volcanic earthquakes since 1 p.m. on January 12, 2020. Forty-four earthquakes were felt of an intensity IV in Tagatay, Lemery, Santo Tomas and Talisay ... testifying to the magmatic intrusion which continues under the volcanic edifice.. PHIVOLCS reported that an increase in vaporization activity in at least five places inside the main crater was observed around 1 p.m. on Sunday 12th of January, the greatest activity being constituted by a phreatic explosion which generated a plume of about 100 meters from high, still in progress since.from 2:04 p.m. (2:04 PST), the main crater of the Taal volcano has intensified its eruptive activity, generating a plume of eruption of 1 km high accompanied by volcanic tremor and earthquakes felt on the island -volcano and the barangays of Agoncillo, Batangas. Ash falls are currently reported in the southwest sector of Taal. The alert status was raised from alert level 1 (abnormal) to alert level 2 and then 3 on January 12 at 2:30 p.m. The PHIVOLCS strongly recommends the evacuation of the island from the Taal volcano and the high-risk barangays of Agoncillo and Laurel, Batangas because of the possible risks of pyroclastic density currents and volcanic tsunami. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 sq km surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is a complex volcano composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that has grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions of Taal have caused many fatalities (GVN). PHIVOLCS - webcam

PHILIPPINES - Kanlaon volcano

March 19th, 2020

PHIVOLCS reported that during 12-17 March there were between two and eight volcanic earthquakes recorded daily. As of the 11th of march, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic monitoring network recorded eight volcanic earthquakes during the 24-hour observation period. Ground deformation data from continuous GPS measurements indicate a period of slow long-term inflation of the building since 2017, while short-term electronic monitoring of the slope on the southeast flanks recorded slow inflation lower slopes since May 2019 and pronounced inflation of upper slopes at the end of January 2020. These parameters indicate that hydrothermal or magmatic activity takes place deep beneath the building. As of the 11th of March 2020 PHIVOLCS raised the Kanlaon alert level from normal to abnormal / 1, following an increasing seismicity and inflation in the summit area. Since March 9, 2020, 80 volcanic earthquakes, including 77 low frequency earthquakes (associated with magmatic fluids); since the end of January 2020, the parameters indicate a marked inflation of the upper slopes of the volcano. This situation of instability can lead to a phreatic eruption or a magmatic intrusion. Previous news - On 25 October 2019 PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Kanlaon to 0 (on a scale of 0-5) noting that volcanic activity had declined to baseline levels in June and had continued to be low. Previous news 2018 - PHIVOLCS reported that during 17-19 April dirty-white steam plumes from Kanlaon rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW, NW, and NE. White steam plumes rose 300-600 m and drifted SW and NW during 20-24 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that there were three or fewer volcanic earthquakes detected at Kanlaon each day during 27 December 2017-2 January 2018. Dense weather clouds prevented visual observations, though on 30 December a steam plume was seen rising 500 m above the crater rim and drifting SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that during 19-20 December there were 412 volcanic earthquakes detected at Kanlaon. A low-energy, explosion-type earthquake was detected at 0233 on 21 December associated with gas emissions from the summit area. Later in the day steam plumes rose 400 m and drifted NE. The number of daily volcanic earthquakes increased to 957 the next day and then decreased to less than 20 per day during 22-23 December; the daily count increased to 382 and 776 events on 24 and 25 December, respectively, and then decreased to 82 on 26 December. White plumes rose 300 m and drifted NE, NW, and SW on 21 December, and 700 m on 26 December; weather clouds prevented views on the other days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported between 1 and 7 volcanic earthquakes at Kanlaon were recorded each day during 2-8 December, prior to the phreatic eruption on 9 December. Only three events were detected on 10 December, and then the number increased to 155 the next day. The number of daily volcanic earthquakes increased to 578 on 13 December, rising to 1,007 the next day, and peaking at 1,217 on the 15th. The earthquake count dropped to 149 on 16 December before returning to six or less through 19 December. White steam plumes rose 800 and 300 m above the crater on 13 and 14 December, respectively. White plumes were diffuse on 15 December; weather clouds prevented views of the summit area during 16-18 December. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 603-687 tons per day during 13-14 December. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that an approximately 10-minute-long, low-energy phreatic eruption at Kanlaon began at 0947 on 9 December. A plume of voluminous steam and dark ash rose 3-4 km above the summit vent. The event was heard as far away as La Castellana, Negros Occidental. Minor amounts of ash fell in Sitio Guintubdan, and barangays Ara-al, Sag-ang, and Ilihan. The eruption was preceded by the resumption of degassing at the summit crater at 0634, detectable as continuous low-energy tremor during periods when the summit was not visible; degassing was last observed September 2016. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). The sound of the eruption was heard in Brgy, Manghanoy and La Castellana, and fine ashes reported on Sitio Guintubdan, Brgy. Araal, and Carlota City. The alert is level 2, with a zone of permanent danger, prohibited entry of 4 km radius. The massive 2435-m-high andesitic stratovolcano is dotted with fissure-controlled pyroclastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by lakes. The largest debris avalanche known in the Philippines traveled 33 km to the SW from Kanlaon. The summit of Kanlaon contains a 2-km-wide, elongated northern caldera with a crater lake and a smaller, but higher, historically active vent, Lugud crater, to the south. Historical eruptions from Kanlaon, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.

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Mayon volcano - Philippines

INDONESIA Volcanoes activity VSI - PVMBG reports : Past events 2016-2017-2018 and recent news 2019-2020

