VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on May 14th, 2021 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today : -eruption continued at Piton de la Fournaise ( Reunion Island - France) - Effusive eruption of Fagradalsfjall / Geldingadalur continued in Reykjanes peninsula (Iceland) - Unrest continues at the Soufriere of Saint Vincent (West Indies) -

Next updates 23rd of May (sorry for the inconvenient)

Saint Vincent - Soufriere volcano (West-Indies)

May 14th, 2021

UWI-SRC reported that on 12th of May, In the last 24 hours, seismic activity was limited to a few long-period earthquakes. Gas measurements on May 11 yielded an average SO2 flux of 252 tons per day. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest.As of the 10th of May, UWI-SRC reported that in the last 24 hours, only a few long-period earthquakes have been recorded. Measurements of the sulphur dioxide flux at La Soufrière were carried out by boat off the west. coast yesterday (9 May) with the assistance of the coastguard. Several traverses were completed and yielded an average SO2 flux of 208 tons per day. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest. Escalation in activity can still take place with little or no warning. As of the 7th of may, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity remained low. No earthquakes have been recorded in the last 24 hours. A small lahar signal was observed at 7:40am on the morning. As of the 6th of May, UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to be in a state of turmoil. The government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has lowered the volcanic alert level at La Soufrière to ORANGE based on a recommendation from the University of the West Indies Seismic Research Center. As of the 5th of May, UWI-SRC reported that In the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further seismic tremor. As of the 2nd of May - 6pm - UWI-SRC reported that in the past 24 hours, only a few long-period hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there have been no further earthquakes. The seismic stations recorded the signals from small lahars around 1 a.m. and 8:30 a.m., in the red and orange areas. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest. As of the 30th, UWI-SRC reported that activity has remained low. As of the 29th of April, UWI-SRC reported that in the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further tremor. The seismic stations recorded signals from multiple lahars during a 12-hour period starting at 9pm on 28 April. Lahars seem to have taken place in all the valleys that drain from La Soufrière and caused considerable erosion and damage.As of the 28th of April - 6mp UWI-SRC reported that in the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further tremor. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest. As of the 27th - 6pm - UWI-SRC reported that explosions at La Soufriere in St. Vincent have greatly diminished. Seismic activity remained low with only a few long-period hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes recorded and there was no sign of a tremor. Signals of several lahars (mudslides) were recorded between 9 and 10 a.m. on April 27, during and after a period of rain.An observation flight took place on April 26 at around 11:30 am Visibility was poor with clouds blocking the crater most of the time. However it was possible to see white vapor escaping almost continuously from several places on the bottom of the crater. No dome was visible, although a spine could be seen through the cloudsAs of the 25th (6pm) UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity low since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting around noon on 22 April.In the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano- tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further tremor. Satellite radar imagery acquired on 24th April indicates probable continued growth or formation of a lava dome following the xplosions on 18 and 22 April. As of the 24th of April UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to erupt. Its pattern of seismic activity over the last few days is typical ofthe growth and destruction of lava domes. As of the 23rd of April 6pm, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has been low after the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting around noon on 22 April. Only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded and there was no further tremor.The seismic network recorded signals from multiple lahars (mudflows) at about 9 pm on 22 April. The locations of these lahars have not been only determined.Measurements of sulphur dioxide flux (mass) at La Soufriere volcano was again undertaken along the west coast today with the assistance of the coastguard. An average SO2 flux of 992 tons per day was recorded. As of the 22nd of April, UWI-SRC reported that small long-lived and hybrid earthquakes continued to be recorded, their rate of occurrence gradually increasing on April 22. The high-level seismic tremor began at 11:09 a.m., generated by explosive activity, and lasted for approximately 20 minutes. A vertical explosive eruption plume slowly rose above the crater, eventually reaching a height of around 8,000 meters During the initial stages of the explosion, a base surge (pyroclastic density current, PDC) was observed descending the western flank of the volcano. The tremor continued, at a lower level, for the next two hours as La Soufrière continued to evacuate ash. As of the 21st of April, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity of the Soufrière of St. Vincent continued the pattern established after the explosive activity of April 18. The agricultural sector of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has been severely affected by the eruptions of the Soufrière volcano. Preliminary evaluations reveal that in the red zone, 100% of vegetable crops and 60% of arrowroot (dictame) have been lost. The weight of the heavy ash fall caused the leaves and branches of many tree crops to break. About 90% of tree crops and 80% of root crops would also be damaged in the red zone. The cattle, which were left in the wild, are now without fodder as their pastures have also been totally destroyed by ash and dust. Small, long-lived and hybrid earthquakes continued to be recorded, their rate of occurrence gradually increasing over the past 24 hours.As of the 20th of April - 6pm UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to erupt. Its pattern of seismic activity over the last few days is typical ofhe growth and destruction of lava domes. easurements yielded an average SO2 flux of 350 tons per day. No seismic tremor has been recorded in the last 12 hours.UWI-SRC reported that swarm of long-lived and hybrid earthquakes continues, with no significant change in their frequency of occurrence. Occasional small volcano-tectonic earthquakes were still recorded. Its pattern of seismic activity over the past few days is typical of the growth and destruction of lava domes. An explosion generated a high level tremor period starting at 4 p.m. 49 April 18. The resulting eruption plume rose over 8 km and drifted south and southwest of the island. An average SO2 flux of 232 and 391 tonnes per day, on April 17 and 18, respectively, was recorded. As of the 17th of April, the swarm of long-period and hybrid earthquakes continued at La Soufrière. The rate of occurrence of these earthquakes dropped significantly at about 8 pm on 16 April and has remained near-constant since. No episodes of tremor have been recorded in the lhe crater is thought to be at least 100 m deep (Raphael Grandin, IPGP) and is centred in the SW sector of theast 12 hours. A revised picture has been constructed of the summit crater based on satellite images. The new crater, measures approximately 900 m N to S and at least 750 m E to W pf the. Summit Crater. As of the 16th of April, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière in St. Vincent has changed in appearance and continues with a constant swarm of LP and hybrid earthquakes, interspersed with brief low-level tremor episod. Sulfur dioxide flux measurements at La Soufrière were again undertaken along the west coast, giving an average SO2 flux of 460 tonnes per day. The presence of sulfur dioxide indicates that fresh magma is degassing from a deeper source ... the eruption continues, despite a pause in explosive activity.es. There was a high-level tremor episode at 6:15 a.m., which lasted about three minutes, followed by over two hours of low-level tremor generated by explosive activity and ventilation. SCIENTIFIC UPDATE - 15/04/21 6:00AM -  Seismic activity at La Soufrière continued to follow the established pattern with bands of tremor about between 13 and 15 hours apart separated by swarms of small long-period earthquakes. The latest band of tremor started at about 2:30 am and was associated with increased venting. The volcano continues to erupt explosively and has now begun to generate pyroclastic density currents - hot (200°C-700°C), ground-hugging flows of ash and debris. Its current pattern of explosions appears to be episodic (stop-start) with increasing periods between eruptions and less energy. Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days impacting St. Vincent and neighbouring islands.SCIENTIFIC UPDATE - 14/04/21 6:00AM - Seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent showed a similar pattern to yesterday. Small long-period earthquakes continued to gradually increase in number after the explosive activity at 6:30am on 13 April. These continued until another episode of explosive activity started at 8:30 pm on 13 April. This generated continuous seismic tremor which lasted for four to five hours. 5. After the tremor had died down, small, long-period earthquakes were again recorded, again slowly growing in numbers. The explosions which occurred pulsed for >40 minutes and produced pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) which, appear to have gone down valleys that drain towards the Rabacca River on the east coast of the island. PDCs are hot (200°C-700°C), ground-hugging flows of ash and debris. Lahars (mudflows) were reported in the Sandy Bay Area on 13 April. The volcano continues to erupt explosively and has now begun to generate pyroclastic density currents. Its current pattern of explosions appears to be episodic (stop-and-go). Over the past 24 hours the time between each explosion has increased. Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days impacting St. Vincent and neighbouring islands such as Barbados, Grenada, Saint Lucia.  The volcano is at alert level Red. UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity changed with the explosive activity at 6.30am on April 13th. Prior to the explosion, long-period (LP) earthquakes had increased in number. The explosions of  La Soufrière pulsed for about 30 minutes and produced pyroclastic density currents that reached the sea at the mouth of the Wallibou about 6 km from the volcano and which extended out to sea, according to observers. Observations made during the afternoon show that the pyroclastic flows reached the sea from all the valleys between Larikai and Wallibou. As of the 12th - 6pm - UWI-SRC reported that pattern of seismic activity changed again, with the end of the episodes of high-amplitude tremor 2-8 hours apart.Three episodes of tremor have been recorded since 6am, two of them lower-amplitude and the third, at about 5pm, was high-amplitudeThe episodes continue to coincide with periods of enhanced. A reconnaissance of the entire north coast of St. Vincent from Chateaubelair to Georgetown with assistance from the Coast guards.Observations made indicate that pyroclastic density currents western flanks of the volcano and had reached the sea at Morne onde, Larikai and Trois Loupes Bay.Extensive damage to vegetation was noted in an area extending rom Larikai Bay to Turner Bay on the west coast.No other areas along the coast had been affected by PDCs but villages located on the eastern flank of the volcano had been ffected by heavy ashfall.Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days. UWI-SRC reported that the day of April 12 eruptive activity was marked by a huge explosions at 4:15 am, which was accompanied by a plume of ash and gas reaching an altitude of 17-18 km., And density currents. pyroclastic descending several valleys on the southern and western flanks of the volcano. They reached the sea at Morne Ronde, Larikai and Trois Loupes Bay and caused extensive damage to vegetation. The amplitude of the tremor has changed since April 11 around noon, with a lengthening of the time between high amplitude episodes at 5-8 hours; Around 6 p.m. on April 11, small volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded. On April 12, 3 episodes of tremor were recorded for 6 hours, coinciding with periods of explosive activity or increased venting. UWI-SRC - La Soufriere Eruption Scientific Update 11/04/21 at 9am : in the last twelve hours episodes of tremor normally lasting up to 20 minutes have continued to be recorded.The intervals between the tremors have been between 1.5 to 3 hours. Based on visual observations and satellite imagery, the intervals are associated with periods of explosive activity or enhanced venting.Thunder and lightning were experienced during these periods. Heavy ash fall was observed at the Belmont Observatory throughout the night.Ashfall was also reported to have occurred in most areas of the island overnight and in neighbouring islands: the Grenadines, Barbados and Saint Lucia. Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days. UWI-SRC reported that aAfter the initial explosion of La Soufrière in St. Vincent at 8:41 am on 9th of April, which was accompanied by a plume of ash and gas with an estimated height of 10,000 meters (Dr. Robertson), the seismicity rose again around 11:30 a.m., as a seismic swarm that ended at 2:40 p.m.At 2:58 p.m .: a second explosion occurred, accompanied by a vertical plume of gas and ash about 4 km high.It continues nourished by successive impulses.Tremor has been recorded continuously since 3 p.m., the most important signals accompanying the most important phases of ash emissions, charged with lightning. A third explosion occurred from 6.35 p.m.. As of 8:41 am this morning April 9, 2021 UWI-SRC reported that an explosive eruption began at the La Soufrière volcano in St. Vincent. This is a culmination of the seismic activity that began on April 8. The eruption is ongoing and more information will be shared as things progress. Previously la Soufriere volcano was raised to alert level Red. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, W.I. – 6:30pm April 8th, 2021 - Scientists have observed a significant increase in activity at La Soufriere volcano which has prompted The Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines to raise the volcanic alert level at the La Soufriere volcano to Red. he UWI-Seismic Research Centre scientific team based at the Belmont Observatory in St. Vincent recorded six separate bands of volcanic tremor throughout the day. This new type of seismic event has not yet been observed since the beginning of the eruption in December 2020. This type of seismic signal is usually associated with movement of magma and fluids close to the surface. Ash venting was also observed during the most recent tremor episode.The effusive eruption is continuing and an explosive phase of the eruption may begin with very little warning. An evacuation order has been issued for communities in the Red volcanic hazard zone. Prime Minister Ralph Gonsalves made the announcement during the second of two press conferences held in Kingstown today. The UWI-SRC Geologist and Scientific Team Lead, Prof. Richard Robertson indicated that “We cannot give any clear warning that nothing can happen within the next 24-48 hours and we would not be surprised if there are explosions at the volcano during that period.” As of the 7th of Aprl, UWI-SRC reported that the Volcano Monitoring Network continued to record small earthquakes associated with the growth of the lava dome. There were also several small Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes located beneath the volcano. UWI-SRC reported that the new swarm of Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes which began at the La Soufrière Volcano at 6:38 am on 5th of April continued at a fairly constant rate before starting to decline at about 2:00 p.m. Activities declined significantly at 4:00 p.m. although small Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes were still being recorded. The current swarm of Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes have been located at a depth about 6 km below the summit of the La Soufrière Volcano. This is slightly deeper than those recorded between March 23 and 25, 2021 which were located at depths from 3 to 5 km below the summit. (Earlier estimates of these swarms were revised from 10 km to 3 to 5 km). The largest Volcano-Tectonic earthquake was recorded at 2:16 pm today, with a magnitude of 3.9. There were nine more Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes in the swarm with magnitudes of 3.0 or more.This new warm of Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes were also much more intense compared to those which occurred during the period March 23-25 and contained many more small earthquakes, with an average rate of about 50 earthquakes per hour compared with 1.5 per hour in March.UWI-SRC reported that on 3rd of April, dome growth continues as the magma fills the space around the old 1979 dome. As of the 29th of March, UWI-SRC reported that activity at the La Soufrière Volcano continues to be at a low level dominated by small earthquakes associated with growth of the lava dome. The alert level remains at Orange. The National Emergency Management Organisation is reminding the public that no evacuation order or notice has been issued. As of the 28th of March, UWI-SRC reported that period of elevated volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes which began on 23 March 2021 stopped on March 26, 2021. Since then, the only seismic activity being recorded are small low frequency events associated with the growth of the dome. These kinds of events were dominant before March 23, 2021. Their rate of occurrence does not appear to have changed as a result of the volcano tectonic earthquake swarm.The new dome continues to grow towards the Leeward and Windward sides of the Volcano with the most active gas emissions being at the top of the new dome, as well as the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 and 2020/21 domes. A drone survey of the dome conducted on March 19th indicates that approximately 6,291,084 m3 of new material (nearly double in size), has been added to the dome since the last survey on February 12. As of the 25th of March, UWI-SRC reported that here have been no changes in activities at the La Soufrière Volcano over the past twenty four hours. Volcano tectonic earthquakes continue to be recorded beneath the volcano and their magnitude is such that they can be felt in villages such as Fancy, Owia, Point and Sandy Bay. The alert level remains at Orange. As of the 24th of March, UWI-SRC reported that mMonitoring scientists at the Belmont Observatory led by scientists from The UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC) have noted a change in seismic activity associated with the ongoing eruption of the La Soufrière Volcano. Up until 23 March 2021, the seismic activity had been dominated by very small low-frequency events which were associated with the ongoing extrusion of the lava dome. These were almost always only recorded at the seismic station closest to the dome. Starting at approximately 10:30 local time (14:30 UTC) on 23 March 2021, the monitoring network recorded a swarm of small low-frequency seismic events which lasted for about 45 minutes. These events were different from previous activity in that they were also recorded on other stations. These events were probably associated with magma movement beneath the dome, although their depth cannot be determined. This is the first time that such a swarm has been seen since the seismic network was upgraded in early 2021. Starting at 16:53 local time (20:53 UTC) on 23 March 2021, the monitoring network started recording volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. These earthquakes are normally associated with underground fractures of the rock mass and are commonly generated by magma pushing through an unyielding rock mass. The volcano-tectonic earthquakes were located beneath the volcano, at depths down to 10 km below the summit. The largest of these had a magnitude of 2.6. Some of them have been reported felt by people living in communities close to the volcano such as Fancy Owia and Sandy Bay. At the present time the volcano-tectonic earthquakes continue, with the numbers of events fluctuating. The very-small dome-extrusion events also continue.As of the 23rd of March, UWI-SRC reported that the dome has continued to grow towards the north-west and south-east with the most active gas emissions being at the top of the new dome, as well as the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome. As of the 19th of March, new estimation for lava dome gave a volume of 13.13 millions/m3 with a length of 912 m, a width of 243 m, and a height of 105 m. As of the 16th of March UWI-SRC reported that the lava dome is still slowly growing at about 2m/3 per second. No notable change occurred at the volcano (update video). As of the 12th of March, testing and preparation to install a permanent multi-gas monitoring instrument at the top the volcano continues. The team from the Soufriere Monitoring Unit will conduct a drone survey and take aerial photographs of the volcano on Saturday 13th March, 2020, once the weather condition is good. As of the 8th of March, UWI-SRC that the monitoring team made a visit to the La Soufrière Volcano last week for visual observations and drone survey of the dome. Another visit was made to the hot springs on the Wallibou River for water sampling, gas and temperature measurements. Measurements were also undertaken of carbon dioxide in the soil along the Wallibou riverbed. Clear weather conditions at the top of the volcano allowed for aerial photographs to be taken but no new volumes were obtained due to technical problems with the images. Visual observations of the inside of the volcano during the visit confirmed that slow dome growth continues with the south-eastern front of the dome now in line with the pre-existing fumarole on the 1979 dome. No new data is available on the gas coming from the volcano. The ongoing outflow of magma onto the crater floor continues with periodic changes in the rate of dome growth. As of the 5th of March, the new seismic station built at the Bamboo Range National Parks Interpretive Center on the east side of the volcano was operational. A new Global Positioning System (GPS) continuous monitoring station has been installed on the recently constructed monument in Fancy. Work continued at the Belmont Observatory on the installation of the seismic data acquisition system.The gas plume coming from the dome at La Soufriere continues to cause damage to vegetation in the summit areas on the south-western side of the volcano. The measurement of carbon dioxide in soil along the lower sides of the volcano has commenced. As of the 26th of February UWI-SRC reported that no drone surveys or aerial photographs of the volcano were done due to poor weather conditions. Satellite images on February 23, 2021 confirmed that the dome continues to grow slowly. The results from the testing of gas given off by the new dome remain unchanged and continue to consist of water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2,), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). As of the 25th of February, UWI-SRC reported that the lava dome is still growing. No notable change occurred at the volcano. The camera set up at the La Soufrière Volcano was replaced. There are plans in place to install a new seismic station at Bamboo Range on the eastern (Windward) side of the volcano. Equipment for installation is being prepared by the Seismic Research Centre and Soufrière Monitoring Unit Team. Gusty conditions did not allow for drone footage past week. The team continued their work at the summit on Saturday 20th February and managed to get a few photos. Update on dome volume will be given after a full drone flight. As of the 17th of February, UWI-SRC reported that all monitoring data indicate that the ongoing effusion (outflow) of magma onto the crater floor continues. The overall rate of growth since onset of dome growth is approximately 1.9 cubic metres per second. There are no clear indications that the activity is either increasing or decreasing in intensity, but there are periodic changes in the rate at which dome growth is occurring. Measurements of the gas emissions (releases) from the new dome, as well as a preliminary visual inspection of rock samples collected from the dome is indicative of new magmatic material from depth, contributing to the lava extrusion now taking place in the crater. There is a clear gas plume column/cloud/trail) from the dome that is damaging the vegetation in the summit areas on the south-west of the volcano. As of the 16th of February, UWI-SRC reported that the new dome continues to grow towards the north-west and south-east with the most active gas emissions being the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 domes, as well as the top of the new dome.Plans have been put in place to establish a new seismic station along the volcano trail and for the establishment of benchmarks for GPS measurements to be done at Table Rock and Jacob’s Well along the trail to the volcano. As of the 13th of february, UWI-SRC reported that the volume of the dome  was now estimated at 6.83 million m³, for 618 m in length, 232 m in width and 90 m in height, growing. The most active gas emissions are at the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-2021 dome, as well as at the top of the new dome. Damage to vegetation, due to acid gases emitted by the growing dome, downstream from the summit, continues to be observed. Falling blocks on the sides of the new dome are recorded by seismographs, and observed. New seismic monitoring equipment was provided by the USGS through the Volcano Disaster Program. An Orange Level alert means highly elevated seismicity or fumarolic activity, or both.As of the 12h of February, UWI-SRC reported that the most active gas emissions are at the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome, as well as the top of the new dome.Damage to vegetation, from acidic gases emitted from the growing dome, downslope of the summit continues to be observed. As of the 10th of February UWI-SRC reported that no noticeable change occured, the new dome continue to grow with lateral spreading of material towards the North and South, with a preferred northward growth observed. (updated video). The most active gas emissions are at the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome, as well as the top of the new dome.Satellite images captured on February 5, 202l allowed for a completely clear view of the crater. The new dome continues to grow with lateral spreading of ~15 m towards the north-west and south-east. An investigation was carried out in the region of the hot springs of Wallibou on Sunday February 7, 2021 based on a report indicating irregular temperatures and unusual gas odors. Some gas samples were taken and the temperature was taken at various points and also some liquid samples were taken for further analysis. Lava dome measurements carried out on February 1st was : 511 meters lengh by 231 meters large, for a height of 93 meters and an estimated volume of 5.93 million m³. Observations made northwest of the dome suggest a new area affected by fire that affected vegetation on the crater walls. (updated video) . Some gas measurements were done on 1st of February using a Multi-Gas Instrument and a filter pack and detected the first day that sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas in the eruption. Additional reflectors for the Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) target were installed this day, bringing the total number of reflectors installed to nine (9). These reflectors will be used to assist with measurements of deformation associated with the flanks of the volcano. .Some gas measurements were done today using a Multi-Gas Instrument and a filter pack. The Multi-Gas measurements were successful. Since the installation of station on 06 January on the flanks of the volcano, at Wallibou, and the one at the summit, on 18 January, 573 events have been recorded, up to 07:30 a.m., on 30 January. Three GPS stations are currently streaming data to Seismic Research Centre. Telemetry of the data being collected from the new GPS station installed at the Richmond Vale Academy on 23 January, is still ongoing. Since 31 December 2020, no significant deformation signals related to the current effusive eruption have been observed. The Team from the UWI Seismic Research Centre and the Soufrière Monitoring Unit will spend the next few days scouting to air mark sites to carry out the surveys for the EDM and to install more reflectors inside the base at the volcano for the EDM target.On 27th of January the dimensions of the new dome of the Soufrière de St Vincent  was 428 m lengh, 217 m large and 80 m in height - total volume 4.45 million m³. As of the 25th of January, UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Generally clear views of the volcano indicate that the damage to the vegetation due to acidic gases continue to creep downslope. Alert level remains at Orange.  Full advantage was taken of the general clear conditions at the summit on 24th of January to achieve several tasks.Aerial photographs and video of the volcano were taken, through the assistance of Drone Pilot Rommel De Freitas and Professor Robertson.The electronics team led by Mr Ian Juman installed a camera and EDM reflector on the southern crater wall. The camera will be used to help track growth of the dome while the EDM reflector would be used to check for possible instability of the southern crater wall. UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. GPS monitoring station was installed at the Richmond Vale Academy on 23rd of January. The team prepared monitoring equipment at Belmont to be installed close to the summit of the volcano on Sunday 24th. As of the 22nd of January, UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Close observations of the volcano were made at the Belmont Observatory during most of the day. Gas emissions from the dome were consistent throughout the day.The area of burnt vegetation continues to creep downslope and has now expanded towards the top eastern rim of the crater. As of the 21st of January, UWI-SRC reported that Alert level remains at Orange. The volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. UWI-SRC reported that no clear views were obtained of the dome on 20th of January. The volcano continued to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. As of the 19th of January, UWI-SRC reported that effusive activity of the lava dome continued. The dome took on an elliptical shape. As of the 18th of January, UWI-SRC reported that effusive activity continued (video report from UWI-SRC) . UWI-SRC reported that visual observations of the dome on 17th of January late in the afternoon allowed for clear views into the crater. The dome continues to increase in height, to spread laterally and to emit volcanic gases. The areas of most active gas emission were noted to be the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome, as well as the top of this new dome. An extensive area of burnt vegetation was observed in the western section of the crater floor, extending outwards from the dome. UWI-SRC reported that Soufriere continues to erupt "effusively" as hot magma reaches the surface at extreme temperatures. This appears overnight as a bright red glow above the crater, observed by the villagers of Chateaubelair and surrounding areas on the western flank of the volcano. UWI-SRC team safely and successfully collected rock samples from the new lava dome  on January 16. Analyzing the composition of these rocks will provide valuable information on whether the new dome is made of old material (linked to the 1979 eruption) or fresh material from greater depths. During the field visit on January 16th, UWI-SRC team took photo of the dome with a thermal camera: on a growing area, the max. was 590.8 ° C but the internal temperatures must be higher, which justifies a night incandescence. An expanse of burnt vegetation was observed in the western section of the crater floor, extending outward from the dome. As of the 15th of January, UWI-SRC reported that observations indicate that the dome has continued to grow; and was now about three quarters (¾) of the height of the pre-existing 1979 dome, with a estimated of 340 m long, 160 m wide, and 90 m high. . Growth of the dome continues with lateral spreading of material towards the east and west along the moat areas surrounding the 1979 dome.Gas emissions were observed from several areas of the 1979 dome as well as the crater floor through several cracks which have developed. Damage to the vegetation was extensive within the eastern, southern, and western parts of the inner crater walls. The damage reported on previously that is occurring along the upper part of the south western crater rim, has continued to slowly extend downslope. UWI-SRC reported that te dome continues to grow in height and extends laterally to the east and west, confined between the old dome and the crater wall, following continued magmatic extrusion. Steam is visible from the Belmont Observatory. A helicopter arrived from Antigua on January 14, allowing aerial reconnaissance, and the taking of thermal images, gas emissions and measurements of the dimensions of the new dome. New gas measurements and analyzes must be carried out. The alert level remains at orange. The scientists have reported that carbon dioxide is also one of the gases coming out of the volcano, along with Sulphur Dioxide. UWI-SRC reported that heavy cloud did not allow for aerial reconnaissance on 13th of January. Arrangements have been made for aerial reconnaissance over the next few days via helicopter. As of the 12th of January UWI-SRC reported that due to bad wheather conditions no areial reconnaissance could be carried.dome. The new dome continues to grow (estimation from UWI-SRC) about 1.5 m3 per second; wedged between it and the crater wall, it expands laterally in a westerly direction. Its shape has changed from round to ellipsoid. The vapors emitted are visible from the Belmont observatory.The alert level remains orange.(video) dated 12th of January. As of the 11th of January, UWI-SRC reported that no reconnaissance flight of the La Soufriere was done due to unfavorable weather conditions. The dome that broke through the crater floor, on the south-west perimeter of the existing dome, continues to grow within the crater of La Soufrière and has an ellipsoid shape with growth expanding in a westerly direction. UWI-SRC bulletin 11, dated 10th of January reported that weather conditions did not allow for a reconnaissance flight on Saturday 9th January or Sunday 10th January, 2021, however analysis of footage collected from a drone flight over the volcano on Saturday 9th January indicate that the drone continues to grow (photo). The dome that broke through the crater floor, on December 27, 2020, on the south-west perimeter of the existing dome, continues to grow within the crater of La Soufrière and has an ellipsoid shape with growth expanding in a westerly direction. Alert level remains at Orange. Two scientists from the Seismic Research Centre (SRC) based at the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), will join the current team here in St. Vincent later this week. They are expected to gather data from the dome and crater through temperature and photogrammetry measurements and gas measurements using a MultiGAS and spectrometer. UWI-SRC bulletin 10, dated of January 8th, reported that the dome that broke through the crater floor, on December 27, 2020, on the south-west perimeter of the existing dome, continues to grow within the crater of La Soufrière and has an ellipsoid shape with growth expanding in a westerly direction. UWI-SRC bulletin 9 dated on 7th of January reported the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface, steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory and the new dome also continues to increase in size. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. The SRC Team conducted a successful reconnaissance of the La Soufriere Volcano on board the French Helicopter on Wednesday 6th January, 2021 through an arrangement between the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines and the Government of France, through the Embassy of France to the Eastern Caribbean States, to Barbados and the OECS in Saint Lucia. The second planned reconnaissance on that day on board the Regional Security System (RSS) Aircraft was cancelled due to the presence of heavy cloud cover when the aircraft arrived.UWI-SRC bulletin 8 dated of 5th of January reported that alert level remained at Orange. The Volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory.Based on observations this day, the dome is slowly getting bigger. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. UWI-SRC-NEMO reported that no aerial reconnaissance of La Soufriere was done on 4th of January due to the heavy cloud cover. Alert level remains at Orange. The Volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. UWI-SRC reported that a flyby carried out by the Nemo on January 3rd allowed to see the new dome in constant growth. Satellite images taken by Sentinel 2 SWIR and visible Planetlabs clearly reveal its position in the crater.The surveillance of La Soufrière has been reinforced. A webcam surveillance system was installed at Rose Hall on January 2 to continuously observe the summit of the volcano. A data center has also been created at the Belmont Observatory, to analyze the data collected on the volcano. The alert level remains at Orange. The volcano continues its effusion activity, and steam can be observed from Belmont. UWI-SRC reported that two aerial reconnaissance were carried out on 31st of December 2020 at the Soufrière of St-Vincent: but a strong cloud cover prevented a good view of the crater during the first reconnaissance; The second aerial reconnaissance was carried out around 4:00 p.m. and the photographer was able to capture photos of the crater, which shows the effusive eruption is continuing and the new dome is also continuing to increase in size. The alert level remains at Orange. People living in areas near the volcano, which include communities of Fancy in Georgetown and Belle Isle in Richmond, are urged to remain vigilant and listen to any advice from the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO).As of the 30th of December, NEMO and UWI reported that although there have been no significant changes over the past 24 hours at Soufrière de St -Vincent, materials and magma continue to accumulate on the surface with no associated seismic activity. The construction of the Dome continues, its size is seen slightly larger than on December 29, during the monitoring of the volcano by aerial surveillance. The alert level remains at Orange - high fumarolic activity. All residents living in communities closer to the volcano (red and orange zones) are asked to be on alert for any increased activity.Following an effusive episode residents of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines have been placed on alert.(relief bulletin). According to a press briefing on December 22, the Seismic Research Center at the University of the West Indies (UWI-SRC) in Trinidad was made aware by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of a hot spot on La Soufrière. Since the beginning of November, there has been an increase in the background level of seismic activity recorded at La Soufrière. The photo taken by the main seismic technician of the Soufrière monitoring unit on December 29, 2020 shows a new dome with steam in the crater following an effusive eruption at the La Soufrière volcano in St Vincent. The UWI-SRC is currently monitoring the situation in collaboration with the local authorities and an update will be provided shortly. The public is advised not to visit the volcano until a new update is provided. The UWI-SRC and the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO) are the official sources of information on earthquakes and volcanic activity in St Vincent and the Grenadines. Soufrière St. Vincent is the northernmost and youngest volcano on St. Vincent Island. The NE rim of the 1.6-km wide summit crater is cut by a crater formed in 1812. The crater itself lies on the SW margin of a larger 2.2-km-wide Somma crater, which is breached widely to the SW as a result of slope failure. Frequent explosive eruptions since about 4300 years ago produced pyroclastic deposits of the Yellow Tephra Formation, which blanket much of the island. The first historical eruption took place in 1718; it and the 1812 eruption produced major explosions. Much of the northern end of the island was devastated by a major eruption in 1902 that coincided with the catastrophic Mont Pelée eruption on Martinique. A lava dome was emplaced in the summit crater in 1971 during a strictly effusive eruption, forming an island in a lake that filled the crater prior to an eruption in 1979. The lake was then largely ejected during a series of explosive eruptions, and the dome was replaced with another. (GVN/GVP). Photos booklet online about previous eruption.

FRANCE - Montagne Pelée ( Martinique island)

January 30th, 2021

L'Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity at Pelée increased during 19-26 March. The seismic network recorded at least 55 high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes less than or equal to 1, located at depths between 1.7 km below sea level and 1 km above sea level. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).L'Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity at Pelée remained at significant levels during 8-15 January, though had slightly decreased compared to the previous week. The seismic network recorded at least 22 high-frequency, volcano-tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes less than 1, located at shallow depths between 600 and 1,000 m above sea level. Two low-frequency, long-period earthquakes were also noted. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). L'Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity related to volcanism has typically remained low at Pelé since 1980, when monitoring instrumentation was first installed, with a few dozen earthquakes recorded per year. Swarms were recorded in 1980, 1985-1986, 2007, and 2014, though the latter two swarms were associated with tectonic events. Volcanic seismicity appeared in April 2019 centered 4-5 km below the summit and deeper (more than 10 km below sea level). In addition, tremor-type signals were recorded during 8-9 November 2020, possibly signifying a reactivation of the hydrothermal system. The seismic data recorded since April 2019 represented an increase above baseline levels recorded during 1 January 2015 to April 2019. As a result of this activity OVSM raised the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 4 December 2020. Seismicity remained above background levels during 18 December 2020-1 January 2021, with at least 14 volcano-tectonic earthquakes detected with magnitudes less than or equal to 1. Scientists did not observe fumarolic activity during an overflight on 29 December 2020. The number of high-frequency, volcano-tectonic earthquakes (M 1 or less) totaled 65 during 1-8 January. A significant number (249) of long-period earthquakes in a volcanic tremor-type signal were distributed over two periods, 0000-0200 on 3 January and between 2100 on 3 January and 0200 on 4 January. Two isolated, low-frequency, long-period signals were also recorded. The data suggested ongoing perturbation of the hydrothermal system. Previously, Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Martinique of the IPGP (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, CNRS) sent, on Thursday 3 December 2020, an explanatory note to the Prefect of Martinique to recommend a passage to the level of yellow volcanic alert (2nd alert level on a scale that counts 4) of the Pelee Mountain. This recommendation of the OVSM-IPGP comes after the detection of the evolution of seismic signals measured in the context of monitoring the volcano by the observatory and the consultation of a group of experts who studied these phenomena.  Renowned Montagne Pelée, forming the northern end of the island of Martinique, is the most active volcano of the Lesser Antilles arc. Three major edifice failures since the late Pleistocene, the last about 9000 years ago, have left large horseshoe-shaped calderas breached to the SW inside which the modern volcano has been constructed. More than 20 major eruptions have occurred here during the past 5000 years. Extensive pyroclastic-flow deposits, incised by steep-walled ravines, mantle the slopes of the volcano. The l'Etang Sec summit crater is filled by two lava domes emplaced during the 1902 and 1929 eruptions. Historical eruptions date back to the 18th century; only two modest phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruptions took place prior to 1902. The catastrophic 1902 eruption, which destroyed the city of St. Pierre, the "Pearl of the Lesser Antilles," became the type-example of pelean eruptions and marked the onset of modern volcanological studies of the behavior of pyroclastic flows. (GVN/GVP)

FRANCE - Soufriere Guadeloupe

October 3rd, 2020

OVSG reported that a new sequence of volcanic earthquakes began on September 29, 2020 at 5:33 am local time in the area of the La Soufrière of Guadeloupe. On October 2, the OVSG networks recorded 228 earthquakes of M <1, not felt; the hypocenter is located 2.5 km under the dome of La Soufrière. The alert level remains at yellow / vigilance.OVSG reported tha the new sequence of volcanic earthquakes that began on Saturday September 12, 2020 at 7.20 a.m. local time in the La Soufrière area continued on 14th of September with 146 recorded earthquakes of very low magnitude (M <1). .OVSG reported that the sequence of volcanic earthquakes that began on Saturday August 15, 2020 at 2:47 a.m. local time (Saturday August 15, 2020 at 6:47 a.m. UTC in the volcanic aera of La Soufrière of ​​Guadeloupe continues on 16th of August. Since the start of this sequence, the OVSG-IPGP networks have recorded 372 very low magnitude earthquakes (M <1). No earthquakes were reported felt. The events are located at a depth of <2.5 km below the top of the dome of La Soufrière. OVSG reported that since the beginning of 2018 a cyclical process of injecting deep magmatic gases at the base of the hydrothermal system of the Soufrière of Guadeloupe, at a depth between 2 and 3 km below the summit. It generates a recurrent process of overheating and overpressure of the hydrothermal system which results in disturbances in the circulation of hydrothermal fluids; the evolution of the activity of fumaroles at the summit, as evidenced by the projection of hot, acid mud over a few meters; increased swarm volcanic seismicity; some volcanic earthquakes felt, four between February and April 2018, including an earthquake of magnitude M4.1 on April 27, 2018, the strongest since 1976, deformations of small amplitude and limited to the dome of La Soufrière of the order of 3- 7 mm / year and the continued opening of summit fractures, the fluctuation of the flow rates of fumarolic gas from a pressurized hydrothermal reservoir, an increase in thermal anomalies in the soil at the top of La Soufrière. These phenomena are not yet clearly associated with an anomaly in the other monitoring parameters which could indicate a possible rise in magma. The latter would typically, but not systematically, manifest itself through numerous deep or felt earthquakes, large-scale deformations beyond the dome, and the emission of sulfur gases at high temperature (> 150 ° C). La Soufrière de la Guadeloupe volcano occupies the southern end of Basse-Terre, the western half of the butterfly-shaped island of Guadeloupe. Construction of the Grand Découverte volcano about 0.2 million years ago (Ma) was followed by caldera formation after a plinian eruption about 0.1 Ma, and then by construction of the Carmichaël volcano within the caldera. Two episodes of edifice collapse and associated large debris avalanches formed the Carmichaël and Amic craters about 11,500 and 3100 years ago, respectively. The presently active La Soufrière volcano subsequently grew within the Amic crater. The summit consists of a flat-topped lava dome, and several other domes occur on the southern flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from NW-SE-trending fissure systems that cut across the summit and upper flanks. A relatively minor phreatic eruption in 1976-77 caused severe economic disruption when Basse-Terre, the island's capital city, which lies immediately below the volcano, was evacuated. (GVN/GVP)

Grenade - Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano

June 17th, 2020

Following an increase in the seismic activity of the underwater volcano Kick 'em Jenny, in the volcanic arc of the Lesser Antilles, observed over a period of seven days in June - a swarm of more than 1,400 volcanic earthquakes of M <1 , 8 -, the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) issued a vigilance notice on June 14, 2020. Although the alert level remained at Yellow / 2, with a 1.5 km marine exclusion zone around the submerged summit of the volcano, the corner is to be avoided, even between eruptions: the release of large quantities of gas bubbles from the volcano, without signs of this surface activity, can decrease the density of seawater above the vent, and decrease the lift of the water.Any navigator is therefore reminded that the 1.5 km exclusion zone must continue to be observed. The volcano is under surveillance by the University of the West Indies Seismic Research Center of the Trinidad and Tobago campus (UWI SRC) and the NaDMA. Kick 'em Jenny, a historically active submarine volcano 8 km off the north shore of Grenada, rises 1300 m from the sea floor. Recent bathymetric surveys have shown evidence for a major arcuate collapse structure that was the source of a submarine debris avalanche that traveled more than 15 km to the west. Bathymetry also revealed another submarine cone to the SE, Kick 'em Jack, and submarine lava domes to its south. These and subaerial tuff rings and lava flows at Ile de Caille and other nearby islands may represent a single large volcanic complex. Numerous historical eruptions, mostly documented by acoustic signals, have occurred at Kick 'em Jenny since 1939, when an eruption cloud rose 275 m above the sea surface. Prior to the 1939 eruption, which was witnessed by a large number of people in northern Grenada, there had been no written mention of Kick 'em Jenny. Eruptions have involved both explosive activity and the quiet extrusion of lava flows and lava domes in the summit crater; deep rumbling noises have sometimes been heard onshore. Historical eruptions have modified the morphology of the summit crater. (video)

MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

April 19th, 2021

As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano remains low.The seismic network recorded four volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week.Measurements of the SO2 flux were taken by helicopter on 13 April. There were ten traverses withn average flux of 151 tonnes per day.Due to an unusual, more northerly, wind direction during the week it was possible to smell gases from the volcanic plume at times. On 13 April a very light and fine-grained ash deposit was observed which is thought to have originated from the recent extensive explosive activity of La Soufriere of Saint Vincent. Due to the large size of the lava dome, pyroclastic flows can occur at any time without warning on any side of the volcano, including Gages from where they can travel rapidly into Plymouth. Tracks across the Belham Valley can be destroyed or heavily modified by flash flooding or lahars, and caution should be exercised crossing the valley during and after rainfall. MVO reported that a good visibility on the lava dome of the Soufriere Hills volcano on January 29 and February 2 allowed various fumaroles to be imaged using the portable thermal camera, giving temperatures included between 212 and 472 ° C. These are consistent with previous temperatures measured in December 2020. Visual observations from the helicopter also revealed evidence of continued rockfall activity under all steep faces of the lava dome, particularly inside the 2010 collapse scar and at the head of Gage Fan on the west side of the Lava Dome. Three large slabs have also been observed to form in the cliff wall on the Tar River side of the lava dome, which could lead to large rockfall in the future. This is part of the natural process of weathering and loss of mass and does not imply a decrease in the stability of the lava dome. Previous news 2020 - On the evening of October 19th, 2020, the cloudless Soufriere Hills lava dome was photographed from the Montserrat / MVO and Jack Boy Hill Observatory. A series of digital photographs and thermal images were taken at both locations to capture the fumaroles and hot spots on the lava dome. Digital photographs captured an incandescence of three prominent fumaroles in the cliff that forms the back wall of the 2010 collapsed scar.Comparing these images to the previous ones, there are no changes in the number and distribution of glowing features and hot spots. MVO reported that the activity for the period from June 26 to July 3, 2020 remains low. The seismic network recorded 6 volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week.The alert level remains at 1, with prohibition of public access to zone V; maritime zones E and W can be used by maritime traffic, without stopping. MVO recent weekly report. Latest MVO report about period 1st of April - 30th of September 2018 - The pause in lava extrusion that started on 11 February 2010 continues and is now more than 103 months long as of 30 September 2018. This prolonged period of persistent low-level unrest, (i.e., continued inflation, sporadic seismicity and persistent de-gassing) clearly demonstrates that the magmatic system has not shut down. Thus, the potential for a restart remains. Consequently, MVO continues to hold the view that little has changed in regards to the Hazard and Risk posed by the Soufriere Hills volcano at this time. Overall, activity during the reporting period has been low. Seismic activity has consisted of sporadic volcanotectonic (VT) earthquakes, sometimes in strings or brief swarms. Low-frequency seismicity has been completely absent, while rockfall activity has continued at a very low level - Read complete report - No recent news since 2016 - latest MVO Weekly Report for the Period 26 August to 2 September 2016 - Activity at the Soufriere Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded eight rockfalls, seven volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week. Four of the volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred in a very brief swarm on 28th August. The rockfalls were probably a continuation of the increased activity following the heavy rainfall on 24 August. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were not possible during the reporting period. No recent activity reported since September 2015 - Based on satellite image analyses and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 September 2015 possible re-suspended ash from Soufriere Hills drifted WNW at an altitude of 1 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. - latest previous report about eruptive activity dated for the period from 8th of March 2013 to 5th of July 2013 - Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 28th of June to 5h of July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 271 tonnes/day with a maximum of 427 and a minimum of 161 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 21st to 28th of June. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 353 tonnes/day with a maximum of 459 and a minimum of 221 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded four rockfalls and nine volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes the week from 14th to 21st.of June. Six of the VT earthquakes occurred in a brief swarm on 16 July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were only possible on three days this week and gave an average flux of 289 tonnes/day with a maximum of 332 and a minimum of 247 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 7th to 14 th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 281 tonnes/day with a maximum of 428 and a minimum of 185 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded nine rockfalls, five volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event the previous week frm 31st of may to 7th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 485 tonnes/day with a maximum of 543 and a minimum of 430 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event this week from 24th to 31st of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 395 tonnes/day with a maximum of 588 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. . The seismic network recorded three rockfalls the week from 17th to 24th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 380 tonnes/day with a maximum of 536 and a minimum of 281 tonnes/day. Many residents of Montserrat felt an earthquake at 7:51 pm on 18 May 2013. This earthquake had a magnitude of 4.9 and was located south-west of Barbuda; about 100 km north of Montserrat. It was not associated with the Soufrière Hills Volcano. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic this week from 10th to 17th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 373 tonnes/day with a maximum of 553 and a minimum of 137 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week from 3rd to 10th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 313 tonnes/day with a maximum of 435 and a minimum of 160 tonnes/day. Measurements were only possible on three days this week because of adverse wind conditions. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 26th of April to 3rd of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 379 tonnes/day with a maximum of 466 and a minimum of 254 tonnes/day. The wind has been mainly towards the north and north-east since the night of 1/2 May. This has blown the volcanic plume over inhabited areas and the smell of volcanic gases has been noticeable at times. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 19th to 26th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 366 tonnes/day with a maximum of 535 and a minimum of 181 tonnes/day. There have been no good views of the dome for over a month now. Reports from helicopter pilots suggest that most of the large slab on the eastern side of the dome is now gone; removed by the pyroclastic flow on 28 March 2013. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week from 12th to 19th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 556 tonnes/day with a maximum of 1155 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. Past week 5th to 12th of April, the seismic network recorded no seismic events related to the volcano this week. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 325 tonnes/day with a maximum of 585 and a minimum of 186 tonnes/day. MVO reported that during 22-29 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the Tar River Valley (E) at about 0500 on 28 March. The flow was not observed directly, but the deposits indicated that it traveled halfway down the valley, 1-1.5 km from the dome. There were no reports of ashfall; any ash was probably blown over Plymouth and out to sea. The source of the flow was not known due to cloud cover, but was likely from the failure a large slab that had been slowing moving away from the dome. Heavy rainfall during the evening of 28 March generated large lahars in several valleys around the volcano, including in the Belham Valley (NW). These started at about 1900 and lasted for several hours. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded one rockfall and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 15th to 22nd of March.Sulphur-dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 359 tonnes/day with a maximum of 540 and a minimum of 258 tonnes/day. There appear to have been no changes in the large slab recently observed to be peeling away from the dome above the Tar River Valley. The slab is now estimated to have dimensions of 80 by 60 by 4-6 metres. If this slab falls as a single block it will produce a large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas. previously , the seismic network recorded one rockfall this week from 8th to 15th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 251 tonnes/day with a maximum of 264 and a minimum of 227 tonnes/day. During a helicopter inspection on 8 March 2013, we observed a large fissure in the cliff on the eastern side of the dome, part of which has existed since 2007. This fissure is the result of slow cooling and erosion of the dome. It is parallel to the cliff face and is estimated to be two metres wide, suggesting that a large slab is slowing peeling away from the dome. If this slab falls as a single block it will probably produce a moderate-to-large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas The seismic network recorded one rockfall, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one hybrid event this week from 1st to 8th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements for the week gave an average flux of 368 tonnes/day with a maximum of 552 and a minimum of 213 tonnes/day. Variable winds blew the volcanic plume over inhabited areas for much of the week, particularly the first half, and the smell of volcanic gases was very noticeable at times. There has been no visible emission of ash from the volcano this week. Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)

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Soufriere Saint Vincent dome - 14th of January 2021 - UWI-SRC

Evolution of the new dome (Soufriere Saint-Vincent)

Soufriere Saint Vincent lava dome footprint between 27th of December 2020 and 19th of March 2021 ( UWI-SRC document)

Explosion on 9th of April 2021 (UWI-SRC)

ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

November 16th, 2020

IGEPN reported that on November 15th from 6:40 am local, the seismic stations BULB and BILB of the Tungurahua volcano recorded a high frequency signal, perhaps associated with the appearance of mudslides and debris (lahars) which descended the drainages of the volcano. Proximity to rivers was not recommended. IGEPN can make a connection with the information of November 9 which mentionned a process of resuspension of ash in the upper part of Tungurahua, following strong winds blowing towards the north-west. (NOAA - IGEPN satellite image) Previous news dated 2016 - IG reported that during 27 September-4 October seismic activity at Tungurahua remained at moderate levels, characterized by 1-8 long-period earthquakes and up to three volcano-tectonic events per day. An hour-long period of tremor was recorded on 1 October. Minor fumarolic emissions rose above the crater rim. IG reported that Tungurahua's seismic network detected a significant increase in the number of long-period (LP) earthquakes on 12 September and small episodes of tremor beginning on 16 September. A swarm of 24 LP events were detected during 0408-0424 on 18 September. Starting at 1400 on 24 September the number of LP events again increased. Gas emissions were low, and together with the increased seismicity, possibly indicates a blocked conduit. IG noted that a possible large-scale eruption may happen within hours to days. In response, the Secretaria de Gestion de Riesgos (SGR) announced that the Alert Level was raised from Yellow to Orange (the second highest on a 4-color scale) on 26 September. Previously IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate-to-high levels during 16-17 March, moderate levels during 18-21 March, and low levels on 22 March. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano; the weather cleared for a brief period on 20 March and no activity was observed. IG reported that moderate-to-high levels of activity at Tungurahua continued during 9-15 March. Gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater on most days, often to heights less than 2 km above the crater, and drifted NW, W, WSW, and SW; cloud cover sometimes obscured views of the volcano. Explosions were recorded daily, and crater incandescence was reported almost nightly. Ash fell on 9 March in Pillate (8 km W), El Manzano (8 km SW), Cotalo (8 km NW), and Macas. On 10 March a small pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km NW down the Achupashal drainage. On 15 March residents in the Runten sector (NNE) heard an explosion and sounds resembling rolling rocks on the NE flank. Ash fell in Patate (NW) and Juive (7 km NNW). Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano. Tungurahua - Live webcam

ECUADOR - Guagua Pichincha volcano

June 16th, 2016

No new report since 2016 - The Washington VAAC reported that on 14 June 2016 a possible ash emission from Guagua Pichincha was visible in satellite images drifting NW. Seismicity was elevated. A VAAC report issued about five hours later noted that no further notices of activity had been received. Previous news 2015 - IGEPN reported that seismic activity was detected since end of March 2015. (58 earthquakes during the 31st of March) A second swarm has been reported from 14th to-15th of April probably due to rocks fracturation. As of the 17-18 and 19th of April sulfur odor was detected from the rifugio and according to visual observation the main fumarole close the 1981'crater was more active that the previous days. As of the 20th of April, two phreatic explosions occurred (at 5:06 and 5:58 local time) on the Cristal dome complex active zone. As of the 29th of April, IGEPN recorded a signal tremor type probably in relation with geothermal activity under the volcano. Last previous activity was reported on 2010 : As of the 14 th of September 2010, IG reported that no significative change between 6-12 September period. Seismic network continues to record important number of events related to fracture of rock to the interior of the volcano, nevertheless did not register any type of additional anomaly. As of the 17th of April 2010, IG reported that there no change, both the seismic activity and fumarole emission remained at a low level. Previous significative information : as of the 20th of February 2009, IG reported that the seismic stations Geophysical Institute have registered for days back a slight increase of the internal activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. In previous days 4 phreatic explosions of moderate size have been registered. These explosions happen due to an increase of the internal steam pressure, possibly related to the increase of precipitations observed in the zone of volcano. Therefore the Geophysical Institute recommends that it is not allowed to descend to the interior of the crater since the phreatic explosions could be repeated and the people could take the rock hit, other materials and/or rarefaction waves that are generated by these events. These phreatic explosions they happen generally at times of much rainfall, this is the reason why these explosions not necessarily are indicative of a substantial increase of the activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. The Geophysical Institute in its preprecautionary eagerness of the security of the people maintains a monitoring permanent of the state of this and other volcanos of the country and will inform opportunely into any change that these can present/display. The activity of the volcano shows a slight increase in its seismic activity with respect to the previous months. 40 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes have been registered, which are related to the fracturing of rocks to the interior of the complex between the 14th and the 18th of February. These earthquakes are of small magnitude, which is the reason why they have not been perceived by the population. It is possible to indicate that during the 2007, an average of 4.2 VT earthquakes per day was had. Also in this time interval 6 events of long period (LP) per day were registered when the average in the 2008 was of 0.3. LP events are related to resonances of cracks full of flowed inside the volcano. In addition it is important to mention the presence of explosions of moderate magnitude, related to the phreatic activity. The 16th of February the guardian of the refuge of the volcano perceived an increase in the scent to sulphur in the high part of the crater. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador's capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. - Information : I G Quito

ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

May 5th, 2021

As of the 4th of May, IG reported that gas and ash emissions were observed at the Reventador, between 600 and 1,200 meters above crater level, in a northeast, northwest and southeast direction, confirmed by VAAC Washington No thermal alerts have been recorded in the last 24 hours. Explosions were observed, as well as incandescence in the crater and rolling boulders up to 500 meters below the summit on the southern flank. In addition, the descent of a pyroclastic flow was observed up to 400 meters below the summit, on the southwest flank on May 4, 2021 at 6:10 am local / 11:10 am UTC. IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 24-30 March; adverse weather conditions sometimes prevented visual confirmation. Seismicity was characterized by 49-80 daily explosions, volcano-tectonic and harmonic tremor events, and long-period earthquakes, as well as signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash  plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.4 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly W, NW, SW. Crater incandescence and incandescent blocks rolling down the NE flank were observed nightly and accompanying explosions during 24-25 March.IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 16-23 March; adverse weather conditions sometimes prevented visual confirmation. Seismicity was characterized by 31-81 daily explosions, volcano-tectonic and harmonic tremor events, and long-period earthquakes as well as signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash plumes were often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC; they rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly NE, E, and SW. Crater incandescence and incandescent blocks rolling at least down the N, NE, and E flanks were observed nightly.IG reported that on February 3 in the late afternoon, ash emissions were observed 600 meters above the crater, and dispersal to the west.Nighttime explosions and incandescence in the crater are reported, as well as boulder rolls 600 meters below crater level. IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 19-26 January; adverse weather conditions sometimes prevented visual conformation. Seismicity was characterized by 42-106 daily explosions, volcano-tectonic and harmonic tremor events, and long-period earthquakes as well as signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence and incandescent blocks rolling 600-800 m down the NE and S flanks were observed on some nights. A new lava flow was active on the N flank. Previous news 2020 - IGEPN reported that from November 19th to 20th at 11 a.m., activity was characterized by several gas and ash emissions were observed which reached 800 and 1,200 meters above the level of the crater, the direction of these emissions was towards the southwest. The Washington VAAC recorded 5 ash emission alerts seen in satellites circling heights 700 meters above crater level in a westerly and southwest direction. FIRMS recorded 4 thermal alerts in Reventador in the last 24 hours. In the afternoon of yesterday and today, for several moments the volcano was clear allowing to observe the described emissions and at night between the clouds, an incandescence was observed in the crater, accompanied by the rolling of blocks on the sides of the volcano. The lava flow is still active (~ 450m) to the northeast and without noticeable changes. IGEPN reported that on November 8th to 9th, several gas and ash emissions were observed at the Reventador, reaching up to 1000 meters above the level of the crater, drifting towards a northern sector. A lava flow continues to be active (~ 450m) towards the northeast and without major changes.The VAAC Washington issued 3 alerts of emissions, detected by satellite, which reached 1,400 meters above the crater. As of the 27th of October Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP) - IG webcam

ECUADOR - Sangay volcano

April 23rd, 2021

IGEPN reported that on morning, April 22, an emission of gas and ash from the Sangay volcano, in Ecuador, was observed on the GOES-16 satellite. This emission is directed towards the west of the volcano and there is a probability of ash fall in some populations of the provinces of Chimborazo, Bolivar and Los Ríos. It is recommended to take the necessary precautions.IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 24-30 March. Seismicity was characterized by 1-8 daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds and rain often prevented visual observations of the volcano, though based on the Washington VAAC reports, daily ash plumes were noted rising as high as 2.1 km above the summit and drifting in different directions. Images shared by the Red de Observadores Volcanicos (ROVE) (Network of Volcanic Observers) showed gas-and-steam emissions reaching 900-1,000 m above the crater drifting N on 26-27 March. A seismic station recorded occasional debris flows during 24-30 March. No ashfall was reported by residents.IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 17-23 March seismicity was characterized by daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds and rain often prevented visual observations of the volcano, though based on the Washington VAAC, webcam images, and observer reports, ash plumes were noted most days rising as high as 1.5 km above the summit and drifting mainly N, W, and SW. A seismic station recorded occasional debris flows during 17-19 March. No ashfall was reported by residents.IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 10-16 March. Seismicity was characterized by daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of the volcano, but satellite and webcam images recorded daily ash plumes. Ash plumes were notable during 10-11 March and impacted communities downwind with ashfall. Pyroclastic flows, visible in webcam images, descended the flanks at 0950 on 10 March. The Washington VAAC stated that ash plumes rose 6.7-8.5 km (22,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W at lower altitudes and NW at higher altitudes. A period of explosions recorded during 0315-0545 on 11 March produced ash plumes that rose as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l., or 8.5 km above the summit, and drifted NW, W, and SW. Ash plumes drifted N, NW, and W, causing significant ashfall in Guamote (42 km WNW), notable ashfall in Chambo (43 km NW), Riobamba (50 km NW), Penipe (55 km NW), and Guano (55 km NW), and minor ashfall in Colta (55 km NW), Alausa­ (60 km SW), and Macas. According to a social media video post the ash plumes caused widespread darkness in Riobamba for several hours. Other residents posted photos of crops covered in ash. The eruption released 31 kilotons of sulfur dioxide, the highest value recorded during the current eruptive period that began in May 2019. IG reported that during the night and early morning of March 6, ash emissions were observed using satellite images. These emissions had a moderate impact on the cantons of: Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno, and more strongly those of Alausí, Chunchi, Cumandá, Guamote, Pallatanga, Milagro, San Jacinto de Yaguachi, Samborondón, Daule and Durán. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Cuicocha - Cotachi

October 6th, 2018

IG reported that, after an earthquake swarm consisting of 62 volcano-tectonic events during 2-3 October, seismicity at Cuicocha returned to background levels on 4 October. Carbon dioxide levels were normal, and deformation data did not show any anomalies. IGEPN reported an increase of the seismic activity of the Cuicocha-Cotacachi volcanic complex in Ecuador. During the days of October 2nd and 3rd, 60 VT earthquakes associated with rock fracturing were recorded; almost all earthquakes are located near the Cuicocha volcano. Ten earthquakes, the strongest of magnitude 2.5 occurred on October 2 at 10:58 local time, were reported as significant by Quiroga population. The scenic lake-filled Cuicocha caldera is located at the southern foot of the sharp-peaked Pleistocene Cotacachi stratovolcano about 100 km N of Quito. Both Cotacachi and Cuicocha were constructed along the Otavalo-Umpalá fracture zone. Eruptive activity began about 4500 years ago and continued until about 1300 years ago. The 3-km-wide, steep-walled caldera was created during a major explosive eruption about 3100 years ago that produced nearly 5 km3 of pyroclastic-flow and fall deposits. Four intra-caldera lava domes form two steep-sided forested islands in the 148-m-deep lake. A pre-caldera lava dome is situated on the outer E side of the caldera. Pyroclastic-flow deposits cover wide areas around the low-rimmed caldera, primarily to the east. Gas emission continues from several locations in the caldera lake.The last historical eruption dates back to the year 650. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sierra Negra volcano (Galapagos)

September 2nd, 2018

As of the 1st of September IG reported that due to the continuous decrease in seismic energy levels, reaching even earlier values ​​at the beginning of the eruptive period from June to August 2018 at the Sierra Negra volcano, and the decrease in the number of thermal alerts and SO2 emission , the IGEPN reported the possible end of the eruptive activity or the entry into a period of calm after 58 days of eruption. By 25 August the lava flows in total covered an area of 30.6 square kilometers. Activity continued to decline the last week of August with decreased
seismicity, gas emission, and no surficial activity visible. . IG reported that during 20-21 August both steam-and-gas emissions and incandescence from lava flows were visible on the Sierra Negra webcam. No activity was noted when the weather was clear during 22-28 August. On 15 August satellite images showed lava from Fissure 4 continuing to enter the ocean. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 7-14 August. Incandescence from active NNW lava flows was visible almost nightly. A steam-and-gas plume rose 1.8 km a.s.l. and drifted W on 7 August. IG reported that on August 9, at 17:45 GMT, the tremor increased in amplitude, in relation with a new surge of activity on the northern flank.
Seismicity is further characterized by 52 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, and 6 LP earthquakes.The largest earthquake occurred at 10:55 am M3,1 TG and a depth of 2 km. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 1-7 August. Incandescence from active lava flows was visible daily. An increase of tremor began at 2220 on 3 August and lasted two hours, signifying a new pulse of activity on the N flank. Small gas emissions were visible on 4 August, and steam-and-gas emissions were noted on 6 August. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 25-31 July. Sulfur dioxide flux was as high as about 1,400 tons per day (on 28 July), and daily counts of volcano-tectonic and long-period events were 24-65 and 3-32, respectively. Nightly incandescence from advancing lava flows was visible. Gas plumes rose more than 1.8 km above the vents and drifted N, NW, and W. As of the 20th of July, IGEPN reported that the activity remains unchanged, at a superficial and high internal level.During the last measurement period, 18 to 19 July at 11am, the number of VT earthquakes decreased, with 39 events; the number of LP earthquakes is 11.The gas emissions are at least 1,800 meters above sea level, and go to the WNW.Nighttime glow is observed at the emission points, and on the lava flows.As of the 10th of July, IGEPN reported that Sierra Negra's surface and internal activity levels remain high. The eruptive process continues, as evidenced by numerous volcano-tectonic earthquakes and emission tremor; thermal anomalies are noted as well as the emission of a plume of vapor, gas and ash rising to 2,400 meters in height, then moving towards the southwest sparing the populated areas for the moment. Lava flows come from a source located in the lower part of the northwestern flank of the volcano; the emission of lava would have increased significantly since July 7 at 17h local. From July 2nd to 3rd at 11am local time, the IG reports 241 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 37 LP earthquakes and 2 VLP earthquakes. During the last 24 hours, about fifty volcanic earthquakes have been located at a depth of less than 5 km; the strongest was on the east flank of the volcano, at a depth of 2 km, with a magnitude of 3.4.The satellite images show gas and vapor emissions, and the presence of lava flows. IGEPN reported that after a small earthquake on July 1, 2018 at 15:52 GMT, tremor appeared. At 18 o'clock, the National Park staff reports incandescence and the presence of lava flows on the northwest flank of the volcano. The IGEPN informs, for the period from 01 to 11 am to 02 July at 11 am, 286 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 43 LP earthquakes, 3 VLP earthquakes and emission tremor. An ash emission was mounted 1,000 meters above the crater, then headed west. IGEPN reported that the activity of the past 12 hours was characterized by a gradual decrease in seismic and acoustic tremor, but these signals nevertheless indicate the continuation of the eruption with a lower intensity.One hundred and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded; the largest, with a magnitude of 3.3, is located south of the caldera at a depth of 4.3 km. The others are located at a shallower depth, and in the western part of the caldera. Previously, IGEPN and PNG reported that following a rise in seismicity for some months, and some more recent major earthquakes, including one of M 4.2 on June 22 at 6:24 GMT and another of M 5.3 on June 26 at 3:15 GMT under the Sierra Negra volcano / Isabela Island to the Galapagos, the seismicity was marked by replicas and tremor. On June 26, from 11:17 am TG, a new seismic swarm began in Sierra Negra; earthquakes are characterized by a depth of between 3 and 5 km and a magnitude of 4.6 maximum. Since the earthquake of M 4,2 at 13:38 TG, the amplitude of seismicity and infrasonic signals has greatly increased. Galapagos National Park staff reported rumbles from the volcano. all these signs suggest the beginning of the eruptive process. Images from the GOES-16 Satellite show a strong thermal anomaly in the northern area of ​​the caldera. The Park staff then reported lava flows inside the caldera and on the northern flank of the volcano towards Bahia Elizabeth. As Isabela Island is populated, the authorities have ordered the evacuation of 50 residents, who will be cared for by host families; tourist access to the Sierra Negra volcano area and the El Cura area is restricted. On 8 June IG reported a continuing high level of seismicity at Sierra Negra, characterized by a larger number and magnitude of earthquakes, indicating magma movement. The number of events per day had been significantly increasing since mid-2016. In the previous 10 days there was an average of 42 local events/day; on 25 May there were 104 events, the largest number of earthquakes per day recorded since 2015. In addition, in a 24-hour period during 7-8 June there were a total of 48 volcano-tectonic events, two long-period events, and three hybrid earthquakes; a M 4.8 long-period earthquake was recorded at 0715 on 8 June. The earthquake epicenters were mainly located on the edges of the crater, in two NE-SW trending lineaments; the first covered the N and W edges of the crater and the second went from the NE part around to the S edge. Data showed very large deformation at the caldera's center, compared with lower levels of deformation outside of the caldera. The broad shield volcano of Sierra Negra at the southern end of Isabela Island contains a shallow 7 x 10.5 km caldera that is the largest in the Galápagos Islands. Flank vents abound, including cinder cones and spatter cones concentrated along an ENE-trending rift system and tuff cones along the coast and forming offshore islands. The 1124-m-high volcano is elongated in a NE direction. Although it is the largest of the five major Isabela volcanoes, it has the flattest slopes, averaging less than 5 degrees and diminishing to 2 degrees near the coast. A sinuous 14-km-long, N-S-trending ridge occupies the west part of the caldera floor, which lies only about 100 m below its rim. Volcan de Azufre, the largest fumarolic area in the Galapagos Islands, lies within a graben between this ridge and the west caldera wall. Lava flows from a major eruption in 1979 extend all the way to the north coast from circumferential fissure vents on the upper northern flank. Sierra Negra, along with Cerro Azul and Volcan Wolf, is one of the most active of Isabela Island volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Fernandina volcano (Galapagos)

January 25th, 2020

IGEPN reported that the seismic activity which following the January 12, 2020 eruption has not returned to basic levels (pre-eruption); on the contrary, seismicity increased, presenting sporadic earthquakes of magnitude greater than M 3.0 and small seismic swarms which have evolved over time. The strongest earthquake was recorded on January 21, 2020 with a magnitude of 4.2. In addition, a ground deformation of about 35 cm was detected in the emission zone of the lava flows. The preliminary estimate of the lava flows emitted on January 12, 2020, located east of the volcano, indicates that they cover an area of ​​approximately 3.8 km², a value lower than the estimates of the previous circumferential eruptions (2017 and 2005) .IGEPN reported that the eruption hich started shortly before 6.10 p.m. on January 12, 2020, from a circumferential crack located under the eastern edge of the caldera to an altitude of about 1300-1400 m above sea level, caused the emission of lava flows on the eastern flank. A cloud of volcanic gas was also observed at a height of approximately 1500-2000 m above the level of the crack (~ 3-3.5 km above sea level) and moving towards the west -North West. The eruption was observed by the park guards of the Galapagos National Park from the Bolivar Canal station. In the past few hours, the level of seismic activity, the emission of volcanic gas and thermal anomalies have decreased significantly, indicating a rapid decrease in eruptive activity, similar to what happened in 2017 and 2018. It is important to indicate that on other occasions (Fernandina 2009, Wolf 2015, Sierra Negra 2018), an initial drop in initial activity was followed by a second eruptive phase. IGEPN reported that following a seismic crisis, an eruption occurred on January 12, 2020, around 10 local Galapagos time. After the 4.7M magnitude seismic event occurred at 4:42 p.m., 29 localized events were recorded, the magnitude of which remained below 3.1. Eruptive activity is located east of Fernandina Island along a circumferential fissure.Fernandina, the most active of Galápagos volcanoes and the one closest to the Galápagos mantle plume, is a basaltic shield volcano with a deep 5 x 6.5 km summit caldera. The volcano displays the classic "overturned soup bowl" profile of Galápagos shield volcanoes. Its caldera is elongated in a NW-SE direction and formed during several episodes of collapse. Circumferential fissures surround the caldera and were instrumental in growth of the volcano. Reporting has been poor in this uninhabited western end of the archipelago, and even a 1981 eruption was not witnessed at the time. In 1968 the caldera floor dropped 350 m following a major explosive eruption. Subsequent eruptions, mostly from vents located on or near the caldera boundary faults, have produced lava flows inside the caldera as well as those in 1995 that reached the coast from a SW-flank vent. Collapse of a nearly 1 km3 section of the east caldera wall during an eruption in 1988 produced a debris-avalanche deposit that covered much of the caldera floor and absorbed the caldera lake. (GVN/GVP)

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Tungurahua volcano from Pelileo

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

April 21st, 2021

CENAPRED reported that each day during 13-20 April there were 14-34 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatepetl and periods of tremor lasting from 5-15 hours. Two volcanic earthquakes were recorded at 1054 and 2354 on 16 April. Minor crater incandescence was visible overnight during 17-18 April. A M 1.3 volcano-tectonic earthquake was recorded at 2057 on 18 April. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).As of the 13th of march, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 63 exhalations and 487 minutes of tremor have been identified, accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. Based on information from the National Communications Center (CENACOM), on 12th of March a slight fall of ash was reported in the municipalities of Amecameca and Tlalmanalco around 22:50. Meanwhile, a constant emission of water vapor, gas and small amounts of ash was observed, which is dispersed in a north-westerly (NW) direction. The recent flyby confirmed that there was no lava dome inside the crater. As of the 6th of March, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours 82 exhalations and 234 minutes of tremor have been identified, accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. Since March 6 in the morning, we observe an intermittent emission of volcanic gases and sometimes ash, which disperse in an east-south-east direction. As part of the monitoring of the Popocatépetl volcano, expert staff from the Institute of Geophysics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the National Center for Disaster Reduction (CENAPRED), carried out an overview, with the support of the National Guard, yesterday March 5, 2021. It has been observed that the inner crater maintains a diameter of 360-390 meters and an approximate depth of 150-180 meters, which is covered with various fragmented materials (tephra). Likewise, it was confirmed that there was no lava dome inside the crater. As of the 23rd of February, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 25 exhalations accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash have been identified. In addition, two explosions, the first yesterday at 12:46 p.m. on February 22 and the last on February 23 at 1:23 a.m., for a total of thirteen explosions in the last 6 days. During the night, a slight incandescence could be observed above the crater. Since the morning of February 23, a constant light emission of water vapor and volcanic gases has been observed, which disperse towards the west. As of the 11th of February, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 53 exhalations have been identified accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash, in addition to 2 minor explosions that occurred on the 10th February at 10:58 p.m. and February 11 at 8:28 a.m. In addition, 238 minutes of low amplitude tremor and 21 volcanotectonic earthquakes were recorded. During the night a slight incandescence could be observed above the crater. Between 0 a.m. and 5 p.m., a constant emission of volcanic gases and light amounts of ash was observed, which are dispersed in a north-northeast direction. CENAPRED reported that each day during 3-9 January there were 14-34 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatepetl. Minor crater incandescence from the crater was visible during a few of the nights. An explosion at 2138 on 6 February generated an eruption plume with low ash content that rose 2 km above the summit and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).CENAPRED reported tat over the past week, the activity of the volcano has remained at moderately high levels. On 19 January at about 15:00 local time a powerful eruption occurred from the summit crater generated an increasingly tall and dense dark ash plume that rose to estimated 23,000 ft (7,000 m) altitude and drifted N. At the end of December 2020, daily volcanic tremor duration increased to approx. 1000 min / day around which value it has been decreasing on 13 and 14 January (500 min / day) and started to increase again on 15 January until yesterday when the highest value in January was recorded (1319 minutes). This event as well as near-constant emissions of gas and small amounts of ash suggest continued rise of fresh magma probably accumulating as a new lava dome in the inner summit crater. As of the 17th of January, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 16 exhalations and 981 minutes of tremor have been identified, accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. In addition, three minor explosions were recorded, two on January 16th at 12:41 p.m. and 4:51 p.m., and the last one on january 17th at 8:36 a.m. Visibility is partial, but allowed to observe a slight emission of water vapor, gas and a slight quantity of ash, which disperses towards the northeast. CENAPRED reported that each day during 5-12 January there were 11-31 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatepetl. Minor ashfall was reported in several municipalities in Puebla including San Salvador el Verde (30 km NNE), Atlixco (23 km SE), San Andres Cholula (35 km E), San Nicolas de los Ranchos (15 km ENE), and Domingo Arenas. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). CENAPRED reported that 106 exhalations and 980 minutes of tremor were recorded accompanied by emissions of volcanic gases and ash, with a plume reaching a maximum height of 600 m., Dispersed mainly towards the northeast. In addition, an explosion was recorded on 1st of January at 3:14 am accompanied by the expulsion of some incandescent fragments a short distance from the crater. In the early morning and until 5 p.m., emissions of volcanic gases and ash are observed, which disperse in a northeast direction. Previous news 2020 - As of the 30th of December, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours the monitoring systems of the  volcano recorded 39 exhalations and 1070 minutes of tremor have been identified, accompanied by emissions of volcanic gases and ash, sometimes the column had a maximum height of 1000 m and was dispersed mainly to the northeast. In the morning, emissions of volcanic gases and ash are observed, which disperse to the northeast. As of the 19th of December, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 225 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. In addition, 109 minutes of low amplitude tremor were recorded.During the night, and in the morning, a light emission of water vapor and gas was observed, at the time of this report there is a partial visibility of the volcano, any emission will have a northeast direction. As of the 8th of December, CENAPRED During the last 15 days, there has been a slight increase in the activity of Popocatépetl with more frequent ash emissions. Explosions occurred on December 4, 5 and 6. CENAPRED reported that each day during 4-10 November there were 364-504 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted NW, SW, and SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 23rd of Ocotober, CENAPRED reported that explosive activity continues from the active crater with near-constant ash emissions producing vulcanian-type explosions. Plume of ash rose to an altitude of 20,000 ft (6,100 m) and drifted SW. CENAPRED recorded 267 emissions of steam, gases and small amounts of ash. Seismic instruments detected 221 minutes of tremor. On October 16, with the support of the National Guard, expert staff from the Institute of Geophysics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the National Center for Disaster Reduction (CENAPRED), an overview of the Popocatépetl volcano been carried out to verify its terms and conditions. It has been visualized that the inner crater maintains a diameter of 360 to 390 meters and the approximate depth is 120 to 170 meters; the interior of the crater is covered with tephra.CENAPRED reported that each day during 6-13 October there were 84-143 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, most of which contained minor amounts of ash. Gas-and-ash plumes drifted NE, WNW, W, and SSW. Minor ashfall was reported during 6-7 October in areas downwind including the municipality of Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW) in the State of Morelos, and the municipalities of Amecameca (20 km NW), Atlautla (17 km W), Ayapango (22 km NSW), and Ecatzingo (15 km SW) in the State of Mexico. Incandescence from the crater was observed during 11-12 October and occasionally intensified with some emissions. Ashfall was reported in Amecameca on 13 October. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 4th of October, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 105 exhalations accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash have been identified. In addition, 500 minutes of tremor were recorded. During the night and today in the morning, emissions of water vapor, gas and ash were observed towards the north-west. CENAPRED reported that each day during 16-21 September there were 52-121 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, most of which contained minor amounts of ash. Weather clouds often obscured views of the volcano. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 5th of September, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 177 exhalations have been identified at Popocatépetl, accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash; that due to the weather conditions in the area, it could only be seen at certain times. In addition, 354 minutes of low and medium amplitude tremor were recorded. The VAAC Washington issued an ash scatter advisory, with a plume reaching 6,100 meters above sea level, or about 670 meters above the summit. CENAPRED reported that each day during 25 August-1 September there were 96-331 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 23rd of August, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours, the volcano monitoring system has identified 153 exhalations accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash, reaching up to 1,100 meters above the crater, drifting southwest In addition, 840 minutes of low amplitude tremor associated with the constant emission of water vapor, gas and low ash content were recorded. During the night, an incandescence was observed inside the crater, and the constant emission of water vapor and gas in a south-easterly direction, which continues in the morning of August 23. As of the 14th of August, during the last 24 hours, 36 exhalations have been identified some accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, 189 minutes of low amplitude tremor were recorded,that began on August 14 at 7:25 a.m., accompanied by an emission of ash from a height of 600 m above. above the crater; the ash emission then continued. Ash falls are possible in my municipalities of Amecameca, Chalco, Atlautla, Ozumba, Cocotitlan and Tlalmanalco.During the night, the volcano was partially visible, and a constant emission of volcanic gases and an incandescence above the crater could be observed. As of the 4th of July, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours has identified 16 exhalations accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash at Popocatépetl.In addition, 1292 minutes of tremor were recorded, generated by a constant emission of volcanic gases and light ash, which disperse towards the northwest. It was also recorded yesterday at 1:57 p.m., a moderate explosion which, due to weather conditions, could not determine the height of the column. During the night, there was partial visibility of the volcano, however, an incandescence could be observed above the crater. As of the 2nd of August, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 10 exhalations have been identified accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, 1159 minutes of tremors were recorded, sometimes accompanied by incandescent fragments that fell a short distance from the crater. During the night, an incandescence could be observed above the crater during short periods of clearing, with fallout of fragments in the crater.In the morning of August 2, it was possible to observe a constant emission of gas, light ash which dispersed towards the west-southwest. As of the 29th of July, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours, 16 exhalations occurred accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, 1,097 minutes of tremors associated with the emission of water vapor, gas and light ash were recorded, with heights of up to 1,000 m in a north-northwest direction. There were also three minor explosions, the first on 07/28 at 5:57 p.m., the others at 07/29 at 1:20 p.m. and 8:31 p.m. During the night, an incandescence could be observed above the crater. As of the 28th of July During the last 24 hours, CENAPRED reported nine exhalations accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash have been identified, a moderate explosion on July 27 at 11:35 a.m. and a minor explosion on July 28 at 5:11 a.m. In addition, 671 minutes of tremor were counted, of which 578 minutes of low amplitude and 93 minutes of medium amplitude, accompanied by the emission of water vapor, gas and light ash, with heights up to 1200 m in a north-westerly direction. As of the 26th of July, CENAPRED reported tht during the morning, an episode of tremor occurred accompanied by the expulsion of fragments a short distance from the crater and a column of gas and light ash with a height of about 1300 m in the north-west direction. There is no information on ash falls in nearby towns. Additionally, most of the nighttime glow was observed over the crater. From the morning and during the day, a constant emission of water vapor was observed, to the north-west. From 9 p.m. on the 26th, a constant emission of gas and ash occurred and the expulsion of incandescent fragments to a short distance from the crater. As of the 23rd of July, CENAPRED reported that in the past 24 hours, nine exhalations have been identified accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash, as well as a moderate explosion, recorded on July 23 at 9:27 p.m. In addition, 1348 minutes of tremor were counted, including 854 minutes of low amplitude and 494 minutes of moderate amplitude, accompanied by emission of steam, gas and low ash content, with heights up to 2000 meters, in a southwest direction; a slight fall of ash was reported in the following municipalities: Tetela del Volcán, Ocuituco, Atlatlahucán, Yecapixtla, Yautepec and Jiutepec (State of Morelos), as well as Juchitepec, Tepetlixpa, Atlautla, Ozumba and Ecatzingo (State of Mexico). As of the 22nd of July, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours,the monitoring system recorded 46 ​​exhalations have been identified, accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, 101 minutes of low amplitude tremor were counted. Incandescence was observed overnight. From 7:59 am and at the time of this report, a constant emission of water vapor occurred and gas and light quantities of ash dispersed towards the west-southwest. Ash falls were expected in: Ecatzingo, San juan Tepecoculco and San Andrés Tlalamac (EDOMEX) and San Pedro, Tetela del Volcán, Texcala, Jumiltepec, Ocuituco and Yecapixtla. (Morelos). CENAPRED reported that each day during 8-14 July there were 40-109 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Minor crater incandescence was visible most nights. An explosion at 2320 on 8 July ejected incandescent material a short distance. An eruptive event at 0112 on 11 July ejected incandescent material within the crater and onto the crater rim. Incandescent material ejected within the crater was again visible at 0204 and 0454 on 12 July. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages. (GVN/GVP) . - Live cam of Popocatepetl -

Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico)

MEXICO - Colima volcano

July 16th, 2019

Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and two small explosions were recorded during 5-12 July. Five lahars descended the Montegrande ravine. An overflight on 9 July revealed that the diameter of the vent had slightly increased, likely caused by subsidence, and other areas of minor subsidence within the crater were noted. An area of collapsed material on the outer W wall was also identified. Temperatures inside the crater were 116 degrees Celsius, lower than the temperature of 250 degrees Celsius recorded in May. The temperatures in the fumarolic area decreased from 202 degrees Celsius in May to 169 degrees. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with fumarolic emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and three small explosions were recorded during 29 June-5 July. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater and small explosions continued to be recorded during 8-14 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, originating mainly from the NE side of the crater, continued to be recorded during 1-7 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during 25-31 May small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater continued to be recorded. During overflights conducted during 23-24 May scientists observed that the new feature (a crack or cavity) reported the previous week had become a hole due to the combination of excavation due to explosions and probable subsidence. The maximum temperature recorded with a portable thermal camera was 252 degrees Celsius, an increase of 80 degrees since recorded on 1 May. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that 51 low-magnitude explosions mainly from the NE part of Colima’s crater were recorded by the seismic and infrasound network during 11-24 May. Emissions from the explosions consisted mainly of water vapor and gas, and were the first surficial manifestations of activity since seismicity increased in the past few weeks. Footage from five drone overflights conducted on 22 May showed fumarolic activity on the inner wall of the NE part of the crater and a new small explosion crater near the center of the main crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported increased seismicity at Colima during 20-26 April characterized by a considerable increase in the number of high-frequency and volcano-tectonic events. On 26 April a consensus was reached to raise the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and extend the exclusion zone to a 8-km radius during a meeting of the Coordinación Nacional de Protección Civil (CNPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil Colima (UEPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil y Bomberos de Jalisco (UEPCBJ), the Universidad de Colima (UdeC), and la Universidad de Guadalajara (UdeG). Seismicity continued to be elevated through 3 May. The largest events (M 2.4-3) were located 0.5-3 km deep in the N and NE parts of the volcano. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base - new webcam *************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