Merapi (Java) - PVMBG reported than a new eruption occurred on April 10th, 2020 at 09:10 WIB., Recorded on a seismogram with an amplitude of 75 mm and a duration of 103 seconds. The height of the eruption column was observed ± 3000 meters from the summit. The direction of the wind when it blows northwest. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred on April 2nd 2020 at 3:10 pm WIB / 8:10 am Z. It was accompanied by a plume of gas and ash observed at about 3,000 meters above the summit, with a drift to the east. Its imprint on the seismogram is of an amplitude of 78 mm and a duration of 345 seconds. The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a 3 km radius danger zone around the summit, and an orange VONA. PVMBG reported that another eruption occurred at Merapi on Sunday, March 29, 2020 at 12:15 a.m. Western Indonesia time, the height of the ash plume being observed at ± 1500 m above the summit. It was observed that the ash column was gray with thick intensity, and directed towards the west. This eruption was recorded on a seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 40 mm and a duration of 150 seconds.PVMBG reported that a new eruption occurred at Merapi on on Saturday, March 28, 2020 at 7:25 p.m. West Indonesia time, with an ash column height observed at ± 3000 m above the summit (± 5968 m above sea ​​level). It was observed that the ash column was gray with thick intensity, and directed towards the west. This eruption was recorded on a seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 75 mm and a duration of 243 seconds.PVMBG reported that after the eruption of March 27th, 2020 at 10:56 a.m. loc.a second eruption occurred in the evening, around 9:40 p.m. local, less strong and accompanied by a plume culminating at 1,000 meters, before being knocked down by the winds to the west of the volcano. The trace on the seismogram has an amplitude of 40 mm and a duration of 180 seconds.The PVMBG also informed for this day two avalanche earthquakes, 20 blast earthquakes, and three hybrid earthquakes. VAAC Darwin maintains a red aviation code, ashes may be present at flight altitude 230. The activity level remains at 2 / waspada. PVMBG reportede that volcano is still in activity level 2 / waspada, presented on March 27th, 2020 an eruption (presumably phreatic) at 10.56 loc., characterized by an ash plume estimated at 5,000 meters above the summit and a trace on the seismogram 75 mm amplitude; the earthquake linked to this episode lasted 500 sec. VAAC Darwin reports ash at flight altitudes 100 and 250, disconnected from the summit, heading southeast. The aviation code is red. The PVMBG also reports, by March 27: - an avalanche earthquake of 18 sec. / slip distance and direction not observed. - 10 blast earthquakes, 5 low frequency earthquakes and a shallow volcanic earthquake, of amplitude 7 mm and with a duration of 18 sec. PVMBG reported that on March 23th, 2020 a moderate to high white plume, with a height of 100-150 meters above the summit, drifting over a large eastern sector.PVMBG reported that following the explosive eruption of March 3rd of February , the seismicity indicated, on March 5, 4 avalanche earthquakes recorded with an amplitude of 20 to 60 mm and with a duration of 35 to 122 sec., Without indication of distance and sliding direction. PVMBG reported that strong explosive eruption occurred on March 3re, 2020 at 5:22 am local; it was accompanied by a plume of ash reaching 6,000 meters and pyroclastic flows over two kilometers on various sides. The eruption lasted 450 seconds. The noise of the explosion was perceived up to 30 km from the Merapi for at least five minutes Villagers living on its fertile slopes are advised to stand at least 3 km from the crater, as ash fallout is expected within 10 km, mainly on the north side.VAAC Darwin has issued a red aviation code. PVMBG reported that the volume of Merapi's summit lava dome decreased after the 13 February 2020 eruption which produced a 2-km-tall ash plume, ejected material within 1 km, and caused ashfall within a 10-km radius. The dome volume the day before the event was estimated at 407,000 cubic meters, and afterwards (19 February) was reduced to 291,000 cubic meters. Visual observations during 17-23 February were mostly hindered due to inclement weather conditions, though on 18 February a white plume was seen rising 100 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that during 7-12 February 2020 white plumes rose as high as 400 m above Merapi’s summit lava dome. The volume of the dome was an estimated 407,000 cubic meters on 12 February based on drone photos, similar to 19 November 2019 measurements. An eruption at 0516 on 13 February lasted two and a half minutes and produced an ash plume that rose about 2 km above the summit and drifted NW. Ashfall was reported in areas within a 10-km radius especially to the S, including the villages of Hargobinangun, Glagaharjo, and Kepuharjo. Video of the event showed incandescent material being ejected above the lava dome and lightning in the ash cloud. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that on February 9th of February 2020, 4 avalanche earthquakes, 19 hybrid earthquakes, 7 low frequency earthquakes, 5 volcanic earthquakes and 4 tectonic earthquakes occurred. PVMBG reported that a relatively high number of deep volcanic earthquakes were recorded at Merapi during 30 December-5 January 2020 . The seismic network recorded a pyroclastic flow that began at 2036 on 4 January and lasted for one minute and 45 seconds. The event was not visually observed due to foggy weather conditions. Minor ashfall was reported in Cepogo (4 km NE) and Boyolali (16 km E). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. News 2019 - PVMBG reported that no eruptive events at Merapi were recorded during 18-24 November, though a significant increase in the number of low-frequency earthquakes and increased carbon dioxide emissions were detected on 19 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred on 17 November 2019 at 10:46 WIB accompanied by a plume rising to an altitude of nearly 4,000 meters asl, a height of about 1,000 meters and generating ash falls on a southwestern sector. It has been recorded with max. 70 mm, for 155 seconds, on the eismograms.Seismicity on 16 November was characterized by a large number of hybrid earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. PVMBG reported that on November 9, 2019 at 06:21 WIB an eruption, accompanied by a small pyroclastic flow, occurred at Merapi. The eruptive plume reached 1,500 meters above the crater, leaning to the west. The fingerprint was recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude. 65 mm and with a duration of ± 160 seconds.PVMBG reported that lava continued to extrude during 14-20 October 2019, generating at least two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1 km down the Gendol drainage. Foggy conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. White emissions rose as high as 500 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred on 14 October 2019 at 16:31 WIB, accompanied by a plume at 3,000 meters above the summit, and pyroclastic flows towards the southwest. The recording on the seismogram is 270 seconds and an amplitude of 75 mm. On the same day at 20:19 WIB, a pyroclastic flow was recorded, the amplitude on the seismogram was 30 mm, and the duration of 76 sec. The event changed the shape of the dome by removing a NE-SW trending section that was 100 m long, 30 m wide, and 20 m deep.The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km. PVMBG reported that the lava dome at Merapi slowly grew during 3-10 October and was an estimated 468,000 cubic meters, based on 19 September drone photos.PVMBG reported that the lava dome at Merapi slowly grew during 20-26 September 2019 and was an estimated 468,000 cubic meters, based on 19 September measurements based on drone photos. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating three block-and-ash flows that traveled as far as 1.5 km down the Gendol drainage. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. At 1136 on 22 September the seismic network began recording signals indicating pyroclastic-flow generation, that lasted two minutes and five seconds; pyroclastic flows traveled 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage. An ash plume rose around 800 m above the summit and caused minor ashfall in areas as far as 15 km SW. Temperature increases at several points on the lava dome were recorded about one hour before the event. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that during 26 August-1 September 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 461,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images on 8 August. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating block-and-ash flows that traveled down the Gendol drainage; a block-and-ash flow traveled 2 km on 27 August. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 80 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that the Merapi dome continued its build-destruction cycles. Blocky avalanches were recorded, as well as a pyroclastic flow on August 27, 2019 at 18:09 WIB. The latter traveled 2,000 meters in the drainage towards Kali Gendol, and left a seismographic imprint of maximum amplitude at 70 mm and a duration of 198 seconds.PVMBG reported that during 12-18 August 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 461,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating a total of two block-and-ash flows that traveled as far as 950 m down the Gendol drainage on 13 and 14 August. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 100 m above the summit on some days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that during 5-11 August 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi had decreased compared to the week before and was an estimated 461,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating a total of two block-and-ash flows that traveled as far as 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage on 4 and 6 August. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit on some days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to stay outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. The PVMBG reporteds that on August 4 at 8:41 WIB an avalanche sliding over 900 meters to Kali Gendol; its imprint on the seismogram is of max. 35 mm and a duration of 90 seconds. PVMBG reported that during 22-28 July 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1,000 m and 950 m down the Gendol drainage on 24 and 27 July, respectively. Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit on some days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that during 15-21 July 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extrudedlava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating three block-and-ash flows that traveled 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage on 21 July. White plumes rose as high as 50 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that during 8-14 July 2019 the lava dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 13 and 14 July. White plumes rose as high as 300 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that on July 13th, 2019, several pyroclastic flow occurred : first at 17:15 WIB, evolving over 1,000 meters as a lover of Kali Gendol, with an imprint of seismogrammic amplitude 58 mm, and a duration of 98 seconds; and second one July 14 at 10:27 am WIB, a pyroclastic flow was recorded for 112 seconds, with an amplitude of 37 mm; she moved 1,100 meters to Kali Gendol.The seismicity of July 13 is marked by 21 avalanche earthquakes, a pyroclastic flow earthquake, 7 low frequency earthquakes, 2 hybrid earthquakes, 4 shallow volcanic earthquakes and a distant tectonic earthquake. PVMBG reported that during 28 June-4 July 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not significantly change and was an estimated 475,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images taken on 4 July. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE flank, generating one block-and-ash flow that traveled 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage on 1 July. White plumes rose as high as 200 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that during 17-23 June 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 458,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone images. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating two block-and-ash flows that traveled 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage on 17 and 20 June. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. The seismicity of the week between 7th to 13th of June 2019 was characterized by an earthquake linked to a pyroclastic flow, 210 collapse / avalanche earthquakes, 18 earthquakes of emission. No significant changes in deformation.PVMBG reported that during 3-10 June 2019 the lava-dome volume at Merapi did not change and was an estimated 458,000 cubic meters, based on analyses of drone footage. Extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank, generating one block-and-ash flow that traveled 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 9 June. White plumes rose as high as 75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that an avalanche of incandescent blocks on June 2nd, 2019 at 22:45 WIB. Iimprint on the seismogram was of maximum amplitude. 65 mm and a duration of 110 sec. it traveled about 1,100 meters towards Kali Gendol.The dome morphology remained relatively unchanged, as most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the SE-flank Gendol River drainage. One block-and-ash flow traveled 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG recorded on May 20, 2019 at 3:37 pm WIB, an earthquake probably linked with a pyroclastic flow observed over a distance of 1,100 meters towards Kali Gendol. The seismographic recording shows a max. 65 mm of amplitude, with a duration of 118 seconds.In addition, 52 avalanche earthquakes, 14 hybrid earthquakes, 4 blast earthquakes and 4 low frequency earthquakes have been recorded.The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km radius. The Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately N of the major city of Yogyakarta. The steep-sided modern Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated and inhabited lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory (MVO).

Lokon-Empung volcano (Sulawesi) - PVMBG reported that increased number of volcanic earthquakes over a few days prompted to issue a VONA on 15 April 2020 and raise the Aviation Color Code for Lokon-Empung to Yellow (the second lowest on a four-color scale). The volcano Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks (whose summits are only 2 km apart), has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano to the NE has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred. A ridge extending WNW from Lokon includes Tatawiran and Tetempangan peak, 3 km away. (GVN/GVP)

Agung volcano (Bali) - PVMBG reported reported, for February 10th, 2020 , a blast earthquake with an amplitude of 1.5 mm, for 35 sec. And a local tectonic earthquake with an amplitude of 3 mm. The top lava cake was hemmed with white fumaroles visible on the webcam images. As of the 5th of February 2020 , PVMBG reported that many fumaroles rose above the dome-pancake present in the summit crater. A small white plume about 50 meters high surmounted the summit. The level of activity remains at III / siaga, with a 4 km radius danger zone around the crater and advice on drainage where secondary lahars can form following seasonal rains. Previous news 2019 - PVMBG reported that a new eruptive episode occurred on June 13th 2019 at 01h38 local, recorded on a seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 30 mm and for 3 minutes 53 seconds.The height of the eruptive column could not be observed due to fog. Incandescent materials were ejected in all directions for a distance of about 700 meters, and their glow still observable 10 minutes after the eruption. Deposition of ash and lapilli is observed in the rain in the Besakih region. PVMBG reported that a new eruption occurred on June 10, 2019 at 1212 WITA, with ash column height observed at ± 1000 m above the summit (± 4 142 m above sea level). of the sea). The column of ash is gray, of moderate intensity, inclined to the east and south-east. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 24 mm and a duration of ± 1 minute..PVMBG reported that a new eruption took place on May 31, 2019 at 11:42 am WITA. The height of the ash column was observed at ± 2000 m above the summit (± 5 142 m above sea level). The column of ash was gray, thick in intensity and inclined to the northeast and east. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 30 mm and a duration of ± 8 minutes 4 seconds.PVMBG reported that on May 24, 2019 at 19:23, the height of the ash column being observed at ± 2500 m above the summit (± 5 642 m above sea level). The column of ash was gray and thick, bending west and southwest. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 30 mm (off scale) and a duration of ± 4 minutes 30 seconds.PVMBG reported that a new eruptive episode occurred on May 18, 2019 at 02:09 WITA at the Agung volcano , accompanied by a plume of ash, gray and thick, about 2,000 meters above the summit the dissipated to the east and north, with no influence on air traffic.The activity level remains at 3 / siaga with a 4 km risk zone around the crater. An eruption occurred on May 12, 2019 at 22:29 Wita, characterized by a dull sound heard at the Rendang post, a glow at the top and incandescence on the flanks.The height of the plume could not be determined due to cloud cover.On the seismogram, the activity remained marked for 2 minutes 16 sec., With a max. 25 mm. PVMBG reported that an event at Agung was recorded by the seismic network at 1859 on 3 May 2019. An ash plume was not visible from the Agung Volcano Observatory in Rendang (about 8 km SW), although the Darwin VAAC report a growing thermal anomaly and possible ash near the summit. About 30 minutes later the VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE; a thermal anomaly continued to be visible. On 6 May at 2255 a gray ash plume rose to around 2 km above the crater rim and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.PVMBG reported that a new eruptive episode occurred on April 30th, 2019 at 5:34 WITA. It was recorded for 2 minutes 15 sec., with a max amplitude of 25 mm. An ash plume, gray and thick, was observed 1,000 meters above the summit. Ash falls are reported on the surrounding villages.PVMBG reported two explosive eruptions at Agung on 21 April: the first was recorded at 0321 and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted W and S. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Besakih (7 km SW), Rendang (12 km NW), Klungkung (~40 km S), Gianyar (20 km WSW), Bangli (17 km WNW), Tabanan (51 km WSW), and the International Gusti Ngurah Rai (IGNR) airport (60 km SW) in Denpasar. The second event was recorded at 1856 and generated a dense ash plume that rose 3 km and drifted S. Minor ashfall was reported in Besakih, Rendang, Sebudi (6 km SW), and Selat (12 km SSW). The eruptions were accompanied by a boom heard at both the Rendang and Batulompeh observation posts. Ejected incandescent material from the two events fell on the flanks in all directions within a radius of 4 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that a new eruptive episode occurred on 11 April 2019 at 18:47 local accompanied by a gray and thick ash plume, observed at about 2,000 meters above the summit, leaning to the west. The plot on the seismogram, with a maximum amplitude of 25 mm, lasted 2 minutes 8 seconds.PVMBG reported that a new eruption occurred on April 4, 2019 at 01:31 WITA, accompanied by a column of ash observed at ± 2,000 m above the summit (± 5,142 m above sea level). The column of ash was gray, of a thick intensity, bending towards the west. This eruption is recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 25 mm and a duration of ± 3 minutes 37 seconds. A roaring roar was heard as far as Rendang Station.PVMBG reportede that a new eruptive episode occurred on March 28th, 2019 at 6:25 pm. A loud noise was heard until Amed and a black ash plume observed rising to about 5,400 meters, partly obscured by clouds. Ash falls are reported from surrounding villages.On the seismogram, the eruption amplitude measured was of 25 mm for a duration of 2 min. 32 sec.The alert level remains at 3 / siaga, with an orange VONA. PVMBG reported that a new eruptive episode on March 21, 2019 at 0:18 WITA, recorded on the seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 23 mm and a duration of 1min. 47 sec.The height of the plume could not be observed, due to top cover.The volcano remains on alert level 3 / Siaga, with a danger zone of 4 km radius.PVMBG reported that at 1827 on 15 March an explosive event at Agung was recorded for one minute and 23 seconds and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose about 1 km above the crater rim and drifted NNW. Minor ashfall was reported in the villages of Kubu (6 km N), Tianyar (14 km NNW), Ban, Kadundung, and Sukadana. At 0803 on 17 March an event was recorded for 39 seconds and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose about 500 m above the crater rim and drifted E. A second event began at 1030 and lasted about one minute and 16 seconds; a dense gray ash plume rose about 600 m and drifted E. At 0736 on 18 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W and NW. Thermal satellite images continue to indicate hot areas in the crater on the previously-erupted lava surface especially near the flow margins. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred on March 15, 2019 at 18:27 WITA at Agung, on Bali Island; a column of gray ash rose about 1,000 meters above the summit, bending westward.On the seismogram, it was recorded with a max. 23 mm during 1 minute 23 seconds.The level 3 / siaga remains in force, with a danger zone of 4 km radius and increased vigilance in drainages. The VONA is orange. PVMBG reported that at 0452 on 4 March 2019 an event at Agung was recorded for just under three minutes and produced ashfall in Besakih (7 km SW) around 0615. No ash plume was visible although foggy conditions prevented views of the summit. An event that began at 0047 on 9 March lasted for 3 minutes and 50 seconds, and produced an ash plume that drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that on February 22 at 16:31 WITA an eruptive episode occurred accompanied by a gray plume rose to 300 - 700 meters above the summit, inclined to the East. On the seismogram, it lasted 6 min. 20 sec. with a maximum amplitude of 11 mm. For the day of 22.02.2019, the PVMBG reports 2 eruption earthquakes, 4 breath earthquakes, and one episode of harmonic tremor. The activity level remains at 3 / siaga. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred in Agung, on the island of Bali, on 14th February 2019 at 4:34 WITA. The height of the plume could not be determined, and small fallout of ashes are reported in several villages near the volcano.PVMBG reported that on January 21st, a first eruption of 16:45 WITA was recorded on the seismogram with a max. 22 mm and a duration of 1 min. 52 sec. A second eruption occurred at 17h WITA was with an amplitude of 23 mm and a duration of 1 min. 17 sec.In both cases, the ash plume could not be observed due to fog. On January 22, at 3:42 local time, another eruption was accompanied by a plume of ash 2,000 meters above the crater.The activity level remains at 3 / siaga.PVMBG reported that a small eruption occurred on January 19, 2019 at 2:45 local time; the amplitude on the seismogram was 23 mm and the duration was 128 sec. A plume 700 meters rose above the crater could be observed, as well as the projection of incandescent materials on the upper east flank, with a range of up to 1,000 meters from the edge of the crater.The activity level remains at 3 / Siaga. PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred on January 10, 2019 at 7:55 PM at Agung, on the island of Bali. The height of the plume could not be estimated due to fog. It is announced up to 6,000 meters to NNW by VAAC Darwin.On the seismogram, the recording has a maximum amplitude of 22 mm and a duration of about 4 minutes 26 seconds. According to information obtained by Bali Express, a number of residents of Bal. The latest image of the Sentinel 2 satellite, dated January 8, showed various hot spots on the slab in the crater; a very slight thermal anomaly of 1MW was recorded by Mirova on January 10 at 6:10 PM The PVMBG maintains the level of activity at 3 / siaga, with a 4 km radius danger zone around the crater and recommendations not to park in the drainages, where a lahar possibility exists. Ash rains occurred in the Desa Ban area of ​​Kubu district, as far as Terunyan village, Kintamani district, Bangli. PVMBG reported that on December 30 at 04:09 WITA; un explosive event occurred with duration 3 minutes 8 sec., with an amplitude of 22 mm on the seismogram. The eruption is due to an "overpressure" due to the accumulation of volcanic gases. At the time of the eruption, an incandescence was observed at the top, but the height of the ash column was not observed due to the fog. According to satellite information, the volcanic ash is moving towards the southeast, reaching 5,500 m altitude. An orange aviation code has been established by VAAC Darwin.Light ash rains were reported in the Karangasem regency, in the southeastern sector of Mount Agung, as in the city of Amlapura and in several villages including Seraya Barat, Seraya Tengah and Tenggalinggah. As of the 22nd of August, according to the Darwin VAAC, a webcam recorded a diffuse ash emission from Agung rising to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that white plumes rose 100-300 m above Agung's crater rim during 1 and 2-7 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius. According to PVMBG a ground-based observer reported that at 0041 on 25 July an event at Agung produced a dense ash-and-gas plume that rose 700 m and drifted E and SE. Seismic data recorded the event for two minutes and 15 seconds. At 1406 on 27 July an event lasting one minute and 32 seconds produced a dense ash-and-gas plume that rose 2 km and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that an explosion occurred on July 24 at 12:52 WITA; it lasted 2 minutes and 13 seconds, and was accompanied by a plume of ash rising to 1,500 meters above the crater, before drifting to the southeast.Seismicity is characterized by low frequency earthquakes.The alert level remains at III / Siaga, with an orange VONA. PVBMG reported that two explosion occurred on 15th of July; the first eruptive episode occurred this 15.07.2018 at 04:52 WITA and lasted 2 min.20 sec. The plume could not be observed.- the second lasted 1min.45 sec., and was accompanied by a plume of ash rising to 1,500 meters. The BNPB reports ash falls in various villages: Bhuana Giri, Pidpid, Nawa Kerti, Datah Ababi, Abang Kertha Mandala and Amlapura.Bali Airport operates normally. The VONA is orange.The seismicity of July 15th, between 0h and 18h, ​​is characterized by 1 eruption earthquake, 3 blast earthquakes, 4 superficial volcanic earthquakes, and 1 deep, and 1 distant tectonic earthquake.The PVMBG reports a new strombolian eruption on July 8 at 4:22 am WIB.It was followed at 10 am local time by an ash emission, following an eruption of a duration of 150 sec., with a record of an amplitude of 24 mm on the seismogram.New ash emission at 16:00 local time.They noted that 4,415 evacuees were housed in 54 evacuation centers. An ash plume rose from the crater at 1120 on 9 July and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVBMG reported that on July 6 in the early evening, around 19:21, incandescence coud be observed at the top, accompanied with small black plume. An event at 0413 on 3 July generated an ash plume that rose around 2 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that during night Monday 2nd of July around 9 pm a new explosive activity occurred characterized by ejection of the hot rocks. The event was heard ad felt around East Bali, leading evacuations of 28 villages around the volcano. An ash column rose to 2000 m high above the summit crater and quickly disperded. PVMBG reported that eruptive activity on the evening of June 30 was characterized by incandescence indicating the presence of fresh lava in the crater. On 1st of July around 1:51 WITA, a white degassing rose above the crater of 1,500 meters, before drifting to the west.The alert level remains at 3, with an orange VONA. All airports operate normally. Lava continued to effuse, and by 1 July the estimated volume of new lava was 4-5 million cubic meters making the total volume erupted since 21 November 2017 around 27-28 million cubic meters (50% of the total crater volume). The height difference between the lowest part of the crater rim (SW side) and the highest part of the lava surface (in the center of the crater) was 85-90 m. PVMBG reported that on June 27 at 22h21 local an ash emission formed a thick plume observed at about 2,000 meters above the summit (5,142 meters asl), before drifting westward.Seismicity is dominated by volcanic earthquakes and harmonic tremors.On June 28, there is still a small gray-white plume rising 500 meters above the summit.The alert level remains unchanged, with a prohibited area of ​​4 km radius.PVMBG reported that at 1105 on 13 June an event at Agung produced a dense ash plume that rose around 2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW and W. Based on analysis of the seismic data, the event lasted two minutes and 12 seconds. Another event was detected at 2115 on 15 June, though foggy conditions prevented estimations of the ash plume height; ash fell in areas W, including in Puregai (7 km W). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the 4-km-radius exclusion zone was unchanged. PVMBG reported that an explosion accompanied by an ash plume was recorded on 10 June at 22:14 local.The plume, which dissipated to the west, could not be observed due to fog.In general, tiltmeter and GPS showed long-term deflation since December 2017, though inflation began to be detected the second week of May; deformation analysis indicated that magma continued to accumulate about 3-4 km below the crater. Low- and high-frequency earthquakes also suggested rising magma. Sulfur dioxide flux was 190-203 ons/day, and thermal anomalies in the crater were identified in satellite data. The erupted volume of lava was estimated to be 23 million cubic meters, equivalent to about a third of the total crater volume. The maximum amplitude on the seismogram is 22 mm and the duration of the episode of 1 minute 58 sec.PVMBG reported that although there were some periods of foggy conditions during 23-29 May, white plumes were occasionally observed rising as high as 400 m above Agung's crater rim. At 0539 on 29 May an event generated an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that at 1719 on 19 May an event at Agung generated an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. An explosive event occurred on 30th of April 2018 at 22:45 local. A plume of ash and gas rose 1,500 meters above the summit. PVMBG reported that although there were often foggy conditions during 18-24 April, white plumes were observed rising as high as 300 m above Agung's crater rim and drifting E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. Based on webcam views, satellite data, and ground-based observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 April an event at Agung generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. PVMBG reported that an event at Agung at 1737 on 5 April generated an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted W. Seismicity was dominated by high- and low-frequency earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that at 1009 on 26 March 2018 an event at Agung generated an ash plume that rose at least to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,650 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that although there were sometimes foggy conditions during 7-13 March , white plumes were observed rising as high as 600 m above Agung's crater rim and drifting E. An event at 2332 on 11 March generated an ash plume that rose about 950 m and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that on 28 February gray-white plumes rose as high as 300 m above Agung's crater rim. During 1-5 March white plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4) with an exclusion zone set at a 6-km radius. As of the 13th of February, PVMBG reported that during the past month, the frequency of eruptive incidents has decreased according to the observations, the last eruption is reported by the observatory on January 24, 2018.The volume of the lava dome has not changed significantly, and is still estimated at 20 million cubic meters, or 1/3 of the empty volume of the crater.Inflation is still observed, but characterized by a lower ratio, indicating that pressurization following magmatic movements is less significant. On February 12, the seismicity was characterized by 7 emission earthquakes, an episode of harmonic tremor, 5 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, 7 deep volcanic earthquakes VA and a tectonic earthquake.On February 13 at 11:49 local, a plume of ash and gas was observed at 1,500 meters above the summit. On Saturday, February 10 at 9 am WITA, the authorities announced at the Rendang Observation Station that the status of the Agung was downgraded from level IV to level III.The radius of the risk zone has been reduced from 6 to 4 km; all refugees can return home, repatriation measures being taken. PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 1 km above Agung's crater rim during 24-25 January. Foggy conditions prevented visual observations of the crater during 26-30 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 6-km radius. PVMBG reported that at 1920 on 19 January a Strombolian event produced an ash plume that rose as high as 2.5 km and drifted E, and ejected incandescent material as far as 1 km from the crater. Incandescence emanated from the crater for about two hours after the event. White-to-gray plumes rose 500 m during 22-23 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 6-km radius. . PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred this January 15 at 7:23 WITA; it was accompanied by a plume of gray ash rising to about 2,000 meters. A fine shower of ashes fell on Kesimpar.The alert status remains at maximum level and Ngurah Rai airport is operating normally. PVMBG reported that following the high ash emission of January 11 at 17:54 WITA and a plume at 2,500 meters, those of January 12 was less intense and was maintained at a height around 500 meters. The night glow was not perceived. PVMBG reported that during 3-9 January gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that during 27 December 2017-2 January 2018 gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2 km above Agung's crater rim and drifted W, SW, and E. Incandescence from the crater was often observed at night. Ash fell in several local villages including Badeg, Yeha, Temukus, Besakih (11 km WSW), and Muncan (12 km SW) on 1 January, and Rendang post on 2 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions. PVMBG reported that during 20-26 December gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2 km above Agung's crater rim and drifted W and E; weather clouds and fog sometimes prevented visual observations. Incandescence from the crater was sometimes observed at night. BNPB reported that during 22-23 December events generated dense gray ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NE. Ash fell on the flanks and in Tulamben, Kubu. As of 25 December there were 71,045 evacuees spread out in 239 shelters. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions. PVMBG reported that during 13-19 December gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above Agung's crater rim and drifted W, N, and E; weather clouds and fog sometimes prevented visual observations. Incandescence from the crater was sometimes observed at night. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions.PVMBG posted two map-view images of Agung, one from 20 October showing pre-eruptive conditions and one from 16 December showing the lava that had erupted onto the crater floor, noting that about 1/3 of the crater had been filled with an estimated 20 million cubic meters of lava. The number of evacuees on 10 December was 70,079 (spread out in 237 shelters). Ash plumes rose as high as 2 km. Lahars were observed in a drainage originating on the flanks of Agung. An explosion at 0549 on 11 December generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted W and NW. Multiple ash-plume events were observed during 11-12 December, with plumes rising 1.5 km above the crater rim. Video taken at the summit crater. on 13th of December. An overflight by drone, carried out on December 14 showed the "lava cake"in the summit crater.The PVMBG states that the ratio of magma emitted has decreased since the end of November, and only 1/3 of the crater is filled with lava. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions. BNPB reported that on December 9, plumes of ashes were observed at 5:05 and 5:49 local; strong winds tilted the plume north. A local 7h30 eruption ejected ash and gas to 2,000 meters above the crater. ashfall was reported on the village of Temakung / Karangasem. As of the 8th of December, some ash emissions reaching a height between 500 and 2,100 meters above the summit; glowing was observed during the night. BNPB reported that a gray-white plume rose to 500-1,000 meters above the crater, then drifted eastward on December 4 at 23:15 WITA. during nighttime glowing was observed above the crater. The seismicity was characterized by 4 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 14 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, 29 low frequency earthquakes and 2 harmonic tremor episode. The level of the tremor is of 1-2mm of amplitude, with a dominant at 1 mm. According to BNPB, the volcano seems calm on the morning of December 3, emitting only a plume of steam and gas at 500-1,000 meters above the crater. However,, the internal activity remained important. Yesterday, a continuous tremor of 22 minutes between 14:34 and 14:56 local were recorded indicates, according to the PVMBG, a supplied of magma still occurs, and predicts a lapse of time of ten days for the filling of the crater, a total volume estimated at 60,000,000 m³.Seismicity remains low overall, and the level of alert identical. In the day of November 29, a gray plume was seen at a height of 1,500-2,000 meters above the crater; the 17:25 WITA eruption and plume height could not be observed because of the fog covering the summit.The thermal anomaly observed at Agung in recent days has been several times: 27.11 with 51 MW, 28.11 at 22:20 WITA with 97 MW, 29.11 with 5 MW, attesting to magmatic activity, and risks of ejection of incandescent ballistic projectiles and ashes, at first, production of lava flows and pyroclastic flows, or more in case of plinian eruption.As for the inconvenience due to ashes on the air traffic, the airport of Bali is opened, this November 30, while that of Lombok was closed again. The seismicity is relatively low, with 9 VA deep volcanic earthquakes, 23 VB superficial volcanic earthquakes, a local tectonic earthquake, an eruption earthquake, and a continuous tremor of amplitude varying between 1 and 24 mm (with a dominant at 2 mm) ; On November 30, the tremor level decreased with a dominant at 1 mm.As of the 28th of November, BNPB reported that magmatic eruption continued. The ash plume oscillates between 2,500 and 4,000 meters above the summit, before drifting to the southwest. On November 27, the MIROVA site detected for the first time a thermal anomaly of 51 MW, indicating the presence of lava on the surface. Tremor, of amplitude 1 to 2 mm (dominant 1 mm) is recorded continuously, and reported increasing 28.11.Heavy rains increase the risk of lahars and landslides. The mudslides and lahars in progress have so far been no casualties. 22 villages are present in zone of danger (8-10 km around the volcano), and the number of people living there is estimated between 90,000 and 100,000. This particular situation has a direct impact on air traffic: the authorities extended the closure of Ngurah Rai International Airport until 29 November at 7am. As of the 27th of November, BNPB reported that based on the analysis of the instrumental and visual data, and the consideration of potential dangers, the alert level of the Agung has reached the maximum: level IV / Awas.The exclusion zone has been extended to a radius of 8 km, and to 10 km at NNE and SSO of the crater. These areas are permantly evaluated; they include the villages of Ban, Dukuh, Baturinggit, Sukadana, Kubu, Tulamben, Datah, Nawakerti, Pidpid, Buanagiri, Bebandem, Jungutan, North Duda, Amerta Buana, Sebudi, Besakih and Pempatan.The airport Ngurah Rai was closed initially until 28.11 in the morning, because of the ashes.Following the rains, a first lahar was observed south of Agung in Sidemen district. It is advisable not to have activity around the river. The ashes fell in many places, covering the roofs and plants with thick ash layer; they are reported from the villages of North Duda, Duda Timur, Pempetan, Besakih, Sideman, Tirta Abang, Sebudi, Amerta Bhuana in the Klungkung District, and some villages in Gianyar.According latest news, the activity of the Agung has changed during the night, and on November 26 in the morning, a large ash plume rose from a height of 2,000 meters above the summit at 5:05 WITA to 3,000 meters at 5:45 am. Gome-2 satellite detected the sulfur dioxide emitted by the eruption; this morning at 9:30 local, the flow of SO2 was estimated at 1,000-2,000 tons, a value qualified with certainty of magmatic. The BNPB also reported that the eruptions have a magmatic character since last night. The VONA for Agung is now Red, while the volcanic alert level remains at III, for now. Seismicity is characterized by low frequency earthquakes.The ash cloud is heading towards ENE and Lombok Island, where small ash falls are reported.As of the 25th of November according to local news an eruption has begun on Agung, this time it's larger than the initial phreatic eruption from the other day. Mount Agung eruption occurred at 17:30 WITA. The gray columns were observed in medium-grayish-blackish-gray as high as 1500 meters above the summit of Mount Agung. Communities remain calm and follow PVMBG's recommendation on Level III (Siaga) status not to engage in any activity within a 6 km radius plus a sectoral extension of 7.5 km to the North-Northeast, Southeast and South-Southwest. VONA color code: ORANGE. Previously, The PVMBG reported that an ash eruption / emission started on 21.11.2017 at 09.05 UTC / 17.05 local time, accompanied by a scattered ash plume rising about 700 meters from the summit crater. The eruption and the emission of ashes, towards the East - Southeast, continued. Seismicity is characterized by volcano-tectonic earthquakes. A VONA / Volcano Observattory Notice for Aviation has been issued: the code changes from Yellow to Orange. The alert level remains at 3, with a exclusion zone of 6-7.5 km radius.A drone flyover shortly after the explosive eruption shows a very white plume, suggesting a preponderance of steam, with no significant component of ash.The ashes will have to undergo an examination by the volcanologists to make sure of the exact nature of this episode, which seems phreatic. PVMBG reported that white plumes from Agung rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim during 8-14 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones remained intact (at 6 km, and an additional expansion to 7.5 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions). As of the 9th of November, BNPB reported that the seismicity was characterized by an episode of harmonic tremor, 78 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 34 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 14 local tectonic earthquakes, of which 2 felt. The earthquake of M5.0 SR of November 9 at 4:54 WIB, and a depth of 10 km, located at 11.35 km from the Agung, is associated,  function of the position of its epicenter and its depth,  with an active fault. The vapor and gas plume was observed at a height of 50-200 meters above the crater.On 7th of November, BNPB reported that seismicity and visible activity remained at low level; the steam plume rose between 400 meters on November 5th and about 100-200 meters on the 6th of November. According to the same source 116,766 inhabitants are still displaced, despite the lowering of the alert level.t On 29 October PVMBG lowered the Alert level for Agung to 3 (on a scale of 1-4), noting a decline in activity, especially since 20 October. The thermal anomaly in the crater identified in satellite data was less intense in October than in September. Beginning on 20 October GPS data showed a slower deformation rate. Seismic signals decreased in number and amplitude, though low-frequency events continued to indicate magma movement. White fumarolic plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim during 20-29 October; a comparison of video taken by drones on 20 and 29 October showed a relative decrease in the intensity of fumarolic emissions. BNPB stated that, despite the decreased Alert Level, the exclusion zones remained intact (at 6 km, and an additional expansion to 7.5 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions). The number of evacuees was 133,457 (spread out in 385 shelters). PVMBG reported that on October 26, the status remained unchanged. A plume of steam is observed between 100 and 300 meters above the summit. On 25 October, a non-harmonic tremor episode, 119 VA deep volcanic earthquakes, 87 VB superficial volcanic earthquakes, and two local tectonic earthquakes were recorded.The inflation marking the volcano is more than 6 cm, and the level of magma, raised to 4 km, is estimated at 18.5 million cubic meters. PVBMG reported that during past days visibility has allow to see steam and gas plumes between 200 and 500 meters above the summit.The seismicity has decreased, while remaining important:- on October 22nd, the PVMBG reports 122 VA deep volcanic earthquakes, 62 VB superficial volcanic earthquakes, and 9 local tectonic earthquakes.- On October 23, there were 4 episodes of non-harmonic tremor, 154 VA earthquakes, 53 VB earthquakes and 11 local tectonic earthquakes.The seismic activity of the Agung remains high and fluctuates after the upgrade of the activity to level IV (Awas). On 17 and 18 October, the summit is visible, and surmounted by a plume of steam and gas rising this 18.10 between 300 and 500 meters above the summit. PVMBG reported that although foggy conditions at Agung sometimes prevented visual observations, during 11-17 October dense white plumes were seen rising 200 m above the crater rim. On 14 October BNPB stated that seismicity remained high; PVMBG noted that seismicity was dominated by shallow volcanic events, and the number of volcanic earthquakes remained steady. The governor of Bali extended the state of emergency to 26 October, noting that the Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4). The number of evacuees was 139,199 (spread out in 389 shelters). Oon 15th of October, PVMBG reported that the summit is dominated this day with a plume of steam up to 200 meters, possibly potentiated by rains on the summits the day before. In comparison with October 14, seismicity shows a decrease in episodes on October 15:- 14 October: 764 deep VA volcanic earthquakes, 283 VB volcanic earthquakes, 89 local tectonic earthquakes, and 6 nonharmonic tremor episodes.- 15 October: 474 deep VA volcanic earthquakes, 270 VB volcanic earthquakes, 44 local tectonic earthquakes.-On 5 October 2017 PVMBG reported that the rate of volcanic earthquakes at Agung had not increased during the previous 12 days, but continued to fluctuate at a high level. The seismic network detected 1-3 earthquakes per minute on average, with a total more than 600 events per day. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes increased to 200 per day during 24 September-5 October, possibly indicating that magmatic activity at shallow depths was still high. The number of earthquakes felt by staff at the Mt. Agung Volcano Observatory in Rendang village, 12.5 km SSW, peaked on 27 September and then decreased afterwards. Gas plumes rose 50-200 m above the crater rim. Satellite data indicated an area of water expulsion near the solfatara field on the crater floor thought to reflect a disturbance to the hydrologic system in response to intruded magma at depth. On 5 October BNPB reported that the number of evacuees reached 146,797 (spread out in 427 shelters), though about 28 villages (70,000 people) were located within the evacuation zone. About 10,000 farm animals had also been evacuated. On 7 October a white plume likely composed mostly of water vapor rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and slowly drifted E. During 8-10 October fumarolic plumes rose 50-200 m above the rim. The Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone at 9 km, and an additional expansion to 12 km in the SE, S, and SW directions. No major changes to the Agung, where the seismicity remains high and slightly up, accompanied by emissions at 200 meters above the summit on the morning of October 7th. On 29 September PVMBG reported that earthquakes at Agung were becoming stronger with more felt by local residents, and larger ones felt in areas 45-55 km SW including Denpasar and Kuta. Fumarolic emissions were identified in satellite data, as well as hot areas on the crater floor that had enlarged over the previous week. A new fracture on the crater floor emitted steam. After a M 4.2 earthquake was detected at 1627 on 26 September emissions intensified and rose 500 m above the crater rim. On 4 October BNPB reported that seismicity continued to fluctuate at high levels, and weak emissions rose above the crater rim. The number of evacuees reached 141,213 (spread out in 416 shelters) from 78 villages, though about 2,600 in locations outside of the evacuation zone were returning home; there were 28 villages (about 70,000 people) within the evacuation zone. The Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone at 9 km, and an additional expansion to 12 km in the SE, S, and SW directions. PVMBG reported that seismicity remained high with, on 28 September, 444 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 214 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 23 local tectonic earthquakes. On September 29, between 0h and 6h local, seismic network recorded 125 VA earthquakes, 40 VB earthquakes and 5 local tectonic earthquakes. Since two days, gas and steam emissions have become permanent. The PVMBG reported a visible fracture in the crater, from which emit these emissions, based on satellite images ... according to local scientist the existence of this fracture shows that movements of the magma continue towards the surface. the last data of the PVMBG report for the 27 of September, at 19h, 444 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 329 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 56 local tectonic earthquakes, earthquakes with a force and in greater number than the day before. The BNPB figures the number of people evacuated to nearly 100,000, possibly increasing. On 24 September BNPB reported that the number of refugees continued to grow, as residents were leaving the expanded evacuation zones; there were 34,931 people in 238 shelters. The report noted that some evacuees were returning home in the daytime to feed their livestock. On 27 September the number of evacuees reached 96,086 (spread out in 430 shelters), seismic activity continued to escalate, and diffuse white plumes rose 50 m above the crater rim. Seismicity remained high on the Agung, where the observatory reports, on 22 September, noted 586 volcanic earthquakes VA, 119 Superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 119 local tectonic earthquakes. On September 23rd, between 0h and 6h local, there are already 72 volcanic earthquakes VA, 16 volcanic earthquakes VB and 6 local tectonic earthquakes.PVMBG reported an Increased seismicity at Agung, as well as the severity of past eruptions, prompted PVMBG to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The report noted that volcanic earthquakes (VA) began to be recorded on 10 August 2017 and shallow volcanic earthquakes (VB) began to be recorded on 24 August. Local tectonic earthquakes were also recorded and began to increase consistently on 26 August. PVMBG warned the public to stay at least 3 km away from the crater. On 13 September a climber observed a sulfatara plume rising from the bottom of the crater as high as 50 m above the crater rim. During 14-18 September 2017 four earthquakes centered around Agung were felt. On 18 September PVMBG reported that the number of VA and VB events continued to increase; the Alert Level was increased to 3. The exclusion zone was increased to 6 km, with an additional expansion to 7.5 km in the N, SE, and SSW directions. Elevations above 950 m were also restricted. A VEI 5 eruption during 1963-64 produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and resulted in more than 1,100 deaths. Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali's highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means "Paramount," rises above the SE caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks of Agung extend to the coast. The 3142-m-high summit contains a steep-walled, 500-m-wide, 200-m-deep crater. The flank cone Pawon is located low on the SE side. Only a few eruptions dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded in historical time. The 1963-64 eruption, one of the world's largest of the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall along with devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities (GVN/GVP). Webcam 1 - Webcam 2 -