April 29th, 2021

INSIVUMEH reported that 5-14 explosions were recorded per hour during 21-27 April at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano, especially in areas as far as 20 km W and SW. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit almost daily.As of the 26th of April INSIVUMEH reported that thermal anomalies were visible in recent days. Moderate to strong explosions at a rate of 9 to 12 per hour, are accompanied by shock waves and plumes of gas and ash reaching 4,500-4,600 m. asl., with dispersion towards the southwest. Ash falls are reported on Morelia, Santa Sofia, Panimache. The activity generates avalanches of boulders in the direction of the various barrancas. INSIVUMEH reported that 6-11 explosions per hour were recorded during 24-30 March at Fuego, generating ash  plumes that rose to 4.7 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.and drifted W, NW, and SW as far as 10-15 km. Shock waves rattled buildings near the volcano. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), and Trinidad (S) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ash plumes from explosions rose to 4.8 (16,000 ft) km a.s.l. and drifted N and NE on 25 March and W on 27 March far as 15-20 km, resulting in ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache (8 km SW), Yucales (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Yepocapa (8 km NW), La Soledad (11 km N). Block avalanches descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, in addition to those affected on 24 March. Weak crater incandescence was observed at night and in the early morning during 26 March. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m above the summit on 28 March, accompanied by ash plumes that rose to 4.8 km a.s.l. and resulted in ashfall in Palo Verde, Panimache II, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa, and El Porvenir (8 km ENE).INSIVUMEH reported that t 4-12 explosions were recorded per hour during 17-23 February at Fuego, generating  ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Notably, on 17 February ash plumes drifted as far as 50 km E, causing ashfall in local communities as well as in Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Ash plumes drifted 40 km SW on 18 February. Curtains of old ash deposits remobilized by strong winds were observed during 19-21 February. Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m above the summit during 19-22 February.As of the 15th of February, INSIVUMEH reported that the intense effusive activity that had started a few days ago from the summit crater decreased significantly and seems to ended as seismic instrument detected decreasing period of the amplitude. The lava flow in Seca western direction ceased and is now no longer active while the second lava flow in Ceniza direction on the SW flank remains active, currently about 300 m long but it is expected to reduce its length in the coming hours. INSIVUMEH reported that on February 14, the occurrence in the morning around 10:20 a.m. of two pyroclastic flows in the barranca Ceniza, and the maintenance of two active lava flows, one in the barranca Seca, 200 meters long, the another in the barranca Ceniza, 800 meters long, with avalanches at the lava front. The explosive activity is characterized by expulsions of incandescent material 150 m away. above the crater and plumes of ash at 4,200 m. asl., dispersing over a large area west, south and southwest up to 20 km. This activity is maintained at a high level. A special INSIVUMEH bulletin reports an increase in the effusive activity of Fuego from 9 p.m. on February 13th, 2021, the incandescent materials were emitted at a height of 200 meters, accompanied by noises due to the decompression of the gases, and feed a new lava flow in the direction of the barranca Seca. Boulder avalanches occur at the lava front of the two flows. The explosive activity generates an ash plume at 4,500-4,800 m. asl., moving in a west-southwest direction. The ashes could affect La Aurora International Airport. INSIVUMEH reported that 5-11 explosions were recorded per hour during 19-25 January at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted no more than 15 km W, SW, and S. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano and were felt by residents as far as 12 km away. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m above the summit almost daily. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). As of the 12th of January, INSIVUMEH reported that explosive eruption of the volcano has remained essentially unchanged at moderate to high levels. No significant change in activity has occurred since the previous update. Ongoing moderate-to-strong strombolian-to-vulcanian activity continues from the summit crater at regular intervals of 9 to 12 per hour showering the summit cone with glowing lava bombs. Incandescent material is being ejected to an approximate height of several hundred meters above the crater and caused moderate to strong avalanches of material as can be seen in the attached video. Plume of ash rose to an estimated altitude of 4,700 ft (15,420 m) and extending about 15-20 km to the NW of the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that 3-15 explosions were recorded per hour during 29 December-5 January at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 7-30 km generally N, NW, W, SW, and S. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano and were detected as far as 25 km away. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m above the summit almost daily. Ashfall was reported most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Yucales, La Soledad (11 km N), San Miguel Dueas (10 km NE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Previous news 2020 - INSIVUMEH reported that activity increased at 0430 on 11 December with notable avalanches of material and block-and-ash flows lava dome traveling down the W and SW flanks. Ash plumes drifted 15 km SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Finca Montebello, Loma Linda, and San Marcos Palajunoj. Activity remained elevated at least through 13 December; ash plumes drifted as far as 20 km W, SW, and S, and pyroclastic flows descended the flanks. As of 10th of December INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued with weak to strong explosions, at a rate of 3 to 6 per hour; ash falls were reported on Panimache, Sangre de Cristo, Ojo de Agua, Santa Isabel, and others. Moderate boulder avalanches were reported in the drainages, some boulders reach the vegetation limit. A night glowing was observed 100-200 meters above the crater. As of the 21st of November, INSIVUMEH reported that the volcano showed 4-8 weak and moderate explosions per hour, expelling plumes of gas and gray ash at an altitude of 4,500 to 4,700 meters (14,763 to 15,419 feet) which disperse mainly to the south -Where is. Some explosions are strong and cause shock waves that vibrate the roofs and windows of houses near the volcanic perimeter. The explosions are accompanied by weak and moderate avalanches, which disperse towards the ravines of Seca, Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Las Lajas. Avalanches with strong characteristics persist on the ravines of Seca and Ceniza, some of which reach the vegetation limit. Fine ash falls were recorded in the Panimaché 1 area. At night and early in the morning, reflections of incandescent pulses were observed on the crater. INSIVUMEH reported that 2-14 explosions were recorded per hour during 27 October-3 November at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 10-25 km generally S, SW, and W. Shock waves rattled buildings within 12 km of the summit. Incandescent material ejected 100-300 m high caused block avalanches in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported during 30 October-3 November in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, Santa Sofi­a (12 km SW), Ceylon, El Zapote (10 km S), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). INSIVUMEH reported that, during September, a total of 2,306 explosions occurred. In mid-October, 1,037 explosions were recorded, including 5 strong explosions over the last 18 hours, accompanied by white-gray plumes of 1,000 meters above the crater. On October 14 at 10 a.m., an illustrated explosion, qualified as moderate, generated an avalanche in the barranca Ceniza. As of the 27th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions occurred, at a rate of 6 to 12 per hour, generate incandescent impulses 200 meters above the crater, and were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500-4,700 meters asl., dispersing to the west and the southwest for about ten kilometers. Avalanches affecting Barancas Seca, Ceniza, Tanilyua, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some reaching the vegetation limit. Fine ashes fall on the surroundings of Panimache, Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Morella and Santa Sofia.As of the 24th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that a high amplitude tremor on the southeast flank has been recorded at the volcano yesterday. According to seismic instruments a moderate to strong lahars (mud flows) were detected towards the El Jute and Las Lajas direction as the heavy rainfalls remobilised the fresh ash deposits. Larger lahars are expected including blocks with diameter between 1-2 m today. As of September 23, INSIVUMEH reported that the pattern of activity remains the same as the previous days, with weak to moderate explosions, at a rate of 12 to 18 per hour, accompanied by columns of ash reaching 4,700 meters asl. Constant avalanches from the edge of the crater are observed in the direction of the many drainages. Ash falls are reported in the areas of Panimache, Morella, Santa Sofia, Porvenir, Yucales, Sangre de Cristo and San Pedro Yepocapa. As of the 20th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that explosive eruption of the volcano continued moderate to high levels. The effusion of the lava flow in Ceniza direction has stopped and is no longer active.Near-constant strombolian explosions are associated with incandescent material that is ejected to an approximate height of 300 m above the crater with moderate to strong avalanches. As of the 12th of September, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 .INSIVUMEH reported that the activity of the Fuego remained charaterzed by explosions, which generate avalanches of blocks in the direction of the various drainages, which for some reached the limit of the vegetation; the ash plumes that accompany them cause only small fallout of ash and shock waves perceptible up to 8 km from the volcano. Tthe lava flow in the Ceniza barranca was no longer active. Insivumeh reports in its special September 11 bulletin that the effusive activity of Fuego has been on the increase since the 5th of the month. Extrusion does not happen at a constant rate; the length of the lava flow in the Ceniza barranca varies from 100 to 650 meters approximately - the last daily bulletin indicates it at a length of 200 meters -, and the avalanches generated by the flow also affect the barrancas Trinidad and Tanilyua. INSIVUMEH reported that during 31 August-1st of September the first 200 m of the lava flow was active and continued to produce block avalanches. As of the 28th of August INSIVUMEH reported that 5 to 10 Vulcanian explosions, weak and moderate occurred per hour, during the night and early in the morning which expelled plumes of ash to a height of 4400 to 4700 meters above sea level, which dispersed in a north and northwesterly direction, accompanied by incandescent pulses between 150 and 300 meters high above the crater, weak and moderate avalanches channeled towards the barrancas Santa Teresa, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some advancing to the limit of vegetation. Low, moderate and up to four loud rumblings were heard, causing sensitive shock waves up to 12 km from the volcano. The lava flow towards the barranca Ceniza remained active, with an approximate length of 400 meters and the detachment of blocks in front. As of the 26th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that that explosions occurrs at a rate of 4 to 6 per hour, accompanied by shock waves, avalanches of blocks in the direction of the Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas drainages, some of which reach the limit of vegetation, and ash plumes at 4,500-4,700 meters above sea level. Ash falls were reported in the villages of Panimaché I, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde and Yepocapa. Incandescent pulses were observed during the night and early in the morning. INSIVUMEH reported that at 2050 on 29 July lahars descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on Fuego's SE flanks. There were 6-13 explosions per hour recorded during 29 July-4 August, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 15-20 km NW, W, and SW. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius, particularly in areas on the S flank. Incandescent material ejected 100-350 m high caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluye (SW), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). INSIVUMEH reported that on July 25th that moderate explosions continued at a rate of 8-12 per hour, accompanied by plumes at 4,700 meters asl., Dispersing over a west / north- west sector over 15 km. During the night and in the morning, incandescent pulses were observed at 100-200 meters in height, as well as boulder avalanches in the barrancas Seca, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some of which reach the vegetation zone . Ash particles were reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, el Porvenir, Palo verde and San Pedro Yepocapa.As of the 21st of July, INSIVUMEH reported that weak to moderate explosions occurred at a rate of 8-11 per hour, accompanied by plumes of gray ash reaching 4,500-4,700 meters asl. Incandescent projections were observed 100-200 meters above the crater, which generate weak to strong fallout, and avalanches in the direction of the Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, lajas and Honda barrancas, with blocks reaching the level of vegetation. The shock waves are perceived at 20 km from the volcanic perimeter, with vibrations of the roofs and windows. Ash falls were reported in the villages to the south, Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa. As of the 13th of July, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions still occurs at the rate of 6-9 per hour, accompanied by columns of gas and ash at 4400-4700 meters asl. dispersing west. Ash falls were reported in the areas of Panimache II, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde and El Porvenir. Night glow was reported, 150 to 300 meters high, accompanied by avalanches of boulders towards the Trinidad, Tanilyua, Ceniza honda, Las Lajas and Seca barrancas; some blocks roll to the limits of vegetation. INSIVUMEH reported that around 2:30 p.m. on June 24, a moderate lahar descended the El Jute and Las Lajas barrancas, on its western flank and tributaries of the Achiguate and Guacalate rivers respectively. From 3.30 p.m. local time, a lahar was observed in the Secanca barranca, a tributary of the Rio Pantaleon. As of the 19th of June INSIVUMEH reported that a slight white degassing rose at a height of 4,200 m above sea level, and 7 to 9 light and moderate explosions per hour which expel columns of gray ash at a height of 4,300 to 4,700 m. asl., which dispersed in a west and southwest direction, and which were accompanied by incandescent pulses between 200 and 300 meters above the crater, as well as weak and moderate avalanches in the direction of the canyons of Santa Teresa , Ceniza and Las Lajas, some extending to the edge of the vegetation. A low and moderate rumbling was perceived, causing shock waves causing vibrations in the houses of the villages near the volcano on its southern flank. Sounds similar to train locomotives are heard for periods of 2 to 5 minutes. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 4-13 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 10-16 June, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km NW, W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Shock waves from explosions sometimes rattled houses in the vicinity of the volcano. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Santa Teresa (W), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. A new lava flow traveled 250 m down the Seca drainage on the NW flank in the early hours of 12 June. The lava effusion was accompanied by almost constant summit crater incandescence and gas emissions. Incandescent material was ejected 100 m above the summit. Avalanches of material descended the flanks and reached vegetated areas. Ash plumes rose over 1 km and shock waves from explosions were felt. The lava flow had lengthened to 300 m by 13 June, but was an estimated 250 m long on 14 June. Effusive activity can intensify and even extend to another ravine, presenting block avalanches; it is recommended not to stay near or in the barrancas. A notice of possible dispersion of ash up to 20 km in a south and southwest sector has been issued to civil aeronautics. As of the 8th of June, INSIVUMEH reported that a weak white fumarole rose a height of 4,100 meters with weak and moderate explosions, between 7 to 10 per hour, accompanied by columns of gray ash, at a height of 4,300 to 4,600 meters, dispersed in a north and northeast direction. Weak incandescent pulses were observed at the crater, as are weak and moderate block avalanches, towards the Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Honda and Seca barrancas. The explosions generated low rumblings with shock waves, vibrant roofs and windows in the homes of villages near the volcano. Sounds similar to locomotives are heard for periods of 1 to 3 minutes. As of the 28th of May 2020 INSIVUMEH reported that moderate to strong Strombolian explosions occurred at the rate of 8-12 per hour which raise columns of ash at 4,500-4,700 meters asl., dispersing south and southwest. Moderate avalanches occurred in the Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas barrancas. Fine ashes fall on the volcano observatory. Lahar has been also reported reported in the Barra Seca, a tributary of the Pantaleon river, located on the southwest flank of the volcano at 1 p.m. A weak to moderate lahar flowed in the Ceniza barranca tributary of the Achiguate river, from 4:20 p.m. Maintaining heavy rains can result in more lahars, carrying tree branches and volcanic material. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 5-12 explosions per hour recorded during 22-26 May, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km in multiple directions. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius, particularly in areas on the S flank. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Ciudad Vieja (13.5 km NE), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), and Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE). Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage varied in length between 150 and 400 m long. As of the 24th of May, lava flow a hundred meters long towards the Seca barranca was observed in the images of Sentinel-2, as well as avalanches of blocks reaching up to 280 meters in length. The rains on the upper parts of the drainage generate weak to moderate lahars, marked by volcanic material, blocks of 1-2 meters in diameter, and trees. INSIVUMEH reported a lahar on May 25 at 8:15 p.m. local in Barranca Seca, and Rio Pantaleon. INSIVUMEH reported that a change in the type of activity was recorded by the seismic and acoustic networks from May 5, 2020 . On the evening of May 8 a lava flow has been observed since the morning, in the direction of Barranca Ceniza reaching a length of about 400 meters. It was accompanied by almost constant incandescence at the crater and avalanches towards the vegetation zone over 1 km. The explosions remained weak to moderate, with shock waves and ash plumes reaching 4,800 m. asl. There were 5-12 explosions per hour recorded during 22-28 April, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). The two lava flows continued to be active during 25-28 April; the flow in the Ceniza drainage did not advance past 200 m and the flow in the Seca drainage had extended to 800 m long. The ends of the lava flows continued to generate blocks that reached vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that lava began to descend Fuego's Ceniza (SSW) drainage on 19 April. The rate of effusion increased in the evening of 23 April and observatory staff saw a second lava flow in the Seca (W) drainage that was 170 m long. On 24 April satellite data confirmed thermal anomalies from both lava flows. The main part of the lava flow in the Ceniza was 200 m long, but prodced incandescent blocks from the end of the flow traveled an additional 240 m, reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent blocks from the end of the flow in the Seca drainage traveled 520 m. Explosions at the summit crater generated shock waves and ash plumes that rose almost 1.2 km above the crater. Avalanches of blocks from these explosions traveled up to 1 km down all flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that the night of April 18 the seismic and acoustic network of Fuego recorded a change in the type of activity. bad meteorological conditions no permitted observation of the lava flow, but analysis of satellite images helped to obtain its characteristics. The flow to Barranca Ceniza on April 19 was approximately 320 meters long. The activity was accompanied by almost constant incandescence at the crater and avalanches over 1 km, reaching the level of vegetation. There were 5-14 explosions per hour recorded during 7-14 April, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-20 km in multiple directions. Minor ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Quisache, and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within a 25-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-600 m high. Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage had variable lengths during the week, from 200 to 600 m long. Avalanches of blocks from the lava flows traveled sometimes long distances, and in some cases set fire to vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that on April 12th, 4 strong explosions occurred with expulsion of incandescent materials on the flanks of the volcano, respectively at 2:42, 2:56, 3:55 and 4:12 Yhis day, the sector was cloudy and the atmosphere is warm, and moderate fallout; a lava flow of 200 meters wide followed the barranca Ceniza. INSIVUMEH reported that on April 8th weak to moderate explosions, 10 to 14 per hour, accompanied by gray plumes at 4,500-4,800 meters asl. scattered west and southwest, as well as incandescent pulses 300-400 meters high and avalanches in the vicinity of the crater, and the various drainages.A change in Fuego's activity since April 6 is reported by the Government in a special bulletin on April 8 at 9 p.m. local, following the change in seismicity: the activity has now become effusive, and forms a flow of lava 400 meters long towards the Ceniza barranca. There is an almost constant glow at the crater and avalanches up to 1 km. reaching the vegetation. The current activity is similar to that recorded from March 16, 2020, which lasted 8 daysThere were 4-12 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 17-24 March, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km S, SW, and W. Almost daily ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and La Cruz. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled nearby houses and were felt in communities within a 25-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Honda, and Las Lajas ravines. Lava flows of variable lengths (400-1,000 m) descended the Trinidad and Ceniza ravines each day but were inactive by the evening of 23 March. INSIVUMEH reported that a new change occurred in eruptive behavior on March 15 from 19:24, with an increase in degassing accompanying the lava flow, well observable at night on about 600 meters long in the Trinanca barranca. An increase in avalanches was reported in Las Lajas, Trinidad and Cenizas barrancas.Effusive activity was accompanied by weak explosions.The seismic activity presented a continuous signal of low amplitude in relation to the expulsion of the materials feeding the lava flow and its degassing. As of the 26th of february INSIVUMEH recorded 5 to 12 moderate explosions of Strombolian type per hour which generated a plume of gray ash which reached approx. 4,500 m-4,700 m asl and derivative W and SW. In addition, a white plume that reached 4,300 m asl and drifted west and southwest is observed.The incandescent material is ejected at an approximate height of 100 m to 200 m above the crater with moderate avalanches around the crater, mainly in the Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Santa Teresa, Trinidad, Las Lajas barrancas, with slight fallout.A lava flow 300 meters long is described in the Ceniza barranca, with moderate to strong avalanches from the flow front.Ash falls have been reported in several leeward areas, including Santa Sofía, Morelia , Panimaché I and II , Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa , Sangre de Cristo and El Porvenir .INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-16 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 12-18 February, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Alotenángo (8 km ENE), and La Soledad (11 km N). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within an 8-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 150-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines lava flows in the Ceniza drainage were 700-800 m long during 13-17 February and lengthened to 1.2 km during 17-18 February. INSIVUMEH reported that on February 5th explosive activity continued at the rate of 5 to 8 episodes per hour, accompanied by ash plumes reaching an altitude of 4,900 meters (flight alt. 160 / VAAC Washington). The ashes move towards the northeast for about twenty kilometers, with fallout on Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja and Antigua Guatemala. Night glow is linked to impulses 200 meters high and avalanches of boulders in the barrancas. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-17 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 14-21 January, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within a 7 km radius, though they were felt up to 25 km away during 19-20 January. Incandescent material was ejected 100-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ash plumes drifted 18 km E during 20-21 January. INSIVUMEH reported that low to moderate ash emissions continued at the rate of 11-17 episodes per hour, accompanied by plumes between 4,500 and 4,800 meters asl. moving west and southwest. Night glow was observed at 200-300 m. above the crater; this activity generating weak to moderate avalanches around the crater, and some stronger towards the drainage. Ash falls were reported on Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de cristo, San Pedre Yepocapa, and Panimache. Previous news 2019 - As of the 27th of December, INSIVUMEH reported that activity remained at the same level the last days with 15-18 explosions per hour, weak to moderate, which were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,200-4,500 meters asl., and avalanches in direction of the different barrancas. Nighttime incandescent impulses were observed at 100-200 meters in height and a lava flow in the barranca Seca reached a length of 300 meters. On the other hand following a change of direction of the winds blowing from the southwest, the ash plumes dispersed on December 27 in the morning towards the northeast and the north, with the probability of falls in the areas of Acatenango, Ciudad Vieja and Antigua Guatemala. INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity increased; night and early morning glow were visible and according MIROVA moderate thermal anomalies could be observed, included in recent days between 18 and 91 MW.The active lava flow in the direction of the Ceniza barranca was about 600 meters, with avalanches and steam at the head of the lava front. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 6-15 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 20-26 November, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 100-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows advanced in the Seca and Santa Teresa (W) drainages during November, and were 300 and 800 m long on 21 and 24 November, respectively. INSIVUMEH following important rain on of the volcano, a weak to moderate lahar was reported on November 17th of November in the Ceniza gorge consisting of ashes and blocks deposited by constant activity, and remobilized. INSIVUMEH reported that since November 6 a lava flow towards the barranca Seca, long on November 13 of about 900 meters. This activity was effusive, according to the OVFGO, despite a notable incandescence in night and hours of low light, as well as a sustained degassing. This activity, similar to that recorded in April, could be prolonged in the following months. Discrete emissions of ash and gas continue, with a plume at 4,700 m. asl., moving west and southwest for 20 km. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-18 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 2-8 October, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, W, and NW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows traveled 200 m down the Seca drainage on 6 October and were active in the Santa Teresa (W) drainage on 8 October. Lahars descended the Ceniza, El Mineral, and Seca drainages during 3-7 October, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks 1-3 m in diameter. As of the 5th of October, INSIVUMEH reported that constant rains over the past few days are likely to cause floods, lahars and landslides. Especially in the area of ​​the Fuego volcano, weak to moderate lahars were reported in different drainages: the Ceniza, Las Lajas, Seca and Rio Mineral barrancas are involved. These lahars were characterized by the transport of ash, blocks 1 to 2 meters in diameter and generate steam columns and shock waves. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that at night and early June 22 in the morning, incandescence was observed at a height of approximately 350 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches in the crater contour, some over long distances to vegetation in the direction of the crater. Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, El Jute, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash fallout is reported from Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimache I and II. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 15-18 June, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km W, SW, and E. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluya¡ (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofi­a (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Previous month, INSIVUMEH reported that there were 15-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 16-17 and 19-20 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, and W. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 300-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). A lava flow on the W flank was 300 m long. On 16 May lahars carrying variously-sized blocks and tree branches and trunks descended the Las Lajas ravine. On 20 May hot lahars with a sulfur odor descended the Ceniza, El Jute, and Las Lajas drainages, carrying blocks 1-3 m in diameter. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 13-24 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 9-10 and 12-14 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km S and SW. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in areas to the S and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (and reached vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW).Lava flows were 500-600 m long on the W flank. On 11 May steaming lahars descended the Las Lajas, Seca, Ceniza, and Mineral drainages, carrying variously-sized blocks and tree parts. Lahars on 14 May carried blocks and tree trunks down the Ceniza drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that on 18 April steaming hot lahars descended Fuego's Ceniza (SSW) and Taniluya (SW) drainages, carrying variously-sized material including blocks up to 2 m in diameter. The lahars were 1 m deep, 15 m wide, and had a sulfur odor. During 20-23 April there were 17-22 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1.1 km and drifted 15-20 km S, SW, and W. Shock waves vibrated local structures. Incandescent material was ejected 300-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines. A lava flow, 600 m long, advanced in the Seca drainage. Ashfall was reported in reported in Yepocapa (8 km N), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Panimache (8 km SW). INSIVUMEH reported that on April 11 between 18 and 22 low to moderate explosions occurred every hour, with ash plumes as high as 4,800 meters asl, before dispersing to the east. During the night, incandescent impulses rose 300 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches to the barrancas.A lava flow extends for 500 meters, from the crater to the direction of Barranca Seca. A low ashfall is reported on Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja, and La Reunión; according to the direction of the wind, the ashes could fall back on Antigua Guatemala.Persistent heavy rains on the Fuego volcano in Guatemala resulted in lahars in various drainages on April 11th: the Taniluya, Ceniza and El Jute barrancas were impacted, and thousands of people from surrounding communities were blocked. Previously, a special bulletin from INSIVUMEH was issued on 31 March describing another increase in activity with the number of explosions ranging from 14 to 32 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted W, SW, and S. The explosions vibrated local residences. A lava flow that had emerged in the early morning hours advanced 800 m in the Seca drainage. On 1 April there were 13-16 explosions recorded per hour. Ash plumes rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-15 km S, SE, and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate residential structures. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, reaching vegetation. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I, Morelia, Palo Verde Estate, Santa Sofia, La Rochela, and San Andres Osuna. INSIVUMEH reported that on 29th of March, the eruptive activity was characterized by constant periods of increase in its eruptive behavior, with 20 hourly explosions, and plumes of ash reaching 5,000 meters asl. before moving for 15 to 30 km. These explosions generate avalanches in the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas, which remobilize materials; at night, they were incandescent and visible over 350 meters from the crater. The respect of the instructions is recalled in view of possible new eruptions, accompanied by pyroclastic flows. As of the 22nd in the morning, INSIVUMEH reported an increasing activity of the volcano; between 15 and 20 moderate and strong explosions occurs every hour, columns of ash and degassing rising up to 5 thousand meters above sea level, dispersing at 30 kilometers south, west, south-west, east and southeast, generating moderate and strong crater avalanches that take the direction of Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash falls were reported on La Rochela, Ceylon, Osuna, Las Palmas, Siquinalá and Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa; other communities could be affected up to 30 km from the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that explosive activity was still contnuing during recent days, with 13 to 16 weak to moderate explosions accompanied by ash plumes at 4.400-4.700 meters asl, scattering over a wide area according to the winds.Incandescence was observed at 200 -300 meters in height, as well as avalanches in the contours of the crater and the barrancas.Ash falls occurred in El Rodeo, El Zapote, Celan, La Rochela, Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, and Sangre de Cristo. INSIVUMEH reported that on the 1st of February, nocturnal glow was observed, and the rhythm of the explosions was13 to 18 per hour at the beginning of the day, with plumes of ashes reaching 4,800 m. asl. The ashfall occurred toward the Northeast on Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja, and the capital Ciudad Guatemala. Avalanches were observed in the barrancas Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that 10-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 29-31 January. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted E and NE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE), and Guatemala City (70 km E). Incandescent material was ejected 300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. During 31January-1 February there were 14-16 explosions recorded per hour, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km and drifting 20-25 km S and SE. Ash fell in the communities of El Rodeo (10 km SSE), El Zapote, Ceilan, and La Rochela. Incandescent material rose 200-400 m high causing avalanches of material to descend the Seca, Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda (E) ravines. Shock wave causing vibration in the communities near the volcano.INSIVUMEH reported that on January 22, the activity was maintained with 15 -25 low to high explosions, per hour, a plume of ash amounting to 4,800 m asl. before dispersing to the west and south-west, and incandescent impulses 100-300 meters above the crater.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché I y II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Yepocapa. As of the December 5th, few explosions occurred accompanied by plumes of gray ash at a height of 4,500-5,000 meters asl. dispersing to the west and southwest over 25 km. Incandescent impulses are reported at a height of 150-200 meters above the crater, generating fallout in the vicinity of the crater and to the main barrancas. INSIVUMEH repored that heavy rains during 28 and 29 November generated hot lahars, accompanied by the smell of sulfur and degassing columns, towards the Seca, Santa Teresa and El Mineral barrancas. The lahars carried ash and blocks 1 to 3 meters in diameter, volcanic materials deposited during the last eruptions.INSIVUMEH reported that moderate to strong explosions continued at a rate of 12 to 15 per hour, this vulcanian-type activity is accompanied by eruptive columns with ashes rising to 5,000 meters asl. and shock waves and vibrations felt within a radius of 25 km. A change of wind direction, November 26 in the morning from south to north, produced ashfalls on Alotenango, San Miguel, Dueñas, Antigua Guatemala and Ciudad Guatemala. During 24-25 November there were 12-15 weak-to-moderate explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate local structures, and ashfall was again reported in Panimache, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Moderate-to-strong Vulcanian explosions on 26 November generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted N. The explosions were heard, and shock waves felt, mostly within 25 km, though some explosions were audible to residents of Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Explosions continued the next day at a rate of 10-15 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high, and avalanches of material descended multiple drainages. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. As of the 22nd of November, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions accompanied by expulsions of a dark gray plume continued.The avalanches of blocks and ashes, accumulated during the eruption of November 18, continued in the Seca, Ceniza, El Jute, Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that the strong eruption of the Fuego was accompanied on November 19 in the morning by constant explosions, and a sustained ash plume rising to about 7,000 meters asl, before dispersing 50-60 km to the west and southwest.The incandescent source was observed 800-1000 meters above the crater, with ballistic materials scattered for more than one kilometer around the volcano.The main lava flow reached about 3,000 meters in length towards the barranca Ceniza ; two other shorter flows, of about 300 meters, were observed in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. The flows was accompanied by avalanches and mobilization of ashes.Pyroclastic flows descended from the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. Abundant falls of ash and particles are falling on Panimache, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Paolo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, San Juan Alotenango, and Antigua Guatemala.The Conred also reported light ash falls on Mazatenango, San Bernardino, San Antonio, San Miguel Panán, Chicacao, San Juan Bautista, Santa Bárbara Río Bravo and Patulul, and that 2,052 people were safe and 3,000 have been evacuated; 76,145 people would be affected. At about 11h40 AM slight decrease in seismicity was observed, as well as a decrease in the height and extension of the ash plume: height of 6,000 meters asl dispersing over 20-30 km. In the evening (6PM) the seismogram and the RSAM showed a drop in activity, and according to the observatory this 5th eruptive phase of the year was over, after a duration of 32 hours. However, Explosions were always recorded, weak to moderate, accompanied by a plume of ash at 4,800 meters asl, drifting to a west and southwest sector over 15 km.The incandescent impulses were reduced to 100-300 meters, generating weak avalanches mainly in the crater contour; some ejections reach the limit of vegetation towards the main barrancas. A special INSIVUMEH bulletin of 18 November reported that at 10.10 local, the fifth eruption 2018 started. It was characterized by a permanent ash plume at 4,900 meters asl, dispersing to the south for 15-25 km, and generating moderate to strong avalanches in the Ceniza and Tanilyua Barrancas, up to the vegetative limit. The incandescent fountain was observed up to 300 meters high above the crater. A lava flow, 2,000 meters long, in the direction of the barranca Ceniza, has a front generating avalanches and ash rising. A possibility exists of the beginning of lava flow in the Taniluya barranca in the next hours, and of pyroclastic flows.Ash falls have been reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, and Finca Paolo Verde.During the night, the explosions generated a plume rising to 5.200 meters in height before dispersing 20-30 km in a westerly and north-easterly direction; the incandescent fountains rose up to 500-600 meters above the crater and the ballistic ejections reached 800 meters in various directions. The lava flow towards the Ceniza gorge reaches a length of 2,500 meters.At the time of the 0h40 report, a pyroclastic flow descended in the direction of the Seca barranca. Comred declared the red alert and activated the Emergency Operations Center-COE-Municipal to coordinate the response actions. National Highway 14 is closed. Self-evacuation is in progress. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that on 18th of November, the activity increased again rising: 8 to 14 explosions, low to moderate, per hour are accompanied by emission of plumes of ash to 4,700 meters asl., drifting on 15-20 km to the southwest and west. Incandescent pulsatile emissions at 150-200 meters are observed, as well as moderate avalanches in the crater contour. A lava flow reaches a length of 1,300 meters in the Ceniza barranca, permanently fed.Ash falls are reported on Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde.INSIVUMEH reported that 7-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 8-12 November. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 8-20 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porveni, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-300 m high and caused avalanches that traveled far, reaching vegetated areas in multiple drainages. Lava flows as long as 1.2 km advanced in the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, though lava-flow activity greatly decreased by 12 November. As of the 9th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity continued; the lava flow in the Ceniza barranca reached a length of 1 200 meters. Avalanches were reported in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas.Low to moderate explosions occurred ranged from 12 to 18 per hour, with ash plumes rising to 4,600-4,700 meters asl, before dispersing over 10-15 km. towards a western sector, accompaznied with fallout of fine particles on this zone, including Sangre de Cristo, Santa Sofia, Panimaché I and II, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir. The explosions were accompanied by outgassing noises for 2 to 5 minutes.INSIVUMEH reported that a new eruptive phase began on November 6 in Fuego, the fourth in 2018.Low-to-moderate steady-state explosions are recorded, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,800 m. asl.,then drifting 20 km westerly and southwesterly, and with shock waves and sounds.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finac Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Incandescences impulses are visible in the crater that rose to about 200-300 meters high, generating avalanches around the crater, impacting the vegetation towards the Seca and Taniluya barrancas, and feeding a 1000 meter long flow, then reaches 1,200 meters in the Ceniza gorge.The effusive activity then continued until the evening, weakening very slightly. As of the 5th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that activity of Fuego increased, with 10 to 15 hourly explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 4,700 meters asl. dispersing 15 km in a westerly and southwesterly direction. Nighttime glow is observed to 200-300 meters above the crater; the explosions generate weak to moderate avalanches, and lava flows 600 meters long towards the Tanilyua and Ceniza barrancas.The ash falls concern Panimaché, El, Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde and San Pedro Yepocapa.t INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 20 October hot lahars descended Fuego's Las Lajas (SE) and Mineral drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter along with branches and tree trunks. The lahars were 20-30 m wide and 2 m deep. During 20-23 October there were 8-15 weak explosions recorded per hour, producing gray ash plumes that rose 750-850 m above the crater rim and drifted 12 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimaché (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Lava fountains rose 100-200 m high. Avalanches of blocks descended the El Jute (SE), Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, with material reaching vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-16 October explosions (8-18 per hour) produced ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 8-12 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, and Panimache I and II (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-200 m high, causing avalanches of material within the crater, though some of the avalanches traveled long distances, reaching vegetated areas. The lava flow on the W flank was still visible but by 14 October no longer active. On 13 October a steaming lahar descended the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reported that from 3.50 am on October 12, a new phase of the eruption began, effusive: fountains of 400 meters above the crater generated a lava flow that reaches 600 meters long towards the west drainages of the volcano. A possibility of pyroclastic flows is considered towards the seca, Las Lajas and Cenizas barrancas. On the evening of October 12, pyroclastic flows are reported in the Barranca Seca, where the lava flow reaches a length of 1,500 meters. Its advance causes a lifting of materials and some avalanches. A pyroclastic flow is also observed in the Barranca Santa Teresa. The eruptive dynamics is maintained with moderate explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 5,000 meters asl, dispersing to the SW, O and SE over 15-20 km. ; incandescent impulses are observed 200-300 meters above the crater. The fallout of ashes concerns Panimache I, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde..INSIVUMEH reported that on October 11, a slight increase in the explosive activity of the Fuego was reported characterized by 10 to 14 hourly explosions, weak to moderate, accompanied by plumes of ash rising to 4,600 meters asl. traveling 15 km to the west and southwest. Incandescent impulses are observed 100-200 meters above the crater, generating the fall of volcanic materials and avalanches towards the Santa Teresa and Las Lajas barrancas. This activity is accompanied by moderate fallout, shock waves and constant outgassing noise.INSIVUMEH reported that on September 29 in the evening an increase of the explosive activity occurred ; tremor and degassing pulses lasting up to 3-4 hours were accompanied by aircraft turbine sounds and block avalanches on the southwestern flank. About Five to nine hourly explosions were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,400 - 4,700 meters.In the evening, 10 to 15 hourly explosions were recorded, weak to moderate, and accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500 meters asl. moving 10 km to the west and southwest, and fallout of volcanic materials that generate small avalanches.Ash falls are reported on San Pedro Yepocapa, Finca Palo Verde, Morelia, and Panimache.The summit is marked by a constant incandescence during the night.INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 and 24-25 September explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted 12 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimache (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). On 25 September hot, steaming lahars descended the El Jute (SE) and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reporterd that on 7 September at 7:31 local time, an avalanche occurred on one of the flanks of Fuego due to a fissure in the upper part of the Barranca Las Lajas, the destabilization of materials accumulated during the eruption of June 3, and preceded by a small ash emission from a vent located lower down the slope.During the last 24 hours about 5 to 12 low to moderate hourly explosions occurred , accompanied by ashes and gas reaching 4,700 meters above sea level, before moving west-southwest 15 km INSIVUMEH reported that heavy rain generated lahars during 29 August-1 September that descended Fuego's El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), Cenizas (SSW), Taniluya (SW), Seca (W), Mineral, Honda, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. The lahars were hot, had a sulfur odor, and carried tree branches and blocks (2-3 m in diameter). On 1 September lahars disrupted roads between San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW) and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and from Finca Palo Verde and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). During 2-4 September explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Avalanches of incandescent material were confined to the crater. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH reported that during 18-21 August explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 850 m above the crater and drifted 12 km NW, W, and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area and down drainages on the flanks. According to CONRED, as of 22 August, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 169, and 256 remained missing. On 17th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that volcanic activity remains moderate with 6 explosions, accompanied by ash plumes at a height of 4,100-4,200 meters asl, drifting to the northwest and west; low avalanches are reported towards the Cenizas barranca.The heavy rains remobilized the ashes and caused a lahar in the barranca Honda. INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 August heavy rain triggered lahars that traveled down the Seca drainage on Fuego's W flank and the Mineral drainage, carrying tree trunks and blocks as large a 2 m in diameter. During 12-14 August weak-to-moderate explosions generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m high, and avalanches of blocks descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Santa Teresa (W) SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), and finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH rported that a strong explosion, accompanied by avalanches around the crater, fallout and shockwaves, occurred on August 8 at 21:20 local. Incandescent materials were ejected at 4,800 m Asl., Evening about 1,100 meters above the summit; the ash plume moved 12 km to the west. This is the first strong explosion recorded in the last six weeks.INSIVUMEH reported that during 29-30 July avalanches of material descended the Cenizas drainage on Fuego's SSW flank. Hot lahars generated by heavy rains on 30 July descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), El Jute (SE), and Cenizas drainages, carrying blocks 2-3 m in diameter and smelling of sulfur. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported relatively quiet conditions at Fuego during 4-9 July characterized mainly by gas emissions and block avalanches on the flanks. During 7-8 July there was about one explosion detected every two hours, producing diffuse ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Cenizas (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, while lahars were present in the El Jute (SE), Las Lajas, Cenizas, Taniluya (SW), Seca, Mineral, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. Seismicity increased on 10 July. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km and drifted 12 km SE, causing ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimaché (8 km SW). According to CONRED, as of 4 July, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 332 remained missing. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that 2-7 weak explosions per hour at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 650 m above the crater rim and drifted W and SW during 27-29 June and 1-3 July. Ashfall was reported on 27 June in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo and Yepocapa. Avalanches of material descended the S, SW, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, El Jute, and Cenizas drainages). INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 20-26 June multiple lahars at Fuego were often hot, steaming, and had a sulfur odor, and were generated from heavy rains and the recent accumulation of pyroclastic-flow deposits from the 3 June events. Lahars remained a significant hazard, and descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Santa Teresa (W), and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. They were 25-45 m wide, as deep as 3 m, and often carried blocks up to 3 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. The agencies warned that because the Las Lajas drainage is full of deposits, lahars can continue to descend that drainage or create new channels in San Miguel Los Lotes (one of the hardest-hit areas). Explosions continued, producingash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde on 22 June. Avalanches of material descended the SE, S, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages). According to CONRED, as of 26 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 remained evacuated. During 16-19 June as many as seven explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km W, SW, and S. Some explosions were heard in areas within a 10-km radius. Avalanches of material descended the Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages during 17-18 June, producing ash plumes, and ashfall in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde. According to CONRED, as of 19 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows remained at 110, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 people had been evacuated. As of the 15th of June, INSIVUMEH reported that following heavy rains hot lahar traveled down in Santa Teresa Barranca and Rio Mineral, a tributary of Rio Pantaleon. Large of 20 to 25 meters and 2 meters high, and carrying fine and pasty materials, blocks of 3 meters in diameter and trunks. At 17:40, a lahar descended the river Ceniza. Other lahars were reported in Taniluya and Las Lajas barrancas, about 30 to 45 meters wide and 3 meters high As of the 13th of June INSIVUMEH reported that a lahar was observed traveling down in the Ceniza gorge; about 25 meters wide and 2 meters high, it carries fine and pasty materials, blocks one to three meters in diameter and tree trunks. Another lahar has taken the Las Lajas barranca, 30-40 meters wide and 3 meters high, characterized by the transport of similar materials.As of the 12th of June INSIVUMEH reported that at 7 am local an increasing of the explosive activity occurred, characterized by columns of ashes between 4,500 and 5,000 meters height asl., dispersed on 15 to 25 km to the northeast . Ashfall is likely to occur in Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja and San Miguel Duena. At 7:35 local time, the observatory reported a pyroclastic flow in the Seca barranca, producing a curtain of ashes that reached 6,000 meters asl before dispersing to the north and north-east. The explosive activity causes avalanches that produce thick columns of ash, which disperse along the same axis.These episodes are likely to impact the main drainages in next hours or days.In addition of the danger created by the pyroclastic flows, there are lahars due to the remobilization of the ashes following the heavy rains. On 11th of June at the end of the afternoon, hot lahars descended the barrancas Las Lajas and El Jute, made of fine and pasty materials, blocks of large diameter up to 3 meters, and trunks and branches; his measurements were 35 to 55 meters wide and 5 meters high. Other lahars have been reported in the Seca and Mineral barrancas, with the risk of overflowing rivers.As of the 8th of June,INSIVUMEH reported lahars in Santa Teresa, Mineral, Taniluyá and Ceniza barrancas, tributaries of the Pantaleón and Achiguate rios; these lahars are hot, emit fumes, and carry fine materials, and rocks 2-3 m in diameter, as well as tree trunks. In parallel, pyroclastic flows are reported in El Jute and Las Lajas drainages, accompanied by co-pyroclastic plumes up to 6,000 meters asl.The latest assessment given to 8 June / 8:30 by the Conred, is 109 dead, 197 missing, and 1,713,617 people affected by the climax and its aftermath. As of the 7th of June, at the beginning of the evening, new pyroclastic flows descended the Las Lajas and El jute drainages, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic cloud rising to 6,000 meters asl.CONRED reported that by 0630 on 6 June a total of 12,089 people had been evacuated, with 3,319 people dispersed in 13 shelters. One bridge and two power networks had been destroyed. According to news sources on 6 June, Guatemala's National Institute of Forensic Sciences stated that 75 people were confirmed to have died and 192 were still missing. Many, possibly thousands, received burns and other injuries. Weather conditions, continuing activity at Fuego, poor air quality, hot pyroclastic flow deposits, and rain made rescue efforts difficult. On Tuesday, an explosion forced relief to stop the research. The disaster has affected, to varying degrees, a total of 1.7 million Guatemalans.Details about volcanic event : the strong eruptive phase occurred at the volcano on Sunday 3rd of June). Lasting for about 16-17 hours until the evening, it generated ash clouds reaching up to 10 km, which drifted into westerly directions for more than 40 km, lava flows descending on the flanks, heavy ash fall in nearby areas and secondary mud flows triggered by strong rainfall. Massive pyroclastic flows - fast-moving turbulent avalanches of gas and hot rock material have claimed lives as well. Information from official side at least 69 victims have been confirmed. All fatalities occurred as result of being engulfed in pyroclastic surges, it seems mainly on the eastern flank.The eruption has abruptly decreased after 18:45 local time and returned to small to moderate intermittent explosions and minor rockfalls. Incandescence is visible at the crater, where fresh lava flows begin to cool. Civil protection has declared the highest alert level RED for the areas of Escuintla, Alotenango, Sacatepéquez, Yepocapa and Chimaltenango, while Escuintla is kept at the second highest, ORANGE. More than 3000 people are reported to have been evacuated and ash fall from the eruption has been affecting an area with a population of more than 1.5 million, roughly 10% of the country's population total. Previously, local news reported that a violent eruption occurred on the evening of Sunday, June 3 (local time), leaving at least 25 people dead and injured several other people after pyroclastic flow entered into Rodeo village. Volcanic ash has reportedly covered nearby villages, including San Pedro Yepocapa and Sangre de Cristo, ashfall has also been reported in Guatemala City. Some 100 people have been evacuated from affected areas. Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales has declared that a national emergency response has been mobilized. La Aurora International airport was closed on Sunday due to ashfall. Further eruptions, evacuations, and transportation disruptions are expected in the coming hours and days. INSIVUMEH reported that beginning at 1400 on 17 May a lahar descended the Seca (Santa Teresa) drainage on Fuego's W flank. The lahar was 25 m wide, 1 m deep, and carried trees and blocks 1.5 m in diameter. During 19-21 May explosions occurred at a rate of 5-8 per hour, and generated ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Some explosions were accompanied by rumbling audible more than 30 km away, and shock waves that vibrated structures in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimache (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material within the Seca, Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages that reached vegetated areas. Ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia, Panimache I and II, and Finca Palo Verde. A lava flow 700-800 m long was active in the Ceniza drainage. Small ash explosions at Fuego on 11 and 12 May rose to 5 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. or approximately 1 km (3,280 ft) above the summit. The ash dispersed quickly to the southwest and was visible on webcams. Activity increased on 14 April and remained elevated through 17 April. Moderate-to-strong explosions were detected at a rate of 6-9 per hour, and sometimes produced shock waves that vibrated houses in Morelia and Panimache. Dense ash plumes rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20 km W and S, though winds also carried the ash to higher altitudes to the SE. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in Santa Sofía, Morelia, Panimache I and II, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde. The rate of explosions increased to 7-10 per hour on 16 April; explosions sometimes caused structures in Panimache, Morelia, La Reina, and Alotenango (8 km ENE) to vibrate. A lava flow traveled 1.3 km down the Seca drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-10 April explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 10-15 km SW and S. Sometimes the explosions were accompanied by weak shock waves. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 200 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the Seca (Santa Teresa, W), Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Trinidad (S) ravines. During 9-10 April ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). (INSIVUMEH) - Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

April 1st, 2021

INSIVUMEH reported that during 24-30 March weak explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generate ash plumes that rose to 2.8-3.4 km (9,000 ft-11,000 ft) a.s.l.<
 and drifted W, NE, SW. Collapses of blocky lava from the Caliente dome sent avalanches on the S and SW flank of the Caliente dome, causing minor ashfall around the volcano. Block avalanches were also observed on the E and S flanks; ashfall was reported in San Marcos (8 km SW) and Loma Linda Palajunoj (6 km WSW) on 25 and 27 March. Minor pyroclastic flows<
 were reported on 28 March.INSIVUMEH reported that during 23 February-2 March explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the complex. Collapses of blocky lava from the Caliente dome sent avalanches mainly down the SW flank, often reaching the base of the complex. Minor pyroclastic flows were occasionally generated. Ash plumes drifted W and SW, often causing minor ashfall around the volcano.INSIVUMEH reported that explosive activity remains low to moderate, accompanied by ash plume at 3,000-3,400 meters asl moving over 10 to 15 km. The activity of February 8 is characterized by a plume of heavy ash reaching 3,100 m. asl., dispersed to the northwest and west over 30 km. and ash falls. Bomb falls are reported on the flanks of the Mackenney cone 300 meters from the crater.
INSIVUMEH reported that during 19-25 January explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 600-900 m above the complex. The extrusion of blocky lava at Caliente dome generated block-and-ash flows that mainly descended the W and SW flanks, often reaching the base of the complex. Ash plumes drifted W and SW during 20-21 January, causing ashfall in Loma Linda (6 km WSW) and San Marcos Palajunoj (8 km SW). On 22 January collapses of material to the E and SE generated pyroclastic flows. INSIVUMEH / OVSAN reported on January 13th that explosions  generate plumes at an altitude of 3,300 meters asl, and avalanches of blocks on the west and southwest flanks mainly, which reached the base of the dome and spray ash in the surroundings.Between the explosions, a white outgassing plume was observed. INSIVUMEH reported that during 29 December-5 January explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 800-900 m above the complex. Plumes sometimes drifted about 1 km SW. The extrusion of blocky lava at Caliente dome generated block-and-ash flows that descended the NW, W, SW, and E flanks, often reaching the base of the complex. Ashfall on the flanks was noted almost daily, though during 1-2 January ashfall was also reported in Loma Linda (6 km WSW) and San Marcos Palajunoj (8 km SW). As of the 15th of December CONRED observed a white degassing plume, which disperses to the west and southwest and reaches heights of up to 500 meters above the volcanic complex. Mostly weak explosions were observed, generating plumes of gas and ash from a height of 3300 meters above sea level. As of the 10th December, INSIVUMEH reported that activity was characterized by a degassing forming a white plume at a height of 3,100 m asl., accompanied by short moments of noise from aircraft turbines, and gas and ash explosions reaching 3,400 m asl. Boulder avalanches mainly mark the southwest flank, with material reaching the base of the dome and causing fine ash to fall around the perimeter of the volcano. Due to the location of the block lava flow on the dome of the Caliente dome, the occurrence of boulder flow, and even pyroclastic flows, in a west-southwest direction cannot be ruled out..scientific blog about Santiaguito). The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

May 8th, 2021

INSIVUMEH reported that the observation on 7th of May showed of periods of degassing of white and gray color at the Mackenney crater of the Pacaya up to 900 meters above the crater, moving north and northeast. Effusive activity is maintained at the level of the crack on the northwest flank; it feeds a flow which descends the southwest flank for about 2,400 m. INSIVUMEH reported that on 6th of May, the activity remained mainly effusive. A white and bluish fumarole rose from Mackenney crater, moving south. The effusion continues on the new crack of the NE flank; the lava flow descends towards the SW and reaches 2,300 m. long. One of the flows does not move, and another moves slowly. Heavy rains hit Guatemala causing floods, landslides and lahars; A moderate lahar is reported in the Rio Nima and its tributary the Rio Samala, drainages of the Santiaguito. INSIVUMEH reported that a new effusive phase of the Pacaya began on April 29 around 5 a.m. and is maintained, both at the level of the Mackenney crater, with a lava flow towards the south-east 200 meters long, and at the level of a new crack formed this April 29 in the northwest, with a lava flow; at the level of this crack, one observes a continuous degassing and some weak explosions, with noises of train locomotive. This last flow, moving towards the southwest, is only 100 meters from an area called La Brena, affected by the previous flows, and has several ramifications.INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 April explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater generated minor gas-and-ash plumes that rose 250 m above the summit and drifted S and SW. The lava flow on the SW flank continued to be active, though did not advance. White gas plumes were visible the next day rising as high as 200 m. On 23 April lava effusion ceased. The lava flows on the SW flank remained hot and gas plumes rose from parts of the flow; no advancement was visible through 27 April. Gray-and-white emissions were visible during 24-27 April, rising 100-200 m above the summit and dispersing S and SW. Occasional minor explosions ejected incandescent material 50-150 m high during 26-27 April.According to INSIVUMEH the eruptive phase that began in Pacaya on February 5, 2021 has ended, according to Insivumeh. From February 5 to mid-March, the behavior of the volcano was mainly explosive, with the emission of ash and lapilli affecting the surrounding communities. From March 20, following the opening of a crack on the southwest flank, the activity became more effusive: the lava flows reached the communities of El Patrocinio and El Rodeo. The seismic activity associated with the lava effusion has been decreasing since April 16. The lava flows, the longest of which extended over approximately 3,800 m. in length, no longer showing progression in any direction; the lava solidified 450 meters from the first houses, and remains hot, with degassing fumaroles. The Mackenney crater only presents a degassing plume (water vapor and sulfur dioxide), containing little ash, at a height of 3,000 m. asl. and a few weak sporadic explosions. As of the 22nd of April, INSIVUMEH reported that the volcano presented a degassing interspersed with ash plumes at 2,800 meters above the crater, dispersing to the south and southwest with ash fallout. The lava flow on the western flank remains active, without significant advance, and exhibits high temperatures and gaseous fumes at various points in its path. According to a resident of El Patrocinio, the lava flow towards the village stopped three days ago. She says the townspeople are hoping the lava will just stay there. If the lava continues to move towards the village, the inhabitants, numbering about 350, may have to move. The authorities told the villagers about their settlement in an area about 160 km away. As of the 15th of April, INSIVUMEH reported that a high level of activity continued with a white degassing plume 500 meters above the crater, with ash at times at 2,700 m. asl., dispersing west. The effusive activity continues to feed the lava flows from the fissure on the southwest flank: the active fronts meet in the western part of the area towards the west, in an area called La Brena. Another flow moves southwest of Cerro Buena Vista; the most recent front, April 13, is west of the main flow, with a length of 150 m. towards the main road of El Patronicio. The total length of the casting is 3,700 meters. The seismic stations of Insivumeh record tremor constantly, associated with the rise of magma, and the permanent degassing of the crater. INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater continued during 7-13 April. Explosions during 6-7 April produced ash plumes that rose 1 km above the summit and drifted 10 km W and SW. Ballistics were ejected 50-150 m above the summit. Explosions during 8-9 and 11-12 April produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km and drifted as far as 10 km NE, W, and SW. As of the 7thy of April, INSIVUMEH reported tha the eruptive activity remains within the explosive and effusive standards of the previous days, with an extension of the length of the flow which advances by 5 meters per hour, and has a width of 300 meters.As of the 6th of April, INSIVUMEH reported that high activity continued with an effusive predominance; the western lava flow continues its course, 3,000 meters long on April 6 around 3 pm, in the vicinity of the communities of El Patronicio and El Rodeo. Its direction varies according to the topography; it has formed several ramifications. The flows cause fires in vegetation and crops, the destruction of buildings and the cutting of the paths. avalanches of boulders mark the flow front, as well as a degassing charged with sulfur dioxide dangerous for the respiratory system. The few explosions at Mackenney crater expel incandescent materials over 100 meters and generate ash plumes reaching 3,700 meters asl., and constant falls on communities located to the south and southeast of the volcano. The observed variations in seismic parameters are consistent with the periods of greatest activity at the Mackenney crater and the cracks that feed the flows. As of the 4th of April, INSIVUMEH analysis 2019 mid 2020 Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone. New Webcam

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COSTA RICA - Irazu volcano

November 6th, 2020

OVSICORI-UNA reported that Irazu's seismic network recorded a significant landslide in the W part of the volcano on 4 November along with a lahar. A small thermal anomaly was detected in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data. OVISCORI reported that the fissured slope of the Irazú volcano, located on the western flank of the Carthaginian colossus, collapsed on the morning of August 26 at a rate that remains to be determined. The event took place at around 4:10 a.m. when officials who were there began to perceive a seismic movement and vibration which, according to their reports, lasted for about a minute and a half. Ovsicori expert reported that just yesterday there were at least 100 small landslides; and that between Monday and Tuesday, the crack in the slope had moved 40 centimeters. The displaced materials are estimated to be several million cubic meters of rocks. The president of the National Emergency Commission (CNE) reported that this event is only alandslide and has not relationship with volcanic activity. The damage is material, and only concerns telecommunications installations that could not be moved. Irazú, one of Costa Rica's most active volcanoes, rises immediately E of the capital city of San José. The massive volcano covers an area of 500 km2 and is vegetated to within a few hundred meters of its broad flat-topped summit crater complex. At least 10 satellitic cones are located on its S flank. No lava flows have been identified since the eruption of the massive Cervantes lava flows from S-flank vents about 14,000 years ago, and all known Holocene eruptions have been explosive. The focus of eruptions at the summit crater complex has migrated to the W towards the historically active crater, which contains a small lake of variable size and color. Although eruptions may have occurred around the time of the Spanish conquest, the first well-documented historical eruption occurred in 1723, and frequent explosive eruptions have occurred since. Ashfall from the last major eruption during 1963-65 caused significant disruption to San José and surrounding areas.

COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

January 9th, 2020

OVSICORI-UNA reported that the waters of the hyperacid lake, milky green in color, reached 40 ° C. During the day of January 7, the observation of small eruptions in the center of the lake produced the release of water vapor and gas, reaching up to 2 meters in height, through fumarole C, submerged. The old NE / orange fumarole, outside the lake, becomes active again, at a temperature of 80 ° C, and deposits native sulfur on the ground. Constant degassing marks the fumarole field on the eastern edge of the lake.The seismicity on January 9 is stable with less than 150 episodes / day and occasionally a tremor of variable frequency and short duration. The permanent deformation is stable, with a slight tendency towards inflation. Previous news 2020 - OVSICORI reported that a new fumarole was located on the eastern side of the crater for a few days. From December 16th until 18th a part of Day, the crater having been subsequently masked by fog. However, when there is a gap providing sufficient visibility on the crater, we no longer notice the fumarole on the webcam. The seismic activity remains comparable to that of the previous days, and the other parameters are within the standards. According to the latest report dated 6th of October from OVSICORI-UNA, over the past few days the sulfur dioxide emissions from the Poás have caused a smell of sulfur in neighboring areas and acid rain has been recorded in the Poás Volcano National Park ( PNVP) and the National University of Costa Rica (UNA). Seismic activity was higher on October 6 compared to the day before. OVSICORI reported that on the morning of May 14, an SO2 peak of 29.2 ppm was recorded. On the other hand, from the point of view, maximum concentrations of SO2 greater than 2 ppm were detected. Band tremor is observed in the range of 1 to 5 Hz. The lowest frequency tends to be persistent, unlike the highest frequency.The OVSICORI also reported stable CO2 / SO2 and H2S / SO2 ratios, around 1.0 and 0.1, respectively As of the 6th of May, OVSICORI reported that during the day, the hot magmatic gases fed the fumarole, with separate exhalations of 5-6 minutes, with a seismic signature.The volcano continues to present an average of 300 earthquakes of low frequency and low amplitude per day. The measured magmatic gas concentrations remain low, with SO2 concentrations of less than 5 parts per million (ppm), an H2S / SO2 ratio of less than 0.1 and a slight decrease in the CO2 / SO2 ratio with values ​​around 0.7. OVSICORI reported that seismic activity is higher on February 25 compared to the previous day. A slight increase in seismic activity was observed with frequent low frequency (LP) volcanic earthquakes which showed an increase in amplitude, as in the almost continuous volcanic tremor. OVSICORI reported that fumaroles still rose the acid lake which remains filled in this season. The sulfur dioxide concentration on January 26 is max. 24 ppm, down on January 27 with less than 0.4 ppm measured at the ExpoGas station. Seismic activity remains stable. Previous news 2019 - As of the 28th of November, OVSICORI reported that the crater lake maintained its surface area compared to the previous week.The color of the water tends to be greenish. Evaporation processes were a little more intense than the previous week and rainfall decreased. The field of sulfur-rich fumaroles in the northeast maintains its exhalation activity. At the mouth A, bubbling and emission of gas were observed. At the seismic level, the tremor of small amplitude was maintained (2 to 4.5 Hz), as well as discrete events of type LP (long duration) of low amplitude. OVSICORI reported in November that the acidic lake maintained its surface area compared to the previous week. Its color tends to become greenish. The evaporation processes were less intense and the precipitation constant. The field of fumaroles rich in sulfur in the north-east sector maintains its activity.Seismically, the low amplitude background tremor is maintained (2 to 4.5 Hz), as well as discrete earthquakes of type LP (long period) also of low amplitude. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new explosive event occurred on 30th of September at 5:40 AM. it produced a black cypressoid plume that rose above the edge of the crater, immediately accompanied by a plume of gas ... the eruptive column filled the crater before rising to 2,000 meters above it ( 4.708 m asl) then disperse to the southwest. Ovsicori reported an activity duration of 5 minutes.Thick, acidic ash has settled down, accompanied by an odor of sulfur, according to testimonies from inhabitants of Trojas de Sarchi. Since the eruption, the weak degassing concerns three vents, and especially the main mouth; some bubbles are observed at vent C. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a phreatic eruption occurred September 27, with activity level slightly down. A plume rich in water vapor, gas and aerosols is observed 1,000 meters above the crater. The NASA Satellite AURA detects a plume of sulfur dioxide between 16 and 26 September dispersing to the northwest northwest. A sulphurous smell is perceptible by the inhabitants of Alajuela, Heredia, San José, and Cartago. Fog and rain, hyperacids, saline and viscous, generate a rapid and extreme corrosion at the top of Poás (see article of 25.09). The hyperacid rains were measured at the home of PNVP staff (pH = 3.31) on Monday, September 23rd. The water of Laguna Botos is also very acidic, pH = 3.60.OVSICORI-UNA reported that an hydrothermal eruption of Poas volcano was recorded on 22 September at 20h59 local time. It lasted 25 minutes, accompanied by a plume rising to 2,000 meters above the summit, before dispersing to the northeast.The event was captured by the thermal camera located on the southern edge of the active crater. Activity continued until 4 pm on September 23, and a collapse was generated on the southern edge of mouth A with a widening of the fumarole fieldOn September 20, Poas maintained a vigorous degassing, characterized by a plume of gas and white vapor rising more than 1,000 meters above the crater. The decrease of the wind and the atmospheric conditions made it possible to see this plume of the Central Valley. On Sunday, September 15th, more than five phreatic eruptions were observed between 16:55 and 22:40:00. The bubling was also constant during this week. At the seismic level, a continuous bottom tremor remained, and increased slightly by magnitude on September 17. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruptive event from vent A (Boca Roja) at Poas generated a 1-km-high plume of steam, gas, and fine particulates at 0650 on 17 August. The event was preceded by an increase in tremor amplitude starting at 0500 that same day. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. Web camera from OVSICORI-UNA.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

August 26th, 2020

On 21 August OVSICORI-UNA reported that fracturing of SW wall of Turrialba's active crater, along with an area of incandescence within the fracture zone, had been observed during the previous month. An eruption was recorded at 1253 on 22 August, though a plume was not visible due to weather conditions. At 2301 on 24 August a plume rose 1 km above the crater rim.
OVSICORI-UNA reported that there were 19 minor ash emissions recorded at Turrialba during 4-5 August, with event durations lasting no longer than three minutes and plumes rising no higher than 200 m above the summit. Four more events were recorded on 5 August, with event durations lasting less than 10 minutes. Plumes again rose no higher than 200 m. OVSICORI reported that the activity since June 2020 was characterized with small eruptions, then on July 30 and 31, various eruptive episodes followed one another, with columns of gas and ash reaching 200 meters above the summit. On August 1, the plume of gas and ash reached 500 meters above the crater.OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 22-23 July white steam plumes from Turrialba contained a minor amount of ash on one occasion. OVSICORI-UNA reported that ash emissions of variable densities were visible at Turrialba almost daily during 16-20 July. Ash plumes rose as high as 200 m above the crater rim each day during 16-18 July. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a passive emission occurred on July 16, 2020 at 12:09 p.m., accompanied by an ash plume 200 meters above the crater; it lasted 2 minutes. This episode was followed by several other very diluted shows during the day. A peak in the CO2 / SO2 and H2S / SO2 ratios was recorded overnight, before returning to values ​​similar to those of the day before.
OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive emissions with minor amounts of ash were occasionally visible at Turrialba during 9-10 July. OVSICORI reported that small emissions occurred at a low height and almost daily between July 1st and 7th, excepted on July 3. On July 6 at 9 a.m., a plume of gas and ash reached a few hundred meters, causing localized ash falls. On July 7, no significant change in gases was observed. However, the CO2 / SO2 ratio fluctuated from 12.3 to 10.3; while the H2S / SO2 ratio remains between 0.3 and 0.4. However, the SO2 concentration varies between 3.3 and 4.6 ppm. During the first hours of today, passive degassing was observed. However, there are sporadic ash emissions, the last reported yesterday morning. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 08:18:00 local time on June 29, 2020 an eruption is recorded with a column that rises 100 meters above the height of the crater and 3440 meters above the level of the sea. (11,283.2 ft). Duration of activity: less than a minute. Seismic activity is similar to that of the day before. During the past 24 hours and when the weather was favorable, several ash eruptions were observed (local hours: 13:48, 17:39 23:03 1:07 2:32 03:06 4:12 8:18) . The plume of these eruptions did not exceed 100 m above the level of the crater. At least 2 of these eruptions were accompanied by ballistics projected on the north wall of the active crater (at 1h07 and 4h12). A subsidence of the volcanic massif is observed, as well as gas ratios in the values ​​of the last days. OVSICORI-UNA reported that ash emissions at Turrialba rose no higher than100 m above the crater rim from events recorded at 1714, 1723, and 1818 on 18 June and at 1023 and 1039 on 19 June. A small ash emission was visible at 1715 on 22 June. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption ( probably phreatic) was observed on the webcams on April 12 around 9:40 pm. Previous news 2019 - OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruptive event at Turrialba was detected at 1441 on 28 July, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. Ashfall was reported in La Picada (N) and El Retiro farms. As of the 17th of July, OVSICORI-UNA reported that weak and stable activity remained, with a plume of steam and gas, dispersed towards a west and south-west sector.The crater glow recorded by webcams remained low, compared to that of previous months.Two small lakes are always mentioned at the summit; a third forms temporarily after a few hours of rain, then disappears. Some LP earthquakes were recorded during the past week. On 19 May OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive, short-duration emissions with small amounts of ash had been sporadically occurring at Turrialba over the previous week. Prolonged and intermittent periods of emissions with minor amounts of ash were visible during 19-20 May.OVSICORI-UNA reported that in the past week activity remained low and stable. The LP earthquake record was maintained however.On 27 April at 7:22, a short eruption occurred , accompanied by a small plume of brown ash that rose 100 meters above the summit. OVSICORI-UNA reported that minor ash emissions rose from Turrialba on 8 April. OVSICORI-UNA reported that gas emissions at Turrialba significantly decreased on 30 March. An eruption recorded at 0735 on 31 March was followed by passive emissions with a low concentration of magmatic gases at least through 1 April. Seismicity continued to be dominated by low-frequency events. OVSICORI-UNA reported a period of continuous emissions from Turrialba during 20-22 March. The emissions were characterized as white water vapor plumes with periodic pulses of diffuse ash rising 300 m above the vent rim and drifting W and SW. A sulfur odor was noted in Tierra Blanca de Cartago on 22 March. Only water vapor plumes with a low concentration of magmatic gases were visible during 23-26 March. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 9-12 March plumes of gas sometimes containing small amounts of ash rose as high as 1 km above Turrialba's crater rim. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at 0444 on 1 March produced a plume that rose 200 m and drifted NE. A period of continuous emissions rising 200-300 m was recorded during 2-4 March; the plumes contained minor amounts of ash at least during 2-3 March. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

COSTA RICA - Rincon de la Vieja volcano

November 19th, 2020

OVSICORI-UNA reported that two eruptive episodes occurred on November 18. The first at 10:24 local time was accompanied by a plume of 1,000 meters above the active crater.For the second at 2:50 p.m. local, identified by infrasonic signal, we could not know the height of the plume, due to poor visibility conditions. According to the Ovsicori, between January and October, the volcano presented more than 1,300 eruptive episodes. Its activity has increased since May and the eruptions are recurrent last week. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 5:40:00 local time on November 11th, 2020, an eruption was recorded with a column that roses 1,000 meters above the height of the crater and 2,916 meters above the sea ​​level (meters above sea level) (9,564.48 ft). Duration of activity has been 5 minutes. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 9th of November At 3:23 p.m. local time, an eruption was recorded at Rincón de la Vieja, with a dark gray plume rising 100 meters above the height of the crater and 2016 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level) (6,612.48 feet). OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 08:35:00 local time on November 3, 2020, a new small hydrothermal eruption was recorded with a column that rises 800 meters above the height of the crater, or 2716 meters of altitude asl. Duration of activity: 1 minute. Seismic activity remains low, with low amplitude, low frequency background tremors and sporadic low amplitude (LP) volcanic earthquakes. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new phreatic explosion occurred on 29th of October at 6:18 am generation a plume that rose at about 2000 m high above the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new small eruption probably occurred around 7:30 am on October 25, without being able to be confirmed by the cameras. At 8:06 a.m. local time on October 24, 2020, an eruption was recorded at the Rincon de la Vieja volcano, with a column that rose 1000 meters above the height of the crater, or 2916 m.s.n.m. (meters above sea level) - Duration of activity: 1 minute. OVSICORI-UNA reported that two eruptive episodes occurred on October 11, respectively at 10:09 am local and 5:46 pm local; the height of the plumes could not be increased due to poor visibility conditions. The first episode lasted 1 minute, and tape and discontinuous tremor was recorded (0.7 - 5 Hz). The duration of the second episode is also one minute. OVSICORI-UNA reported that explosive eruption of the volcano continues characterized by phreatic-type (or hydrothermal) explosions at regular intervals of 1 to 2 per day.On 6th of October at 08:22 local time a new explosionoccurred producing gas-steam plume that rose 1,640 ft (500 m) above the summit crater. No ash fall was reported. OVSICORI reported that hydrothermal explosive activity continues with a few episodes : on October 5th at 12:39 am local time, an episode was accompanied by a plume reaching about 500 meters above the active crater. Also on October 5 at 7:27 p.m. local time, another episode occurred lasting one minute, without determining the height of the plume due to the darkness and on October 6th at 5:31 UTC, another eruptive episode occurred. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on Friday, October 2, 2020, at 5:40 a.m., an explosive, hydrothermal-type eruptive episode was recorded at the active crater of the Rincón de la Vieja volcano, with a plume height of about 800 m above the edge of the crater. , or 4,140 meters asl. It lasted 2 minutes. The event was also reported by the inhabitants of Curubandé and Gavilán. It was not excluded that the material expelled by the eruption was deposited in the basin of the rivers located to the north of the volcano, precautions are therefore required because of the sudden floods of these channels. OVSICORI-UNA reported that small, frequent eruptions at Rincon de la Vieja continued to be recorded, though sometimes not visually confirmed, during 16-22 September. A larger event, at 1053 on 22 September, ejected material out of the crater and into the drainages on the N flank. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new phreatic eruption occurred at 06:32:00 local time on September 17th, 2020, with a column rising 700 meters above the height of the crater and 2616 m.s.n.m. (meters above sea level) (8580.48 ft). Duration of the activity: 1 minutes. Seismic activity is similar, with respect to the day before. The 6:32 eruption did not generate lahar. A banded and discontinuous tremor between 1 and 4hz was observed. OVSICORI-UNA reported that the volcano erupted on September 7th at 7:50 am for about a minute; the eruptive plume rose 50 meters above the crater. The Ovsicori also indicated that the quasi-continuous tremor showed increasing amplitude sharply from 7 am, followed by a pause of one hour after the eruption; the plume of gas and ash particles rose 500 meters above the summit. The decrease in the level of the lake generates a greater presence of ash in the gas plume; these ashes are dispersed by winds towards the west of the volcanic massif, and can, in the event of heavy rains, feed lahars. OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing phreatic activity at Rincon de la Vieja during 19 August-1 September. Phreatic explosions were recorded almost daily, sometimes multiple times a day, though weather conditions often prevented visual confirmation of emissions. Plumes were seen rising 0.5-1 km above the crater rim on 19, 24, 28, and 31 August. Rincon de la Vieja, a composite stratovolcano in Northwestern Costa Rica forms a NW-trending ridge consisting of several eruptive centers that have coalesced through time. Elevations of the individual cones range from 1670 to 1920 meters and nine craters are readily identified by their topographic expression. Numerous phreatic eruptions have occurred since 1851 (as recently as November, 1995), all from the Active Crater. The last major eruption involving juvenile magma occurred at ~3,500 ybp, producing the Rio Blanco tephra deposit. Ash, pumice, and lithics ejected during this eruption were deposited in a highly asymmetrical dispersal pattern WSW of the Active Crater, indicating strong easterly prevailing tradewinds at the time of the eruption. Historical descriptions of the summit crater morphology suggest that conditions there have changed little over the past century.
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NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

December 1st, 2020

As of the 1st of December, INETER reported that Low-level eruptive activity of the volcano continues by near-constant ash emissions recorded during the 30 November. The activity at the crater has been mostly small-to-moderate only, but near-constant a lot in frequency of explosions as INETER surveillance camera observed. According to local news, ashes ejection occurred on October 15th, 2019. Samples were collected and recorded in the municipality of Ticuantepe, which, as a result of the change in wind direction, received the ash particles from the volcano. If The winds continued to blow from south-east to north-west the city of Managua could be affected by gases or falls of pyroclastic material. Previous notable news 2017 - The Washington VAAC reported that on 13 May a west-drifting ash emission from Masaya was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot. Previously, based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 21 January a possible emission from Masaya with minor ash content drifted almost 25 km NW.Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 5 January a gas, steam, and ash plume from Masaya drifted W. Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that a steam-and-gas plume from Masaya possibly contained some ash on 3 November. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 28 August a gas plume with possible ash rose from Masaya to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 15 August a possible ash plume from Masaya rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Elevated seismicity and a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images indicated increased activity. In a report posted later that day the Washington VAAC noted that the webcam recorded minor ash emissions. Previously, INETER reported that during 18-19 May RSAM values at Masaya fluctuated between 300 and 700 units which are low-to-moderate values. The lava lake in Santiago Crater continued to strongly circulate and the vent widened through 24 May. INETER reported that between 1700 and 2400 on 3 May volcanic tremor at Masaya increased; RSAM values spiked at 1,000 units and then dropped to 250. Gas emissions at Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels, and the lava lake continued to strongly circulate. On 5 May RSAM values fluctuated between 250 and 500 units which are low-to-moderate values. INETER reported that during 27 April-3 May gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels. Seismic tremor decreased though continued to fluctuate between low to moderate levels. The lava lake continued to strongly circulate. INETER reported that during 20-23 April gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels and RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 22 April the level of the lava lake decreased, though strong lake circulation was reported on 23 April. INETER reported that during 6-12 April the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. (Time-lapse video). Previously on 30 March INETER reported that the lava lake rose in Masaya's Santiago crater and several landslide deposits from the precious few days were visible in the NE crater. RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that tremor continued and the widening of the vent in the SE part of the crater persisted. According to a SINAPRED report on 28 March INETER noted that lava-lake activity at Masaya's Santiago crater was intense and the craters continued to gradually widen. Emissions were at low levels. INETER reported that on 3 March the lava lake on the SW floor of Masaya's Santiago crater was very active. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. Previously, INETER reported that the lava lakes in three vents on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater were active during 20 February-1 March. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. On 23 February small explosions ejected spatter onto the crater floor. During fieldwork volcanologists observed active lava lakes in all three vents on the crater floor, and noted that the inner walls of the crater were being eroded due to the lava lake. A new vent was forming on the SE part of the crater floor. During a second visit on 24 February INETER staff noted that the vents had become larger due to landslides on the crater walls. Small streams of lava sporadically originated from the NE vent. By 1 March the two vents in the SW part of the crater had almost merged. On 17 February INETER reported that the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. During 10-11 February sulfur dioxide emissions at Masaya rose to high levels (1,500 tons per day), and RSAM values were at moderately-high levels due to higher levels of volcanic tremor. This activity coincided with an increase in the size of the lava lake. Gas emissions were at moderate and low levels on 12 and 16 February, respectively. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindiri­ and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage. (GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Telica volcano

May 9th, 2021

INETER reported that volcano recorded gas and ash explosions in the morning of May 8, 2021, according to the images of the webcam. Previous news 2020 - INETER reported that there were 598 low energy ash-and-gas explosions at Telica recorded during 1-3 December, making a total of 775 recorded since the activity began on 30 November. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 50-400 m above the crater rim and mainly drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in Zarandaj (7 km WSW), Cristo Rey (6 km W), Las Colinas (7 km WSW), Garrobo Empinado (8 km SW), El Panal (9 km SSW), Canta Rana, Ceibo Chachagua (10 km SW), Las Mercedes, Punta Arena (11 km SW), La Virgen, and Filiberto Morales (15 km WSW). INETER reported that moderate eruptive activity has been observed since November 30th, characterized by emission of earthy ash, mostly present, at the regular rate of dozens of explosions. A significant part of the ash emitted would come from ancient lava present in the crater and conduits. Due to the direction of the wind, the communities that are most affected at this time by the ash from the volcano are: El Panal, Cristo Rey, Los Cocos and Los Ángeles, according to the Humboldt Center for Environmental Research. The VAAC Washington has issued an advisory regarding volcanic ash, reaching 1,500 m. altitude towards the southwest of the volcano for December 1st. As of the 2nd of November; explosive eruption of the volcano continues at fluctuating intensity characterized by occasional ash emissions. Since 29 October INETER recorded 9 small explosions containing emissions of water vapor, gases and small amounts of ash. An ash plumes rose 820 ft-1,968 ft (250 m-600 m) above the summit crater. As of the 8th of October, INETER reported that explosive eruption of the volcano continues characterized by moderate content of ash emissions. 5 explosions were detected during the past 24 hours. On 7 October at 07:42 local time the strongest eruption occurred. An ash plume rose 1,968 ft (600 m) above the summit and drifted southwest. INETER reported that a new explosions occurred on July 29, starting around 5:28 am; they were accompanied by emissions of ash and gas, about thirty meters above the crater, blown by the northward winds, without affecting the population.As of the 21st of July, SINAPRED reported that small gas and ash explosions occurred with release of materials 200 meters above the edge of the crater; these explosions are produced following the obstruction of the conduit by small landslides, and accumulation of gas. The tremor has increased from 27 to 153 units during the explosion and remains high, indicating a possibility of small explosions in the following hours or days. Previous news 2018 - SINAPRED reported that on 15 August an explosion at Telica generated an ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim. INETER reported that a moderate explosion took place in June 21, 2018 at 7:08 local time. A plume of gas, ash, and some rocks rose 500 meters above the crater, before drifting east, south and southwest. Rockfall occurred near the crater, while the finer and sandy material was found more than one kilometer. Ash falls are reported on Los Manglares, Las Marias, Pozo Viejo, El Porvenir and Monte de Los Olivos.The explosion was followed by gas emissions; new explosions are likely during the day. INETER reported that a small gas explosion was heard by local residents on 10 September 2017. INETER warned the public to stay at least 2 km away from the crater.Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of 1061-m-high Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately SE of Telica, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.(GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Momotombo

July 7th, 2020

SINAPRED reported that a seismic swarm at Momotombo began at 0657 on 6 July and by the next day a total of 51 earthquakes had been recorded. The largest event was an M 2.6 located 9 km SE of the volcano, beneath Lake Managua, at a depth of 3 km. INETER noted that the earthquakes were located along a fault and not directly related to the volcano. INETER recorded small explosions on February 26 at Momotombo; the activity started at 13:55 with an increase in gaseous emissions, then small gas explosions at 14:45 and 15:30, the last accompanied by an earthquake of M1.4. The last eruptions dated from December 2015 and January 2016. 2016 eruption reports - INETER reported that three explosions at Momotombo during 5-6 April ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater. During 6-7 April there were 27 small explosions for a total of 438 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. The explosions ejected some incandescent material, and generated ash plumes that rose 200 m and drifted SW. RSAM values were low during 5-12 April. SINAPRED reported that on 2 April explosions at Momotombo produced gas-and-ash plumes and ejected incandescent tephra. On 28 March SINAPRED reported that 38 explosions were detected at Momotombo over a period of 24 hours, which ejected gas-and-ash plumes and incandescent tephra. The strongest event occurred at 1140 on 27 March and generated a plume that rose 1 km. During 2-3 March INETER reported that 53 small explosions at Momotombo generated low-energy gas plumes that rose 300 m above the crater. On 3 March some of the explosions produced ash plumes that drifted W and SW. RSAM values were at low to moderate levels. SINAPRED reported that during 5-6 March there were 78 explosions for a total of 279 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. One of the most significant explosions occurred on 6 March. The next day gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater. INETER reported that during 19 February-1 March explosions at Momotombo were detected daily; 88 explosions were detected during 1 December 2015-1 March 2016. Explosions produced ash plumes, and ejected incandescent material onto the N, NE, E, and SE flanks. Ash plumes rose 1.7-2.3 km above the crater and drifted SW during 21-22 February; gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.8 km on 24 February; an ash plume rose 1 km on 25 February; and a small gas-and-ash plume rose 300 m on 26 February. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the N and NW flanks during 23-24 February. Explosions on 27 February ejected tephra 300 m above the crater. At 0646 on 1 March explosions ejected gas and incandescent tephra; an ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted W and SW. The gas-and-ash emissions lasted 16 minutes, causing the plume to widen and darken the sky. INETER reported that during 16-17 February two explosions at Momotombo were accompanied by tremor, and produced ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The first and largest explosion (recorded at 0344) ejected incandescent tephra 800 m above the crater. RSAM values were at low-to-moderate levels. Based on webcam views and satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 February ash emissions rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and WSW. The next day ash emissions drifted SW. On 21 February ash plumes drifted about 80 km W and 25 km E. INETER reported moderate levels of gas emissions at Momotombo on 10 February; volcanic tremor and gas emissions increased to moderate-to-high levels the next day. An explosion on 12 February produced small ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the N and SE flanks. An explosion at 1305 on 15 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and ejected incandescent tephra onto the N and NE flanks. INETER reported that during 4-5 and 7-8 February both RSAM values at Momotombo were low to moderate and emissions were at moderate levels. INETER reported that during 26-29 January RSAM values at Momotombo were at low to moderate levels, and gas emissions were at moderate levels. Crater incandescence from high-temperature gas emissions was observed at night during 26-27 January. A Strombolian explosion at 0344 on 30 January ejected tephra onto the E, NE, N, and NW flanks, and produced gas emissions. At 0529 on 31 January another explosion also ejected gas, ash, and incandescent material. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas including the communities of Boqueron, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), and La Sabaneta. Moderate levels of gas emissions drifted SW towards Puerto Momotombo.INETER reported that during 20-21 January both RSAM values and emissions at Momotombo were low. Volcanic tremor increased at 0900 on 22 January, causing RSAM values to rise to high levels. There were no changes to emissions. INETER recommended to the public to stay at least 6 km away from the volcano. INETER reported that at 1209 on 12 January a large explosion at Momotombo ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and generated an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater. Tephra was deposited on the E, NE, N, and NW flanks. Ash plumes drifted downwind and caused ashfall in the communities of Flor de Piedra, La Concha (40 SSE), Amatistan, Guacucal (40 km N), La Palma, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), La Sabaneta, Mira Lago, Asentamiento Miramar, Pancasan, Rene Linarte, Raul Cabezas, and Betania. At around 0500 on 15 January strong volcanic tremor was accompanied by small explosions in the crater; ejected ash and incandescent tephra were deposited on the W flank. Seismicity decreased during 16-17 January. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, three gas-and-ash explosions on 2 January, at 1333, 1426, and 1434, excavated the remaining parts of the lava dome which was emplaced about a month ago. An ash plume rose 500 m above the crater, drifted S and SW, and caused ashfall in Puerto Momotombo (9 km WSW). Possible ash plumes from an explosion at 2129 were hidden by darkness. At 0420 on 3 January an explosion ejected lava bombs 2 km away and caused ashfall in La Paz Centro (18 km SW). Lava flows had advanced as far as 2 km down the NE flank. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, activity at Momotombo continued through 10 December. Fieldwork revealed a small, incandescent, circular crater halfway up Momotombo's E flank that was fuming during the morning on 6 December. An explosion on 7 December destroyed part of the crater. On 10 December SINAPRED reported that material had been accumulating in the crater since the beginning of the eruption on 1 December. Seismicity during 9-14 December was low and stable. Based on satellite and webcam observations, and seismic data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Momotombo rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-225 km NW and WNW. INETER reported that series of at least 4 small explosions occurred at the volcano on the morning, at 07:49, 08:17, 08:42, and 08:55 local time on 1st of December. The eruptions, in particular the last and largest one, produced steam and ash plumes that rose up to approx. 1 km from the summit. Light ash fall was observed in the community of El Papalonal and near the Momotombo geothermal plant to the SW of the volcano. Later, during the day, It seems that the volcano continues to erupt and have been intensifying its activity with near-continuous strombolian explosions accompanied with hot incandescent material and a small et slowly lava flows went down from the summit crater on the Northeast flank.Ashfall was reported in nearby communities to the W and SW, including La Concha, Los Arcos, Flor de la Piedra, La Paz Centro, and Leon. Some families in La Paz Centro self-evacuated. This is the first eruptive activity of the volcano in 110 years, the last confirmed eruption of Momotombo occurred in 1905 . Momotombo is a young, 1297-m-high stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows from Momotombo have flowed down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms a 391-m-high island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional larger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after an April 10, 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the southern flank of the volcano. INETER

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

March 20th, 2021

The Washington VAAC reported that on 19 March a notable ash cloud from San Cristobal rose at least to 12.2 km (40,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 80 km ENE based on satellite data, ash dispersion models, and weather models. SINAPRED reported that a series of five moderate-to-strong vulcanian-type explosions occurred at the volcano on 9th of March 2021 between 13:06 and 13:32 local time. The strongest eruption at 01:25 local time triggered a dense, dark ash column to an estimated altitude of 8,000 ft (2,400 m) which extended about 17 km to the southwest of the volcano. Ashfall was reported in cities of El Viejo, Chinandega and Chichigalapa. Expected explosions in the near future will not threaten inhabited areas, but volcanological observatory recommends to keep general precautions. Previously, last year INETER reported that a low-energy explosion at San Cristobal was detected by the seismic network at 1550 on 4 March 2019. The event produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP

NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

October 20th, 2019

According to news reports, ash was emitted from Masaya on 15 October, causing very minor ashfall in Colonia 4 de Mayo, 6 km NW. Previously, Ineter, reported that an explosion occurred on Sunday, July 21, in the afternoon in the crater Santiago of Masaya. According to official reports, the ashes released did not cause injuries to people who were near the crater and did not pose a problem for neighboring populations, but the authorities did not rule out any additional activities. The Masaya Park has been temporarily closed.Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage. GVN/GVP)

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El SALVADOR - San Miguel volcano

February 16th, 2021

SNET stated that San Miguel's seismic network recorded long-lasting and continuous periods of volcanic tremor that began on 7 February and continued through 14 February. Discrete earthquakes from minor rock fracturing were also detected. RSAM values fluctuated between 25 and 75 units, below normal values around 150 units. Previous news 2020 - SNET stated that during 30-31 March the seismic network at San Miguel recorded a period of increased seismicity characterized by continuous, low-frequency, tremor-type signals.RSAM values were between 90 and 116 units, lower than the normal values of 150, at a seismic station located on the upper N flank. SNET stated that during 28 February-6 March there were no reports of noises or gas emissions at San Miguel from the network of local observers. Seismicity was stable; 50-60 low-magnitude earthquakes were recorded per hour with RSAM values between 40 and 98 units, lower than the normal values of 150. The sulfur dioxide emission flux was 517-808 tons per day. SNET reported that during 23-28 February activity at San Miguel was low. An increase in the number of very small-magnitude earthquakes was recorded by the VSM seismic station located on the upper N flank. RSAM values were between 45 and 75 units, lower than the normal values of 150. SNET report noted an increase in amplitude of microearthquakes and minor gas emissions form the main crater. Sulfur dioxide levels had also increased. Beginning at 1055 on 22 February an ash emission that lasted 10 minutes long resulted in a small gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim. Minor ashfall was reported in the area of Piedra Azul, 5 km SW. RSAM peaked at 510 units during the period of emissions, above the normal values of 150, as recorded by station VSM located on the upper N flank. The number of low-amplitude tremor events increased after a quiet period of about 11 hours and were associated with gas emissions; RSAM was 33-97 units and minor gas plumes were visible rising 400 m during 23-24 February. SNET reported that starting at 7:00 p.m. yesterday February 20th, 2020 at 7:50 a.m. Friday 21, the Network of local observers reported the occurrence of a series of rumblings from the volcano. Monitoring data indicates that the volcano has exhibited a change in behavior, evidenced by the increase in the amplitude of microseisms and slight gas emissions by its central crater. The seismicity recorded in the volcano shows signs that may be related to fractures and small internal explosions of the volcano, which indicates an increase in its internal pressure, with the possibility of the appearance of a more significant degassing which can be accompanied by small ash fumes, which, if they occur, will preferably be transported to the southwest flank of the volcano. Previous news 2018 - SNET reported a significant increase in the number of low- and high-frequency earthquakes beneath San Miguel's crater beginning on 22 May. RSAM values fluctuated between 142 and 176 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 30 May-1 June. Webcam images on 30 May showed a small gray gas emission. On 2 March SNET reported that gas plumes rose as high as 400 m above San Miguel's crater rim during the previous week. Ash was in the emissions on 24, 26, and 28 February, and 1 March. RSAM values fluctuated between 70 and 179 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 1-2 March. At 2200 on 5 March seismic amplitude began to increase, with RSAM values rising to 318 units by 0600 on 6 March. A webcam recorded minor gas emission during 5-6 March. SNET reported that during 0800-1100 on 19 February gas-and-ash emissions from San Miguel rose 350 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Ash fell on the upper flanks of the volcano, and a sulfur odor was reported in La Piedra farm. The symmetrical cone of San Miguel volcano, one of the most active in El Salvador, rises from near sea level to form one of the country's most prominent landmarks. A broad, deep crater that has been frequently modified by historical eruptions (recorded since the early 16th century) caps the truncated summit of the towering volcano, which is also known locally as Chaparrastique. Radial fissures on the flanks of the basaltic volcano have fed a series of fresh lava flows, including several erupted during the 17th-19th centuries that reached beyond the base of the volcano on the N, W, and SE sides. The SE-flank lava flows are the largest and form broad sparsely vegetated lava fields. GVN - (SNET)

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COLOMBIA - Galeras volcano

April 22nd, 2013

INGEOMINAS reported that during 15-21 May seismicity at Galeras was at a low level; during 19-20 May earthquakes with magnitudes 2.6 or less were concentrated in an area 3 km SW at depths near 4 km. Gas plumes rose 500 m above the crater and contained small amounts of ash during 15-16 and 20-21 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). INGEOMINAS reported that during 10-16 April 2913 earthquakes at Galeras were located in various areas as far as 13 km from the crater, at depths no greater than 14 km and with maximum magnitudes of 2. Moderate levels of sulfur dioxide were detected; plumes drifted NW. Cameras recorded ash emissions all week, especially on 9, 11, 12, and 14 April, when pulsating activity produced plumes that drifted W. Plumes rose no more than 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").INGEOMINAS reported that during 30 October-6 November 2012 seismicity at Galeras fluctuated but was slightly lower compared to the previous week. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low. Cameras around Galeras recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising from the crater on 30 October and 1 November. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. Webcam image

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Ruiz

December 29th, 2020

Servicio Geologico Colombiano, reported that since December 28, 2020 at 09:42 (local time), it has observed a significant increase in volcano-tectonic seismic activity associated with rocks fracturation at the volcanic edifice, located in the northern sector at an average distance of 0.7 km, from the Arenas crater.The recording of a volcano-tectonic earthquake that occurred at 09:42 a.m. (time local) with a magnitude of 3.6 ML (local magnitude), at a depth of 3.0 km. This earthquake was felt by those responsible for the Los Nevados National Natural Park and by the inhabitants of the municipalities of Manizales and Villamaría. Since December 2nd in the evening and during the morning of December 3rd, the SGC has reported a "drumbeat" type seismic activity This type of seismicity is linked to the processes of ascent, location, growth and evolution of a lava dome at the bottom of the Arenas crater. The Nevado del Ruiz alert level remains at yellow. SGC reported that the volcano continues to emit water vapor and gases, mainly sulfur dioxide. The column of gas and vapor reached a maximum height of 2,122 m measured at the top of the volcano on November 4. On November 13, Sentinel-5P / Tropomi detected a strong signal of sulfur dioxide with 11.66 DU of SO2.SGC reported that on the morning of October 18th, the Nevado del Ruiz displayed dense, white plumes of gas and steam, reaching a height of about 1,400 metres, dispersing towards ONO. The activity level is 3 / amarillo, marking a change in the behavior of volcanic activity. As of the 13th of October, SGC reported that the seismicity generated by the fracturing of rocks increased in number of earthquakes and in energy released compared to the previous week.A few "drumbeat" type episodes associated with low energy fracturing have been recorded. They are associated with the process of evolution of the dome of the Arenas crater. Seismicity linked to the dynamics of internal fluids is also on the rise.The SGC does not report significant changes in surface deformation. The gas and steam plumes reached heights of up to 1,350 meters above the summit.The level of activity remains amarillo. As of the 29th of September, SGC reported the weekly bulletin that the volcano continues to present instability, and remains in level 3 / yellow. Seismicity in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids has increased in number of events and in released seismic energy. It is characterized by a continuous tremor, or in pulses, of LP and VLP earthquakes, sometimes associated with gas and ash emissions. The surface deformation does not show significant variations compared to the past weeks. Servicio Geologico Columbiano, informed that the volcano continued to present, during the week of August 18th to 25th, behavioral instability. The seismicity generated by rock fracturing (volcano-tectonics, VT) showed a significant increase in the number of earthquakes and in the seismic energy released, compared to the previous week. This type of seismicity was located mainly in the south-south-east, south-west and north-east of the volcano and, to a lesser extent, in the Arenas crater. The depth of the earthquakes varied between 0.3 and 5.6 km. An increase in VT seismicity stands out, recorded since dawn today in the south-eastern sector, about 2.2 km from the Arenas crater. The two most significant earthquakes occurred at 6:12 am and 7:57 am local time, with a magnitude of 2.8 ML (Local Magnitude), at depths of 3.4 and 3.3 km respectively. These earthquakes were reported to be felt by locals in the volcanic area.The volcano continue to emit water vapor and gases, mainly sulfur dioxide. The gas and steam plumes reached a maximum height of 1,672 m measured at the top of the volcano on August 23. The dispersion of the column was governed by the direction of the wind, which tended mainly towards the west-northwest of the volcano.Servicio Geologico Columbiano, informed that from August 8, 2020 at 00:50 (local time), there was a significant increase in the volcano- seismic activity. tectonic, associated with the fracturing of rocks around the volcanic building. The seismic activity was located in the West-South-West sector at an average distance of 6.0 km from the Arenas crater. The recording of a volcano-tectonic earthquake that occurred at 7:04 a.m. (local time), at a depth of 4.1 km with a magnitude of 3.1 ML (local magnitude), was reported as felt by officials of the National Natural Park of Los Nevados. On July 30 at 6:36 a.m. local time, the SGC recorded a seismic signal related to internal fluid movements of the Nevado del Ruiz, and associated with a small emission of gas and ash at a maximum of 560 meters above the summit of the volcano. Ashes were reported in Malteria, Palermo and La Enea (sectors of Manizales). The level of activity remains in Amarillo, as it continues to exhibit instability and further emissions of gas and ash could occur. As of the 16th of June, SGC reported that the volcano has continued to exhibit behavioral instability in the past week. The SGC also reported an increase in seismicity in relation to rock fracturing, the occurrence of several episodes of the drumbeat type, and an increase in the number of events related to the dynamics of internal fluids and their energy. Small gas and ash emissions were noted, with dispersion towards the WNW; the plumes have reached max. 1.000 meters above the summit. No noticeable change in surface deformation. The activity level remains at Amarillo / 3. Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 27 May-2 June seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was at similar levels to the week before, with signals dominated by periods of continuous volcanic tremor, tremor pulses, long-period, and very-long-period earthquakes. Some of the earthquakes were associated with minor gas-and-ash emissions that drifted N and were recorded by the webcam. The highest gas-and-steam plume rose about 1.3 km above the summit, recorded on 29 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). On 28 April Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that small ash-and-gas emissions from Nevado del Ruiz were periodically visible in webcam images and observed by Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados officials during the previous week. These emissions drifted WSW and NW. A gas-and-steam plume rose 1.2 km above the crater rim on 21 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Servicio Géologico Colombiano reported that seismicity related to fluid dynamics, inside volcanic conduits, showed an increase in the number of events and the seismic energy released, during the week of 6 to April 13. The seismicity generated by the fracturing of the rocks presented a slight decrease in the number of earthquakes and increase in the seismic energy released, compared to the previous week. This kind of seismicity was located mainly in the Arenas crater and in the south-southwest, northwest and northeast sectors of the volcano, at depths varying between 0.3 and 6.3 km. The occurrence of several seismic events of the drum-beat type, associated with fracturing of rocks were recorded on April 9, 10 and 12. Small gas and ash emissions have been confirmed by cameras and reports from officials in Los Nevados National Natural Park, as well as by the VAAC Washigton VAAC, with a plume of gas and vapor reaching max. 1,300m above the summit on April 9. The deformation of the volcanic surface, measured from GNSS stations (Satellite System of Global Navigation), showed no significant change. By monitoring the information provided on Mirova and NASA, low energy thermal anomalies at the volcano over the past week Servicio Géologico Colombiano informed that ash and gas emissions were recorded on March 23 at 6:30 a.m., observed by web cameras installed in the volcano area and in Manizales and also reported that earthquakes of low energy levels associated with low ash emissions have continued in recent days. The direction of dispersion of the last emissions was governed by the direction of the wind, mainly to the northeast and southeast of the volcano, and a possible ash fall is expected in the area. New earthquakes associated with gas and ash emissions are also not excluded. The activity level continues in yellow or (III) / changes in the behavior of volcanic activity. Servicio Géologico Colombiano informed the authorities and the community that in recent days, the snow-capped volcano has presented small emissions of ash associated with seismic signals of low energy level. A 10 MW thermal anomaly c was observed by Mirova on 10.03.2020 / 03h35. On March 10, three gas and ash emissions were recorded today at 07:42 h 10:29 and 10:55 (local time), with column heights measured at the top of the volcano of 696, 346 and 552 m respectively, with a dispersion influenced by the wind direction and speed, which varied from the southwest to the southeast of the volcano. Very fine ash fall is possible near the volcano and in populations located in the direction of the wind regime. The different monitoring parameters show that the volcanic system is still unstable, which can give rise to new ash emissions.The level of activity continues in yellow or (III): Changes in the behavior of volcanic activity. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption. (GVN/GVP)

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PERU - Ubinas volcano

April 6th, 2021

nstituto Geofisico del Peruº (IGP) reported that during 29 March-4 April there were 11 volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Ubinas with magnitudes less than 1.8, and a few seismic signals indicated emissions. Sporadic steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 200 m above the crater rim. On 5 April the Alert Level was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color
scale).IGP reported that at 1659 on 31 December and at 1746 on 1 January low-volume lahars descended the Volcano mayo drainage on Ubinas's SE flank and damaged parts of the highway linking Arequipa, Querapi, Ubinas, and Huarina. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). IGP continues to record a slight increase in seismic activity at Ubinas during the analysis period from September 28th to October 4th.
Seismicity is characterized by 42 Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes with magnitudes less than M1.3, which would be associated with rock breaking processes. Likewise, 18 seismic signals were recorded which would be associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (gas, mainly water vapor), within them, 2 earthquakes of the tornillo type. Plumes of volcanic gas and water vapor reaching heights of up to 300 m above the summit of the volcano are recorded by remote monitoring, dispersed towards the eastern sector of the volcano. IGP reported that the volcano continued to record a slight increase in seismic activity between July 27 and August 2, 2020. The occurrence of 83 earthquakes with a magnitude less than M1.7 has been identified, events that would be associated with rock breaking processes that occur inside the volcano. On average, the occurrence of 12 earthquakes per day was recorded. Likewise, 18 seismic signals were recorded which would be associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas), among them, 5 Screw type (tornillo) seismic signals which would be related to the increase in pressure inside the volcano. and which are considered to be seismic signals precursors of volcanic eruptions, Surveillance cameras recorded columns of gas (water vapor) that reached heights of up to 1000 m above the summit of the volcano. IGP reported that the activity continued to show a slight increase in its seismic activity between July 20 and July 26; twenty earthquakes of magnitudes less than M1.5, associated with rock breaking processes that occur inside the volcano have been recorded; similarly, 6 seismic signals were recorded which would be associated with the movements of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas); Within these, 2 tornillo-type events were identified which would be linked to the increase in the internal pressure of the volcano. No seismic activity linked to the rise of magma was observed. Surveillance cameras recorded columns of gas and water vapor reaching heights of up to 700 m above the summit of the volcano, dispersed towards the southeastern sector of the volcano. IGP reported that a slight increase in seismic activity occurred, for the period from 15 to 21 June, with 61 earthquakes of magnitudes below M1.7, which are associated with processes of rupture of the rocks inside the volcano. Similarly, 7 seismic signals were recorded associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas).Slight plumes of gas and water vapor have been observed reaching heights up to 1000 m above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the northeast and southeast sectors of the volcano. IGP reported that between June 13 and 14, 2020, tthere were the occurrence of 9 earthquakes of magnitude less than M1.9, located 4 km south of the crater and 2.5 km from depth, associated with rock rupture processes in the volcano. Similarly, a seismic signal was recorded which would be associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas). Surveillance cameras installed in the Ubinas recorded plumes of gas and water vapor that reached up to 700 m above the summit of the volcano, scattered emissions to the southeast sections of the volcano. During 11-18 May the number of seismic events at Ubinas totaled 54 with volcano-tectonic (VT) signals being the most numerous. Sporadic emissions of gas and steam were recorded by the webcam rising to heights less than 300 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. As of the 16th of march, IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remains at low levels. Sporadic emissions of bluish gases and water vapor were recorded. MIROVA satellite surveillance did not record any thermal anomalies.The IGP recommended reducing the level of volcanic alert from orange to yellow. IGP reported that the eruptive activity between March 2 and 8, remained at low levels. To date, the record of earthquakes that would be associated with the rise of magma to the surface is weak. In addition, there are sporadic emissions of bluish gases (of magmatic origin) and water vapor. According to this scenario, the possibility of volcanic explosions and / or low ash emissions remains low. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained at low levels. In early January, the energy of earthquakes which would be associated with the rise of magma on the surface has considerably decreased. There are weak and sporadic emissions of bluish gases (of magmatic origin) and water vapor, observed through surveillance cameras. Previously in 2019 IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained low. From 18th to 24th of November earthquake energy associated with rising magma at the surface has decreased. In addition, there was low and sporadic bluish gas (magmatic) and water vapor emissions observed by surveillance cameras. According to this scenario, it is unlikely that volcanic explosions and / or ash emissions will occur. The alert level remains at orange. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained low during the period from 11 to 17 November 2019. To date, earthquake energy associated with rising magma at the surface has decreased. The IGP recorded and analyzed a total of 480 seismic events associated with the eruptive process of the Ubinas volcano, with predominant seismicity of the volcano-tectonic (VT) type, related to the fracturing of rocks in the interior. of the volcano. The seismic signals that would be related to the rise of magma (hybrid type) have decreased both in number of events (12 earthquakes daily) and energy generated. In addition, there has been no volcanic explosion since September 12th.Plumes of blue (magmatic) gas and water vapor retain heights less than 500 m above the summit. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure does not present anomalies. MIROVA satellite monitoring did not record thermal anomalies in the volcano. IGP reported that during the period from 7th to 13th of October, the eruptive activity remained light, and characterized by magmatic gas emissions and steam at less than 1,000 meters above the summit. At the seismicity level, 3533 earthquakes were recorded in relation to the eruptive process, with a predominance of VT earthquakes of M <2.1. No significant signs at the deformation level, and three small thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova. During the period from 16 to 22 September, the IGP recorded and analyzed a total of 4.356 seismic events, with a predominant volcano-tectonic (VT) type seismicity with an average value of 567 events per day, all of a magnitude less than M2.5. Seismic signals that would be related to the rise of the magma (hybrid type) were also recorded, at the rate of 119 events per day.During 10-15 September the number of seismic events at Ubinas totaled 4,093, with volcano-tectonic (VT) signals being the most numerous, averaging 572 events per day, and all having magnitudes under M 2.5. Hybrid events averaged 299 events per day. Continuous emissions of blueish gas and water vapor were recorded by the webcam rising to heights less than 1.5 km above the summit. Two thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. An explosion at 0725 on 12 September produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 1.5 km and affected several districts S and SE in the Moquegua region. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. IGP reported that during 3-9 September three volcanic explosions were detected at Ubinas, all producing eruption plumes that rose to heights less than 2.5 km above the crater rim. The largest, and first, was recorded at 1358 on 3 September and produced significant amounts of ash and gas, affecting areas to the S and SE. After the explosions gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 1 km. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. IG reported that the volcano experienced an explosion on September 3 at 13:58 local, accompanied by an ash plume of 5,500 meters above the crater, then dispersed to the south and southeast in the district of Ubinas. IG reported that during the past week the seismic activity was slightly increased with an average of 118 to 225 episodes per day, with a weekly total of 2828 earthquakes. No explosions were recorded; only a moderate emission of ash is reported on September 1 at 9:45 pm, associated with a tremor signal; On the other hand, the emissions of gas and steam are continuous and reach 1,000 meters above the summit. Three thermal anomalies were reported by Mirova attesting to the proximity of the magma to the surface. Following a few weeks of calm, new ash emissions occurred on August 26 at 10:30, and few later a phreatic activity occurred generating a plume that reached 1,600 meters above the crater, then dispersed to a north and northwest sector (San Juan de Tarucani district). Continuous ash emissions on 27 August were recorded by satellite and webcam images drifting S and SW. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 15-km radius. As of the 23rd of August, IGP reported that the eruptive process continued. A decrease in seismic activity related to the rise of magma was recorded, but the satellite images indicate the presence of a hot magmatic body close to the surface, and emissions of bluish gas (magmatic gas) and steam vapor. water were observed. IGP reported that during 13-19 August blue-colored gas plumes from Ubinas rose to heights of less than 1.5 km above the base of the crater. Seven thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. The number of seismic events was 1,716 (all under M 2.4), a decrease in the total number recorded during the previous week. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 15-km radius. As of the 14th of August the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) reported that the Ubinas volcano continued its eruptive process. Bluish gas (magmatic gas) and water vapor emissions observed by surveillance cameras continue to be recorded. Satellites detected thermal anomalies which indicate the proximity of the magma to the surface of the crater. As of the 28th of July satellite images by visible infrared radiometers (VIIRS), thermal anomalies observed on the edges of the Ubinas volcano crater corresponding to the presence of a body of lava / lava plug about 180 m. diameter at the base of the crater, which would prevent the emission of gas and ash. At the seismicity level, during the 7-day period, 2,295 earthquakes with a magnitude of less than 2 were recorded, including a percentage related to the rise and movements of fluids. IGP reported a total of 1,522 seismic events between July 20th and 24th, all of a magnitude below 2.2. During the analyzed period, an increase in seismic signals in relation to the rise of the magma (LP & hybrids) causes fear of explosive activity in terms of hours or days; it should be noted that more than 35 hours have passed since the last explosion. Thermic anomalies remain moderate to low, between 11 and 6 MW. Updated information on Ubinas' activity on July 23rd at 8pm. Peruvian autorities and INGEMMET reported that anomalies in the various geophysical parameters are associated with the rise of magma and the increase of seismic energy, LP and hybride, similar to the scenario that preceded the 22 July explosion at 23:25.Due to rainfall in the volcano area, lahars are possible. Ingemmet recommends to the populations of the villages of Querapi, Ubinas, Escacha, Huatahua, Tonohaya, Sacohaya, and San Miguel, to evacuate immediately, before a possible increase of the volcanic activity. IGP reported that new ash emissions occurred between 500 and 1.500 m., during the day of July 22, scattered to the southeast.An explosion on July 22 around 11:25 pm projected incandescent materials. The ashes spread over more than 10 km. to the villages of Ubinas, Lloque and Chojata districts.IGP reported that ash emissions continued to Ubinas on July 21, reaching about 500 meters above the crater, with scattering in a southeast and east sector of the volcano.The I.G.Peru does not notice deformation and probably a continuation of the eruptive process at moderate level. The orange alert level is maintained, moderate explosions can occur, accompanied by consequent emissions of ashes.Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