Tangkubanprahu volcano (Java) -Diffuse white water-vapor plumes rose 40 m above the vent on Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater floor during 14-21 October 2019 . PVMBG lowered the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 21 October, noting that phreatic events had not been recorded for the past month, deformation data indicated no rising magma, and other data all suggested decreased activity. Tourists were advised to avoid going into the crater. PVMBG reported that during 30 September-6 October 2019 diffuse white water vapor plumes rose 150 m above the vent on Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater floor. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater. PVMBG reported that during 23-29 September 2019 diffuse white water vapor plumes rose 200 m above the vent on Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater floor. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater. PVMBG reported that the seismic network at Tangkubanparahu recorded continuous tremor during 16-22 September 2019 . A phreatic event at Ratu Crater on 17 September was accompanied by roaring. An ash plume rose as high as 40 m above the vent and steam plumes rose as high as 200 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater. PVMBG reported that phreatic events, accompanied by roaring, continued at Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater during 9-15 September 2019 , though no larger eruptions were recorded. Ash-and-steam emissions rose as high as 20 m above the vent and steam plumes rose as high as 200 m. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater. PVMBG reported that during 2-8 September 2019 emissions at Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater were characterized by bursts white vapor plumes. At 0724 on 4 September a dense white-to-gray plume rose about 100 m above the vent and drifted S and SW. Two large eruptive events were recorded at 1657 and 1709 on 7 September. White water vapor plumes rose to 200 m above the vent and dense black tephra plumes rose as high as 180 m. Ashfall was localized around Ratu Crater. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater.PVMBG reported that a new eruption occurred on September 4, 2019 at 07:24 WIB, accompanied by cypressoid emissions of black ash to ± 100 m from the bottom of the crater. A thick white to gray plume is still emitted, leaning to the south and southwest. This eruption was recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 50 mm and a duration of ± 58 seconds.As of the 31st of August 2019 at 09:30 WIB a phreatic explosion occurred accompanied by ash emission, in the form of cypressoid plume, at - / + 150 m above the summit, and steam emission. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 50 mm and a duration of 45 seconds.PVMBG also reported a continuous tremor with dominant amplitude ç 50 mm /The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a forbidden zone of 1.5km As of the 22nd of August 2019 PVMBG reported that emission of thick white to gray plumes still occurs in the Ratu crater. The seismicity was still characterized by a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude of 50 mm. The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a 1.5 km zone around the active crater. PVMBG reported that during 5-11 August 2019 phreatic events at Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater continued to produced sometimes dense, gray-to-white plumes that rose as high as 200 m above the vent and ash plumes rose as high as 100 m. The emissions were accompanied by roaring. Ashfall was localized around Ratu Crater. The seismic network recorded continuous tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 1.5 km away from the active crater. PVMBG reported that on August 8 and 9th, 2019 a white to gray plume 80 to 100 meters above the bottom of the crater is observed. A picture of the PVMBG dated August 10 at 9:59 am WIB showed a high white plume, and dark gray "cypressoids" jets, suggesting a phreatic-type activity. PVMBG reported that on August 2nd, 2019 at 0:43 WIB, a new phreatic eruption occurred; the recording lasted 3 minutes 6 seconds, with a maximum amplitude of 50 mm. The same day, other episodes were recorded at 1:45, 3:57 and 4:06 WIB, and continued. In addition to a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 50 mm and four eruption earthquakes, low local inflation and an increase in the concentration of volcanic gases are measured. A white to gray plume of varying intensity is observed. Due to the instability of the volcano, and the different parameters analyzed, the level of activity of the Tangkuban Parahu has been increased to 2 / waspada, together with a forbidden zone of 1,500 meters radius around the active crater. PVMBG reported that following the phreatic eruption on July 26, 2019, Tangkuban Parahu's activity was dominated by gas and ash emissions at a height of 20-200 meters above the bottom of the main Ratu crater.- On August 1st, at 8.46 pm WIB, the eruptive activity resumed, characterized by a plume of gray ash of 180 meters; its max amplitude imprint 50 mm (scale exceeded) was recorded for 11 minutes 23 seconds.- On August 2 at 0:43 WIB, a new phreatic eruption occurred; the recording lasted 3 minutes 6 seconds, with a maximum amplitude of 50 mm. The same day, other episodes were recorded at 1:45, 3:57 and 4:06 WIB, and continue.In addition to the tremor, low local inflation and an increase in the concentration of volcanic gases are measured. Due to the instability of the volcano, and the different parameters analyzed, the level of activity of the Tangkuban Parahu has been increased to 2 / waspada, together with a forbidden zone of 1,500 meters radius around the active crater. As of the 28th of July 2019, PVMBG reported that activity dropped after the phreatic eruption of July 26 / 3:48 pm.The amplitude of the tremor decreased from 12-20 mm on the 1st day, to 2-12 mm on the second, and 1-1.5 mm on 28th July. In addition, vibrations are continuously recorded so that the safety zone of 500 meters around the point of eruption and crater rim is maintained.PVMBG reported that a sudden phreatic eruption occurred on July 26, 2019 at 3:48 pm WIB. Surtseyan projections accompanied a thick gray gas and ash plume were observed at about 200 meters above the summit sloping to the northeast and south. The seismogram showed a maximum amplitude of 50 mm for this eruption and duration of 5 minutes 30 seconds. Then, a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude of 15 mm followed (amplitude between 2 and 32 mm), in relation with the release of pressure. Ashes fell within a radius of 1 to 2 km; a Vona Orange has been published, with some disturbances of flights. Previously, PVMBG reported an increase in seismicity since July 22, 2019. More than 425 earthquakes were recorded, including two harmonic tremor episodes, 3 volcanic earthquakes and 3 low frequency earthquakes.Changes in groundwater level are suspected to be related to this seismic activity. It is recommended not to approach the Queen's and Upas craters due to the presence of harmful volcanic gases, and the possibility of sudden phreatic eruptions. Tangkubanparahu (also known as Tangkuban Perahu) is a broad shield-like stratovolcano overlooking Indonesia's former capital city of Bandung. The volcano was constructed within the 6 x 8 km Pleistocene Sunda caldera, which formed about 190,000 years ago. The volcano's low profile is the subject of legends referring to the mountain of the "upturned boat." The rim of Sunda caldera forms a prominent ridge on the western side; elsewhere the caldera rim is largely buried by deposits of Tangkubanparahu volcano. The dominantly small phreatic historical eruptions recorded since the 19th century have originated from several nested craters within an elliptical 1 x 1.5 km summit depression. GVN/GVP)

Mount Semeru ( Java) - PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 27 May-2 June 2020, though sometimes weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. Ash plumes rose 300-500 m above the crater and drifted N, W, and SW on most days. White plumes rose 300 m and drifted N during 26-27 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank. PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 20-26 May 2020 though sometimes foggy conditions prevented visual confirmation. Ash plumes rose 200-500 m above the crater and drifted N during 24-25 May. White plumes rose 400 m and drifted NE, E, S, and W on 26 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank. VAAC Darwin assigned the Semeru a red aviation code on May 24, 2020 at 11:01 p.m. Z, following ash observed 400 meters above the summit, and 4,000 meters (flight altitude 140). An eruption, visually observed on May 24 at 9:30 am WIB, was accompanied by an ash plume at 3,876 meters asl. Volcano Observatory issued an orange VONA on May 16, 2020 at 2:49 UTC / 9:49 local time, following an eruption with ash cloud at about 4,000 meters, and perhaps more, due to poor observation conditions ((observer at ground) The ashes move west. The eruption and the ash cloud are confirmed by the VAAC Darwin, which specifies that the eruption continues, with a notice of ash dispersion this May 16 at flight altitudes 460 moving east and alt. of flight 200, moving to the southwest. For the VAAC Darwin, the aviation code is red. On May 17, the ash plume was reported at flight altitude 140, and a hot spot was evident at the top. As of the 13th of May 2020 , PVMBG reported : - 46 eruption earthquakes with an amplitude between 10 and 22 mm, and lasting from 55 to 210 seconds, - 17 blast earthquakes with an amplitude of 2-8 mm and a duration of 40-107 sec. The VAAC Darwin reported a continuation of the explosive activity and mentions a plume reaching an altitude of 4,000 meters, drifting north. As of the 6th of May 2020, according to data from Sentinel-2, Mirova and VAAC Darwin, the activity of Semeru on Java continues. A lava flow was perceptible on the images of Sentinel-2 of May 5. Thermal anomalies were noted by Mirova: from VRP 30 to 33 MW on May 4, and from VRP 44 and 29 MW on May 6, respectively at 2:55 p.m. and 5:55 p.m. The VAAC Darwin mentions an orange aviation code, and ash observed at a flight altitude 140, traveling south on May 7, 2020. PVMBG reported that an explosion occurred on May 4 at the start of the day; it was accompanied by a plume about 2,000 meters above the crater. VAAC Darwin reports an eruption in Semeru, on Java, accompanied by a plume observed 400 meters above the summit on May 3, 2020. PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 22-28 April 2020. Eruptive events produced dense gray ash plumes that rose as high as 500 m above the summit. Lava blocks traveled 300 m from the ends of lava flows in the Kembar drainage. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank. PVMBG reported that on April 16th, 2020 at 9:04 a.m. local time, an eruption was reported with an ash plume at 4,076 meters asl, according to a ground observer. On April 17 at 06:08 WIB a pyroclastic flow occurred and traveled 2,000 meters south, with an imprint on the seismogram of 7 mm amplitude and a duration of 481 sec. PVMBG reported that during 6-12 April 2020 dense white-gray plumes rose 200-500 m above Semeru's summit. Incandescent material was ejected 20 m above the Jonggring-Seloko Crater. Incandescent material from the ends of lava flows descended 200-1,000 m, reaching a maximum distance of 750-1,500 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded to stay outside of the general 1-km radius from the summit and 4 km on the SSE flank. The volcano, rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967. (GVN/GVP)