PERU - Sabancaya volcano

May 10th, 2021

During the period from May 3 to 9, 2021, the Sabancaya presented a moderate level activity, with an average of 66 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2,500 meters above the summit.I.G.Peru reported that a moderate level of activity occurred for the period from April 26 to May 2, 2021. It is characterized by an average of 91 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,300 meters above Summit. During the period, 1,703 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal fluids. VT earthquakes, related to rock fracturing, are detected mainly to the east and northwest of the volcano, with a magnitude between 1.4 and 2.5. At the deformation level, no significant anomalies, apart from a slight inflation in the northern sector. IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 13-20 April. Seismicity was characterized by daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, lahar events, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds and rain often prevented visual observations of the volcano, though based on the Washington VAAC and webcam images, ash plumes were visible during 13-14 and 17-20 April rising 600-2,400 m above the summit and drifting mainly N, NW, and W. The seismic network occasionally recorded lahar signals, especially during 14-16 April. Ashfall was reported in Chimborazo (W) and Guamote (40 km WNW) on 17 April, and crater incandescence was visible through the night of 19-20 April. IGP reported that between April 12 and April 18, 2021, Sabancaya's activity remained at moderate levels, with an average of 91 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2,300 meters above the summit. Seismicity is characterized by 1,732 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the internal circulation of magmatic fluids. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes, in connection with the fragmentation of rocks, occurred in a north-west and east sector, of magnitude between 1.6 and 3.9. According to the I.G.Peru report, the activity of Sabancaya remained at a moderate level between March 22nd and 29th, 2021, with an average of 90 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 2,500 meters above. Summit. The ashes scattered over a northern and western sector.IGP reported that between March 8 and 14, the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels, with the recording of an average of 88 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2.5 km altitude above the summit of the volcano and their subsequent dispersion. The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of 1980 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids within the volcano. During this period, Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes, associated with rock fractures, were located mainly in the Northwest and West of Sabancaya and presented magnitudes between M2.4 and M3.6. IGP reported that activity between March 1 and 7 was maintained at a moderate level, with an average of 85 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2,000 meters above the summit. During this period, I.G. Peru recorded 1,867 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal fluids. The VT earthquakes, related to the fracturing of rocks, occurred mainly to the southeast and northeast of the volcano, of magnitude between 2.1 and 2.6. The slight inflation of the Hualca Hualca volcano, northern sector, is still observed. IGP reported that eruptive activity of Sabancaya between February 22 and 28 remains at moderate levels, with an average of 91 daily explosions, and the observation of plumes of ash and gas up to 2,000 meters above the summit. During this period, I.G. Peru recorded 1977 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal fluids. VT earthquakes, of magnitude between 1.9 and 2.8, occur mainly north of the volcano. The deformations do not present any significant anomalies, except for slight inflation in the north. The satellites did not identify any thermal anomaly. IGP reported that between February 15 and 21 the activity of Sabancaya remained at a moderate level, with an average of 71 explosions per day and the observation of ash plumes up to 3; 200 meters above the summit. During this period, 1,984 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids were recorded, VT earthquakes linked to the fracturing of rocks, of magnitude between 2.2 and 3.5, occurred in the north- west and west of the volcano. The deformation does not present any significant anomalies; despite a slight inflation of the northern sector (Hualca Hualca volcano). IGP reported that eruptive activity was maintained between February 8 and 14, 2021 at moderate levels, with an average of 76 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 3,000 meters above the summit, with dispersal in an extended western sector.IGP reported that between February 1 and 7, 2021, the eruptive activity was maintained at moderate levels, with an average of 45 daily explosions, and the observation of ash and gas plumes up to 3,000 meters high. above the summit. I.G. Peru provides information on the occurrence of 1,548 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes, related to the fracturing of rocks inside the volcano, occurred mainly in the northeast of Sabancaya (magnitude between 2.2 and 2.7). A slight inflation of the south-eastern sector of Sabancaya and of the northern sector / Hualca Hualca volcano was observed thanks to the GNSS technique. Two weak thermal anomalies were identified by Mirova. on 4th of February a lahar occurred on the south-eastern flank. The volcanic alert remains Naranja, with a forbidden zone with a radius of 12 km, and the advice to stay away from the drainages. IGP reported that Sabancaya maintains activity at a moderate level, with an average of 32 explosions per day between January 18th and 24th, 2021 accompanied by ash plumes reaching 3,500 meters high above the volcano. During the period, the IGP recorded and analyzed 1,214 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids. VT earthquakes, related to rock fragmentation, from M1.9 to 2.7, are produced mainly in the NW and NE of Sabancaya. No significant deformation anomalies, despite slight inflation in the southeastern sector of the volcano. IGP reported a daily average of 29 explosions at Sabancaya during 11-17 January. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit and drifted in multiple directions. One thermal anomaly over the crater was identified in satellite data. Minor inflation continued to be detected in areas N of Hualca Hualca (4 km N) and on the SE flank. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius. The Geophysical Institute of Peru reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels between January 4 and 10, 2021, with the continuous recording of explosions accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 3 km altitude above the summit of the volcano and their subsequent dispersion. IGP reported that volcanic activity remained at a moderate level between December 28 and January 3, 2021, with an average of 35 daily explosions; they are accompanied by plumes of ash reaching 3,000 meters above the summit. At the seismological level, I.G. Peru recorded 1,500 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the internal circulation of magmatic fluids. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes, from M 2.2 to 2.6, were located to the northeast of the volcano. No thermal anomaly was identified. A second lava dome has been reported in the crater of the volcano. Forecasts for January 7-9 : precipitations could cause lahars in the Sabancaya drainages.The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, with an inaccessible area of ​​12 km radius around the crater. Previous news 2020 - IGP reported that during the week of December 7th to 13th, activity was characterized by an average of 54 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,800 meters in height. IGP reported that during the week of November 30 to December 6, 2020, the Sabancaya presented a decrease in activity compared to the previous week; an average of 26 explosions per day were recorded, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,000 meters in height. Seismicity informs of 1,450 earthquakes during this week.Seven thermal anomalies, between 1 and 23 MW, were recorded. IGP reported that xxplosions recorded on November 23 generated the emission of the ash dispersion alert, with plumes at times more than 3,000 m above the summit.The evolution of the lava dome is not considered to be a direct danger for the populations of the Colca valley: its surface occupies 11,700 m² in mid-November; in November 2019, its surface was 54,700 m². Its formation is considered a normal aspect in the current eruptive process of the Sabancaya volcano. As of the 19th of November, IGP reported a few days ago that satellite images confirmed a new lava dome located in the northeastern part of the crater. According to volcano observatory an area of the new lava dome is approx. 12,000 m². The new lava dome growth is associated with increasing activity such as stronger explosions, higher thermal anomaly and constant incandescence that suggest continued rise of fresh magma accumulating as a new lava dome in the inner summit crater. IPGP reported that between November 9 and 15, 2020, I.G. Peru recorded 2,264 volcanic earthquakes in connection with the circulation of magmatic fluids inside Sabancaya. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes are located mainly to the northeast of the volcano. The eruptive activity continues, at a moderate level, with an average of 54 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 3,300 meters above the summit. IGP reported that for the day of 2th of November 43 explosions with ash plumes reaching up to 2,000 meters for that of 6:57.IGP reported that eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels between October 26 and November 1, with explosions, at the rate of 35 daily episodes, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 3 km altitude. above the summit.IGP reported that between October 19th and 25th, the Sabancaya continued his eruptive activity at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of explosions at the rate of 37 daily episodes on average, accompanied by columns of ash and gas up to 2.5 km from high to the top of the volcano. Fine ash falls were reported in the districts of Huanca on October 19th and 22, and Lluta on October 19 and 24.IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano continues at moderate levels, explosions, on average 34 daily, with plumes of ash and gas up to 3 km high at the top of the volcano, followed by ash falls in the districts of Huanca and Madrigal.IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano, for the period from October 5th to 11th, continued at moderate levels, with explosions at an average rate of 34 per day, accompanied by columns of ash and gas up to 3.9 km high at the top of the volcano.Explosive activity continued on 10th of October Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 24000 ft (7300 m) altitude or flight level 240 .IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano continues at moderate levels, for the period from September 28th to October 4th, with the continuous recording of explosions, at the rate of 40 daily events of low to medium intensity, and accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2.6 km high above the summit dispersing towards the southeast, east, southwest and west sectors of the Sabancaya. This activity has been corroborated by reports of ash fall in the districts of Huanca and Lluta.I.G.P. issued an ash scattering advisory on September 24th at 7:27 a.m. within a dispersal radius of 20 km west and south-west (pasture and estancias area). On September 23, 31 explosions were recorded in 24 hours. The level of volcanic activity remains in Naranja. IGP reported that between September 7 and 13, 2020, the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano continues at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of explosions - 38 explosions / day on average - with columns of gas and ash rising up to 3.5 km above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the southern, southeast and eastern sectors of SabancayaAs of the 12th of September explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 24000 ft (7300 m) altitude or flight level 240 and is moving at 15 kts in SE direction.Sabancaya, located on the saddle between 6288-m-high Ampato and 6025-m-high Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three volcanoes, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. Both Nevado Ampato and Nevado Sabancaya are only slightly affected by glacial erosion and consist of a series of lava domes aligned along a NW-SW trend. The name of 5967-m-high Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua Indian language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750. (GVN/GVP)

PERU - Misti volcano

March 14th, 2020

A lahar was reported by the Instituto Geofisico this March 13th, 2020 at 4:30 p.m. on the southeast sector of the El Misti volcano; of moderate volume, it lasted about 15 minutes and borrowed the southeast quebradas, in the districts of Chiguata and Paucarpata. Previous data 2014 - Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) reported that, during the last 12 months, seismicity at El Misti was dominated by volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. Two seismic swarms (more than 100 events per day) occurred during the last three months, on 19 May and 3 June. An increase in tremor was noted in April, although the total duration did not exceed 10 minutes and was generally low-amplitude. Long-period seismicity was not significant. In the last 15 days, seismicity increased slightly and tremor was recorded daily. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismicity at El Misti increased during January, and a seismic swarm consisting of 119 volcano-tectonic events was detected during 14-15 January. Despite the increase, activity remained at a low level. El Misti, Peru's most well-known volcano, is a symmetrical andesitic stratovolcano with nested summit craters that towers above the city of Arequipa. The modern symmetrical cone, constructed within a small 1.5 x 2 km wide summit caldera that formed between about 13,700 and 11,300 years ago, caps older Pleistocene volcanoes that underwent caldera collapse about 50,000 years ago. A large scoria cone has grown with the 830-m-wide outer summit crater of El Misti. At least 20 tephra-fall deposits and numerous pyroclastic-flow deposits have been documented during the past 50,000 years, including a pyroclastic flow that traveled 12 km to the south about 2000 years ago. El Misti's most recent activity has been dominantly pyroclastic, and strong winds have formed a parabolic dune field of volcanic ash extending up to 20 km downwind. An eruption in the 15th century affected Inca inhabitants living near the volcano. Some reports of historical eruptions may represent in creased fumarolic activity. Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and (GVN/GVP)

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CHILE-ARGENTINA - Copahue volcano

January 19th, 2021

SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 1:56 a.m. on Thursday, February 18, a VT earthquake associated with rock fracturing, magnitude 3.4 (Ml), was recorded at a depth of 5.4 kilometers near the Copahue volcano, in the Biobío region. The alert level remains " Verde ". As of the 11th of January, SERNAGEOMIN reported that surface activity of the volcano results in emissions of gas and particulate material of power and dispersion within the standards of the current level. The deformation measurements do not show any noticeable changes in relation to the internal activity of the volcanic system. The sulfur dioxide emissions do not present an anomaly. Two thermal anomalies were noted on January 10, 2021 at 11:45 a.m. / VRP 11MW and at 3:55 p.m. / VRP 18MW, by Mirova. The alert level remains green. Previous news 2020 - SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 November activity at Copahue decreased to low levels. Passive gas emissions generally rose 200-300 m above the vent, though on 15 November they rose 760 m. The report also noted no changes to deformation, low levels of sulfur dioxide emissions, low seismicity, partial restoration of the crater lake, and the absence of nighttime crater incandescence since late October. The Alert Level was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) on 15 November. ONEMI cancelled the Yellow Alert for the Alto Biobio municipality, but declared a Preventive Early Warning ensuring continued surveillance of the area and coordination within the Civil Protection System. As of the 2nd of November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity of the volcano continues at low levels characterized by continuing ash emissions from the crater. Emissions of steam, gases with minor ash content occurred and reached approx. 10,000 ft (3,048 m) altitude. Seismicity continues at low levels. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on October 23, a plume of gas, lightly loaded with ash, blown by the winds rose above the village and Lake Caviahue.According to Sernageomin, the seismic activity of the Copahue remains at a low level, but there are transient increases in the amplitude of the tremor, in relation to the emissions of particulate materials, suggesting the interaction between the magma and the superficial hydrothermal system. On the satellite images, a large area of ​​ash deposits was visible estimated between 6-7 km. In diameter, mainly in the proximal area of ​​the crater. As of the 28th of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the volcano continues its activity of gas emissions occasionally laden with ash. Night incandescence and these emissions testify to an instability of the volcanic and hydrothermal system. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity remained characterized by continuous emissions of gray ash. As of August 5th, the ash plume rises above the summit, and the snows are colored by the fallout of ash and particles. The seismic activity shows low levels, with occasional variations in the amplitude of the continuous tremor. The technical alert remains in Amarilla / change in behavior of volcanic activity; the possible assignment area is set at 1,000 meters radius around the crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity of Copahue remained essentially unchanged, and characterized by continuous emissions of gray ash. On August 31, the ash plume is observed 500 meters above the summit, and the snow is colored by the fallout of ash and particles. The seismic activity shows low levels, with occasional variations in the amplitude of the continuous tremor. SERNAGEMIN reported that the monitoring stations recorded on August 6 at 4:25 am local a change in activity, marked by the emission of more colored gas, due to the particle load, accompanied by a "subtle" increase in the tremor and a displacement. reduced. The plume reached a height of max. 1,000 meters above the point of emission and dispersed in a northeastern direction. The emission lasted until 6:50 am local, then decreased to return to a usual white degassing. SERNAGEOMIN raised the technical alert level of Copahue in Amarilla on July 17 at 3.30 p.m. local time. During the previous months, the seismicity was marked by numerous VLP earthquakes, in relation with the rise of magma to more superficial levels; in addition, in recent days, signs have been observed on the surface, with the emission of particulate materials associated with a column of gas from the active crater, and incandescence. The satellite images indicate a decrease in the volume of the crater lake ... all these signs testify to my presence of a volume of magma at a superficial level. An area of ​​1,000 meters in radius around the crater is considered as a possible assignment area. From 1st to 16th of July, the volcano presented a low level seismic activity, but with an increase in the tremor, associated with the emission of particulate materials, and gas; These are signs of an instability of the volcanic system, associated with that of the hydrothermal system and a drop in the level of the crater lake; The technical alert is passed to amarilla, and the possible assignment area to 1 km radius around the crater. As of the 8th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that conditions at Copahue had returned to normal levels and seismicity was low. The Alert Level was lowered to Green (second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 7 July. SERNAGEOMIN reported that over the past few days, Copahue's volcanic activity has evolved to show visible signs on the surface. It is important to mention that very low frequency (very long period VLP) seismicity has been recorded in the previous months, generally linked to the rise of the magmatic material to more superficial levels. Likewise, on May 20, a series of volcanic seismological events located south-southwest near the volcanic building were recorded. On June 16, there was an increase in energy from the seismic tremor with subsequent stabilization and decrease in the following hours. At the same time as this decrease, the incandescence and the emission of particles were detected from cameras installed by OVDAS. The latest sulfur dioxide recordings obtained by the equipment installed for its detection indicate average flows of 592 tonnes / day for June 15, considered as usual values ​​for this activity. On the other hand, the monitoring stations which measure the deformation in the volcanic sectors do not show changes related to this activity. In addition, the images available on the Planet satellite platform indicate a decrease in the volume of the lake housed in the active crater. In summary, the changes in seismological behavior, the anomalies in the surface assessments and the decrease in the volume of the crater lake suggest the presence of a volume of magma at superficial levels. Volcan Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Rio Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Copahue since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Puyehue-Cordon Caulle

May 3rd, 2020

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on May 2nd, 2020 at 7:33 p.m. local to the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex a volcanotectonic earthquake of M loc. 3.0 / depth 3.1 km, associated with the fragmentation of rocks. The technical alert remains unclear. The last period of activity dates back to June 2011 - April 2012, characterized by an VEI 5. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that.on March 14, starting at 6:30 am local time, the monitoring stations of the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex recorded a swarm of 185 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, associated with rock fracturing, at 1,600 meters NNW from the emission center of 2011; the most energetic earthquake was Ml 2.2 at a depth of 4.3 km. No surface activity has been described by the Sernageomin and the technical alert level remains green.The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (PCCVC) is a large NW-SE-trending late-Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic-to-rhyolitic transverse volcanic chain SE of Lago Ranco. The 1799-m-high Pleistocene Cordillera Nevada caldera lies at the NW end, separated from Puyehue stratovolcano at the SE end by the Cordón Caulle fissure complex. The Pleistocene Mencheca volcano with Holocene flank cones lies NE of Puyehue. The basaltic-to-rhyolitic Puyehue volcano is the most geochemically diverse of the PCCVC. The flat-topped, 2236-m-high volcano was constructed above a 5-km-wide caldera and is capped by a 2.4-km-wide Holocene summit caldera. Lava flows and domes of mostly rhyolitic composition are found on the E flank. Historical eruptions originally attributed to Puyehue, including major eruptions in 1921-22 and 1960, are now known to be from the Cordón Caulle rift zone. The Cordón Caulle geothermal area, occupying a 6 x 13 km wide volcano-tectonic depression, is the largest active geothermal area of the southern Andes volcanic zone. Latest eruption occurred in 2012. (SERNAGEOMIN)

CHILE- ARGENTINA border - Planchon-Peteroa volcano

March 8th, 2019

As of the 8th of March, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the cameras always showed a constant degassing of gray color, marked by a plume at a height of less than 2,000 meters, indicating the presence of particles, moving mainly towards the southwest.The seismicity of the last days was characterized by VT earthquakes, associated with the fracturing of rocks, and a large number of LP earthquakes, in relation with the dynamics of the internal fluids.The superficial activity of Peteroa suggests that we are dealing with an open system. Alert level remains at Amarillo / change in behavior of volcanic activity. SERNAGEOMIN surface activity has continued since the beginning of February. The gray plumes, with a maximum height around 2,000 meters above the crater are still observed this 23 February. The alert level remain Yellow. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the superficial activity of Peteroa has continued since the beginning of February. The gray plumes, with a maximum height around 2,000 meters above the crater shows with the presence of ash a volcanic system open in the superficial part of the volcano. On February 22, plumes, more or less laden with ashes, were observed throughout the day. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 6th of February, the intense eruptive activity was still continuing, marked by a change of wind direction, which blows the ash plume to the northeast and the Vergara international pass, between Chile and Argentina. On the morning of February 3, Sernageomin recorded a continuous increase in the column of gas and particles at about 1,600 meters above the crater, dispersing to an eastern secto. An episode at 10:33 local, was associated with tremor and a low displacement. The energy of the seismic signal has been rising since February 1st. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 1st February from 5 pm local time, the cameras recorded a steady and continuous increase in particulate matter emissions, with a column of 2,000 meters and a dispersion towards the east. This episode was accompanied by VLP earthquakes between 17 and 19h local, in connection with the injection of magma from a greater depth, and tremor.The increase in ash emissions and seismicity suggest an open system, and possible new minor eruptive episodes affecting the area of ​​active craters. The alert is maintained in yellow level. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on January 15 at 9h56 PM local an explosion accompanied by a greyish ash plume at about 600 meters, moving mainly northwest.In a previous bulletin, the Sernageomin specified that according to the observations and the recorded measurements, a new eruptive cycle of phreatomatic characteristics develops, following the possible contact of a magmatic body with a part of the hydrothermal system. which would facilitate the fragmentation of a minor volume of magma and the expansion of steam and the emission of ashes.The alert level remains in Amarilla. Previously, Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS)-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported increased activity at Planchon-Peteroa beginning in the morning of 16 December. Low-intensity pulses of tremor were detected by the seismic network and associated with pulsating grayish gas emissions which rose no higher than 800 m above the vent rim. Webcams recorded crater incandescence during the night of 15-16 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the volcano, and ONEMI maintained Alert Level Yellow for the communities of Molina (66 WNW), Curica (68 km NW), Romeral (75 km NW), and Teno (68 km NW). The OVDAS / Sernageomin reports an explosive emission of ashes and gas this December 14 at 9:57 local to the complex Planchón Peteroa located on the border Chilio-Argentina, associated with a seismic signal LP and tremor, which remained after the emission .The gray plume rose to 800 meters before dispersing to the east. The alert level remains in Amarillo. Planchón-Peteroa is an elongated complex volcano along the Chile-Argentina border with several overlapping calderas. Activity began in the Pleistocene with construction of the basaltic-andesite to dacitic Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of basaltic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the north. About 11,500 years ago, much of Azufre and part of Planchón collapsed, forming the massive Río Teno debris avalanche, which traveled 95 km to reach Chile's Central Valley. Subsequently, Volcán Planchón II was formed. The youngest volcano, andesitic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Peteroa, consists of scattered vents between Azufre and Planchón. Peteroa has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake. Historical eruptions from the complex have been dominantly explosive, although lava flows were erupted in 1837 and 1937. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Nevado de Chillan

May 6th, 2021

SERNAGEOMIN reported that a series of explosions occurred at the Nevados de Chillan complex on May 2, 2021; they generated pyroclastic flows of collapse over 400 meters from the crater on the northeast flank and resulted in the partial destruction of the dome in the Nicanor crater. On May 5, the extrusion of a new lava flow / L6 is mentioned, which has advanced 100 meters from the edge of the crater on the northeast flank. The measurements made with the thermal camera show a temperature of 278 ° C. A new hot spot is measured in an area adjacent to the L5 lava front, at 307 ° C. This L5 flow on the north flank is fed by fresh material, and shows a emperature of 208 ° C. As of the 3rd of May, SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity was characterized by explosions and persistent ash emissions, very similar to what was observed during much of the 2016-2021 eruptive cycle. The observations come after Sernageomin released a series of Special Volcanic Activity Reports (REAVs) yesterday, representing a series of seismic events related to the movement of fluids in the system.SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 26th of March, explosive eruptive activity of Nevados de Chillan remained low, without much impact. It generates dense pyroclastic density currents of low incidence. The effusive activity is noticed by the continuous increase of the lava dome and the collapse deposits on the northeast side. The L5 flow, on the northern flank, advances at an average of 0.1m. / h.year at the front and now measures 925 meters from the edge of the Nicanor crater. Its temperature is 236 ° C. As of the 24th of March, SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater was ongoing with sporadic gas-and-ash emissions and continuing lava effusion during 1-15 March. Explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim, and sometimes ejected material as far as 160 m onto the NE flank. The L5 lava flow on the N flank was about 925 m long and 80 m wide at the distal end, and continued to slowly advance. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater. As of the 9th of February, SERNAGEOMIN reported that explosive and effusive activity continued during this fortnight at the Nevados de Chillán complex. Explosive events are characterized by the generation of eruptive columns smaller than 1,420 m above the crater level, with varying content of particulate matter. Night incandescence is observed recurrently, mainly in the eastern area of ​​the crater and sometimes on the lava flow. Regarding effusive activity at the level of the L5 lava flow, according to the analysis of SkySat, Planet Scope and Sentinel L2 A satellite images in true color, a range of the lava front, estimated at 808 m. from the rim of the crater, with further development of its central channel, rose by at least 40 m. wide in its proximal area. SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater was ongoing with sporadic gas-and-ash emissions and continuing lava effusion through 1 February. Lava effusion began in mid-2020 though the rate had increased in the past two months. The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, 3212-m-high Cerro Blanco (Volcan Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group, and 3089-m-high Volcan Viejo (Volcan Chillan), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcan Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcan Viejo in altitude. The Volcan Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcan Nuevo between 1973 and 1986, eventually exceeding its height by 20 m. (GVN/GVP)

Chile - Villarica

April 25th, 2021

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 April gas-and-steam emissions with no or very small amounts of ash rose from Villarrica to heights less than 1.2 km above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was not visible at night and sulfur dioxide emissions were low. Observations from multiple sources suggested that the lava lake level was lower, decreasing the likelihood
that material ejected by minor explosions would reach beyond 100 m from the crater. The Alert Level was lowered to Green on 23 April, the lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI declared a Preventative Early Warning for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 100 m around the crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that a dense white degassing at 300 - 500 m. rose above the summit crater on February 1st. The seismic parameters remain stable and at low levels. The origin of the phenomenon is fundamentally atmospheric.
The small lava pond in the summit crater, first observed in Nov last year, has remained essentially unchanged. POVI reported that during an overflight of Villarrica on 2 January scientists observed an incandescent vent at the bottom of the crater that had a solidified lava bridge connecting across a partially crusted-over top. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucon (16 km N), Curarrehue, the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater. Previous news 2020 - SERNAGEOMIN reported that Minor ash emissions rose to low heights above the crater rim on 22 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucon (16 km N), Curarrehue, the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on December 16 several new ash emissions, occurred at 08:45, 11:48, 11:56,12:41. The Sernageomin also reported an LP earthquake on December 17 at 5:16 pm local time, accompanying an emission of particulate matter in the form of a plume rising to a maximum of 720 meters; and derivative ESE. SERNAGEOMIN-POVI reconnaissance overflight on December 9th showed that the lava lake of Villarica, about 10 to 15 meters in diameter, was semi-covered by a solidified floating crust. A very weak incandescence was visible, but only by infrared camera. Volcanic technical alert remains in Amarilla. SERNAGEOMIN recorded an LP earthquake, associated with a moderate explosion at the level of the crater of Villarica on December 5, 202 at 6:44 p.m. local time, accompanied by a plume of ash 160 meters high, drifting towards the SSE. Ash deposits are reported near the crater and in the direction of dispersion.SERNAGEOMIN-POVI reported that an explosion occurred on November 17 accompanied by a small plume of ash about thirty meters above the crater. During a reconnaissance overflight on November 15, observation showed that the bottom of the crater, at about 70-80 m deep, of the 4 active orifices documented on November 10, 3 have become passive and the 4th maintains a pit of lava. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Laguna del Maule

March 23rd, 2021

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 March the seismic network at Laguna del Maule recorded a total of 123 volcano-tectonic earthquakes. The largest event was a local M 2.4 located 8.2 km WSW of the lake, at a depth of 4.4 km. One tremor event was also recorded. Recent carbon dioxide emission measurements showed an upward trend and that the area of anomalous emissions had expanded. Deformation rates were higher than maximum averages. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained a Yellow Alert for San Clemente and recommended restricted access within a radius of 2 km from the center of elevated carbon dioxide emissions.As of the 22nd of February, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during the past two weeks at the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, the Southern Andes Volcanological Observatory (OVDAS) has detected 533 volcano-tectonic (VT) seismic events, associated with a rock fracture within the volcanic system, and rates deformation of 2.3 cm / month, higher than the average since 2012. Therefore, SERNAGEOMIN decided to change the technical alert from green to YELLOW, which was reported in the volcanic activity report for the last fortnight. Moreover, it was observed that the type of VT events were persistent in time and increased in size. Its establishments are concentrated in the Las Nieblas sector, south of the lagoon, a place where carbon dioxide anomalies have been detected since 2019. Finally, a hazard zoning with a radius of 2 km is reported around the site of the CO2 anomaly, in which it is recommended not to access.Previous news 2020 - SERNAGEOMIN reported that 10 low-magnitude volcano-tectonic earthquakes were detected at the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex during 16-31 October; seismicity was low in the region where a swarm had occurred in June. Satellite data showed no deformation, surface changes, gas emissions, or thermal anomalies. On 6 November the Alert Level was lowered to Green, the lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI cancelled the Yellow Alert for San Clemente, but declared a “Preventive Early Warning ensuring continued surveillance of the area and coordination within the Civil Protection System. SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 September inflation continued to be detected at the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, although at a lower rate of 0.7 cm per month which is below the 2 cm per month average for this year. Seismicity in the S sector was low in both number and magnitude of events. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest color on a four-color scale, as activity remained above baselines. ONEMI recommended restricted access within a radius of 2 km from the emission center. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on July 7th seismicity remained high associated with earthquakes located east of the Laguna del Maule complex, in an area with a diameter of approximately 5 km near the intersection of two faults near Las Nieblas, and corresponded to high levels of carbon dioxide emissions. The alert level remained at Amarilla, along with a 2 km danger zone around the main caldera. SERNAGEOMIN through a special report of volcanic activity (REAV) reported the change of alert from GREEN to YELLOW in the volcanic complex of Laguna del Maule The above responds to the increase in volcano-tectonic (VT) type seismic activity, associated with rock fracturing, through seismic swarms on June 11, 13 and 15-16. These events were characterized by their small scale and by their location in the southwest of the lagoon (Las Nieblas sector) In addition, in this same area during the previous months, diffuse carbon dioxide (CO2) anomalies were detected through the ground. Therefore, due to the persistent presence of seismic swarms in the same area, added to the gas anomaly and the constant deformation that has characterized the volcanic complex over the past decade, it is considered to be at above its basic level.A potential allocation area is set at a radius of 2,000 meters around the passive carbon dioxide degassing center. The 15 x 25 km wide Laguna del Maule caldera contains a cluster of small stratovolcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age. The caldera lies mostly on the Chilean side of the border, but partially extends into Argentina. Fourteen Pleistocene basaltic lava flows were erupted down the upper part of the Maule river valley. A cluster of Pleistocene cinder cones was constructed on the NW side of the Maule lake, which occupies part of the northern portion of the caldera. The latest activity produced an explosion crater on the E side of the lake and a series of Holocene rhyolitic lava domes and blocky lava flows that surround it. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Antillanca-Casablanca volcano group

March 12th, 2020

As of the 11th of March, SERNAGEOMIN announced today that a yellow technical alert has been declared for the Antillanca-Casablanca volcanic complex, in the Los Lagos region. The alert was generated after the detection on March 9 of a series of 73 seismic events located approximately 2.4 kilometers north-northwest of the Casablanca volcano, with a maximum magnitude of ML1.8. Other seismic events were detected respectively on January 31 and February 1 of MI 3.1-3.2 for the strongest west and northwest of the Casablanca volcano.The other parameters do not show significant variations.The Sernageomin specifies that the level of technical alert Amarilla corresponds to minor explosions or possible fumaroles.The Antillanca Group is a group of basalt to andesitic slag cones from the Upper Pleistocene to the Holocene, maars and small stratovolcanoes covering an area of ​​380 km2 SE of Lago Puyehue and NE of Lago Rupanco. The most prominent building is the Holocene stratovolcano of Casablanca, which has a truncated conical profile and produced major explosive eruptions about 2910 and 2260 years ago (radiocarbon dating).

CHILE - Chaiten volcano

April 4th, 2020

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on April 3 at 04.17 local time, an earthquake of local magnitude 2.8 located 3.2 km deep was recorded under the summit of the Chaitén volcano. The National Service of Geology and Mines has indicated that this earthquake is associated with rock fracturing and the dynamics of internal fluids (hybrid earthquake). The volcanic technical alert remains on "verde". The last period of activity of the Chaiten occurred between May 2, 2008 and May 31, 2011. This first historic eruption produced major explosive rhyolitic activity, numerous pyroclastic flows and lahars, and was followed by the installation of a dome complex which filled much of the caldera. Chaitén is a small, glacier-free caldera with a compound Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. Early work had identified only a single explosive eruption during the early Holocene prior to the major 2008 eruption, but later work has identified multiple explosive eruptions throughout the Holocene. A rhyolitic obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km from the volcano to the N and S. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén. The first historical eruption, beginning in 2008, produced major rhyolitic explosive activity and growth of a lava dome that filled much of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

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Colima volcano (Mexico)

 

Japan - Suwanojesima volcano

May 2nd, 2021

JMA reported that 45 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim during 23-30 April. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 400 m from the crater. Nighttime crater incandescence was visible during 24-25 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the
crater. Continuous Vulcanian activity continues characterized by occasional ash emissions from the Ontake Summit Crater. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reported eruption plumes that rose up to 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs up to 600 m from the crater. The incandescence of the crater was visible at night on satellite images. The alert level remained at 2 (on a scale of 5).JMA reported that incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible at night during 9-16 April. Seven explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 400 m away. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater. JMA reported that incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible at night during 5-9 April. Four explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 600 m away. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW) during 8-9 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that during 30-31 March large volcanic bombs were ejected at least 41 times from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater as high as 800 m above the crater rim and to distances as far as 1 km. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale) at 0330 on 31 March and the public was warned to stay outside a 2 km radius of the crater. The increased activity prompted an overflight that same day where scientists confirmed several hundred high-temperature bomb deposits with a thermal camera within a 1 km radius. Explosions at 2205 on 30 March and 0257 on 31 March ejected bombs onto the S and SE flanks, respectively. Grayish-white emissions rose from the crater. After 1500 eruption plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim. The number of explosions decreased; two per day were recorded during 1-2 April and one was recorded on 3 April. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 5 April and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that the seismic network for Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater detected a total of 17 explosions during 19-26 March. These events produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim, drifting S, W, and SW, and ejected bombs as far as 500 m away from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. On 30 March at least 18 explosions were detected, generating ash  plumes that rose 600-1,500 m above the crater drifting E, SE, and NE and ejecting material as far as 800 m S of the crater. On 31 March the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that the seismic network for Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater detected a total of 11 explosions during 12-19 March. These events produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs up to 700 m away from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that the seismic network for Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater detected a total of 29 explosions during 5-12 March, less than the 131 explosions recorded previous week. These events produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. Rumbling was heard in a village 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported intermittent eruptive events at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 26 February-2 March. Bombs were ejected as far as 600 m away from the crater and ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The number of explosions began increasing on 2 March; the total recorded through 1500 on 7 March was 139, but by 1500 on 8 March there was only one additional explosion. The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes rose 0.9-2.1 km (3,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. during 3-7 March. An explosion at 0317 on 6 March ejected tephra as high as 500 m above the crater rim and bombs 900 m away. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported intermittent eruptive events at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 19-26 February. These events produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 200 m away from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported intermittent eruptive events at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 12-19 February. These events produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 300 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was occasionally visible at night during 29 January-5 February. Intermittent explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 300 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was occasionally visible at night during 22-29 January. Intermittent explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 200 m away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that an eruptive épisode occurred at Suwanosejima (Mitake Crater) at 3:51 p.m. JST on January 20th, and the plume of gas and ash rose 2,500 m above the rim of the crater. The volcanic ash moved west from the crater, and within an hour a fairly large amount of ash fell in Toshima village, Kagoshima prefecture.JMA reported that the incandescence at Ontake Crater iwas visible every night from January 4th to 11th. Two explosions that occurred on January 5th produced plumes of ash that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 400 m from the crater.Two explosions occurred again on Jan. 9th-10th generated ash plumes that increased 1 km and again ejected bombs 400 m away. The alert level remained at 3 (on a scale of 5 levels). On January 13th, several episodes of ash emission followed, including one at 10:51 p.m. local time, forming a plume noted at 1,100 meters asl. However, the JMA on January 14th at 11 a.m. JST reduced the alert level to 2 / do not approach the crater.
Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 persons live

JAPAN - Kirishimayama volcano group - Shinmoedake Peak - (Kyushu)

February 2nd, 2021

As of the 2nd of February, JMA reported an increase in seismicity with the epicenter below the crater, with 107 in the past 10 days of volcanic earthquakes. No changes in inclinometer observations, but continuous GNSS observation shows an accumulation of magma in the deep part of Kirishima. A small white plume, about sixty meters high, surmounts the crater. The alert level is at 2 / do not approach the crater. Previous news 2020 - JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group) began to increase on 18 December and remained elevated. A total of 300 earthquakes were located beneath the summit crater during 16-25 December. No changes were detected in deformation and emission data. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on 25 December, and the public was warned to exercise caution within a 2-km radius of the crater. JMA noted that no eruption had occurred at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group) since 28 June 2018. Volcanic earthquakes with hypocenters just below Shinmoedake had increased around 17 November 2019, fluctuated afterwards, and then began a decreasing trend in mid-October 2020. Sulfur dioxide levels were generally low, deformation data showed no changes, and both fumarolic and geothermal area activity remained stable. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) on 11 December. JMA raised alert on January 2, 2020 at 10:40 p.m. JST to level 2 / do not approach the crater; The change is due to a series of volcanic earthquakes recorded from 4 p.m. on January 1, with their epicenter just below the crater. Previous news 2019 - JMA raised the Kirishimayama / Shinmoedake alert level on Nov. 18 at 5:10 am JST from 1 to 2 / do not approach the crater, following an increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes, with epicentres just below the crater. On November 18, 16 volcanic earthquakes were recorded from 0 to 15h local time. The number of volcanic earthquakes below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased on 25 February 2019 prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The number of daily volcanic earthquakes decreased during 3-4 March, and each day through 18 March only a few were recorded. Previously in 2018, A punctual emission of gas and ashes occurred from the volcano on 27th of June at 15:34 local; the plume has reached an altitude of 2,200 meters.The alert level remains at 3 out of 5, and it is recommended not to approach the volcano.A new explosive eruption occured from the crater of the Shinmoedake on June 22 at 9:09 local. It was accompanied by an ash plume rising to 2,600 meters; the ash emission lasted about 5 minutes according to the images provided by the JMA webcam. A shock wave spread from the crater over 1,100 meters.That is the 49th explosion at Shinmoedake since April 5, 2018.The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 May ash plumes from Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, were identified in satellite images drifting S at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. JMA noted that white plumes rose 100 m above the crater rim during 18-21 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that a short eruption occurred on 14th of May at 2:.44 am. An ash plume rose to about 4500 m high above the summit crater and drifted toward Southwest. This activity continued until 4:10 am. It's the first activity since the 6th of April. A pyroclastic flow travelled 2 km down the flank. Volcanic earthquake rates under the crater increased after the eruption. Shallow, low-frequency earthquakes and tremor were also reported. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). As of the 5th of April, JMA reported that a new explosive eruption marked the Shinmoedake this April 5 in the early hours. Two larger explosions were observed at 3:31 and 3:47, accompanied by high ash emissions and a plume rising up to 5,000 meters, traversed by volcanic lightning generated by friction of ash particles..Based on observations during overflights on 28 March and 2 April, JMA reported that the crack on the W flank of Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued to widen. White emissions rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. Several high-temperature regions around the margins of the lava in the crater, and from the flow on the NW flank, were detected on 28 March. The lava flow on the NW flank advanced 85 m from 9-29 March. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 300 tons/day on 30 March. The number of volcanic earthquakes began to decline after 26 March; though from 0014 to 1430 on 3 April the number increased to 239. Many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that the eruption at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued during 19-27 March. Lava effusion possibly stopped on 9 March, though the lava flow on the NW flank continued to advance. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Short-duration volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. During a field survey on 22 March scientists measured 600 tons/day of sulfur dioxide gas, and noted that the crack on the W flank had grown slightly larger. On 25 March an explosion at 0735 was followed by an ash plume that rose 3.2 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 800 m. An event at 0845 generated an ash plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater rim, and a very small pyroclastic flow that traveled 800 m W. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 300 tons/day on 24 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). Kirishimayama is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene dominantly andesitic group consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1700-m-high Karakunidake being the highest. Onamiike and Miike, the two largest maars, are located SW of Karakunidake and at its far eastern end, respectively. Holocene eruptions have been concentrated along an E-W line of vents from Miike to Ohachi, and at Shinmoedake to the NE. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 8th century. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Aso volcano (Kyushu)

May 5th, 2021

JMA reported that volcanic tremor amplitude increased at Asoson at around 2100 on 2 May 2021 prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) at 2255. The public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low, at 200 tons per day on 3 May, and white steam plumes rose as high as 300 m above the crater rim. Previous news 2020 - JMA reported that no eruptions at Asosan had been observed since 16 June; only white plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater afterwards. Sulfur dioxide emissions had been low since mid-June, and volcanic-tremor amplitude decreased to low levels on 18 July. During a field inspection on 17 August, observers noted no water in the crater and a whitish area at the center of the crater floor. On 18 August the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that the eruptive activity continued. On June 5th, an ash plume is observed between 500 and 900 meters (after 3 p.m.) above the Nakadake crater.The activity is stil underway on June 6th. JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 29 May-2 June. Volcanic plumes rose 1,000-1,600 m above the crater rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high; the rate was 1,000 tons per day on 27 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 11-18 May. Volcanic plumes rose 600-1,000 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high; the rate was 1,300 tons per day on 17 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 4-11 May. Volcanic plumes rose 700-900 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 3,000-4,800 tons per day during 7-8 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 13-20 April. Gray-white ash plumes rose 800-1,100 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was somewhat high at 1,600 and 1,200 tons per day on 14 and 16 April, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). .JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 9-16 March. Gray-to-white ash plumes rose 600-800 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 1,600-1,700 tons per day on 11 and 16 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). VAAC Tokyo reports ash emissions to Asosan on Kyushu on February 29 and March 1, 2020, following an activity of previous duration of the volcano. The ash clouds drift east to an altitude flight 70.JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 10-17 February. Ash plumes rose 900-1,300 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate continued to be at a high level. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 27 January-3 February. Plumes rose 1.1 km above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, ranging from 1,900 to 3,400 tons per day during 28-29 and 31 January and 3 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 7-20 January. Plumes rose 0.9-1 km above the crater rim during 15-20 January and caused ashfall in areas downwind; the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes mainly drifted S, SE, E, and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. (GVP/GVN)

JAPAN - Asama volcan (Honshu)

March 30th, 2021

On 23 March JMA raised the Alert Level for Asamayama to 2 (on a scale of 1-5), noting slight inflation on the W side of the volcano since 15 March and an increase in the number of daily volcanic earthquakes that have occurred since 20 March (36 recorded on 20 March and increasing to 77 events by 1500 on 23 March). After 23 March the number of daily volcanic earthquakes began to fluctuate, decreasing to 15 on 28 March and then 23 by 1500 on 29 March. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 800 tons per day (t/d) on 22 March, 400 t/d on 24 March, and 700 t/d on 25 March, compared to the previous measurement of 200 t/d on 25 February.On 5 February JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asama to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) noting that no deformation or crater incandescence had been detected since late November 2020, sulfur dioxide emissions had trended downward beginning in December, volcanic earthquakes were recorded only occasionally since mid-December, and the number of small-amplitude volcanic tremors were recorded occasionally and had not increased. Previous news 2020 - JMA reported that since June 20th, 2020, the number of volcanic earthquakes increased, then fluctuated downward. The number of volcanic earthquakes is 59 on June 24, 113 on June 25, 120 on June 26, 80 on June 27, 24 on 28.06 and 2  at 3:00 p.m. today (29 - preliminary value). Observation by a surveillance camera showed that the white plume remained below 200 m above the edge of the crater, and no particular change was observed. JMA raised the alert level to 2 / do not approach the crater, on June 25 at 3 p.m. JST. It is advised not to enter the danger zone in the municipalities of Gunma: Tsumagoi-mura, Nagano: Komoro-shi, Karuizawa-machi, Miyota-machi. Since June 20, seismic activity on the western flank of the volcano has continued at fluctuating levels. On June 24 and 25, the seismic station recorded 59 and 69 volcano-tectonic earthquakes respectively. An eruption could occur without warning. The warning bulletin indicates that the ballistic impacts of volcanic bombs and pyroclastic flows could affect an area about 2 km away from the main crater. Asamayama, Honshu's most active volcano, overlooks the resort town of Karuizawa, 140 km NW of Tokyo. The volcano is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan volcanic arcs. The modern Maekake cone forms the summit and is situated east of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofuyama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic shield volcano was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the east flank. Maekake, capped by the Kamayama pyroclastic cone that forms the present summit, is probably only a few thousand years old and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century CE. Maekake has had several major plinian eruptions, the last two of which occurred in 1108 (Asamayama's largest Holocene eruption) and 1783 CE. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Kuchinoerebujima ( Ryu-Kyu islands)

February 26th , 2021

JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes located at shallow depths beneath Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater increased on 21 February and remained elevated. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5) on 28 February. No other monitoring data showed upward trends and no surficial changes were visible; sulfur dioxide emissions remained low at 60 tons per day on 24 February.JMA lowered the Alert Level for Kuchinoerabujima to 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-5) on 19 January, noting downward trends in activity data since mid-2020. Specifically, after May 2020 no volcanic earthquakes were detected, inflation slowed to baseline levels, and sulfur dioxide emissions began decreasing though remained slightly high. Additionally, crater incandescence had not been visible after July and no eruptions were recorded after August 2020. Previous news 2020 - JMA reported that t activity continued at the Shindake crater of Kuchinoerabujima, with an eruption that occurred at 11:05 a.m. on April 29, characterized by a plume of ash and gas 1,000 meters above the crater. The plume flows north, then northeast.JMA reported that very small eruptions are still occuring intermittently in the crater of Shindake. On April 24 at 11:15 p.m., a plume was reported 300 meters above the crater. No volcanic block collapse or pyroclastic flow was observed. A field study from April 21-23 revealed a crack on the west side of the Shindake crater, where a slight increase in temperature in the nearby geothermal field was reported. JMA also reported an increase in activity level on April 24. JMA reported that during 13-20 April very small eruptive events at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater produced grayish-white plumes that rose 600 m above the crater rim. An event at 0147 on 20 April generated a grayish-white plume that rose 800 m and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that currently on level 3 alert, activity continued, with the emission of a white-gray plume on April 16 at around 3 p.m. local. The activity was in progress. Previously, JMA reported that activity continues, according to the JMA with plumes of gas and ash observed this April 6 at 8:10 a.m. JST, from a height of 400 meters, and at 3 p.m. JST, with a plume reaching 700 meters. Ash and lapilli falls are expected. The alert level is 3 / do not approach the volcano. As of the 23rd of March, JMA recorded a white plume 400 meters above the crater of the volcano. Seismicity is characterized by increasing volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the number of which reaches 25 / day. Sulfur dioxide emissions are around 1,300 tonnes / day. The latest bulletin of March 23 also reported bombs and pyroclastic flows likely to affect an area up to 2 km from the crater. JMA reported that very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater during 20-21 February generated whitish plumes that rose 200 m above the crater rim. No changes were observed during field visits on those two days. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 400-600 tons per day during 20-23 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that at 1211 on 13 February a very small eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced a grayish white plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that a small explosion occurred on February 9 at 9:50 a.m. local, with an ash plume rising 500 meters above the crater, before dispersing to the southeast.As of the 4th of February, JMA reported that a pyroclastic flow extending for about 900 meters was observed on the southwest side of Mount Shindake, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic plume 626 meters high, on Kuchinoerabu Island, in the Kagoshima prefecture. However, it did not reach the residential areas and no injuries or damage to the residences were confirmed, according to the local government. The height of the ash plume could not be assessed by the VAAC due to the cloud cover. According to JMA, the eruption occurred around 5.30 a.m. on February 3, 2020. Large deposits of ash were found scattered in areas about 600 meters from the crater. Very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima on 20, 23, and 24 January produced grayish-white plumes that rose 500 m above the crater rim. Ashfall 2 km NE of the crater was confirmed during aerial observations on 23 January. The number of volcanic earthquakes increased during 25-26 January. An eruptive event was recorded at 0148 on 27 January, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation; volcanic tremor, changes in tilt data, and infrasound signals accompanied the event. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were 200-1,000 tons per day during 20-27 January; JMA characterized emissions of 600-1,000 tons per day as high. JMA reported trhat white plumes from Kuchinoerabujima rose 600 m above the crater rim during 14-17 January. Minor eruptive activity from 1659 on 17 January through 1030 on 20 January generated grayish-white plumes that rose 300 m. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 800 and 1,600 tons per day on 15 and 16 January, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). VAAC Tokyo reported that an eruption took place on January 11th at 3:05 p.m. and continued at 3:30 p.m., producing a thick plume of ash and gas rising to 2,000 meters before entering the clouds. The ash is dispersed in an eastern sector.The alert level is 3 / "do not approach the crater" since 28th of October.2019. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km west of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. The youngest cone, centrally-located Shintake, formed after the NW side of Furutake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shintake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furutake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shintake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions. (GVN/GVP) - NHK webcam