Slamet (Java) -PVMBG reported that seismicity at Slamet significantly increased beginning in June 2019, with 51,511 signals indicating emissions and 22 tectonic earthquakes recorded through 8 August. White plumes with variable density rose as high as 300 m above the crater rim.Tremor began to be recorded at the end of July with gradually increasing amplitude. In addition, notable inflation was detected at the end of July and long-term temperatures of hot springs showed an upward trend. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay outside a radius of 2 km. Slamet, Java's second highest volcano at 3428 m and one of its most active, has a cluster of about three dozen cinder cones on its lower SE-NE flanks and a single cinder cone on the western flank. It is composed of two overlapping edifices, an older basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcano on the west and a younger basaltic to basaltic-andesite one on the east. Gunung Malang II cinder cone on the upper E flank on the younger edifice fed a lava flow that extends 6 km E. Four craters occur at the summit of Gunung Slamet, with activity migrating to the SW over time. Historical eruptions, recorded since the 18th century, have originated from a 150-m-deep, 450-m-wide, steep-walled crater at the western part of the summit and have consisted of explosive eruptions generally lasting a few days to a few weeks. .(GVN/GVP)

Rinjani volcano (Lombok) -PVMBG and BNPB reported that a M 6.4 earthquake was recorded at 0547 on 29 July, shaking the islands of Lombok, Bali, and Sumbawa, and causing significant damage to buildings (including collapses) and roads, ground cracks, multiple injuries, and the death of 17 people in Lombok. The hypocenter was 24 km deep, and 47 km NE of Mataram City. Aftershocks were numerous and as large as M 5.7. The earthquakes caused remobilization of ash deposits on Rinjani as well as landslides. There were 1,226 visitors to
the Mount Rinjani National Park Area at the time, and, according to news articles, about 690 climbers were on the volcano and had to be rescued. One person in the national park died from rockfalls. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); the public was warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra's Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak (Samalas) caldera. The caldera formed during one of the largest Holocene eruptions globally in 1257 CE, which truncated Samalas stratovolcano. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera. Historical eruptions dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lake.

Iya volcano (Flores Islands) - PVMBG reported that after an increase on 29 September 2016 seismicity at Iya decreased significantly, with the number of deep volcanic earthquakes
slowing from a rate of five per day or less, to none on 22 October. On 31 October the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4). Gunung Iya is the southernmost of a group of three
volcanoes comprising a small peninsula south of the city of Ende on central Flores Island. The cones to the north, Rooja and Pui, appear to be slightly older than Iya and have not shown historical activity, although Pui has a youthful profile (a reported 1671 eruption of Pui was considered to have originated from Iya volcano). Iya, whose truncated southern side drops
steeply to the sea, has had numerous moderate explosive eruptions during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

Egon volcano ( Flores ) - PVMBG reported that during 1 July-31 October 2016 gas plumes from Egon rose no higher than 100 m above the crater. Seismicity decreased and was dominated by signals indicating emissions. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 November. Gunung Egon volcano sits astride the narrow waist of eastern Flores Island. The barren, sparsely vegetated summit region has a 350-m-wide, 200-m-deep crater that sometimes contains a lake. Other small crater lakes occur on the flanks of the 1703-m-high volcano, which is also known as Namang. A lava dome forms the southern 1671-m-high summit. Solfataric activity occurs on the crater wall and rim and on the upper southern flank. Reports of historical eruptive activity prior to explosive eruptions beginning in 2004 were inconclusive. A column of "smoke" was often observed above the summit during 1888-1891 and in 1892. Strong "smoke" emission in 1907 reported by Sapper (1917) was considered by the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Padang, 1951) to be an historical eruption, but Kemmerling (1929) noted that this was likely confused with an eruption on the same date and time from Lewotobi Lakilaki volcano. (GVN/GVP)