JAPAN - Azumayama volcano (Honshu)

June 19th, 2019

On 17 June JMA lowered the Alert Level for Azumayama to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale), noting that deformation and elevated seismicity recorded in May had stabilized and decreased, respectively. JMA reported that yhe number of volcanic earthquakes at Azumayama increased on 5 May and data from a tiltmeter about 1 km SE of Ohana Crater showed inflation on 9 May, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Field observations on 7 and 10 May indicated no changes in the fumarolic and thermal areas around Ohana. Seismicity began to decrease on 10 May, though continued to fluctuate through 20 May. Deformation continued but at a slower rate. The Azumayama volcanic group consists of a cluster of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones. The andesitic and basaltic complex was constructed in two E-W rows above a relatively high basement of Tertiary sedimentary rocks and granodiorites west of Fukushima city. Volcanic activity has migrated to the east, with the Higashi-Azuma volcano group being the youngest. The symmetrical Azuma-Kofuji crater and a nearby fumarolic area on the flank of Issaikyo volcano are popular tourist destinations. The Azumayama complex contains several crater lakes, including Goshikinuma and Okenuma. Historical eruptions, mostly small phreatic explosions, have been restricted to Issaikyo volcano at the northern end of the Higashiyama group.(GVN/GVP)
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JAPAN - Hakoneyama volcano (Honshu)

October 9th, 2019

On 7 October JMA lowered the Alert Level for Hakoneyama to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale), noting that the number of volcanic earthquakes had decreased to background levels after a spike in seismicity was recorded in May. Inflation had been detected but had become almost stagnant after late August. Fumaroles in the Owakudani hot springs area continued to be active, with gas-and-steam plumes rising 100-400 m above their vents. JMA reported that the number of earthquakes at Hakoneyama increased on 18 May and remained elevated through 27 May. The epicenters were centered around the W bank of Lake Ashinoko and around Komagatake. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data continued to indicate a trend of inflation. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that the number of earthquakes at Hakoneyama increased during 18-19 May, with epicenters centered around the W bank of Lake Ashinoko and around Komagatake. Fumaroles in the Owakudani hot springs area continued to be active. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data showed changes in deformation beginning in mid-March. On 19 May JMA raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Elevated seismicity continued to be recorded through 21 May. Hakoneyama volcano is truncated by two overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 10 x 11 km wide. The calderas were formed as a result of two major explosive eruptions about 180,000 and 49,000-60,000 years ago. Scenic Lake Ashi lies between the SW caldera wall and a half dozen post-caldera lava domes that were constructed along a NW-SE trend cutting through the center of the calderas. Dome growth occurred progressively to the NW, and the largest and youngest of these, Kamiyama, forms the high point. The calderas are breached to the east by the Hayakawa canyon. A phreatic explosion about 3000 years ago was followed by collapse of the NW side of Kamiyama, damming the Hayakawa valley and creating Lake Ashi. The latest magmatic eruptive activity about 2900 years ago produced a pyroclastic flow and a lava dome in the explosion crater, although phreatic eruptions took place as recently as the 12-13th centuries CE. Seismic swarms have occurred during the 20th century. Lake Ashi, along with the thermal areas in the caldera, is a popular resort destination SW of Tokyo.(GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano (Kyushu)

May 5th, 2021

MA reported that during 26 April-3 May incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. There was a total of 10 explosions, producing ash plumes that rose as high has 2.4 km above the summit and ejected bombs 1.3-1.7 km away from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were
warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that Vulcanian activity continues from the summit crater of Minamidake / Sakurajima with regular eruptions at the rate of 2 per day, accompanied by ash plumes rising up to 2,400 meters above the crater and lava bombs launched at a height approximately 1 km and 1.3 km from the crater. The seismic network has detected 11 volcano-tectonic earthquakes in the last 5 days.JMA reported that activity at Sakurajima from from April 23 to 26 at 3:00 p.m was characterized by 10 eruption at the Minamidake summit crater, of which 7 were explosions. Plumes of ash and gas rose up to 2,300 m above the crater rim. The volcanic bombs reached up to the 5th station (1,000m to 1,300m from the Minamidake summit crater). JMA reported that an explosion occurred from Minamidake crater on April 25 at 1:09 am, accompanied by a plume that rose to 2,300 m. above the rim of the crater, and first described as generating a pyroclastic flow to the southwest. A field survey carried out by the JMA mobile team found no trace of this pyroclastic flow, nor of any particular change around the summit crater.JMA reported that during 12-19 April incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. There was a total of nine explosions and one eruptive event. Ash plumes rose 1-2 km above the summit and bombs were ejected 800-1,300 m away from the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 2,400 tons per day on 12 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that at 0641 on 5 April and explosion at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) produced an ash plume that rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim and ejected material 800-1,000 m away from the crater. Five explosions were recorded during 9-12 April. The highest ash plume rose 2.1 km and bombs were ejected as far as 900 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that activity of the Minamidake crater remains important.Note the explosions of April 4 at 11:35 p.m. local, accompanied by a plume of ash 2,000 meters above the crater, drifting to the southeast. Another explosion took place on April 5 at 6:41 am local time, accompanied by a plume 3,000 meters above the crater.The JMA reports, for each of them, large bombs which disperse at the level of the 6th station, around 800-1.100 meters from the summit crater Minamidake.
JMA reported that that during 22-26 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. An explosion on 25 March produced an eruption plume that rose 1.4 km above the crater rim. On 27 March at 0236 an eruption generated an ash plume that rose 2.5-4 km above the crater rim and drifted NW, resulting in a large amount of ashfall in Kagoshima City (about 10 km W). Volcanic bombs were ejected 1-1.3 km away from the crater. An eruption on 29 March at 1557 produced an eruption plume that rose 2.2 km above the crater rim and drifted SE, resulting in a pyroclastic flow down the SE flank and ashfall in Kagoshima City and the Kagoshima Prefecture. An explosion on 30 March at 0433 generated an ash plume that rose 2.7 km above the crater and drifted E, ejecting bombs 600-900 m from the crater. Ashfall was again reported in Kagoshima City. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale)..JMA reported that during 15-22 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. An explosion on 15 March produced an eruption plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 500-700 m away from the crater. The explosions on 20 March generated plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,800 tons per day on 12 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).The Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

Japan - Satsuma-Iwojima ( Ryukyu islands)

October 6th, 2020

JMA recorded a small eruption on 6th of October at 07:57 local time. Ash emissions reach up to 3,000 ft (914 m) altitude and drifted NW. JMA reported that during 7-14 September white plumes from Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai's NW caldera rim, rose as high as 1 km above the Iodake crater rim. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). Previously, JMA reported that an eruption occurred at 06:09 am on April 29 at the Iodake crater of Satsuma Iwo Jima. It continued until 6:50 a.m. The height of the gas and ash plume is 1000 meters above the edge of the crater. The ashes should fall to the north of the crater.The inclinometer data near Mount Iodake did not show any significant change due to volcanic activity.Therefore, it is unlikely that a large-scale eruption will occur at this time.Currently, Satsuma Iwo Jima is at eruption alert level 2 (regulation around the crater).Previous news 2019 - The Japan Meteorological Agency has raised the alert level of Satsuma-Iojima to 2 (/ do not approach the crater) on November 2nd of November at 17:50 JST, following an eruption that occurred at 17:35 local, accompanied by a plume of ash which has desegregated the 1,000 meters above the crater. The ashes dispersed in a northwesterly direction, with little impact on the village of Mishima..A grayish-white plume rose 1 km above the Iodake crater rim. The report noted that the number of volcanic earthquakes has been low, with no variations before or after the event. The next day during an overflight conducted by the Coast Guard and the Japan Meteorological Agency Mobile Survey Team (JMA-MOT) observers noted no changes to the geothermal field and no new deposits from the event the day before. Views of the crater were obscured by white plumes rising 300 m above the crater rim.Satsuma-Iojima forms part of the edge of the largely submerged Kikai caldera, 19 km wide, and located at the northern end of the Ryuku volcanic arc, south of Kyushu Island / Japan. Two post-caldera structures contributed to its current morphology: Mt.Iwodake, a rhyolitic lava dome, and the small Inamuradake scoria cone.The historical eruptions of the 20th century have mainly concerned Iwodake, which is marked by a fumarolic activity of high temperature (up to 900 ° C).The summit zone, of 400 over 140 meters, includes several craters, result of the explosive activity following the installation of the dome. The small crater Kintsuba is located southwest of the central crater Oana, a place of mining sulfur . Small ash eruptions were observed in 1999, 2001, 2002-2204, and 2013. (GVN/GVP)

Japan - Nishinoshima volcano - Izu Island

November 26th, 2020

An overflight of Nishinoshima was carried out on November 24th in the afternoon. No emission was confirmed, on the other hand the inner wall of the cone exhibited high temperatures, and vapor emissions were observed in several places of the inner wall and on the edge of the crater. Discolored waters are distributed from the west shore to the east shore. In the south of the island, there is a quantity of acidic and brown water. Experts have reported a recent change in the composition of volcanic ash emitted by Nishinoshima. The magma seems to come from a greater depth, and future developments could include a collapse of the central cone, leading to subsidence of the whole island, and a possible tsunami. The large volumes of lava emitted made the island grow by 40%, increasing it from 2.89 km² in May 2019 to 4.1 km² in August 2020, based on satellite images. There was also a change in the mode of eruption. Nishinoshima was only emitting lava until June, but began discharging large volumes of ash in late July, covering the entire island under several meters of this brown ash. Ash analysis in July showed that its silica dioxide content has dropped from 60 to 55%. The magnesium and calcium content has increased, resulting in a greater density of magma. An overflight of Nishinoshima was carried out by the Japan Coast Guards on August 19 between 1:25 p.m. and 2:15 p.m. Despite the veil of clouds, it was possible to observe a consequent widening of the crater of the pyroclastic cone, already partly noticed on the satellite images of August 14 ; a strong diffusion on the infrared images testifies to the activity in the crater, and on a large delta at the edge of the sea .Degassing generates a rather white plume, generous but not very high confirmed by the satellite images, on which the ash clouds are not identifiable.JMA reported that a small explosion occurred on August 16 in Nishinoshima, visible in a NASA image. The VAAC Tokyo reported the continuation of the ash emissions, up to an altitude of flight 130. GSI has uploaded the SAR intensity images of the Daichi-2 satellite taken of Nishinoshima between July 31 and August 14, 2020. The interference zones were considerably reduced over almost the entire surface of the island, covered with ash. The image taken on August 14 showed an expansion of the pyroclastic cone crater. On August 15, gas and ash emissions continue, with the emission of a plume in a southwesterly direction, dissipating in a western sector. JMA reported that explosive activity continues, with an ash plume estimated at an altitude of 4,000 meters / alt. Flight 130, by VAAC Tokyo. On August 11, Nishinoshima was at the center of the cyclonic system formed in southern Japan by Tropical Storm SIX, weakened into a tropical depression while it carried the plume of ash and sulphate aerosols emitted by the current eruption.JMA reported a colorful plume at 3,800 meters asl. on Nishinoshima, south-eastbound, on August 9 at 2:20 p.m. local time. The eruption continues and a strong signal of sulfur dioxide is reported by Tropomi. JMA reported that activity of Nishinoshima continues, with ash emissions, reported by the VAAC Tokyo, partially obscured in its western part by clouds. A strong sulfur dioxide signal is noted by Tropomi. The Taiwan News reports that volcanic dust from an eruption on the Japanese island of Nishinoshima was responsible for a sudden deterioration in air quality on Taiwan's sparsely populated East Coast on Thursday evening (August 6), according to Taiwan News. meteorological experts. JMA reported that activity remained on Nishinoshima, where VAAC Tokyo reported ash plumes reaching up to 5,800 meters in early August. Their dispersion takes place in multiple directions. The Sentinel-5P / Tropomi Satellite still reports strong signals of sulfur dioxide around Nishinoshima, with this August 06, 98.45Du of SO2 at an altitude of 6 km. JMA reported for this August 4 that Sentinel-5P / Tropomi recorded 20.88 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 10 km. AIRES has analyzed these SO2 emissions over the last 40 days and estimates them between 50 and 100 kilotons per day, or about 2-4% of the annually global anthropogenic SO2 emissions. JMA reported that on July 30th, an observation was made of the gray plume emanating from the crater which reached a height of about 3,000 meters, passing through thin clouds in the sky and progressing south from the aircraft. Until now, the rugged black lava has spread over the surface of the island, but during the day it is covered in brown volcanic ash several meters thick. Scoria hill seems to remain in its old configuration (Video). AIRES analyzed the plumes emitted by the volcano, and noticed differences in spectrum between the Himawari & Modis photos of July 8 and July 30, 2020, suggesting changes and a higher silicate content. Previously, JMA reported that the activity continued on July 30th with at 9 p.m. a new eruption, accompanied by an ash plume at 5,300 meters above the crater. The dispersal was to the south, then to the west. JMA reported that on July 27th, the plume was drifting NW, then N according to VAAC Tokyo and Nasa Worldview images. An area of ​​water discoloration extends NE for a few kilometers. JMA reported that the eruptive activity continued on Nishinoshima with on July 25, 2020 at 3 p.m. a plume of brown ash at 4,400 meters above the crater, drifting north. On the Nasa worldview satellite image a discoloration of the water was visible. Sentinel-5P / Tropomi detected a strong sulfur dioxide signal near Nishinoshima, with 24.16DU of SO2 at an altitude of 8.12 km. Based on satellite data and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-21 July ash plumes rose to 3.7-6.4 km (12,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E. Satellite data showed a sulfur dioxide plume reaching the western USA on 18 July, after traveling over 9,000 km from Nishinoshima. JMA scientists observed Nishinoshima from a ship on 11 July. They reported that a large amount of ash was emitted from the summit crater; plumes rose about 1.7 km and drifted W, dropping ash into the sea. Deposits of large blocks at the foot of the cone were visible. Lava fountains that rose 200 m above the crater were observable at night, along with lightning in the ash plumes. The cone had grown to about 200 m, about 40 m higher than an estimate on 1 December 2019. The report stated that ships should stay at least 2.5 km away from the cone. VAAC Tokyo and Mirova reported that a slight thermal anomaly remained , but has decreased considerably since July 10th, when it was noted at VRP 1340 at 473 MW, against VRP 91 at 8 MW on July 11th. The extension of the plume is centered around the island, with a moderate drift towards the northeast. Eruptive activity is still continuing with an ash plume and sulfur dioxide emissions, seen by satellites, and reported by the VAAC Tokyo. Mirova always reported high to very high thermal anomalies between July 8th and 10th, between VRP 304 and 1811 MW. As of the 8th of July, Thermal anomalies always remain very high to high according to Mirova. External activity is characterized by the emission of ash plumes and vapors / gases as in the previous days. On the Sentinel-5P / tropomi satellite images, a strong sulfur dioxide signal can be detected, with 16.84 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 9.73 km.VAAC Tokyo continues to issue ash dispersal notices (According to VAAC. 1FL = 100 feet = 30.5 meters). JMA reported on July 4, 2020 at 3 p.m. a plume of gas and ash rose to 7,100 meters asl., drifting towards the west. Satellite images showed a strong sulfur dioxide signal which can be detected, with 16.04 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 8.02 km. The thermal anomalies noted by Mirova have remained intense in recent days. The JMA announced on July 4 a volcanic plume of 8,300 meters high in Nishinoshima, against the more than 3,400 meters observed by the Japan Coast guards on June 29.In the SAR intensity image of July 3, changes in the topography, which would be caused by lava, etc., were observed on the southwest and west sides of the pyroclastic cone, and the coastline changes on the south-west side of Nishinoshima.In addition, the diameter of the pyroclastic cone increased approximately 1.5 times from June 19, and topographic changes on the southern slope are visible. From the north side to the east side of the pyroclastic cone, there is a decrease in the intensity of reflection, which would be due to the fall of the ashes. NASA images show that SO2 emission from the Nishinoshima volcano eruption still cover much of the North Pacific on July 3. Part of the SO2 has dispersed through the Aleutian Islands and Alaska to the Chukchi and the seas of eastern Siberia, above 70 ° North.An overflight of the island by the Japan Coast Guards on June 29 revealed an activity that remained significant, with explosions of incandescent materials, a plume of black ash rising to more than 3,400 meters, and significant modifications at the top and on the southwest flank of the slag cone / Scoria hill. Following the current activity, part of the cone has collapsed and oxidized projections are visible along the coast. In addition, the lava now flows to the southwest.VAAC Tokyo reports this June 26th at 12h Z that ash emissions continue in Nishinoshima. Confirmed at an eastward flight altitude of 100 / Himawari-8 satellite data. A strong sulfur dioxide signal was detected on June 26 from 38.72 DU of SO2 at an altitude of 7.1 km northeast, via Sentinel- 5P / Tropomi. Activity on Nishinoshima remains significant; very high thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova between VRP 1437 and 2479 MW on June 24, 202. VAAC Tokyo has issued a new ash dispersion advisory to the northeast. The ongoing activity on Nishinoshima continues, more intense in June than in May. Thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova and Himawari-8, described as high to very high from June 21 to 23. On June 16, an ash cloud was observed heading east. On June 21 and 22, a plume of sulfur dioxide was spotted by Sentinel - 5P / Tropomi, associated with the effusive eruption. It extended in the troposphere over 5,000 km on June 22. The effusive activity modifies the morphology of the island, as indicated by the SAR images put online by GSI. VAAC Tokyo reported that on June 16, with a brown-black plume emitted at about 2,000 meters, doubled with plumes of gas and vapor emitted by lava flows and their entry into the sea. JMA reported that the activity of Nishinoshima does not weaken, with many high thermal anomalies on June 11 and 12, 2020, listed between 46 and 578 MW. The last overview by the Japan Coast Guards on June 7 shows an intense gas and ash emission activity at the crater of the pyroclastic cone, as well as the plumes of gas and vapor emitted by the arrival of lava at sea. An overview was conducted by the Japan Coast Guards on May 18, 2020. When approaching the island, the summit activity was accompanied with degassing due to the arrival of lava at sea.Strombolian explosions produced a plume of ash, and ejected materials on the blanks of the pyroclastic cone. On the thermal image, It was possible to see that the lava flowing from the effusive vent on the southwest flank of the cone is divided into two arms, one of which formed a delta at the entrance to the sea. Activity appears to be continuous, slightly up on April 29, 2020 overview The japonaise Coast Guard carried out an overview by the Japan Coast Guards on April 29, 2020. The surface of the slag cone has been renewed and deposits of sulfur can be seen in places on the northeast surface of the cone. Although it cannot be seen from the front of the image, it appears that the collapsed crater southwest of the summit that appeared on April 19 has been buried again. Between April 29 and the previous sighting on April 19, there was obviously a good activity. Thermal images are also interesting. Although the exit is the same, you can see the lava flow move clockwise through the pyroclastic cone and head south. A beautiful fan of lava in the north direction, and a flow to the east coast consists of three arms. The Japanese Coast Guard flew over Nishinoshima (Ogasawara Islands) on March 9, confirming that the gray plume emitted reached an altitude of about 1,000 meters. The lava flows on the northeast flank of the crater for about 1 km to the north shore before flowing into the sea, where a plume of gas and vapor was visible. Mirova has noted thermal anomalies, when the cloud cover does not prevent measurements, between 79 and 314 MW, for the period from 09 to 11.03.2020. As of the 3rd of March, GSI site reported topographic changes due to lava were observed on the north and east sides of the pyroclastic cone, and changes in the coastline are observed on the side North of the island. In addition, a new topographic change was observed on the southwest side of the pyroclastic cone, which would be caused by lava. The thermal anomalies transmitted by Mirova between February 29 and March 2 range from 47 MW on March 1 / 4:15 a.m. and 338 MW on March 2 / 12:45 p.m. As of the 17th of February, JMA reported that the activity that resumed since December 20, 2019, continued actively with thermal anomaliestnoted by Mirova and SAR images testifying to flows which enlarge its surface.Eruptive activity continues on Nishinoshima, with thermal anomalies noted by Mirova, and reaching 425 MW on February 2 at 3:50 a.m. Regular GSI reports show the topographic changes caused by lava flows from the northeast to the east of the island between January 17 and 31. On January 26, 2020, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 captured this image of a plume of ash and vapor emanating from volcanic island of Nishinoshima. In this image, the infrared data is superimposed on a natural color image to highlight the active flows of the volcano. According to the Global Volcanism Program, the lava flows traveled northeast and entered the ocean, generating plumes of vapor near the shore. The Japan Coast Guards reported a continued increase in emissions from January 15 to 21 from the central crater. The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima conducted from 1335 to 1412 on 17 January surveyors observed continuous gray emissions rising from the central crater of the pyroclastic cone to 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E and NE. The central crater was open to the ENE; lava flows traveled NE and entered the ocean, producing steam plumes at the coastline. GSI reported that Synthetic Aperture / SAR Radar images on board the Japanese satellite DAICHI-2 (ALOS-2) provided by the GSI, show changes in the coastline to the NNE of Nishinoshima Island (Ogasawara Islands), between 3 and January 17, 2020, in connection with a lava flow from the cone.The thermal anomalies reported by Mirova oscillated between 7 and 268 MW on January 15-17, 2020 (note that they can be masked by cloud cover and interpreted accordingly). The eruptive episodes therefore continue well, with relative enlargement of the emerged part.According to recent news he morphological evolution of the cone and the contours of the island continues.The GSI reported a modification on both the NW and SSE coast on December 20, 2019, and a significant increasing on the NNE side on January 3, based on ALOS-2 satellite images.Moderate to high thermal anomalies were observed by Mirova. Previous news 2019 - As of the 16th of December, JMA reported that the strombolian activity continued and was characterized by the emission of a plume of ash, bombs, and feeded two flows from a vent near the summit of Scoria Hill, in a west and east direction. One of the lava flow reached the ocean with emission of gas and vapor. Thermal anomalies remained moderate but constant. The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima on 15 December surveyors observed that explosions were occurring from the main crater of the pyroclastic cone every second to several seconds. Blocks were ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim; red hot blocks were scattered at the base of the cone. Gray plumes rose from the crater, and lava continued flowing E into the sea. A new crater had opened on the N flank of the cone and effused lava that flowed NW down to the sea. JMA expanded the marine exclusion zone around the island to 2.5 km the next day. JMA reported that the Nishinoshima Volcano, which has been calm since July 2018, has recovered explosive-effusive activity since 4 December 2019. The explosions are located at the main cone, and a vent that opened at the NE base of the cone produces spaterring and lava flows.This activity, in addition to the thermal anomalies recorded by satellite, was observed on December 6 during an overflight by the Japanese coastguard. The small island of Nishinoshima was enlarged when several new islands coalesced during an eruption in 1973-74. Another eruption that began offshore in 2013 completely covered the previous exposed surface and enlarged the island again. Water discoloration has been observed on several occasions since. The island is the summit of a massive submarine volcano that has prominent satellitic peaks to the S, W, and NE. The summit of the southern cone rises to within 214 m of the sea surface 9 km SSE. (GVN/GVP)

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Suwanojesima volcano (Japan)

USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

May 5th, 2021

HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 28 April-4 May through a submerged inlet. The depth of the lake was about 227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink. The E half of the lake remained solidified and comprised about 93 percent of
the total area, based on thermal measurements acquired on 16 April. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 250 and 475 tons/day on 30 April and 2 May, respectively, continuing a downward trend that began in mid-April; the recent rates suggested that the effusion rate had also decreased. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 21-27 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The depth of the lake was about 226-227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink; the E half of the lake remained solidified. Lava sometimes overflowed the margins of the lake. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 350, 550, 300, and 350 tons/day on 21, 22, 23, and 24 April, respectively. The rates were the lowest measured during the eruption, though elevated above the levels recorded in the months before the start of the eruption (20 December 2020). The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 14-20 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The depth of the lake was about 226-227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink; the E half of the lake remained solidified. Lava sometimes overflowed the margins of the lake. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 950 tons/day on 14 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. As of the 14th of April, HVO reported that the lava outflow from the West Vent continues to feed the lava lake in Halema'uma'u Crater. The west vent constantly emits low flow lava through a crusted channel and a submerged inlet into the lake. Lava flow and intermittent crustal sinking continue in the western part of the lava lake, with lava seeping sporadically in areas along the perimeter of the lake. The total depth of the lake is 227 m. this April 14, 2021, measured by a continuous laser rangefinder on the active western part of the lake. Stagnant and solidified lava crust covers the eastern part of the lava lake and slowly grows westward. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate, measured on April 8, was 1000 t / day. This is high compared to the rates for the months before the eruption started on December 20 (less than 100 t / day), but lower than the pre-2018 lava lake emission rates (around 5,000 t / day) .
.HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 31 March-6 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The total depth of the lake measured about 225 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part; the E half of the lake remained solidified and expanded toward the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 tons/day on 1 April. HVO field crews observed weak spattering from two areas at the W vent during 1-2 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 24-30 March. Lava flowed from the main vent into the lake through two crusted-over channels and submerged inlets, the former of which occurred during 24-25 March. The total depth of the lake measured about 224 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part; the E half of the lake remained solidified, expanding toward the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 950 and 650 tons/day on 22 and 26 March, respectively.HVO reported that two vents on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 17-23 March. Lava flowed from both the main vent and a vent several meters NE into the lake through submerged inlets. Another lava flow emerged from about halfway up the cone structure starting at 0220 on 16 March, but had ended by the next day. The depth of the western part of the lake rose from about 221 m to 223 m and lava continued to circulate in that part. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 650, 700, and 1,100 tons/day on 17, 18, and 19 March, respectively. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that vents on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 10-16 March. Lava flowed from both the main vent and a newer vent several meters NE into the lake through submerged inlets. Another lava flow emerged from about halfway up the cone structure starting at 0220 on 16 March. The depth of the western part of the lake rose from 221 m to 222 m and lava continued to circulate in that part. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 tons/day on 14 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. HVO reported that a small lava pond developed near the western fissure during 5-7 March. On 7 March at about 13:00 local time a levee of the pond started to collapse allowing the pond lava to drain into the main lake. The lake has developed a subtle levee on its south margin (just below the center of the photo), with several lava streams cascading down onto the lower level on the eastern end of the levee. A new lava flow was active north of the normal lava flow entering the lake. This new lava flow was perched above the lake surface, and fed a narrow channel entering the lake. The new stream was set within a collapse scar that resulted from the collapse of a small lava pond.HVO reported that lava from the West Vent continues to feed the lava lake in Halema'uma'u Crater. The active western half of the lava lake measured approximately 217 m. depth, measured by a remote laser rangefinder on the morning of February 27, 2021. Observations yesterday afternoon indicated that lava effusion continues at the western fissure. The lava quickly develops a thin crust as it flows outward to the east with occasionally a crust sinking between the vent and the main island, but not beyond the island. HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 17-23 February. The depth of the western part of the lake fluctuated between 215 and 218 m and the lake surface actively overturned at “plate” boundaries. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was elevated at 1,000 tons/day on 19 February.As of the 17th of February, HVO reported that lava activity remains confined to Halema'uma'u Crater, with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. As of the morning of February 16, the active western half of the lava lake was approximately 216.5 m deep. The small decrease in depth since yesterday coincides with the current deflation. During the last day, lava effusion continued at the western fissure, with the lava rapidly developing a thin crust and flowing eastward. A few oozing lava flows were noted along the northern and eastern margins of the otherwise stagnant eastern part of the lake. The position of the main island has not changed; as measured on February 12, the southern end of the island was 9 m. above the surface of the lava lake, with the highest point at 21 m. above the surface. All the other islands remain stationary, frozen in the stagnant eastern part of the lava lake. SO2 emission rates remain high. The most recent measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates from February 12 are around 1,100 t / d, which is lower than the pre-2018 lava lake emission rates (around 5,000 t / d). Summit tiltmeters show that slight deflation continues this morning. Seismicity remains high but stable, with high earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that as of the morning of February 11, the lava in the active potion west of Halema'uma'u lake was about 215m deep, with the eastern part of the lava lake solidifying on the surface. Summit tiltmeters show inflationary tilt continuing over the past day. Sulfur dioxide emission rate measurements taken on February 10 were approximately 1,600 t / d, below the range of pre-2018 lava lake emission rates. Seismicity remains high but stable, with high earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that eruptive activity continues at the western fissure, supplying lava to the lava lake via a lava stream at the entry site along the western margin. Yesterday 9th of February, geologists reported a small active dome fountain at the entrance site. The active surface lava remains largely confined to the western half of the lake, as before. The western part of the lake continues to present scattered crustal shipwrecks. The stagnant eastern part of the lake was several meters lower than the perched, elevated and active western part. A series of surface cracks separate the asset from the stagnant part of the lake. The islands remained stationary last week. As of the morning of February 9, the lava in the western and active part of Halema'uma'u Lake was about 215 m (705 feet) deep, with the eastern part of the lava lake solidifying on the surface. SO2 emission rates remain high. HVO reported that on the morning of February 6, the lava in the western, active part of Lake Halema'uma'u was about 211 m (692 feet) deep, with the eastern part of the lava lake solidifying on the surface. SO2 emission rates remain high. As hot gases rise from the western vent of Halema'uma'u, the cooler temperatures of the atmosphere cause the water vapor to condense, creating a flammagenitus / pyrocumulus cloud over the Kīlauea lava lake .HVO reported that lava activity is still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On the morning of February 2, the lava lake is about 213 meters deep, and only the western part of the lava lake is active. SO2 emission rates remain high. The summit inclinometers are on an inflationary trend. Seismicity remains high but stable, with regular high earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes.HVO reported that lava activity is still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On January 28 afternoon, lava filled about 209 m of Halema'uma'u crater and only the western part of the lava lake is active. Sulfur dioxide emission rate measurements taken on January 23 were approximately 2,200 t / d, below the range of lava lake emission rates before 2018. The summit inclinometers are on an inflationary trend. Seismicity remains high but stable, with high and regular earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that active western half of the lava lake was about 205m deep this morning on January 25, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters below. The entire lava lake - including the stagnant eastern half - is perched / high above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. The east side is elevated about 1 m and the west side 4 m above the solidified lava crust adjacent to the crater wall. All of the islands have remained stationary for the past week, frozen in the stagnant eastern part of the lava lake. The dimensions of the main island have remained unchanged with its edges several meters above the surface of the lake. On January 22, the southern end of the island was measured at 12 m. above the surface of the lava lake, the highest point at 23 m. above the surface. HVO reported that lava activity is still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. Low-level fountaining from the west vent feeds a lava channel that drains into the lava lake in Halema'uma'u Crater. The active western half of the lava lake was around 205m deep as of January 23, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters below. The entire lava lake - including half that is stagnant - is perched / elevated at least 1-2m above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. HVO reported that the west vent feeds a lava channel that drains into the lava lake inside Halema'uma'u crater. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission ratio was 2.50 tonnes / day on January 16. The active western half of the lava lake was about 202 m deep on the morning of January 20, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters lower. The entire lava lake - including half of it is stagnant - is perched / elevated at least 1-2m above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. HVO reported that lava activity was still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu crater, with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On morning, January 15, the lava lake has a depth of about 199 m and remains stagnant on its eastern half. SO2 emission rates remain high. The low fountain in the west vent feeds a lava channel that drains into the lava lake at Halema'uma'u Crater. The active western half of the lava lake was about 199m deep on January 15, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters below. The entire lava lake - including half of it stagnant - is perched at least 1-2m above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. All of the lava lake islands have been stationary for the past week as if frozen in the stagnant parts of the eastern lava lake. The dimensions of the main island have remained unchanged with its edges several meters above the surface of the lake. HVO reported that lava activity was still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On morning, January 14, the lava lake was about 199 m (653 ft) deep and remains stagnant over its eastern half. Yesterday afternoon, summit tiltmeters started registering an inflationary tilt. Seismicity remains high but stable, with regular earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that on morning of January 12 the lava lake was about 196m deep below the west vents, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake was about 4m shallower. The eastern part of the lake seemed to have sagged beneath its perched edges. Overall, the size of the active and inactive parts of the lake has remained the same. The lake was still perched at least 1-2m above the inactive crust between the perched lake and the crater wall which was also rising.As of the 11th of January HVO reported that the lava activity was confined to Halema'uma'u with lava erupting from vents on the northwest side of the crater. on the morning of January 10, the lava lake was about 196 m deep under the western vents while remaining stagnant on its eastern half. SO2 emission rates are still high and the most recent measurements of the sulfur dioxide emission rate of 2,300 t / d on Sunday. The western vents showed a stronger flow from January 10 afternoon with splash and lava flows fueled by splashing from the top of small cones abutting the northwest wall of Halema'uma'u crater. Lava also flowed from the western vents into the lake through an encrusted channel. All of the islands have been stationary for the past day, like frozen in the stagnant parts of the eastern lava lake. The dimensions of the main island have remained unchanged with its edges several meters above the surface of the lake. HVO reported that the lava lake was 194 m deep on January 6th and had a volume of over 27 million cubic meters (35 million cubic yards). The most recent heat map (January 5) indicated that the dimensions of the perched lake were 760 by 520 m. for a total area of ​​28 ha - slightly smaller than December 30 when the map was made. Tuesday (January 5), the lake was perched about 1 to 2 m. above its narrow edges; the overflow on the narrow edge slowly raised a low wall around the lake similar to the wall around an above ground swimming pool.The HVO's flyby over Halema'uma'u on January 5, 2021 showed the newly exposed lava channel entering the lava lake. Lava also continues to enter the lava lake through the tube, which produces the small domed fountain at the margin of the lake below (lower center). As of the 4th of January, HVO reported that the situation was slowly changing. West vents emitted spatters from two places atop a small cone stuck to the northwest wall of Halema'uma'u crater.The lava also emerges as a small domed fountain in front of the west vents, probably from a submerged part of the vent. Sulfur dioxide emissions remain high, with a ratio of 4,400 tonnes per day (January 1). The lava lake was 190 m deep on Sunday afternoon (January 3) and a volume of 26 million cubic meters. It is now perched about a meter above its narrow edges measured yesterday morning (January 3); the overflows on the narrow edge have raised a low wall around the lake that looks like an above ground swimming pool. HVO reported that the West Vent of Halema’uma’u Crater continues to erupt without significant change in recent days. An incandescence was visible from the skylights above the vent and occasional splashes are ejected from these skylights. A weak spattering slowly formed a cone at the vents. The lava channel, which crusted several days ago, continues to supply the lake with lava, and the place where the lava is rising was marked by incandescent fine lines at night. HVO reported that the western vents of Halema'uma'u crater showed spatttering, and feed a lava flow through lava tunnels towards the lake; It continues to widen slowly, its depth reached 186 meters in the afternoon of December 31st, 2020. Sulfur dioxide emission ratios remain high, with 4,500-5,000 tonnes per day. The seismicity remains high, but stable, marked by a high tremor and some earthquakes. The main island of colder, solidified lava floating in the lava lake moved faster westward, as if searching for the western lava source filling the lake, while the other 10 small islands remained relatively stationary around the east end of the lake. The main island measured about 250 m. in length, 135 m. wide and about 3 ha. area according to the heat map of December 30. The measurements on Wednesday evening (December 30) show that the surface of the island was about 6-8 m. above the surface of the lake.HVO reported that the lava lake of Kilauea has changed little in recent days: Erupting lava at the active west vent flows along the lava channel encrusted for the most part over 130 feet in the surface of the lava lake, while in At the top of the fissure, the vents cycle between weak lava fountains and periods of strombolian activity, exhibiting spattering. The lava lake has a depth of 181 meters, for a volume of about 23 million m³. Sulfur dioxide emissions have fallen a little (3,300 tonnes / day), but still remain high. A slight deflationary signal is observed on 30 december, while the seismicity is high and stable, marked by a large tremor and some minor earthquakes. HVO reported that lava activity was still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu crater with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater, by two or three narrow channels visible on December 28 morning. As of the 27th of December, HVO reported that the lava lake in the Halemaʻumaʻu crater of Kilauea has changed little over the past day and was about 177 m (581 feet) deep and about 408 m (1340 feet) below the southern edge of Halemaʻumaʻu on the morning of December 27). The volume of the lake remained around 21 million cubic meters (27 million cubic yards or 4.8 billion gallons). The most recent heat map indicated that the dimensions of the lake were 790 by 520 m (864 by 569 yds) for a total area of ​​29 ha (72 acres). The narrow ledge (10-30 m or 11-22 yd) around the lake was about 1-2 m (1-2 yds) above the active surface of the lake, suggesting that the surface of the lake dropped during of the last 2 days. As of the 26th of December, HVO reported that the lava activity remained confined to Halemaʻumaʻu from two vents on the north and northwest sides of the crater. At 2 p.m. yesterday, the crater lake was still 176m deep and the lake level appeared to be 2m. lower, leaving a narrow black rim around the northern edge. Early this morning, the west vent re-activated as the north vent calmed down and began to drain the lake. Reduced SO2 emissions were measured last night. The north vent continued to erupt lava into a lake inside Halema'uma'u Crater. The west vent was glowing until about 2:40 a.m. this morning (almost coinciding with the change from a deflationary tilt to an inflationary summit tilt) when it became vigorously active with up to 3 narrow lava streams in the lake. After 3 a.m., the north vent calmed down and began to slowly drain lava from the lake, and the volume of the lava lake remained around 21 million cubic meters. As of the 25th od December HVO reported that there was no significant change at the summit crater of Kilauea : lava activity remains confined to Halemaʻumaʻu from two vents on the north and northwest sides of the crater. At 7 a.m. on December 25, the growing crater lake was 176 m (577 feet) deep. The high SO2 emissions continued. Two vents continued to erupt on the north and northwest walls of Halemaʻumaʻu. The west vent, located on the lowest block of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, splashed intermittently. The north vent remains the most vigorous and is slowly flooded by the rise of the lake.The vents continued to supply lava to a rapidly expanding lake filling Halema'uma'u Crater. As of early Christmas morning, the lake was 176m deep - an increase of 6m from the previous 24 hours. The volume of the lava lake on the morning of December 25 was approximately 21 million cubic meters. A colder, solidified lava island in the lava lake has become smaller and is slowly drifting northeast into the lake. It is approximately 260m in length and 115m in width according to the heat map of December 23rd. HVO reported that on the afternoon of December 23th, HVO field crews noted that the surface of the summit lava lake of Kīlauea is now 143 m deep, with an approximate volume of 12 million cubic meters. (summit webcams). The area was about 22 ha and the shape of the lake is roughly oval with an east-west length of 690 m and a north-south width of 410 m. A smaller, coolder, solidified lava island has drifted east into the lake over the past 24 hours. (photos and video). It seems to have about 150 m in diameter. The fountaining continues in 2 places, more vigorously at the east vent, feeding the growing lava lake. Summit tiltmeters continued to record a constant deflationary tilt. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high, estimated at around 30,000 tonnes / day, measured on Monday, December 21st. SO2 emissions continue. Seismicity remained high but stable, with a few minor earthquakes and fluctuations in tremor related to the vigor of the fissure fountain.As of the 22nd of December, HVO reported that not significant change occurred. Kīlauea continues to erupt at its summit from at least two vents on the north and west sides of Halemaʻumaʻu. On the morning, the growing crater lake was 487 m (1,598 ft) below the crater rim, indicating that the lake has filled 134 m (440 ft) of the bottom of the Halemaʻumaʻu rater. Summit tiltmeters continued to record slowing deflationary tilt through this morning. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high estimated at around 30,000 tonnes/day. Seismicity is elevated but stable the last day, with few earthquakes and tremor fluctuations related to the vigor of fissure fountaining. When measured last night, the Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake was 487 m (1,598 ft) below the crater rim and rising at more than 1 m/hr (3 ft/hr). Of the three vents that initially erupted from the north and northeast walls of Halemaʻumaʻu, only two remain active, with the middle vent pausing eruptive activity between approximately 7:30 and 8:00 a.m. HST. The middle and west vents, which are located on the lowest down-dropped block within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, have since been inundated by the growing lava lake. The farthest east vent remains the most vigorous. As of early this morning, a preliminary calculation of volume suggests that, since the start of the eruption, approximately 10 million cubic meters of lava have been erupted (equivalent to over 2 billion gallons). This is a surface area of about 33 acres. As of the 21st of December, HVO reported that activity over the past ten hours has been characterized by three fissure vents on the north and northwest walls of Halema'uma'u Crater. The lava fountain at these vents is estimated to measure up to 25m. height; the vents feed the lava flows into the base of Halema'uma'u Crater, which is being filled with a growing lava lake. No major changes at 4:09 am HST on December 21, 2020. The fountain on the north inner wall of Halema'uma'u crater is dominant, with a weaker fountain emitted from the cracks to the west. The lava lake continues to rise and grow slowly and began to flood the base of the fallen blocks in the Kīlauea caldera during the summit collapse events of 2018. The gas plume continues to ripple and drift to south-west. Just after 6 a.m. HST on December 21, 2020, the middle crack stopped; the main weakest eastern and western cracks remain active. Lava continues to fill Halemaʻumaʻu, and volcanic gas and glass (Pelé's hair) move in the wind. The lava lake has risen at about several meters per hour since the eruption began. The current lava lake has a circulating perimeter, but a stagnant center. The event was accompanied by only moderate amounts of warping, indicating the deflation of a magma reservoir beneath Halema’uma’u. The tilt rates have decreased slightly since the onset of the eruption. The eruption is currently confined to the Halemaʻumaʻu crater. HVO reported that a seismic swarm began on the evening of December 20th in Kilauea, accompanied by ground deformation detected by inclinometers. Shortly after approximately 9:36 p.m. HST on December 20, the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) detected a glow in Halema'uma'u Crater at the top of Kīlauea Volcano.An eruption has started in the summit caldera of Kīlauea. The situation is changing rapidly and the HVO will issue another statement when more information becomes available. According to the first data, that is a small eruption limited to the caldera. As a result, the HVO raised Kīlauea's volcanic alert level to WARNING and its aviation color code to RED. Previously, HVO reported that Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Monitoring data for the month of June show variable but typical rates of seismicity and ground deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions, and only minor geologic changes since the end of eruptive activity in September 2018. Water was first observed at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, one year ago. Since then, the body of water has slowly deepeaned and grown in size. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory continues to monitor the lake, Kīlauea Volcano remains at alert-level NORMAL and aviation color-code GREEN. HVO published May Monthly summary about the activity of the Kīlauea volcano, which is not erupting. Monitoring data for May shows variable but typical rates of seismicity and soil deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions and only minor geological changes since eruptive activity ended in September 2018 . Seismicity rates during the month were about 25% lower than last month. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the top and below the detection limits at PuʻuʻŌʻō and in the lower East Rift Zone. The crater lake at the bottom of Halema'uma'u continues to expand and deepen slowly. As of June 3, the depth of the lake was approximately 36 meters. A certain amount of sulfur dioxide is dissolved in the summit lake and work is continuing to try to quantify this process. HVO reported that monitoring data for February showed variable but typical rates of seismicity and soil deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions and only minor geological changes since the end of activity eruptive in September 2018. The pond of acid water at the bottom of Halema'uma'u continues to expand and deepen slowly. In early March, the dimensions of the pond were approximately 100 meters by 200 meters. The current depth is around 28 meters. As of the 6th of February, HVO reported that the seismicity rates during the month were variable but remain in the long-term values. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the top and below the detection limits at Puʻu ʻŌʻō and in the lower East Rift zone. The pond at the bottom of Halema'uma'u, which began to form on July 25, 2019, continues to expand and deepen slowly. At the beginning of February, the dimensions were: 95 meters by 194 meters. The current depth is around 25 meters.PREVIOUS NEWS 2019 - As of the 5th of December, HVO reported monitoring data continue to show steady rates of seismicity and ground deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions, and only minor geologic changes since the end of eruptive activity in September 2018. Monitoring data have shown no significant changes in volcanic activity during November. Over the past month, about a dozen DI events occurred beneath the summit. Seismic stations detected over 1800 earthquakes in the vicinity of the volcano, which is an increase of ~10% from last month. Rates of seismicity are relatively consistent throughout the month, although at the summit, episodic increased rates appear to be coincident with the inflated phase of the DI events. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the summit and are below detection limits at Puʻu ʻŌʻō and the lower East Rift Zone. The pond at the bottom of Halema'uma'u, which began forming on July 25, 2019, continues to slowly expand and deepen, and the most recent measurements are 162 meters in the east-west direction and 73 meters in the north-south direction. HVO reported that the crater lake of Halema'uma'u continues to grow; its level is measured on October 19 at 608 meters under the observation site. The steam that sweeps its surface testifies to the high temperature of the water, and the winds at the bottom of the crater. The refill is marked by areas of bluish color on a general tint of the surface of greenish yellow color. HVO reported that a recent flyover of the Pu'u O'o 'crater in the eastern rift zone of Kilauea allowed a good visualization of the bottom of the crater, drained after 35 years of eruptions. The rubble from the collapse of the crater walls filled much of its deepest part, the bottom being now about 250 meters (820 feet) below the eastern ledge. As of the 2nd of August HVO reported that the seismicity and strain ratios remained stable; low emissions of sulfur dioxide since September 2018. Insight from July 25, 2019, a green pond marks the floor of Halema'uma'u, at about 540 meters above sea level. HVO scientists flew over the summit of Kilauea in the morning of 1 August and confirm the presence of water at the bottom of Halima'uma'u crater. Observers saw reflections from the green pond. The pond has clearly expanded since the oldest photos made on July 25th. Previous news - As of the 22nd of May, HVO reported that no significant change occurred over the past week in Kilauea volcanic activity, in normal volcanic alert / green aviation code.Since the beginning of March, tiltmeters have recorded a modest inflationary trend at the top, confirmed by GPS and InSAR measurements; it is interpreted as a magmatic accumulation in the shallow portion of the summit magmatic system, 1-2 km deep.Other measurements show the filling of the magma reservoir of the deep East Rift Zone in a large area between Pu'u O'o and Highway 130, since the end of the 2018 eruption. The HVO continues to monitor Kilauea's seismicity, deformation and gas emissions closely, to detect an increase in its activity. As of the 20th of March, HVO reported that over the past week, volcanic activity has not changed significantly.Low levels seismicity persisted on the volcano, with earthquakes occurring mainly in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and inclinometers continue to display movements consistent with deep magma reservoir filling in the East Rift Zone. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Pu'u'u'ō remain low. These rates have been stable for several weeks. HVO reported that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with earthquakes occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and tiltmeters continue to show motions consistent with refilling of the deep East Rift Zone. These rates have been steady over the past several weeks. At Kilauea's summit, tiltmeters are showing deflationary tilt consistent with the beginning of a Deflation-Inflation event (D-I event); these types of events have been commonly observed at the summit for several years. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. As of the 15th of January 2019, HVO reportede that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past weeks. Deformation signals are consistent with slow magmatic recharge within the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ).Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with events occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. Slow inflationary tilt continues in the middle ERZ. Sulfur dioxide emission rates have been below detection limits in the LERZ since early September, though minor amounts of volcanic gas are still present. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. Previously,HVO reported that no more active lava observations since September 4th, 2018 on the basis of the criterias of GVN program, the phase of the eruption on the Lower East Rift Zone can be considered to be over .Kilauea remains an active volcano, and geophysical data continues to show movements in the magmatic system, including a recharge of the East Rift Zone. As of the 30th of October, HVO reported that Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Deformation signals are consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone.HVO monitoring during the past week shows low rates of seismicity at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ). Earthquakes continue to occur primarily at Kīlauea's summit area and south flank (magnitude-3.8 was the largest) with continued small aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 quake on May 4, 2018. Seismicity remains low in the lower ERZ. In the ERZ, tiltmeters near Puʻu ʻŌʻō and farther east continue to record an inflationary trend, consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone. At the summit, tiltmeters have recorded a slight inflationary trend. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions at the summit averaged 50 tonnes/day as reported on October 24, and 75 tonnes/day at Puʻu ʻŌʻō on October 23. There was no sulfur dioxide detected by our instruments in the lower ERZ. Previously, HVO bulletin ( 3rd of october) reported that On Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (ERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming from the cone was visible during the past day. Webcam images of the fissure 8 cone show that a portion of the crater wall near the northern spillway area has slowly shifted during the past 2 weeks, indicating some instability of the cone in this area. As of the 2nd of October, HVO reported that no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming has been visible during the day. On the middle ERZ, a rockfall at Puʻu ʻŌʻō produced a small ash plume around noon yesterday, October 1. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Rates of tilting throughout both the summit and the ERZ are much lower than those observed during the recent period of major eruptive activity. As of the 25th of September HVO reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming is visible during the day. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. HVO reported minor incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 12-15 September, and that small amounts of fuming rose from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the Fissure 8 cone during 12-18 September. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (less than 1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. Small collapses at Pu'u 'O'o Crater during 12-14 September generated visible dust plumes. The Volcano Alert level l remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin (11th of September) reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), minor amounts of incandescence were observed overnight from a collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone, though the amount was reduced over observations from the previous night. Very minor fuming is visible from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the cone. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none have extended outside the walls of the cone. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Aftershocks from the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May are still being generated on faults located on Kīlauea's South Flank. Small collapses continued to occur yesterday at Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater, but are much less frequent than they were over the previous two days. As of the 7th of September, HVO reported that lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible at fissure 8 from helicopter overflight or UAS (drone) views this morning. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none extend outside the walls of the cone. There is no change in overall activity from observations over the past several days. As of the 5th of September, HVO reported that seismicity remains low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. A magnitude-3.1 earthquake that occurred at 5:31AM HST this morning was located below Kīlauea's South Flank and is likely an aftershock of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake from early May. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible on the fissure 8 spillway overnight. Images from the UAS (drone) crew showed that weak lava activity continues in the fissure 8 cone as of yesterday afternoon, with no lava extending outside the walls of the cone and no flows heading down the spillway. HVO reported that on 2nd of September, seismicity remained low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. Earthquakes, probably aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May, continue on South Flank faults. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), incandescence was observed in the fissure 8 cone yesterday afternoon (09/01) with reports of activity extending into early evening. In addition to a persistent spot of spattering, lava slowly covered the 65-by-15 m (210-by-45 ft) crater floor by evening. Webcam views showed weak incandescence occasionally reflected on the eastern spillway wall from the crater overnight suggesting that the lava in the crater remained active. This morning, ground crews have no view of the crater inside the fissure 8 cone, but report the fissure 8 cone is quiet when viewed from a safe distance with no visible fume. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at the summit, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate (< 1,000 t/d) is lower than at any time since late 2007. Friday (08/31), LERZ emission rates were still too low to measure. HVO reported that during an overflight on 25 August a small lava pond was visible deep within the vent at Kilauea's Fissure 8 cone; the pond was no longer visible on 27 August. Lava continued to ooze into the ocean and produce minimal laze plumes, but by 27 August only a small single breakout from the Kapoho Bay lobe was active. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin ( 24th of August - 20:30 UTC) reported that seismicity and ground deformation are negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), only a few ocean entries were oozing lava and laze plumes were minimal from overflights early this week. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007. On Tuesday, the SO2 emissions from the LERZ were too low to measure although SO2 smells were noticed. HVO bulletin (19th of August - 22:39 UTC) reported that the lull in activity at Kīlauea Volcano continues. At the summit, seismicity and deformation are negligible. On the lower East Rift Zone, the only incandescence is at the coast near Ahalanui where a few ocean entries are oozing lava. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007 HVO reported that during 8-14 August activity at Kilauea was characterized by a slowly-circulating lava pond deep within the Fissure 8 vent (though the pond was crusted over by 14 August) and a billowing gas plume, and a few scattered ocean entries. The summit area was quiet except for occasional rockfalls into the crater. Fresh black sand from fragmented lava was transported SW by the ocean current, and accumulated in the Pohoiki harbor, creating a sandbar. The westernmost ocean entry was about 1 km NE of the harbor. Earthquake and deformation data indicated no magma movement or pressurization in the system. HVO bulletin ( 9th of August - 19h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from Fissure 8 remains low and there have been no signs of reactivation or new intrusion. Up-rift of Fissure 8, Fissures 9, 10, and 24, and down-rift Fissures 13, 23, 3, 21 and 7, continue to steam. Ground crews and overflights continue to monitor these for signs of new activity. This morning's overflight crew observed a crusted lava pond deep inside the steaming cone at a level significantly lower than when viewed Tuesday morning. HVO bulletin (7th of August - 23h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from fissure 8 remains low. The morning overflight crew observed a small active lava lake within the fissure 8 cone, a weak gas plume, and a drained upper lava channel. The surface of the lava lake was about 5-10 m below the spillway entrance. There were a diminishing number of small active ooze outs near the coast on the Kapoho Bay and Ahalanui lobes and the laze plume was greatly diminished. Active lava remains close to the Pohoiki boat ramp but has not advanced significantly toward it. As of the 3rd of August, HVO reported tha fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the channel leading northeastward from the vent. Multiple overflows developed late yesterday afternoon and evening, one of which headed north toward Noni Farms Road, starting a small fire. Field crews determined the advancing overflow had ceased by 21:00 HST but that fires were still burning. Further downstream overflows were concentrated in the wide lava field west and south-southwest of Kapoho cone, also igniting small fires in adjacent vegetation. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 18-24 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that continued to spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and entered the ocean at Ahalanui. Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred about every other day (38.5 and 53.5 hours in between a few of the events). Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low. Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele's hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater; lava occasionally overflowed the channel, and on 28 July ignited nearby vegetation. Small plumes of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles) were generated at several points along a broad 2-km-wide flow front at Ahalanui. The westernmost edge was less than 175 m NE of the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park (by 30 July). HVO bulletin ( 16th of July - 19:31 UTC) reported that Fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. The channel is full but not quite up to the rim; there were no significant overflows this morning. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. Explosions were reported from the main ocean entry this morning with at least one being quite strong. Fissure 22 did not appear active this morning but sounds were heard from it last night. No other fissures are active this morning. HVO bulletin (July 15th - 21:21 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Lava levels in the upper channel increased briefly following this morning's summit collapse-explosion event at 3:26 a.m. Another short-lived overflow of the channel at the vent spread east-southeast this morning, but did not advance beyond the existing flow field. The channelized ʻaʻā flow west of Kapoho Crater continues to be the main ocean entry at the southern edge of the flow front. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. No other fissures are active on the morning. At 3:26 a.m. HST July 15, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath the summit of Kīlauea with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.2 earthquake. Seismic activity at the summit decreased immediately following the event, but is beginning to increase at this time. Earthquakes in the summit area have resumed following 12th of july collapse/explosion event at 2:42 PM HST, which had an energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. (updated map 12th of July). HVO bulletin ( July 10th - 19:57 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava steadily into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Disruptions to the mid-channel occurred yesterday afternoon producing localized overflows along the margins of the flowfield, mostly atop earlier lavas. A significant overflow north of the cinder quarry advancing yesterday and last night towards Cinder Rd. has stalled. An overflow lobe moving around the west side of Kapoho Cone remains active this morning and small brushfires are reported along the margins. Downstream, lava appears to be reoccupying the channel leading to the ocean entry were multiple fingers of lava are active. The southern margin of the ocean entry shows little sign of movement. Yesterday's channel disruption and overflows were caused by blockages that developed along the channel. Additional blockages and resulting overflows are likely to occur as long as the activity continues. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin ( July 10 - 3:05 UTC) Early on afternoon observers reported multiple overflows occurring along both sides of the main lava channel, in an area extending from near the "Y" intersection at Pohoiki Road eastwards to an area just west of Kapoho Crater. Overflows on the upper part of the channel did not extend beyond areas previously covered in lava. Overflows further down the channel have reached beyond the flow field, including one flow lobe that is moving northeast from the main channel towards Cinder Rd. Residents are urged to heed warnings and notices from Hawaii County Civil Defense. Based on information from ground observers and morning and afternoon overflights, the lower part of the main lava channel has undergone significant reorganization. In particular, the channel that had been open near Four Corners is now mostly crusted over, and plumes from ocean entry are significantly reduced. It is likely this is due to a blockage that formed in the early morning in the main channel upstream of Kapoho Crater. Flow volumes coming out of Fissure 8 remain significant, and it is possible that changes in flow channels will continue to occur in the coming days. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. At 9:20 AM HST on July 9, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath Kilauea caldera with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. The number of earthquake dropped from 25-40/hr to less than 10/hr. We expect the earthquakes to increase over the next day until the next collapse/explosion tomorrow. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halemaʻumaʻu continues in response to the ongoing subsidence at the summit. HVO bulletin ( 4th of July - 18: 53 UTC ) Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. ( video vortex ) At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing pasty lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Ag and Beach Lots. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the flow front. As shown by the July 02 thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is oozing from the flow's molten interior into the ocean along most of its broad front. Temporary channel blockages of the Fissure 8 channel causing minor overflows were observed just north of Kapoho Crater by USGS and Civil Air Patrol overflights. Fissure 22 is spattering about 50-80 m above a conical spatter cone and feeding a short lava flow that is moving slowly to the northeast along the edge of earlier flows. (updated map - 30th of June) . HVO bulletin ( 29th of June - 8:28 pm ) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. These overflows rarely extend beyond the existing flow field. No active overflows were observed during this morning's helicopter overflight.The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots and a few burning areas were observed on the south side of the flow and west of highway 137. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the entry area. As shown by yesterday's thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is moving beneath the crust and into still-molten interior of earlier flows before it enters the sea. HVO bulletin ( 27th of June - 8:07 pm) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. Small overflows on both sides of the upslope portion of the channel occurred shortly after midnight, June 27. None of these overflows extended past the existing flow field. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The morning overflight revealed that the northern margin of the flow field at the coast is oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots. HVO bulletin (June 26th of June - 7:13 pm) reported that funtains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern portion of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 0.6 mi wide area with multiple laze plumes from smaller oozing lobes. Fissure 22 showed weak spattering and tiny flows around the base of the cone. This morning's overflight crew also observed minor incandescence at Fissure 16/18. HVO bulletin ( June 25th - 10:59 pm) reported that the eruption in the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) continues with no significant change during the past 24 hours. Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area marked by billowing laze plumes. Fissure 22 is weakly active and Fissure 16/18 was not observed on the morning.At 4:12 p.m. HST on June 24, after approximately 17 hours of elevated seismicity, a collapse explosion occurred at the summit producing an ash-poor steam plume that went undetected by the weather radar. Visual observations suggested the plume rose less than 2000 ft above the caldera before drifting downwind to the southwest. The energy released by the event was equivalent to a magnitude 5.3 earthquake. HVO bulletin 23rd of June - 18:40 UTC) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. During an overflight early this morning, geologists observed incandescence from Fissure 22, but no associated spattering or flow. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The entry areas are marked by billowing laze plumes. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 13-19 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was occasionally noted, and spattering was visible at Fissure 6 on 16 June. Hawai‘i County Civil Defense reported that by 17 June a total of 533 homes had been destroyed due to lava flows. HVO bulletin (June 17th - 8:15 UTC) reported that the Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption in Leilani Estates continued with little change. Fountains from the Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to feed lava into the well-established channel that flows to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava and mild spattering from Fissure 15 was observed late in the day. The flow field is relatively stable with little change to its size and shape for the past few days. HVO bulletin (16th - 2:59 UTC) reported that lava fountains from Fissure 8 reached heights between 100 and 130 ft with bursts up to 180 ft while the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 170 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. The early afternoon overflight found the Fissure 8 vent, channel, and entry stable with a small amount of expansion at the southern boundary of the flow near the coast and south of Vacationland. Fissure 24 (southeast of Fissure 8) seemed to be steamier and emitting more fume. Fissure 9 (southeast of Fissure 24) appeared hotter and will be checked on the ground this afternoon. HVO bulletin (June 15th - 8:27 UTC) reported that fssure 8 lava fountains reached heights of 200 ft in the afternoon, and the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 160 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (14th of June - 8:21 UTC) reported that lava fountains reaching heights of 53 m (174 ft) were observed at Fissure 8 in the late afternoon. Lava from Fissure 8 continues to flow through the well-established channel to the ocean at Kapoho, with rare, small overflows of the channel levees. A laze plume at the ocean entry was blown onshore this afternoon, and areas of upwelling offshore were present throughout the day. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (13th of june- 2:12 UTC) reported that line of closely spaced vents at Fissure 8 are continuing to erupt producing fountains encircled by a 115-ft spatter cone. This activity continues to feed the fast moving channelized flow that is entering the ocean at Kapoho. Weak lava activity continues at Fissures 16/18 as has been noted for the last several days. Incandescence was noted at Fissures 15 and 22. Lava was entering the ocean over a broader length this morning with several minor incandescent points and small plumes and two larger entries and corresponding plumes. The upwelling areas were also more dispersed than yesterday. (updated map 13th of June) . HVO bulletin (12th - 2:09 UTC) reported that three closely spaced lava fountains at fissure 8 are erupting with fluctuating heights from below the 115 ft high spatter cone around it up to 180 feet. Lava continues to be fed into the channelized flow trending north and then east to a single ocean entry at Kapoho. Weak lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was observed last night. This morning's overflight confirms that fountaining continues at Fissure 8 and that its channel is nearly full with no spillovers. Minor steam explosions were observed at the ocean entry. HVO bulletin reported that Fissure 8 now consists of three closely-spaced lava fountains, the tallest of which reached heights of 130-180 feet, feeding a strong channel to the northeast and then east to the ocean entry. During the day, minor spillovers have dribbled over the Fissure 8 channel levees but have generally stalled before reaching ground not covered by previous lava flows. Yesterday's measurements show that gas emissions from the fissure system have nearly doubled, possibly indicating an increase in eruption rate from Fissure 8. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 continued. HVO bulletin (June 9th - 8:49 UTC) reported thatLava continues to erupt from Fissure 8, with vigorous fountains reaching heights of about 200-220 feet. Observers on the late afternoon overflight reported no significant changes in the Fissure 8 flow field, which continues to supply lava to the ocean entry at Kapoho. Two vigorous steam plumes are rising from the ocean flow front and being blown inland. Strong thermal upwelling was noted in the ocean extending up to 1000 yards out to sea from the visible lava front. Heavy gas and steam emissions were noted at fissures 9 & 10, but lava emission is occurring only at Fissure 8. Low level ash emissions continue at the summit with slowly increasing seismicity, indicating that another small explosion is likely in the next several hours. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continues in response to ongoing subsidence at the summit. The number of houses destroyed since the beginning of this eruption has reached 600 including the areas of Leilani, Kapoho and Vacationland; This isthe most destructive eruption for Hawaii, listed in modern times, according to the mayor of the County. HVO bulletin ( June 8th - 8:24 UTC) reported that lava fountaining at Fissure 8 fluctuated with heights varying between 190 and 215 feet. This activity is feeding a lava channel flowing east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. The noon overflight found that the delta is about 1.2 mi wide in the Vacationland/Waopae area and observed the flow was expanding northward through Kapoho Beachlots. A large area of upwelling offshore suggests the presence of lava flowing on the ocean floor in that area. HVO bulletin ( June 7th - 00:34 UTC) reported that on the morning, lava fountaining at Fissure 8 continued to reach heights of 150-180 feet, feeding a stable channel to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Lava is entering the ocean in the Vacationland subdivision. Vacationland has been completely covered by lava, and overnight the flow expanded north by 100 m within Kapoho Beach Lots. The lava delta that formed at Kapoho Bay extended slightly overnight. The northern lobe of the Fissure 8 flow shows no signs of activity this morning, and there is only wispy smoke at the flow front. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin (June 6th - 8:28 UTC) reported that persistent lava fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching heights of 150-180 feet. This eruptive activity continues to feed a channel transporting lava to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Minor breakouts along the channelized flow have been very small and stagnated before travelling any significant distance. HVO's late afternoon overflight showed that the Fissure 8 flow is continuing to form a lava delta with limited continuing advances into the surviving parts of the Kaphoho Beach Lots and Vacationlands neighborhoods. The northernmost lobe of the Fissure 8 flow is advancing very slowly to the northeast. No other fissure vents are active. HVO bulletin (June 5th - 5:30 UTC) reported that fountaining at Fissure 8 continued feeding a robust lava channel to northeast along Highway 132 to the ocean entry in Kapoho bay. As of late afternoon the lava entry had built a delta extending approximately 700 yards into the bay. A laze plume is blowing inland from the ocean entry but dissipating quickly. The lava flow front is about 600 yds wide. A lava breakout was also occurring upslope of the Kapoho cone cinder pit but stalled about 300 yards southeast of the intersection of Railroad Avenue and Cinder Road. Sluggish lava flows are present in the vicinity of Fissure 18; all other fissures are inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 4th - 5:07 UTC) reported that fissure 8 fountaining persisted throughout the day to heights up to 220 feet, and the channelized flow continued to deliver lava northeast along Highway 132 to the Kapoho area. Lava is advancing along a 0.5-mile-wide front towards the ocean at Kapoho Bay between Kapoho Beach Road and Kapoho Kai Drive. As of 5:45 PM HST, the lava flow was about 245 yards from the ocean at its closest approach point. Other branches of the Fissure 8 lava flow were inactive. All other fissures are inactive, although observers on the late afternoon overflight noted abundant gas emission from Fissures 9 & 10 and incandescence without fountaining at fissures 16 & 18. HVO bulletin (June 2nd - 8:29 UTC) treported that fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching 180 - 220 feet in height and continues to feed a channelized lava flow to the northeast along Highway 132 and down into the Four Corners region (at the intersection of Highways 132 and 137). Small overflows from the channel are occurring along its length, including in a few places near the intersection of Highway 132 and Pohoiki road. As of 9:50 PM HST the flow front was approximately 0.28 miles from the intersection. The more western branches of the Fissure 8 flow either stalled or advanced only short distances. Fissure 18 appears to be crusted over or inactive. The flows that had been moving toward Highway 137 are either inactive or moving very slowly. Fissure 22 appears to be inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 1st - 4:41 UTC) reported that the fissure 8 continued to produce persistent fountains that reached heights up to 260 feet. A small spatter cone is forming on the downwind side of the fountain and is approximately 100 feet high. The fountains are feeding flow activity to the northeast, and minor overflows from the Fissure 8 channel are occurring along its length. One overflow covered the remaining northern part of Makamae Street in Leilani Estates. This overflow crossed Kahukai street, filling in a low area between Makamae and Luana streets. The front of the Fissure 8 flow near Noni Farms road advanced at rates up to 100 yards/hour. At 12:30 PM HST, the flow front was 1.9 miles from the Four Corners area. High eruption rates from Fissure 8 have led to the formation of a leveed channel along the western edge of the lava flow. Failure of flow levees could result in rapid advance of flows. Flow margins are extremely hazardous and should not be approached. Fissure 18 feeds the upper part of a lava flow that extends to 1.5 mi from Highway 137; the lower portion of the fissure 18 lava flow stalled about 0.5 mi from the highway. Fissure 2 is weakly active and is pooling lava around the vent. HVO bulletin (May 31st - 5:24 UTC) reported that fissure 8 maintained high fountains through Wednesday with sustained heights exceeding 200 feet and the presence of multiple secondary fountains that reached to 60 feet. This fountaining continued to feed a lava flow that moved downslope along Highway 132. Advance rates were less than 100 yards/hour for the three lobes of the flow. The flow moved north of Highway 132 in the vicinity of Noni Farms and Halekamahina roads, from which the two easternmost lobes advanced in a more east northeasterly direction while the westernmost lobe advanced in a northeasterly direction. The Fissure 18 flow also remained active, moving downslope toward Highway 137 at rates of much less than 100 yards per hour. During the day, sporadic bursts of activity were also observed from Fissures 22, 6, and 13. HVO bulletin (May 30th - 2:51 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissure 8 remained very active today fountaining to heights of 200 feet at times and feeding a lava flow that advanced atop the Fissure 8 ʻaʻā flow that was active Sunday night/Monday morning. The first lobe of this flow crossed highway 132 just before 2 pm HST Tuesday. Lava continues to advance toward the northeast. Visual observations early Tuesday afternoon also confirmed continued weak activity at Fissures 18 and 19. Fissure 18 has produced channelized flows which have advanced 1.6 mi toward the coast. HVO bulletin (May 29th - 2:35 UTC) reported that the lava flow from Fissure 8 reached Pohoiki Rd. this morning and stalled as the Fissure's activity abruptly diminished. A few fissures reactivated briefly during the day. As of the 1 pm overflight, Fissure 8, 18, 20, 22, 6/13, and 7/21 reactivated with Fissure 7/21 having the highest fountains. The reactivated fissures have not yet erupted enough lava to reach the coast so the two ocean entry sites were relatively inactive. Only a minor ooze of residual lava was entering the ocean from the Eastern channel. (map) HVO bulletin (May 28th - 4:20 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissures 22 and 13 continue to feed lava flows extending south to the lava ocean entry. Signals recorded on stations in the LERZ indicate that the lava ocean entry remained active overnight. This morning, lava activity at both vents has diminished and the ocean entries are weaker than yesterday. Fissure 6 is no longer active. Fissure 21 has been intermittently active. Fissure 7 activity is very active, producing a large spatter rampart over 100 feet tall from fountains reaching 150-200 feet. The fountains fed two perched channels--the north channel fed a lava flow that advanced toward pad E of the PGV property and the south channel a flow that was advancing to the southeast along the west border of the fissure 22 flow.Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the Overlook crater, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the Kīlauea summit, the largest occurred around noon producing an ash column to nearly 10,000 ft. The Fissure 7 north channel fed a flow that advanced into PGV property and approached pad E before it stalled this morning; however, the flow was refreshed by lava from the vent and, about noon, started to advance again covering a portion of pad E and also producing a narrow flow to the north of pad E. These flows continue to be active as of this posting. HVO bulletin (May 26th - 2:56 UTC reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that also reaches the coast, making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a lava flow that has advanced northeastward crossing Kahukai St. at about 3:30 pm this afternoon and continuing to the northeast at a slow pace. Fissure 17 is barely active.At the summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 4:17 pm sending ash as high as 12,000 feet above sea level. HVO bulletin (May 25th - 3:12 UTC) reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fairly tall fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that reached the coast yesterday making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a pahoehoe flow that has advanced eastward covering most of the area bounded by Leilani Blvd, Mohala St., and and the fissure line. Fissure 17 continues weak spattering, Fissure 19 and 23 are no longer active. At the summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after the recent explosive eruptions, are again slowly increasing. At this time, based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. HVO bulletin (May 24th - 2:47 UTC) reported that fissure 6 through 22 continue erupting lava fountains. The fountains from Fissure 22 feed a single lava channel that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. The actual point of entry has continued shifting to the west. Fountains erupted from Fissures 5, 6, 13, and 19 continued to feed a lava flow advancing to the south along the west side of the Fissure 22 flows and may reach the ocean this afternoon or evening. Fissure 17 continue weak spattering, Fissure 8 reactivated briefly this morning to erupt two small pahoehoe flows over the initial `a`a flow. At the Kilauea summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 10:30 this morning. Additional explosions are possible at any time. HVO bulletin (May 23rd - 8:22 UTC) reported that eruption of lava and ground cracking continues in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision. Over the course of the day, the most active eruptive activity in the Lower East Rift Zone shifted to the middle portion of the system of fissures. The most active fissures were 22,19, 6, 5, and 23. Fissure 17, at the northeastern end of the fissure system is only weakly active now. Fissure 6 is feeding a flow to the south, roughly parallel to the western flow from fissure 22. Fountaining of fissures 5 and 23 fed flows in the eastern part of Leilani Estates. Small ash emissions from the Overlook crater have been occurring frequently today. Moderate trade winds were blowing to the southwest and noticeable ashfall may happen in downwind locations. HVO bulletin ( May 22nd - 2:11 UTC) reported that fissure 22 is erupting a short line of low lava fountains that feed a channelized flow that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. Spattering continues from a reactivated Fissures 6 that intermittently feeds a short lava flow. Fissures 17 and 19 continue weak spattering.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents. ( video -Photos ) . At the summit One explosive eruption of ash occurred at about 1 am this morning. Several smaller ash emissions have also taken place and produced abundant ash. HVO bulletin ( May 21st - 0:15 UTC) reported that spattering continues from Fissures 6 and 17 with significant lava flows being erupted from Fissures 20. Two of these lava flows from Fissure 20 reached the ocean along the southeast Puna coast overnight; however, a crack opened under the east lava channel early this morning diverting the lava from the channel into underground voids. This may cause changes downslope in the channel system and the ocean entry.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents.At the Kilauea summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after explosive eruptions on Saturday afternoon and Sunday noon, are again slowly increasing. Based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is still billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. . HVO buletin (May 19th - 5:53 UTC) that the eruption of lava and ground cracking in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision continues. Late on afternoon, a fast-moving pahoehoe lava flow emerged from fissure 20 and traveled southeast where it crossed Pohoiki Road. Estimates from Hawaii County Fire Department aerial video at 6:30 pm indicate advance rate of 300-400 yards per hour; this rate may change with time and USGS crews are in the area to try and monitor flow advance. Other fissures remain weakly active and volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind. Smoke from burning vegetation as lava flows advance is also contributing to poor air quality. . HVO bulletin (May 18th, 2:54 UTC) reported that after the summit explosive eruption early morning seismic levels have been gradually increasing, but as of this report no additional explosions have occurred. No earthquakes greater than magnitude 3.5 have occurred in the past day.Volcanic gas emissions at the summit remain high. At the Lower East rift zone tThis afternoon, fissure 17 is still actively spattering but the flow is nearly stalled. In addition, fissures 18, 19, and 20 have reactivated and a new fissure (21) has opened between fissures 7 and 3. An area 50-100 yards wide, parallel to and north of the line of fissures between Highway 130 and Lanipuna Gardens, has dropped slightly. This long depression is currently being filled by pahoehoe lava flows from fissures 20 and 21. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. HVO bulletin (May 17th - 2:47 UTC) reported that ash emission from the Overlook crater within Halema`uma`u has generally decreased since yesterday. Although varying in intensity, at times the plume contains enough ash to be gray in color. The cloud is rising an estimated 3 to 4,000 feet above the ground, but altitudes are varying with pulses of emission. The ash cloud is drifting slowly northward from the Kilauea summit and ashfall may occur in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Volcano Village. Communities downwind may receive ashfall and should take necessary precautions. Several magnitude 3 or stronger earthquakes occurred beneath the summit today. The earthquakes were at shallow depth and resulted in cracks in Highway 11 near the entrance to Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. Some facilities within the National Park were damaged as well. The explosive eruption of 1924 at the Kilauea summit was also marked by hundreds of felt earthquakes as magma drained from the caldera. This afternoon, eruptive activity remained concentrated at fissure 17 but the spattering was decreasing in vigor. The advance of the flow has slowed significantly since yesterday afternoon; the flow remains nearly 2.5 km (1.5 mi) in length. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. Magma continues to be supplied to the lower East Rift Zone as indicated by the continued northwest displacement of a GPS monitoring station. Elevated earthquake activity continues, but earthquake locations have not moved farther downrift in the past couple of days. HVO bultetin (15th of May 23:27 UTC) reported that as of early this morning, eruption of ash from the Overlook vent within Halemaumau crater at Kilauea Volcano's summit has generally increased in intensity. Ash has been rising nearly continuously from the vent and drifting downwind to the southwest. Ashfall and vog (volcanic air pollution) has been reported in Pahala, about 18 miles downwind. NWS radar and pilot reports indicate the top of the ash cloud is as high as 10,000 to 12,000 feet above sea level, but this may be expected to vary depending on the vigor of activity and wind conditions. Ash emission from the Kilauea summit vent will likely be variable with periods of increased and decreased intensity depending on the occurrence of rockfalls into the vent and other changes within the vent. HVO bulletin (14th of May 18:36 UTC) reported that on the morning, activity is dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter more than 100 feet into the air, and an advancing lava flow from fissure 17 at the northeast end of the fissure system. As of 630 am the fissure 17 flow had traveled just under a mile roughly east-southeast parallel to the rift zone. It is turning slightly south and at this time is about one half mile south of Highway 132. Fissure 18 that became active late yesterday is weakly active. A fissure 19 has been spotted very near fissure 15 as of about 8 am just northeast of Pohoiki Road and north of Hinalo Street at the east end of Lanipuna Gardens. It is producing a sluggish lava flow. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the vents. Yesterday with the onset of activity at fissure 17, powerful steam jets have occurred intermittently near the west end of the fissure. These jets may be responsible for some of the loud sounds reported by residents and emergency workers. HVO reported that as of late today (May13rd), activity was dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter bombs hundreds of feet into the air, and several advancing lava flow lobes moving generally northeast from fissure 17 at the downrift (northeast) end of the new fissure system. As of about 7 pm, one lobe was 2 yards thick and advancing roughly parallel to Highway 132. The flow front was just over a half mile southeast of the intersection of Highway 132 and Noni Farms Road. Based on overflight images late this afternoon, additional lava from fissure 17 was also moving slowly southeast. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated. At the Kilauea summit Deflationary tilt continues. A robust plume of steam and volcanic gas, occasionally mixed with ash, has risen from the Overlook crater within Halemaumau. HVO bulletin (May12th, 2:39 UTC) reported that Volcanic unrest in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. While no lava has been emitted from any of the 15 fissure vents since May 9, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Communities downslope of these fissures could be at risk from lava inundationHVO bulletin (May 11th 4:51 UTC) reported that High levels of unrest related to the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continue. While no lava was noted erupting today from any of the 15 fissure vents formed thus far, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Earthquake activity was high in the area today. Continuing ground deformation and located earthquakes were mostly in the area around and northeast of Fissure 15 at Pohoiki Road indicating that the intrusion is migrating further to the northeast. Steaming ground cracks in the vicinity of Highway 130 continue. HVO bulletin (May 10th, 2:55 UTC) reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Visible activity this early afternoon was again focused on the northeast portion of the fissure area. Fissure 15 broke ground across Poihiki Road, generating a pahoehoe flow about 20 m (66 ft) long. During an overflight of the area about 3 p.m. HST, geologists observed a new steaming area uprift (west) of Highway 130. During a second overflight at 4:30 p.m., the area was still steaming. Rates of motion increased late this morning on a GPS station 1.5 km (1 mile) southeast of Nanawale Estates. The direction of motion is consistent with renewed movement of magma in the downrift direction (to the northeast). Rates of seismicity changed little throughout the day; located earthquakes were mostly uprift (west) of Highway 130. Gas emissions remain elevated in the vicinity of fissures. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past week and the lava lake level continues to drop. At about 8:32 a.m. HST, a large rockfall from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake triggered an explosion that generated an ash column above the crater; the ash was blown toward the south-southwest. Rockfalls and explosions that produce ash columns are expected to continue. HVO bulletin (May 8th, 18:15 UTC ) reported that of 7:00 am, the eruption along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision has paused. Strong emission of gas continues from the fissure system that is now about 2.5 miles long. This pause is likely temporary and resumption of lava emission or additional fissure outbreaks are possible at any time. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from Friday's magnitude-6.9 earthquake continue and more are expected. Rockfalls into the Overlook vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater are producing intermittent ash emissions. Seismicity at Kīlauea's summit remains elevated. USGS/HVO continues to monitor the situation 24/7 in coordination with Hawaii County Civil Defense and other authorities. Field crews are onsite this morning examining the fissure vents, lava flow of yesterday, and searching for any signs of new or resumed activity. As of the 8th of May (3:59 UTC), HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. The location of activity today was focused on the southwest portion of the area. This morning, two new fissure segments broke ground. The first (fissure 11) opened in a forested southwest of Leilani Estates about 9:30 am and was active for only 3 hours. The second (fissure 12) opened about 12:20 between older fissures 10 and 11. By 3:15 pm, both new fissures were in active but the west end of fissure 10 was steaming heavily. Cracks on Highway 130 widened from 7 cm to 8 cm over the course of the day and additional cracks were found just west of the highway on trend with the eruptive fissures. As of the 7th of May (6:59 UTC) HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Fissure 8 erupted lava fountains until about 4 p.m. HST, and the aa' flow advanced slowly northward through the afternoon, even after the lava fountains shut down. Geologists reported this early evening that the flow crossed Ho'okopu Road, a distance from fissure 8 of about about 1.1 km (0.6 miles). They also reported new ground cracks in the vicinity of fissures 8 and 9 that were emitting thick steam and gases, but no lava spattering was observed by the time of this status report. Rates of seismicity and deformation decreased in the past day. The absence of additional deformation in the past day suggests a pause in magma acculumation in the distal part of the intrusion. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past several days. Corresponding to this deflationary trend, the summit lava lake level in Overlook crater dropped about 2 m (6.5 ft) per hour during the day. The lake level has dropped an estimated 220 m (722 ft) since the collapse of Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater on April 30. Rockfalls from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake continue to produce ashy plumes above Halema'uma'u crater. Rockfalls and ashy plumes are expected to continue as the lake level drops. Earthquake activity in the summit remains at elevated levels. In the past 24 hours, about 31 magnitude-2 earthquakes occurred at depths less than 5 km (3 miles) beneath the summit area (compared to the 24-hour period when 152 magnitude-2 and magnitude-3 earthquakes. These earthquakes are related to the ongoing subsidence of the summit area and earthquakes beneath the south flank of the volcano. HVO bulletin ( Saturday, May 5, 2018, 21:54 UTC) reported that active eruption of lava and gas continues along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision. Additional fissure vents producing spatter and small lava flows developed early this morning, and additional outbreaks in the area are likely. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from yesterday's M6.9 earthquake continue and more should be expected, with larger aftershocks potentially producing rockfalls and associated ash clouds above Puʻu ʻŌʻō and Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Residents of the Puna District should remain alert, review individual, family, and business emergency plans, and watch for further information about the status of the volcano. Video. According to latest HVO bulletin (Saturday, May 5, 2018, 02:04 UTC) eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Several additional eruptive fissures or vents - each several hundred yards long - have opened over the past day. No significant lava flows have yet formed. Spatter and lava are accumulating primarily within a few tens of yards of the vent. The sixth and most recent fissure is on the eastern edge of the subdivision. Not all fissure vents remain active and no far-traveled lava flows have formed. For maps showing the locations of these features : https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_maps.html .HVO geologists will be in the area overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity using various monitoring data streams. Seismicity and deformation are consistent with continued accumulation of magma within the rift zone. Additional outbreaks of lava are expected. According to report from HVO (Friday, May 4, 2018, 08:13 UTC) the eruption in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano that began in late afternoon temporary ended by about 6:30 p.m. HST. Lava spatter and gas bursts erupted from the fissure for about two hours, and lava spread a short distance from the fissure, less than about 10 m (33 ft). At this time, the fissure is not erupting lava and no other fissures have erupted. HVO geologists are working near the fissure overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity. Geologists reported this evening that the presence of sulfur gas is quite noticeable around the fissure, typical of active and recently active fissures. The concentration of sulfur dioxide gas is high within tens of meters (yards) of the fissure. Lava flows did not advance more than about 10 m (33 ft) from the fissure. The flows are no longer active. At this time, no other fissures have erupted from along the rift zone. Tiltmeters at Kīlauea's summit continue to record deflationary tilt and the lava lake level has dropped about 37 m (121 ft) in the past 24 hours. Seismic activity has not changed significantly during the day or since the brief fissure eruption. Previously, HVO reported that the intrusion of molten rock into the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano reached the surface in the late afternoon on May 3 in a part of Leilani Estates. A fissure about 150 m (492 ft) long erupted mostly spatter and intermittent bubble bursts for about 2 hours.Lava did not travel more than a few m (yards) from the fissure.Hawaii County Civil Defence is coordinating needed response including evacuation of a portion of the Leilani subdivision. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory deployed geologists to the eruption site overnight, and other scientists are monitoring various data streams telemetered to the observatory 24/7.As of the 30th of April, in a special report HVO reported that following weeks of inflation, the floor of the crater of Pu'u O'o collapsed on April 30, 2018, between 14h and 16h30 in two episodes visibles on a thermal camera located on the edge of the crater. Bad weather conditions prevented the observatory teams to fly over the crater and cannot observe this activity.The collapse caused the release of a large amount of reddish ash around the Pu'u O'o for several kilometers on the 61 g lava flow. Following this collapse, seismometers and tiltmeters recorded an increase in seismic activity and deformation from the summit area of ​​Kilauea to an area between 10 and 16 km east of Pu'u O'o; during the night, this activity continued to spread along the rift zone to the east and the highway 130 to 30 km ... marking an area potentially at risk of eruption.The strongest earthquake of the sequence was of magnitude 4, south of Pu'u O'o 'on April 27 at 2:39. A new ladder crack, of 1 km long, has opened to the west of Pu'u O'o, characterized by heavy outgassing. its released a small amount of lava, according to the presence of small areas of spatters; it is no longer active. The level of the upper lava lake, located in the Halema'uma'u crater, has dropped 15 meters, suggesting an intrusion from the summit area during the weekend into the Pu'u O'o magmatic system towards the East; summit deflation supports this mechanism.The volcanic alert level remains at Watch and the aviation code is orange. Residents of Puna must remain alert and monitor information on the status of the volcano.During 18-24 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, and by late on 21 April had overflowed the S crater rim. As of midday on 23 April the new flows has covered about 16 ha of the floor, or about 30%. Overflows of the crater rim continued through 24 April, flowing as far as 375 m onto the N, SW, and S parts of the crater floor. HVO noted that the overflows were the first significant ones since May 2015. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 18 April geologists observed the pit crater on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, noting that overflows had built up the crater rim to several meters above the crater floor and 7 m higher compared to late March. During 11-17 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, with spattering visible from HVO and Jaggar Museum; by 16 April the lake level was 10 m below the rim of the Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 11 April a moderate swarm of over 200 earthquakes occurred at depths of 7-9 km below the summit. The largest event was a M 2.4. Seismicity returned to background levels at 0230. Three minor ledge collapses were detected on 12 April, one at 1157 and two just after 1830. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali; on 13 April most scattered breakouts were within 2.2 km from Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and one was about 5 km away. During 4-10 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand through 6 April. A rockfall at 1028 on 6 April triggered an explosion in the lava lake, damaging the webcam power system on the crater rim. During 28 March-3 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island. The Webcam images, which are updated every five minutes, can be accessed at : http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/cams/NCcam/ . From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

USA - Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaian islands)

April 30th, 2021

As of the 29th of April, HVO reported that over the past week, HVO seismometers have recorded around 150 small-magnitude earthquakes beneath Mauna Loa, most of them concentrated below the summit and upper flanks of the volcano. All of the earthquakes last week were below M3 and mostly occurred at depths less than 8 km (about 5 mi) below ground level.
Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements continue to show a slightly scalable deformation pattern of the summit over the past week. Gas concentrations (0 ppm SO2) and fumarole temperatures (below 100 degrees Celsius or 212 degrees Fahrenheit) at the summit and at Sulfur Cone in the southwest rift zone remain stable. HVO reported a swarm of 172 earthquakes occurred northwest of the summit of Mauna Loa on March 29 and 31, about 6 to 8 km (3.5 to 5 miles) below the surface. An inclinometer near the summit of Mauna Loa measured a small change in inclination along with the flank swarm. The change in tilt was consistent with the contraction across the summit and has since leveled off. Over the past week, HVO seismometers have recorded a total of 245 low-magnitude earthquakes (almost all below M3) below Mauna Loa, the most concentrated below the summit and upper flanks of the volcano at depths less than 8 km (about 5 mi) below ground level. Gas concentrations (0 ppm SO2) and fumarole temperatures (below 100 degrees Celsius or 212 degrees Fahrenheit) at the summit and at Sulfur Cone in the southwest rift zone remain stable.
Previous news 2020 - As of the 19th of November, HVO reported that the deformation and seismicity ratios have not changed significantly over the past week, but remain above baseline levels over the long term. The Hawaii Observatory recorded 119 low-magnitude earthquakes for the entire volcano, most at a depth of less than 8 km below ground level; 31 were located under the summit and upper flanks. A slow inflation of the summit is recorded by the GPS measurements, and corresponds to a recharge of the superficial magma chamber. The gas concentrations and the temperature of the fumaroles at the summit and at the Sulfur cone, in the south-western rift zone, remain stable. As of the 25th of September, HVO reported that over the past week seismometers have recorded around 103 small-magnitude earthquakes - all below M3.0 - below the volcano's summit and the upper flanks. The majority of these earthquakes have occurred at shallow depths less than 8 kilometers (about 5 miles) below ground level. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements continue to indicate slow, long-term inflation at the summit, consistent with the supply of magma to the volcano's shallow storage system. The gas concentrations and the temperatures of the fumaroles at the summit and at the sulfur cone in the southwest rift zone remain stable. During the past week (10-17th of September) the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) recorded 67 small-magnitude earthquakes on the volcano's summit and upper-elevation flanks. Most of these earthquakes occurred at shallow depths of less than 8 km (~5 miles) below ground level.Slow summit inflation continues to be detected by the GPS, consistent with magma supply to the volcano's shallow storage system. Gas concentrations and fumarole temperatures remain stable. As of the 30th of July, HVO recorded 105 low-magnitude earthquakes at the Mauna Loa summit area and its elevated flanks over the past week. Most of these earthquakes occurred at shallow depths of less than 8 kilometers (~ 5 miles) below ground level. Inflation continues slowly at the top, consistent with the magma supply to the volcano's shallow storage system. Gas concentrations and fumarole temperatures at the Summit and Sulfur Cone monitoring sites remain stable (below 2 ppm SO2, and ~98°C, respectively). The webcams do not show any change in the landscape. Massive Mauna Loa shield volcano rises almost 9 km above the sea floor to form the world's largest active volcano. Flank eruptions are predominately from the lengthy NE and SW rift zones, and the summit is cut by the Mokuaweoweo caldera, which sits within an older and larger 6 x 8 km caldera. Two of the youngest large debris avalanches documented in Hawaii traveled nearly 100 km from Mauna Loa; the second of the Alika avalanches was emplaced about 105,000 years ago (Moore et al. 1989). Almost 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is covered by lavas less than 4000 years old (Lockwood and Lipman, 1987). During a 750-year eruptive period beginning about 1500 years ago, a series of voluminous overflows from a summit lava lake covered about one fourth of the volcano's surface. The ensuing 750-year period, from shortly after the formation of Mokuaweoweo caldera until the present, saw an additional quarter of the volcano covered with lava flows predominately from summit and NW rift zone vents. (GVN/GVP)

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U.S.A. - Bogoslof volcano island (Aleutian islands)