Gamalama (Ternate) - On 10 October 2018 PVMBG reported only gas emissions (mostly water vapor) from Gamalama; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. Based on satellite data and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 October 2018 ash plumes rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. According to news from PVMBG an eruption occured on October 4, 2018 at 11:52 WIT; a column of ash was observed at about 250 meters above the summit (ie at 1,965 m altitude), probably in connection with a hydrothermal activity. Previous news 2016 - Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-4 August 2016 ash plumes from Gamalama rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, E, and NE. On 5 August PVMBG noted that seismicity continued to be elevated although inclement weather prevented visual observations. PVMBG reported that at 0628 on 3 August a weak explosion at Gamalama generated an ash plume that rose 500-600 m above the crater and drifted SE and S. Ash emissions declined at 0655. Ashfall was reported in areas on the SSE flank including Ake Huda. The report also noted a brief airport closing. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. PVMBG reported that During 1 January-6 March seismicity at Gamalama fluctuated but decreased overall; shallow volcanic earthquakes and signals indicating emissions appeared on 3 March and a series of deep volcanic earthquakes were detected on 6 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 1 August-4 November seismicity at Gamalama fluctuated, and was dominated by hybrid earthquakes and signals indicating emissions. Three periods of increased seismicity were recorded during 3-5 and 11-19 August, and 8-22 October, though seismicity declined overall. A sudden, small eruption from a fissure on the NW flank occurred at 1953 on 8 September with no precursory seismicity, and produced a plume that rose 1 km. Gray plumes rose from 300-600 m the vent during 9-24 September. White plumes rose from Main Crater and fissures on the E and NW flanks as high as 200 m during 1 October-3 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. Gamalama (Peak of Ternate) is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island of Ternate was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of Gamalama's historical activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit of Gamalama, which reaches 1715 m. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano. Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63. (GVN/GVP)

Dempo volcano (Sumatra) According to PVMBG a three-minute-long phreatic eruption at Dempo began at 1651 on 9 November 2017, and generated a dense ash plume that rose 4.2 km
(13,800 ft) a.s.l., about 1 km above the crater rim, and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Previously, Observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during January and February no plumes rose from Dempo's crater, and during 1 March-4 April diffuse white plumes rose no higher than 50 m above the crater. Seismicity increased from 21 March to 4 April. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale from 1-4) on 5 April. Visitors and residents were advised not to approach the craters within 3 km. Previously, observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during 1 June-9 September 2016 no plumes rose from Dempo's crater and seismicity was low. On 10 September the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale from 1-4). Visitors and residents were advised not to approach the craters. Previously, observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during 0730-0900 on 27 April 2015 diffuse gray-white plumes rose 50 m above Dempo crater. Seismicity had increased during April as compared to the previous month. On 29 April the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale from 1-4). Visitors and residents were advised not to go within a 1-km radius of the summit. Dempo is a prominent 3173-m-high stratovolcano that rises above the Pasumah Plain of SE Sumatra. The andesitic Dempo volcanic complex has two main peaks, Gunung Dempo and Gunung Marapi, constructed near the SE rim of a 3 x 5 km caldera breached to the north. The one called Dempo is slightly lower, with an elevation of 3049 m and lies at the SE end of the summit complex. The taller Marapi cone, with a summit elevation 3173 m, was constructed within a crater cutting the older Gunung Dempo edifice. Remnants of 7 craters are found at or near the summit of the complex, with volcanism migrating to the WNW with time. The large, 800 x 1100 m wide historically active summit crater cuts the NW side of Gunung Marapi (not to be confused with Marapi volcano 500 km to the NW in Sumatra) and contains a 400-m-wide lake located at the far NW end of the crater complex. Historical eruptions have been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive activity that produced ashfall near the volcano. (GVN/GVP)

Kawah Ijen volcano ( Java island) -PVMBG reported that on 29 May 2020 a gas explosion at Ijen generated a plume that rose 250-500 m above the surface of the lake. According to news articles two sulfur miners heard the explosion from under the water at 1230, which created 3-m-high waves in the lake; the miners ran but one tripped and fell into the lake. Search efforts were unsuccessful after three hours and, due to weather conditions and an increased amount of gas in the crater area, had to be suspended. PVMBG reported that after the seismic rise from January 17th, 2020 until May 29th, 2020, a white gas with a thin to moderate gas intensity was observed about 50-300 meters from the summit or 250-500 m from the surface of the lake. Observations to crater lake did not show any change in the color of the crater water lake, the temperature of which fluctuated in the range of 24.5 to 40.3 ° C from January to mid-May 2020. Previous news 2018 - As of the 27th of March 2018, PVMBG reported that based on information from residents of Sempol (8 km W), PVMBG reported that 27 people in Watu Capil village (7 km NW) required medical treatment after exposure to sulfur dioxide gas from Ijen at 2100 on 21 March. The path from Paltuding (SW base) to the top of the crater was closed as a result. During 21-22 March white plumes rose 100-200 m above the summit area; there were no visible changes in the emissions after the incident. PVMBG noted that there had been three occurrences of anomalous gas concentrations during January-March. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim or crater floor. The Ijen volcano complex at the eastern end of Java consists of a group of small stratovolcanoes constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng) caldera. The north caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung Merapi, which forms the high point of the complex. Immediately west of the Gunung Merapi stratovolcano is the historically active Kawah Ijen crater, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide, turquoise-colored, acid lake. Picturesque Kawah Ijen is the world's largest highly acidic lake and is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation in which sulfur-laden baskets are hand-carried from the crater floor. Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of cones forms an E-W zone across the southern side of the caldera. Coffee plantations cover much of the caldera floor, and tourists are drawn to its waterfalls, hot springs, and volcanic scenery. (GVP/GVN)

Bromo volcano (Tengger caldera) - Java Island - PVMBG reported that during 1-18 January 2020 white plumes rose 250-400 m above Ijen's water lake surface and no change in the color of the water was noted. An increase in the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes was detected; continuous tremor emerged on 11 January, peaked on 15 January, and then decreased during 17-18 January. The temperature of the lake water fluctuated, though overall it decreased from 38 degrees Celsius in June 2019 to 20 degrees Celsius on 14 January; the lake water was 46 degrees Celsius during a period of increased activity from February to March 2018. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim or descend to the crater floor. Previous news 2019 - The Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 July 2019 ash plumes from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW based on webcam images, satellite data, and weather models. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.PVMBG reported that the volcano erupted on July 19th, 2019 at 16:37 local; its eruption was accompanied by a "bang" and rumblings. The recording is characterized by a max. 37 mm, and a duration of 7 minutes and 14 seconds.The height of the plume could not be detected due to poor weather conditions.Two areas of the Regency of Malang were affected by fine ash, including the village of Gubuklakah about 14.4 km away, where a smell of sulfur was perceptible.The PVMBG also reported for July 19th five eruption earthquakes, three blast earthquakes, a shallow volcanic earthquake and a continuous tremor of amplitude between 0.5 and 37mm, with a dominant at 1mm. PVMBG reported also that rain triggered a lahar at 1700 on 19 July that originated on the SW flank of Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater.The level of activity remains at 2. Previously, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-26 April 2019 white plumes of variable density rose 300-500 m above Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone. White-to-black emissions rose 500 m above the cone on 27 April, and white-to-gray emissions rose 600 m above the cone on 29 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius of the crater. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)

Kerinci volcano (Sumatra) -According to the Darwin VAAC, PVMBG reported that on 10 April 2020 an ash plume from Kerinci rose 600 m above the summit and drifted NW. On 13 April an
observer noted that an ash plume rose to 900 m above the summit; the emission was not visible in satellite data. An ash plume rose 400 m above the summit on 14 April; meteorological clouds obscured views. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that at 1633 on 14 March 2020 a brown ash emission rose 500 m above Kerinci's summit and drifted WNW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that at 0710 on 4 March, 1625 on 5 March and 0655 on 6 March brown ash emissions rose 200-500 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted NW and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that at 0600 on 1 March and 0742 on 2 March 2020 brown ash emissions rose 400-500 m above Kerinci's summit and drifted SSW and NE, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that at 0600 on 16 February and at 0048 on 17 February 2020 brown ash emissions rose 400 m above Kerinci’s summit and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that during 1-3 February brown ash plumes rose 150-300 m above Kerinci’s summit; ash plumes drifted NE on 1 February 2020. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that on 24 January 2020 a brown ash plume rose 500 m above Kerinci's summit and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. The Darwin VAAC and PVMBG reported that during 3-6 January brown ash plumes rose 200-600 m above Kerinci's summit and drifted S and ESE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. As of the 4th of January 2020 , PVMBG reported that a white to brown plume rises 500-600 meters above the summit. 50 blast earthquakes were recorded, as well as a shallow volcanic earthquake and a continuous tremor with dominant amplitude at 1 mm. The alert level remains at 2 / waspada, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km radius.The