February 20th, 2018

End eruption report - The AVO has put online a 3D multispectral image of Bogoslof, resting since August 30, 2017, end of the eruption 2016-17. The approximately 60 explosive episodes characterizing this period have significantly modeled the Bogoslof's morphology. The island has grown by a factor of three, reaching 1.6 km², but new pyroclastic materials and surge deposits are not consolidated; erosion modifies the contours of Bogoslof permanently, and in December, the lagoon of the vent opened on the ocean on the north coast, marking a gradual return to more modest dimensions ... general problem of news or remodeled volcanic islands: construction and destruction. Previous news - On 6 December AVO decreased the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Bogoslof to Unassigned, noting that no significant activity had been observed in seismic, infrasound, satellite, or lightning data during the past three months. The last detected explosive activity occurred on 30 August 2017. On 27 September AVO reported that the last explosion at Bogoslof was detected on 30 August, and no new volcanic activity was observed in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since then. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that during 20-26 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 22-23 September, indicating ongoing unrest. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 13-19 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 13-14 and 16-17 September, indicating ongoing unrest. On 17 September discolored ocean water was visible in satellite data, possibly representing outflow from the crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 6-12 September nothing significant was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. The 8 September report noted that the crater lake had been bisected by a narrow isthmus of land. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in one satellite image during 10-11 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at 0405 on 30 August and continued intermittently until 0555; the event produced a low-level ash plume that rose to around 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. Later that day seismic and infrasound data showed quiet conditions, and a low-level plume (likely steam) drifted almost 65 km SSE. Satellite, infrasound, and seismic data showed nothing notable during 31 August-5 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Three short-duration eruptive events occurred during 27-28 August. The first, a two-minute-long explosion at 1508 on 27 August, produced a volcanic cloud that rose 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The second event started at 0323 on 28 August and lasted 25 minutes. The resulting small cloud drifted ESE and quickly dissipated. The third event was detected at 1117 on 28 August and generated a small volcanic cloud that rose 7.6-9.1 (25,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were observed in a few satellite images during 28-29 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a satellite image of Bogoslof acquired at 0628 on 24 August showed elevated surface temperatures and a small plume that was most likely steam drifting 17 km S. During 24-25 August a robust steam plume drifting 70 km SE and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data. A four-minute-long explosion that began at 1629 on 26 August generated an eruption cloud that rose 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The event was also observed in seismic and infrasound data, and one lightning stroke was detected. . AVO reported that photographs of Bogoslof taken during an overflight on 15 August showed that the vent area (which had dried out during the 7 August eruption) had refilled with water. Seismicity decreased on 16 August and remained low at least through 18 August. Weakly elevated surface temperatures consistent with a warm lake were identified in satellite data during 19-20 August. Satellite data acquired on 21 August showed an approximately 125-m-diameter lava dome within the intra-island lake, just W of the 1992 lava dome. A cold volcanic plume, likely from the lava dome, drifted about 55 km S of the island. Some minor explosions were detected in infrasound data at about 0410 on 22 August. The lava dome had grown to 160 m in diameter. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that on 9 August seismic and infrasound data suggested low-level eruptive activity at Bogoslof; weakly elevated surface temperatures and a minor steam emission were identified in satellite images. No significant activity was observed in cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data during 10-13 August. Two short pulses of tremor were detected (at 0853, lasting five minutes, and at 0913, lasting three minutes) in seismic data; seismicity returned to baseline levels afterwards. A sequence of seismic events began at 0000 on 15 August; no activity was observed in infrasound, lightning, or satellite data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and theVolcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that during 2-6 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. An explosive eruption began at 1000 on 7 August, following more than an hour of increased seismicity. A pilot reported that an ash cloud rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l., prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. The eruption lasted about three hours, and was longer lived than most of the events in the eruptive sequence that started in December 2016. At 1341 AVO noted that the ash plume had formed a continuous cloud which stayed attached to the volcano and drifted S. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 8 August. Satellite images acquired on 8 August showed a significant expansion of the island towards the N with thick tephra deposits around the vent area forming a new crater lake. AVO reported that during 26 July-1 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in partly cloudy to clear satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 19-25 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 12-18 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images; weakly elevated surface temperatures were noted on 12 and 16 July. In addition no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code Aremained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Avo reported that two new explosions occurred at the Bogoslof on 10 and 11 July. The first one consists of a series of explosions that began on July 10 at 7:47 UTC and ended on 10.07 at 10:35 UTC, the AVO has passed the alerts to RED / Warning. A small cloud of ashes associated with the first episode reached 6,000 meters, and quickly dissipated in a southeasterly direction. A rapid decline in seismicity around 11:00 UTC lowered alert levels to ORANGE / Watch. - The second period of activity began around 6 pm UTC: seismicity and infrasound were increased for 8 minutes. No significant emissions were detected by satellite.On July 11, at 01:06 UTC, the seismic network recorded an eruption that lasted about 15 minutes. No volcanic clouds, lightning or infrasound were detected. Alert levels remain unchanged until data is evaluated. AVO reported that an explosion at Bogoslof was detected at 0124 on 30 June and lasted about 20 minutes. A small cloud from the event drifted about 16 km N and by 1815 had dissipated. Seismicity declined afterwards but continued intermittently at low levels. Beginning at 1248 on 2 July a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data. The event lasted about 16 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Following the eruption seismicity declined and no signs of volcanic unrest were detected in seismic, infrasound, on satellite data on 3 July; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. The ACC and VAL were again raised to Red and Warning, respectively, following an explosive event that began at 1651 on 4 July and lasted 13 minutes. An eruption cloud rose as high as 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. An 11-minute-long eruption began at 1907 on 4 July, producing a small cloud that rose 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. AVO reported that a new significant explosive eruption occurred at 20:48 UTC July 2 (12:48 AKDT July 2). AVO is raising the Aviation Color Code to RED and Alert level to WARNING for Bogoslof volcano. Satellite data and pilot reports shows a volcanic cloud with an estimated altitude of 36,000 ft asl moving towards the east. Seismic and infrasound data suggest that the ash emissions are no longer continuing. AVO reported that slightly elevated surface temperatures at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images on 23 June, and steam emissions were occasionally observed the previous week. Beginning at 1649 on 23 June a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data that lasted about 10 minutes. It produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 400-490 km E. The event prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Four additional explosions were detected, during 1918-1924, 2013-2021, 2104-2112, and 2152-2155, though any resulting ash plumes were not detected above the cloud deck at 8.5-9.1 km (28,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. On 25 June the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. At 1645 on 26 June an eruption which lasted about 14 minutes produced an ash plume that rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic and lighting data indicated that a significant explosion began at 0317 on 27 June, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. The event lasted 14 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Following a significant explosive eruption this 24 June at 0h49 UTC / 23 June 16h49 AKDT, the Bogoslof  has changed to a red aviation code. It produced a plume rising to about 36,000 ft, and was accompanied by a strong seismicity, flashes and infra-sons. The eruption lasted 10 minutes. The satellites located the volcanic cloud at 1:30 UTC, at 36,000 ft, moving northeast.AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures and a small steam emission at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were detected on 16 June, and a 13-km-long steam plume was visible on 18 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a new lava dome at Bogoslof breached the surface of the ocean on or around 6 June, and was the first observation of lava at the surface since the start of the eruption that began in mid-December 2016. The dome was an estimated 110 m in diameter on 7 June, and then grew to 160 m in diameter by 9 June. An explosive eruption began at 0318 on 10 June with a series of short infrasound signals which then, starting at about 0416, transitioned into several minutes-long continuous seismic and infrasound tremor signals. The events generated an ash-rich cloud that rose to an estimated altitude of 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. The eruption ended at 0528. Satellite data indicated that at least part of the volcanic cloud was more ash-rich than most in the current eruption period. On 11 June AVO noted no detectable activity in seismic or infrasound data after the event the day before. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Satellite image acquired on 10 June and a photograph from an observer aboard a jet aircraft on 11 June suggested that the lava dome was no longer above the surface of the water, and was destroyed during the 10 June event. A series of explosive events, each lasting 10-30 minutes, began at 1747 on 12 June and ended around 2035. Ash plumes rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. At 0817 on 13 June a six-minute-long explosion was detected in seismic and infrasound data. A plume was not observed, likely because it was too small or below detection limits. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that a short-duration (less than 10 minute) explosion at Bogoslof began at 1842 on 31 May based on seismic and infrasound data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted WNW, and dissipated over the Bering Sea. The explosion was preceded by a several hour-long swarm of very small earthquakes. Seismicity decreased in the hours prior to the explosion and remained below the detection threshold. A sulfur dioxide plume from an explosion on 28 May was visible in satellite data drifting over the Hudson Bay region of Canada on 2 June. A short-duration explosive event at 0750 on 5 June produced a small volcanic cloud observed by a pilot. Low-amplitude tremor was detected in seismic data beginning at about 1229 on 5 June but then decreased to background levels. A vessel in the area reported vigorous steaming and a white plume rising several thousand feet above sea level. A brief explosive event was detected at 0600 on 6 June. The event likely produced a low-level (less than 3 km or 10,000 ft a.s.l.) emission; a possible plume at 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. was identified in a satellite image following the detection of the activity in seismic and infrasound data, but quickly dissipated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. On 29 May the ash cloud continued to drift NE. No detectable activity was observed in data from seismic or infrasound stations located on nearby Islands, and no new activity has been observed in satellite data. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that the eruption at Bogoslof which began at 2232 on 16 May lasted about 73 minutes. Trace amounts of ash fell in the community of Nikolski on Umnak Island. Later that day the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch; no further ash emissions were detected and seismicity was low. Satellite data showed that the event altered the N coastline of the island. The crater lake was breached with a 550-m-wide gap along the N shore, and the NE shore had been extended 300 m from new tephra deposits. AVO reported that an increase in seismic and infrasound activity from Bogoslof was detected from stations on nearby islands starting at 2232 on 16 May, suggesting the beginning of an explosive eruption. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Watch. A pilot reported an ash plume rising as high as 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l., and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network detected lightning associated with the cloud. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. The eruption lasted about 73 minutes. On 19 April AVO noted that no new volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since a short-lived increase in seismicity on 15 April; AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and theVolcano Alert LevelIncreased seismicity at Bogoslof was recorded by stations on nearby islands starting around 1501 on 15 April, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The seismic activity subsided a few hours later; there was no evidence of renewed eruptive activity from infrasound, lightning, or satellite data during 15-18 April. On 5 April AVO reported that the Aviation Color Code for Bogoslof was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory based on the absence of detected activity at the volcano for the past three weeks; the last large explosion occurred on 8 March. No significant volcanic activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data during 6-11 April. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 29 March-4 April, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 28-29 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 22-28 March, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 15-21 March, and satellite views were either obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 20-21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 2236 on 7 March, indicated in seismic, lightning, and infrasound data, and lasted about three hours. Though ash was not immediately visible in satellite data, AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Later, satellite images showed a large ash cloud rising to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E. This event was the first detected eruptive activity since 19 February, and more than 1,000 lightning strokes related to the volcanic eruption cloud were detected during this event, by far the highest number observed to date. In addition the seismic levels were among the highest detected since the beginning of the eruption. Satellite images from 8 March showed that the W part of the island had grown significantly. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 9 March. Two earthquakes swarms were detected during 9-11 March; the first began at 1750 on 9 March and ended at 1400 on 10 March, and the second was detected from 1900 on 10 March to 0500 on 11 March. Mildly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 10-11 March. A third swarm began at 0500 on 12 March. A short-duration event, from 1131 to 1143 on 13 March, produced a small ash cloud that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. AVO noted that after the event, the level of seismic activity declined and the repeating earthquakes, detected for much of the previous several days, stopped. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images from 13 March. A photograph taken by a pilot showed a low-level, billowy steam plume rising from the general area of the intra-island lake. AVO reported that a new explosive eruption began on March 8 at 7:36 UTC / 7 March at 22:36 AKST at Bogoslof, characterized by about three hours of significant ash emissions. Activity was observed via seismic, infrasonic and lightning detection networks. A large ash cloud was seen by the satellites, moving east to an altitude of 10,700 meters asl. The volcano remains at a high level of instability, and its current aviation alert level is red. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in seismic, infrasound, or mostly cloudy satellite data during 22-28 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.AVO reported that during 15-16 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0955 on 17 February seismic data indicated the beginning of an explosive event, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Individual pulses of seismicity was recorded until 1140, and then afterwards seismicity was low. Satellite images and pilot observations indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. The event was also verified by infrasound and lightning data. Another short-lived explosive event began at 1546, detected in infrasound and seismic data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion at 0450 on 18 February was detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The seismic data suggested that ash emissions lasted several minutes, and then seismicity decreased. A preliminary evaluation of satellite data indicated that a cloud rose at least as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.; the cloud drifted SW. On 19 February the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Later that day seismic and infrasound data recorded a series of short-lived explosive pulses during 1708-1745. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. A plume identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 160 km SE over Unalaska Island. AVO geologists on the island described the cloud has having a white upper portion and a slightly darker lower portion. Storms in the region impacted data communications at AVO's facility in Dutch Harbor on 20 February, limiting AVO's ability to forecast and detect eruptions at Bogoslof. AVO reported that during 8-12 and 14 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0724 on 13 February seismicity significantly increased, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Satellite images acquired through 0930 showed no ash emissions above the 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. cloud deck, and no lightning was detected. AVO concluded that, despite the intensity of seismic activity, a significant ash emission was not produced during this event; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0520 on 31 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. A burst of tremor lasting nine minutes was detected starting at 0457 on 3 February. A second burst, starting at 0533 and lasting 20 minutes, was also detected by infrasound instruments, indicating an explosion. No ash cloud was detected above the meteorological cloud deck in satellite data. An event that began at 1642 produced a small volcanic plume that drifted about 40 km N below an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic tremor significantly decreased later that evening. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images acquired on 5 February, possibly related to hot deposits from explosive activity the day before. On February 3, at 13:57 and 14:33 UTC, two episodes of tremor were detected; The second, accompanied by an infrasonic signal, indicates an explosion, without cloud of ash observed by satellite.Several short bursts of seismic activity were detected at 0520 and 0608 on 30 January. An infrasound signal accompanied the first event indicating an explosion; an eruption cloud was identified in satellite data at 0530, rising to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. later that day AVO noted that bursts of explosive activity continued and intensified; more than 10 short-duration explosions were detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. Ash plumes rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 125 km SE. Trace amounts of ashfall and a sulfur odor were reported in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor (98 km E). By the next day the explosions had subsided or ended. Satellite images acquired on 31 January showed significant changes to the island. AVO stated that freshly erupted volcanic rock and ash had formed a barrier that separated the vent from the sea, suggesting that the change had resulted in the more ash-rich emissions occurring during 30-31 January. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0453 on 24 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. An hour-long seismic increase began at 0134 on 25 January though no evidence of eruptive activity was evident. Based on lightning and seismic data an explosive event began at 0650 on 26 January, and another burst of seismicity was recorded at 0706. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. An ice-rich cloud, first identified in satellite data at 0700, likely contained ash, and rose as high as 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE at lower altitudes, and NE at altitudes above about 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Lightning and seismic data again indicated an explosive event at 0824 on 27 January, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. An ice-rich cloud that likely contained ash rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E; seismicity related to ash emissions remained elevated for 48 minutes. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 1320 on 18 January, generating an ash plume that rose at least to an altitude of 9.4 km (31,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The dark (ash-rich) plume was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot, and produced lightning strikes and infrasound signals detected by sensors in Sand Point and Dillingham. Analysis of a satellite image suggested the presence of very hot material (lava) at the surface immediately surrounding the vent, which was the first such observation since the beginning of the eruption. AVO raised theAviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert level (VAL) to Warning. A second lower-altitude cloud was visible in satellite images around 1400, likely corresponding with an increase in seismic tremor that occurred from 1340-1355. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch the next day. Another explosion was detected at 1317 on 20 January, following an approximately 30-minute-long increase in seismic activity, based on seismic data and lightning detected from the World Wide Lightning Location Network. Pilots observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. Satellite images indicated an ice-rich plume and lava present at the vent. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, but were again lowered one level to Orange and Watch, respectively, the next day. Several lightning strikes north of Bogoslof indicated that an explosive event began at 1409 on 22 January. An ash plume identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, and again lowered one level the next day. Following a period of increasing seismicity, an explosive event began at 0453 on 24 January, as indicated in seismic data and lightning detection, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. Seven minutes later an ice-rich plume which likely contained ash rose too altitudes of 7.6-10.7 km (25,000-35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO reported that photos taken by a pilot on 10 January showed Bogoslof covered with dark gray ash, and a roughly 300-m-diameter submarine explosion crater on the E side of the island. Unrest continued during 11-17 January. Two short-lived explosions (five to six minutes long) were seismically detected at 1123 and 1230 on 12 January and observed by pilots. The estimated altitudes of the first and second plumes were 5.5 and 4.4 km (18,000 and 14,500 ft) a.s.l., respectively. Seismicity again increased at 2126 on 14 January and remained elevated. Six explosive events were detected between 2216 on 14 January and 0350 on 15 January. No volcanic clouds were identified in satellite data, although one lightning strike was recorded at 2232 on 14 January. Increased seismicity on 17 January indicated minor explosive activity; steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose no higher than 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.The last eruption of this volcano took place from July 6 to 24, 1992. It had Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 3 and produced a new dome.Bogoslof is the emergent summit of a submarine volcano that lies 40 km north of the main Aleutian arc. It rises 1500 m above the Bering Sea floor. Repeated construction and destruction of lava domes at different locations during historical time has greatly modified the appearance of this "Jack-in-the-Box" volcano and has introduced a confusing nomenclature applied during frequent visits of exploring expeditions.The present triangular-shaped, 0.75 x 2 km island consists of remnants of lava domes emplaced from 1796 to 1992. Castle Rock (Old Bogoslof) is a steep-sided pinnacle that is a remnant of a spine from the 1796 eruption. Fire Island (New Bogoslof), a small island located about 600 m NW of Bogoslof Island, is a remnant of a lava dome that was formed in 1883. (USGS-AVO)

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U.S.A. - Shishaldin volcano (Alaska)

January 16th, 2021

AVO reported that several outages affected GPS, seismic, and infrasound stations used to monitor Shishaldin. On 15 January AVO changed both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level to Unassigned, reflecting the lack of this data to detect unrest. The volcano continued to be monitored with local webcams, satellite data, and remote infrasound, seismic, and lightning networks. Previous news 2020 - On 24 June AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin had decreased to background levels. Additionally, satellite images showed no new lava in the crater area, typical surface temperatures, and minor steaming. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. AVO issued an advisory volcanic alert and Yellow aviation code, the troubles continue with possible sulfur dioxide emissions detected by satellite and vapor in the crater visible on high resolution satellite images. The views of the web cameras were obscured by the clouds and no significant activity was detected on local seismic stations or regional infrared sensors. Although disturbances are currently at low levels, activity could intensify with little warning, and additional eruptive activity in the summit crater, lava flows, lahars and ash-producing eruptive events could happen.On 16 April AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin had decreased during the past two weeks, though it remained slightly above background levels. Additionally, satellite images showed no new lava nor changes in the crater area, and a decrease in surface temperatures. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 8-13 April characterized by occasional low-frequency earthquakes. Minor steaming from the summit crater was sometimes seen in satellite and webcam data. A small thermal anomaly was visible in satellite data during 8-9 April. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 1-7 April 2020 characterized by weak continuous tremor and occasional low-frequency earthquakes. The webcam recorded steam plumes rising from the summit crater on 1 April. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images on a few days. The Volcano Alert level remained at Watch and theAviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 25-31 March characterized by continuous low-level tremor. Steam-and-gas plumes rising from the summit crater were occasionally recorded by the webcam and identified in satellite images. Weakly- to- moderately elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 29-30 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that seismicity remained high with low level continuous tremor recorded in the past week.A weak gas plume was commonly observed on webcam images when the views were clear, and high surface temperatures were observed on satellite images.Eruptive activity appears to be confined to the summit area during this latest period of unrest, which began in mid-March. However, activity could increase with little or no warning, causing lava flows outside the crater, lahars and ash emissions.The volcanic alert is Watch, and the aviation code orange. AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin was characterized as near-continuous tremor during 18-20 March and continuous tremor during 21-24 March. Steam-and-gas plumes rising from the summit crater were recorded daily by the webcam and sometimes identified in satellite images. Elevated surface temperatures, consistent with lava in the summit crater, were also identified in satellite images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that eruptive activity continues at Shishaldin. Minor explosive activity has decreased over the past 24 hours, but seismicity remains high with almost continuous tremors. Satellite views have been obscured by clouds, and a small plume of vapor from the summit has been observed in a clear web camera image in the past 24 hours. At this time, eruptive activity appears to be confined to the summit area, but activity could increase with little or no warning, causing lava flows outside the crater, lahars, and ash emissions. The current aviation color code: ORANGE. AVO reported that weak but elevated seismicity was also recorded along with small explosion signals during 14-17 March. Elevated surface temperatures, consistent with lava in the summit crater, were identified in satellite images during 15-17 March. A small steam plume rising from the summit crater was visible in a webcam image on 17 March. AVO raised the alert level of the Shishaldin to Watch and the aviation code to orange on March 14 at 10:31 pm, following the observation on a high resolution satellite image of lava, and of what appears to be a new cone in the summit crater. A weak tremor is also detected. On 6 February AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin decreased during the previous week (though remained slightly above background levels), along with the surface temperatures at the summit identified in satellite data. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory since the eruption appeared to have paused or ceased. AVO reported that seismic activity at Shishaldin remained above background levels during 29 January-4 February. Weakly- to moderately-elevated surface temperatures were sometimes identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that seismic activity at Shishaldin remained above background levels during 22-28 January. Elevated surface temperatures continued to be identified in satellite images, though became weak during 26-28 January. Infrasound data suggested that minor explosions were occurring at the summit during 22-23 January. Small steam plumes from the summit were visible on 22, 23, and 26 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 20-21 January elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, though the N-flank flow was not active. Seismicity remained above background levels, and coincided with detections in infrasound data that suggested small explosions at the vent. Steaming from the summit was visible in webcam images. AVO reported that seismicity dropped sharply to low levels around 3:30 p.m. on January 19, 2020, and ash production increased at about the same time, producing an ash plume that reached 9,000 meters. The eruption continued to produce ash until about 10:00 p.m. when activity slowed. High surface temperatures are still apparent on the satellite images this morning. Webcam images captured after sunrise on the southeast side of the volcano show a weak plume of vapor at the top, new tephras and / or lava deposited on the upper flanks of the cone and a dusting of ash on the snow throughout the area.AVO reported that an increasing in seismicity was observed on January 7, 2020 around 5 a.m. AKST, accompanied by ash emissions; the ash cloud was visible on satellite images at a height of 7,000 meters, drifting east-northeast. The seismicity then weakened for a few hours, before increasing sharply. The plume was loaded with ashes, justifying an increase in warning levels to red aviation code, around 14:20 AKST. Satellite images show very high surface temperatures, and three lava flows are observed; volcanic lightning and infrasound are detected by regional measurement stations. Around 24:00 AKST, the seismicity fell again, and the ash emissions decreased. The alerts returned to Watch, with an orange aviation code. Ash falls are expected on the communities located to the northeast. AVO reported that the volcano still produces lava flows on the upper flanks and is the site of a short-lived explosive activity. This December 3 around 9:30 am AKST, the seismicity started to increase, to lead to a brief period of emission of ash; the ash cloud reached an altitude of 7,300 meters asl.drifting southeast, with lightning bolts. The seismicity then abruptly decreased. Thermal anomalies considered as very high, with a maximum at 1443MW, indicating a continuous effusion. The aviation code is maintained at Orange, accompanied by a SIGMET up to an altitude of 7,300 meters established by the National Weather Service. Previous news 2019 - AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 25-31 December. Seismicity was elevated with weak explosions recorded by the network during 26-27 December. The seismicity decreased to relatively low levels on 27 December and remained low through 31 December. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were periodically identified in satellite images, indicating continuing lava effusion; AVO reported that low-level explosive activity continued near the summit and effusion of short lava flows. Elevated seismicity and surface temperatures were recorded throughout the week. Satellite images December 25 and 26 confirmed an active lava flow extending ~1.5 km (1 mile) to the northwest and tephra deposits on the upper flanks of the volcano. Weak explosions were detected on a regional infrasound network over the last 24 hours. AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 18-24 December. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, though clouds sometimes prevented views. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by ongoing tremor and periodic weak explosions. Satellite imagery indicated that the active summit cone had grown after collapsing the week before. Minor ash emissions drifted S on 19 December and E at 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 21 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and theVolcano Alert Level remained at Watch.As of the 21st of December AVO reported that the low-level eruption continued. Seismicity remains elevated. Elevated surface temperatures were observed in partly cloudy satellite data. Minor ash emissions were reported drifting east at ~15,000 ft from the volcano's summit consistent with low-level eruptive activity. On the morning, increasing tremor coincided with a field team in Cold Bay reporting a new lava flow on the northern slope of the volcano.As of the 19th of December, AVO reported that the eruptive activity started at the end of July in Shishaldin continues, with this week a lava flow reaching about 2,500 meters on the northwest flank. Explosive low-level activity rebuilt the summit cone, which had collapsed a week before, and covered with ash the southern flank of the volcano.High surface temperatures were observed in the first part of the week, before decreasing while the activity of the lava flows decreased. The seismicity on the volcano remains high, with continuous tremors and weak explosions. AVO reported that the seismicity remained elevated through 16 December and elevated surface temperatures continued to be detected. A plume appearing to contain ash drifted from the summit on 14 December. A lava flow was reported by a pilot on 16 December; the next day satellite images showed a 2-km-long flow on the NW flank. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that eruptive activity intensified on December 13, with a possible collapse of the spatter cone and lava flows on the north and northwest flanks. The episode was accompanied by an ash cloud at 7,600 meters asl. Surface temperatures are observed by satellite.A plume of steam was visible at the top, as well as night glow. As of the 12th of December, AVO reported that a small eruption occurred and produced a plume of ashes reaching 6000-7600 meters asl, dispersing to the northwest.A burst of tremor was observed on December 12 at 7:10 a.m. local (4:10 p.m. UTC) and lasted 3 minutes, as well as lightning. A flow is visible on the satellite images and on the photos taken from Cold Bay. AVO reported that the eruption either slowed or paused during 6-7 December as evidenced by decreased seismicity and slightly elevated surface temperatures in satellite data. Temperatures again increased and were slightly elevated during 7-9 December, likely signifying renewed lava effusion. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that the thermal anomalies recorded on December 5 at Shishaldin are consistent with an ongoing lava effusion. The continuous tremor is also rising. Small emissions of steam and a little ash are observable by the webcam on the summit and the north flank. AVO reported that on December 4 afternoon and evening high surface temperatures, related to an effusion of lava, confirmed by an increase in seismicity. A lava flow on the flank of the volcano was observed by a pilot; no ashes were emitted. AVO reported that seismic levels at Shishaldin were variable but elevated during 26 November-3 December. Weather clouds sometimes obscured satellite image views and mostly prevented webcam views, though elevated surface temperatures were still visible in multiple satellite images. An active 1.5-km-long lava flow on the NW flank was visible in satellite images on 1 December. Continuous tremor transitioned to episodic bursts during the morning of 2 December, but by 3 December a decrease in seismic activity and surface temperatures suggested another pause in lava effusion. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Satellite image analysis indicates that a partial collapse of the summit cone occurred early on November 25th. This resulted in a pyroclastic flow extending up to 3 km from the summit, on the northwestern side of the volcano. A new lava flow was also generated during this period of activity that extended for 1 km along the northwest flank of the volcano.Seismicity decreased but remained elevated during 25-26 November. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were identified in multiple satellite images, and incandescence from the summit was occasionally visible in web camera images overnight. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that seismicity increased during the day of 25 November and small explosions were detected at local and regional infrasound stations. Very high surface temperatures were observed in several images. Together, these data indicate that low-intensity eruptive activity has resumed in Shishaldin. No ash plume has been detected. A partial collapse of the summit cone sometime around 1430 on 24 November produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled as far as 3 km down the NW flank. A new lava flow on the NW flank was several hundred meters long. AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued at variable levels during 13-19 November. Seismicity increased during 13-14 November, and elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite and webcam data. Minor ash emissions were visible and likely resulting from spatter cone collapses. Lava and debris flows had not advanced since 8 November; lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km and a large branched network of debris flows extended at least 5.5 km NE. Strongly elevated surface temperatures and a steam plume drifting more than 100 km SE were visible on 15 November. An incandescent lava flow on the NE flank was recorded in webcam images. Activity during 17-18 November was characterized by low seismic tremor and weakly-to-moderately elevated surface temperatures, consistent with cooling lava flows. Seismicity and surface temperatures again increased during 18-19 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that activity significantly increased during 10-11 November with lava fountaining visible in webcam views throughout the evening and night. Strongly elevated surface temperatures at the summit and along the flanks were visible in satellite data. Ash emissions reported by pilots and visible on webcam images rose as high as 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Activity decreased during 11-12 November. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were consistent with cooling lava flows. Seismicity decreased during the evening of 11 November and remained low. Minor steam-and-ash emissions were visible in webcam images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. .Since November 10th, high surface temperatures have been reported at the summit and on the flanks. Thermal anomalies were measured by Mirova on November 11, between 446 and 1,652 MW.Seismicity has increased over the past few days to find lower levels today. AVO reported that eruptive continued; the lava overflows the crater and feeds a flow on the north-west flank in elongation. This one developed in two branches on November 3rd each of them extending on approximately 1.000 meters. Debris flows / lahars also extended, extending up to 2 km on the north and south flanks; Sporadic glow was observable at night on webcams, and satellites showed hot spatter deposits on the summit cone in relation to explosive activity and / or fountaining. Small explosions were observed on the seismic and infrasonic networks. The volcanic alert remains at Watch and the aviation code at orange A pilot observed a lava flow in the morning of 2 November. Sporadic incandescence recorded by the webcam overnight during 2-3 November suggested minor explosive activity and/or lava fountaining. On 3 November lava overflowed the summit crater and traveled at least 400 m down the NW flank and 300 m down the SE flank. By 4 November the flow on the NW flank had branched and lengthened to 1 km. Lahars were as long as 2 km on the N and S flanks. Spatter deposits from explosions or fountaining were visible on the summit cone. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that Low-level eruptive activity continued during 26-29 October. Seismicity remained elevated, with periods of high-amplitude tremor. Small explosions were recorded during 27-28 October. A satellite image from 28 October showed a 850-m-long SWIR anomaly on the NW flank from a lava flow. A central spatter cone was visible. Spatter deposits on the snow at the upper flanks was evident, and tephra deposits extended about 2.5 km N. The lahar on the NW flank branched extensively at lower elevations and was at least 5 km long. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that satellite data from October 23 showed that the lava now fills the summit crater and begins to sink on the edge of the north crater at two locations.On October 24th, a 200 m (600 ft) long lava flow melted the snow and produced a large 2.9 km (1.8 mile) lahar which spreads on the north flank, reaching about 1230 m. m (~ 4000 ft) altitude. A small lava flow produced a lahar about 1 km long on the northeast flank.The 2857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." A steady steam plume rises from its small summit crater. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, it is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the west and NE sides at 1500-1800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century. Webcam . (GVN/GVP)

USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

March 30th, 2021

AVO reported that a magnitude 4.3 earthquake at Cleveland was recorded during the morning of 26 March. Smaller earthquakes continued to be detected that day at a decreasing rate. There have been no signs of activity observed in infrasound or satellite data, nor evidence of volcanic gas emissions and elevated surface temperatures due to clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert LevelAVO changed the Cleveland aviation code, in the Aleutian volcanic arc, to yellow, and the volcanic alert to advisory on March 20, 2021 at 9.44 p.m. Z. Satellites have detected an increase in volcanic gas emissions and high surface temperatures since March 2020. A local earthquake on March 10 was measured by seismometers 100 km away on Umnak Island, indicating a potential rise in activity. Previous news 2020 - AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland likely continued during 10-16 June, though no activity was identified in cloudy satellite images nor detected by regional geophysical networks. AVO noted that local seismic, infrasound, and web camera data are unavailable due to an equipment failure, Cleveland continued to be monitored with regional seismic and infrasound stations on nearby islands, along with lightning and satellite data capabilities. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No significant volcanic activity was noted in often cloudy satellite views during 2-9 June; a steam plume was visible on 3 June. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that a small explosion occurred on June 1st at 10:32 am AKST; it was detected by the infrasonic surveillance network, the local surveillance stations being offline. It was accompanied by a small plume of ash observed at more than 6,000 meters asl. drifting south. Aviation code is orange. AVO reported that this eruption at Cleveland on 1 June destroyed the January 2019 lava dome and ejected a large amount of material from the summit crater. Volcanic debris flows traveled about 2.9 km down the E flank and more than 2.7 km down the N flankAVO lowered both the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code for Cleveland to Unassigned on 7 May, noting that explosive activity on 9 January 2019 (and subsequent lava extrusion in the summit crater) was followed by an overall decrease in detected surface temperature and no further surface changes. Previous news 2019 - AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow on 15 November, noting that new satellite data and reanalysis of previous data over the past week showed that lava effusion likely had not begun on 8 November. Regional seismic and infrasound data showed no evidence of eruptive activity during 8-19 November; weakly-to-moderately elevated surface temperatures were sometimes identified in satellite images and steam plumes were sometimes visible in webcam images. AVO reported that the aviation color code was raised to ORANGE and the WATCH volcano alert level by AVO in the day of November 8, 2019, regarding images from satellite that the slow lava spilling into the summit crater had probably begun. High surface temperatures have been observed throughout the week and their intensity has increased significantly over the past day. Mirova recorded thermal anomalies on November 8 of 6 and 2 MW.This activity is interpreted as being due to the recovery of the lava effusion. Vigorous steam has been observed in the webcam data over the last few days, which also corroborates the interpretation that the lava has been erupted. The presence of a lava dome in the summit crater can be used to pressurize the system, which could lead to a small explosive event and associated minor ash emissions. Previously, AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 20-24 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Satellite data showed continued subsidence of the lava dome with no evidence of new lava. On 25 February the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 13-19 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that analysis of recent satellite data suggested that the lava dome in Cleveland’s summit crater first observed on 12 January may have stopped growing on 16 January, and since then the center of the dome slowly subsided. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were evident in satellite data during 28 January-4 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the volcano alert level remained at Watch.During the past week, the latest satellite observations showed of high surface temperatures date from January 19-20, before the views of the volcano were obscured by clouds. No explosion was recorded by the seismic station and the infrasonic system.The aviation code remains orange, the possible explosions of the dome may present a danger for aviation. AVO has raised the alert level to Watch, and its aviation code to Orange on January 17, 2019. Satellite data show the existence and growth of a new lava dome since January 12, and its presence could be linked to explosive activity, commonly noticed without warning. AVO reported that a brief explosion was detected this December 29, 2018 at 3:17 UTC / December 28 at 18:17 AKST in Cleveland; a cloud of ash was spotted by a pilot at an altitude of 17,000 ft asl .Typical explosions of this volcano, small clouds of ash dissipate within hours of their emission. The aviation code is orange. AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite data on 15 December. A new small explosion which occurred at 0737 on 16 December generated a minor ash cloud that drifted NE. AVO reported that a small explosion was detected by the local seismic network in Cleveland, in Aleutian Islands, on 12 December at 11:53 am AKST / 20:53 UTC, justifying a watch / orange warning adjustment. The weather conditions did not allow the observation of n ash cloud. Previously, Low-level unrest at Cleveland continued, though on 22 August AVO noted a pause in activity and lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. Another small explosion at Cleveland was recorded by the seismic network at 1155 on 8 December. The report noted that elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images the previous day, suggestive of hot gas emissions from the summit crater vents. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 15-20 August, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Steaming from the crater was sometimes visible in clear webcam views, and elevated surface temperatures were occasionally identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. .The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks. Webcam

USA - Makushin volcano (Alaska-Aleutian islands)

September 10th, 2020

As of the 8th of September, AVO reported that seismicity at Makushin returned to background levels after steadily declining for almost three months following a sequence of earthquakes about 10 km E of the summit at a depth of 8 km that had started on 15 June.AVO reported that small earthquakes in an area about 10 km E of the Makushin's summit and at a depth of about 8 km continued to be detected during 15-21 July. Since the onset of seismicity on 15 June, the earthquakes had generally decreased in both size and rate. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from the summit crater lake. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 20-21 July. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and dvisory, respectively. AVO reported continuing numerous smaller earthquakes in an area about 10 km E of the Makushin's summit at a depth of about 8 km during 24-30 June; the frequency and magnitude had been declining since 15 June but the rate became variable on 24 June. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from summit crater lake. Earthquakes with a M 3 and M 3.8 were recorded at 1653 and 1802 on 28 June, with the larger event strongly felt in Unalaska (14 km E). The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and Advisory, respectively. AVO reported that over a period of several hours on 15 June there were two earthquakes in the vicinity of Makushin that were greater than M 4 and one greater than M 3. The events were located about 11 km SE of the summit at a depth of about 8 km, and felt in Unalaska (14 km E). Numerous smaller earthquakes were recorded, though not felt by Unalaska residents. The earthquake activity continued during 16-23 June, though at a declining rate and magnitudes. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from summit fumaroles was visible. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and Advisory, respectively. AVO noted that the earthquakes represented a departure from background levels and were possibly indicative of volcanic unrest; the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level were respectively raised to Yellow and Advisory. The report noted that aftershocks were continuing. These disorders could lead to a future rash, but it is not a certainty. Aftershocks are continuing, as one would expect with earthquakes of this magnitude. The volcano is monitored with a network of seismic instruments, a web camera, GPS, satellite data and regional instruments for detecting infrasound and lightning. The ice-covered, 1800-m-high Makushin volcano on northern Unalaska Island west of the town of Dutch Harbor is capped by a 2.5-km-wide caldera. The broad, domical structure of Makushin contrasts with the steep-sided profiles of most other Aleutian stratovolcanoes. Much of the volcano was formed during the Pleistocene, but the caldera (which formed about 8000 years ago), Sugarloaf cone on the ENE flank, and a cluster of about a dozen explosion pits and cinder cones at Point Kadin on the WNW flank, are of Holocene age. A broad band of NE-SW-trending satellitic vents cuts across the volcano. The composite Pakushin cone, with multiple summit craters, lies 8 km to the SW of Makushin. Frequent explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 4000 years, sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges. Geothermal areas are found in the summit caldera of Makushin and on the SE and eastern flanks of the volcano. They represent the largest and most investigated high-temperature geothermal resources in Alaska. Small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Makushin since 1786. (GVN/GVP) Webcam

USA - Great Sitkin volcano - Andreanof Island (Alaska-Aleutian Islands )

May 13th, 2021

AVO reported that high surface temperatures were seen on satellite images of the Great Sitkin volcano in the Aleutians from January and detections have increased in the past two months. Satellite detections of an increase in volcanic gas emissions were observed from May 10. In addition, there has been a slight increase in local seismicity over the past two days. These data indicate a potential for increased eruptive activity at Great Sitkin. As a result, AVO increases the Aviation Color Code to YELLOW and the Volcano Alert Level to ADVISORY. Previous news 2020 - AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased during the previous several months and had returned to background levels by 21 October. Additionally, eruptive activity or unusual surface temperatures had not been observed in clear satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal.
AVO reported that the unrest continued with a volcanic advisory alert and aviation yellow code. The seismicity was slightly elevated for much of the past week. On Friday March 6, 2020 at 6:31 a.m. AKST (3:31 p.m. UTC), a relatively large and shallow magnitude 3.5 earthquake occurred 1 km from the summit. Since then, seismicity has returned to levels comparable to those recorded at the start of the week. Although this earthquake represents a significant increase in the seismic activity of the volcano, it does not mean that an eruption is imminent. There has been no evidence of activity in the satellite data over the past week, although sightings have been limited by cloud cover. AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had increased during the previous month and by 26 February was above background levels; the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory. No eruptive activity was evident in geophysical or satellite data.
The 1740-m-high Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The 1740-m-high summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 meters. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Great Sitkin since the late-19th century. (GVN/GVP) Webcam

U.S.A - Pavlof volcano (Alaska)

October 22nd, 2020

As of the 22nd of October, AVO reported that no seismic tremor at Pavlof had been recorded during the previous two weeks, nor had eruptive activity or unusual surface temperatures been observed in satellite and webcam images. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code were lowered to Normal and Green, respectively, on 14 October. As of the 22nd of September, AVO reported that seismic activity at the volcano has increased over the past 24 hours. The seismic activity was characterized by continuous tremor.No eruptive activity or emissions from the summit have been observed in cloudy satellite and web camera views.The alert level for the volcano was raised to "yellow", as an increase of volcanic tremor has been recorded. AVO reported that seismic activity at Pavlof had decreased during the past several weeks, and no eruptive activity or summit emissions had been observed since minor steaming in late February. AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal and the Aviation Color Code to Green on 3 March. Previous news 2019 - As of the 30th of December, AVO reported that in the past few days, seismic activity has increased. No eruptive activity or emission from the summit was observed. However, the seismic activity represents an increase compared to the background levels and the levels were raised at Yellow / advisory on December 28 / 20h43 Z. AVO reported that a small eruption occurred at Pavlof on October 19, detected by infrasound and seismic networks. Cloud cover does not indicate whether ashes have been emitted, but if so, they should only concern the summit area. Due to higher than normal settings, the alert level was changed to Advisory and the aviation code to Yellow. On 12 June AVO reported that elevated levels of seismicity at Pavlof, recorded since mid-May, had declined to background levels. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal. The report noted that vapor plumes were occasionally visible in webcam views and elevated surface temperatures in the summit crater were sometimes identified in satellite images; both are common occurrences at Pavlof. AVO reported that low-frequency tremor was detected at Pavlof during 14-15 May and a vigorous steam plume rising from the summit was visible in webcam images on 15 May. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow and the Volcano Alert level was raised to Advisory primarily because of increased seismicity. Steam plumes recorded by the webcam, low levels of seismic tremor, and warm surface temperatures identified in satellite data continued during 16-19 May; AVO noted that steam emissions and warm surface temperatures are common at Pavlof.The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavlof, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing Strombolian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode, when a fissure opened on the N flank, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.(GVN/GVP) Webcam

U.S.A. - Veniaminof volcano (Alaska)

April 27th, 2021

AVO reported that eruptive activity at Veniaminof had declined during the previous few weeks; no emissions were visible after ash emissions on 5 April and seismicity continued to decline. On 21 April the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Likely low level ash emissions were observed on 6th of April in web camera views from the summit of Veniaminof. Seismic activity remains high. Due to the renewed activity, AVO was raising the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The Alaska Volcano Observatory continues to monitor Veniaminof with a local seismic network, remote infrasound and lightning networks, as well as satellite and webcam images.AVO reported that during clear weather days on 25, 28, and 29 March. Discrete, short-lived ash emissions were detected during the afternoon and evening of 27 March in images from the FAA webcam in Perryville. The intermittent events lasted several minutes and produced small ash clouds that rose less than 300 m (1,000 ft) above the vent and drifted SE, which may have resulted in trace ashfall in Perryville, though there was no confirmed evidence. As of the 25th of March, AVO reported that low level activity continued. Elevated surface temperatures are observed at the top cone and the sidewall vent. Satellite observations reveal fresh ash deposits extending over about 10 km. south-east on the snow of the caldera.Seismicity shows periods of repeated seismic events and tremor.Back to the noises formed during the activity of March 23: the audible noises in the vicinity of the volcano are caused by the bursting of large pockets of gas with the active cone, in the case of typical Strombolian activity, characterizing basaltic volcanoes basalto-andesitic. AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 17-23 March. Low surface temperatures were visible in satellite images along with steam-and-gas plumes. Low-level tremor was recorded in local seismic data. During the morning of 21 March small explosions were identified using seismic data and infrasound sensors in Chignik Lagoon. A volcanic gas cloud drifted SE at or below 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Small explosions were detected again during 21-23 March. Sulfur dioxide plumes were identified in satellite data. Minor ash emissions rose hundreds of meters and rapidly dissipated, though on 23 March a pilot saw an ash plume rise to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite data during 22-23 March showed highly elevated surface temperatures and subsidence of the glacial ice over the flank vent where lava was erupting. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity continues. Small explosions at Veniaminof were observed in local seismic data and infrasound data at Chignik lagoon on the morning of March 21. A cloud of volcanic gas has been detected in satellite data extending southeast at an altitude of 5,000 feet or less. Minor low-level ash emissions from the small cone in the summit caldera and lava eruption in the intracaldera glacier at a vent ~ 1 km (0.6 mile) east of the top of the cone continues. AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 9-16 March. Ash emissions rose to 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 200 km NE and SE during 9-10 March. Explosions and ash emissions declined to lower levels the rest of the week, though new ash deposits within the caldera, and as far as 10 km SE, were sometimes identified in satellite images. Lava continued to effuse under the intra-caldera glacier in an area on the flank about 1 km E of the cone's summit. Elevated surface temperatures over this area were identified in a satellite images during most days, along with steam plumes and a broadening collapse pit in the ice from melting around the eruption site. Data from local seismic stations were back online by 12 March and showed elevated seismicity and tremor through 15 March. Steam-and-has plumes were identified in satellite images during 15-16 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. As of the 12th of march, AVO reported that low level eruptive activity continues. Mainly cloudy satellite images showed minor low-level ash and gas emissions from the small cone in the summit caldera. Strongly elevated surface temperatures and a vapor plume were also observed from the lava eruption in the intracaldera glacier at a vent ~ 1 km (0.6 miles) east of the top of the cone. Low-level volcanic ash plumes were observed at about 7,000 to 10,000 ft asl extending up to 200 km (124 miles) downwind, leaving traces of ash deposits within 20 km (12 , 4 miles) from the vent to the northeast and southeast. Explosions corresponding to this activity have been detected on regional geophysical networks over the past week. Explosive activity has decreased over the past two days, with only minor ash emissions observed near the vent and no activity was detected in regional geophysical data.Current level of volcanic alert: WATCH - current aviation color code: ORANGE. As of the 7th of March, AVO reported that low level eruptive activity continues at Veniaminof. Numerous small explosions were seen on regional infrasound networks over the past day, some of which were heard and felt by residents of Perryville. High surface temperatures have been observed in satellite data, suggesting that lava may be near or on the surface of the summit cone. A low-level plume of ash and volcanic gas continues to be emitted and has been observed by pilots, as well as on web cameras and satellite imagery during periods of clear weather. The ash and gas plume was mostly below 3,000 meters asl, but was estimated at 4,500 meters asl in satellite data from last night. The plume continues to dissipate rapidly and the ash is mostly confined to the top caldera near the vent. AVO reported that regional infrasound sensors detected a small explosion from the Veniaminof volcano on March 4, 2021 at 2:13 p.m. UTC (5:13 a.m. local time). Satellite and webcam views indicate low-level ash emissions (<10,000 feet / <3,000 meters asl.) heading in the SSE direction, and minor ash deposits are visible over the volcano. As a result, AVO increases the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Volcano Alert Level to WATCH on Veniaminof Volcano. Local seismic data remains offline due to a failure of a satellite link at Port Heiden. However, the Alaska Volcano Observatory continues to monitor Veniaminof with satellite and webcam data and remote infrasound, seismic and lightning networks. AVO reported that seismic data for Veniaminof had not been received since 8 December 2020 due to a problem with the satellite link at Port Heiden. Both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were changed to Unassigned on 15 January 2021, reflecting the lack of available seismic data to detect unrest. Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface. (GVN/GVP)

U.S.A. - Semisopochnoi volcano ( Alaska)

April 29th, 2021

Eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi gradually increased during 21-22 April based on satellite and infrasound data; ash emissions were first seen in satellite images at 1800 on 21 April and were continuous at least through 1348 on 22 April. Plumes rose to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 80 km S. Sulfur dioxide emissions were also detected in satellite images on 22
April. Cloud cover mostly obscured views during 23-24 April, though possible minor ash emissions were sometimes visible. Low-level ash plumes drifting S were occasionally identified in satellite images during 24-26 April. Dense weather clouds prevented views for most of 26 April and the next day. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert
Level remained at Watch.As of the 23rd of April, AVO reported that the eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi has gradually increased over the past 24 hours. Satellite views of the volcano show a continuous plume extending 80 km to the south at about 2,450 meters a.m.s.l. A regional infrasound network has detected this increase in activity. Aviation color code and alert level remain at ORANGE / WATCHAVO reported that an eruption at Semisopochnoi continued during 14-20 April. Sulfur dioxide emissions were identified in satellite images during 13-14 April. An explosion was recorded by the regional infrasound network at 0417 on 14 April, though weather cloud cover as high as 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. prevented satellite confirmation of an ash plume. Ash emissions. The plumes generally drifted south at elevations of about 10,000 feet a.m.s.l. for distances up to 100 km in length. SO2 emissions were also observed on Thursday, April 22, 2021 began during the morning of 15 April and continued through the day, drifting more than 350 km SE at altitudes as high as 6 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. They did not decrease in intensity, so at 1915 AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning. Sustained ash emissions continued on 16 April, though the plume rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and winds pushed it N. Explosions were detected through the night and early in the morning. Minor ash deposits around the volcano were visible. Eruptive activity declined during 16-17 April; one clear satellite view suggested that activity had declined or ceased. At 1249 on 17 April AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. Several explosions were recorded during 17-19 April though weather clouds obscured views. Volcanic plumes were visible just above the weather cloud deck (situated at 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.) and drifted S during 19-20 April. A few darker (possibly ash rich) plumes were visible in satellite data at 0700 and 1150 on 19 April and on 20 April.Satellite data suggests that ash emissions from the Semisopochnoi volcano have continued since early April 16 in the morning, without decrease in intensity.The ash cloud extends over 350 km southeast of the volcano with heights of up to 6 km above sea level. Based on the length and height of the ash plume and the sustained nature of the ash emissions, the AVO increases the color code to RED and the alert level to WARNING. The AVO continues to monitor the situation.
AVO reported that low-level ash emissions from Semisopochnoi were visible in satellite images on 12 April along with a steam plume drifting E beyond the island. Additionally, new ash deposits extending SE at least to the coastline were also visible. The event was recorded by the regional infrasound network. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that hree explosions on 25 March (at 0142, 0330, and 0645) were recorded by regional infrasound sensors. Two more explosions were detected at 2130 on 26 March and at 0030 on 27 March; high weather cloud cover at 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l.AVO reported that a small explosion at 0230 on 21 March was followed by a series of smaller explosions. A volcanic gas cloud was visible in satellite data during the previous day. Three small explosions were detected during 22-23 March, though high weather cloud cover, at 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l., prevented satellite confirmation; no ash was visible above the cloud deck.AVO reported that Regional infrasound sensors detected a small explosion from the Semisopochnoi volcano on March 19 at 11:50 UTC (03:50 AKDT), indicating an increase in eruptive activity. As a result, AVO is increasing the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Volcano Alert Level to WATCH. Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is 1221-m-high Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island's northern part. The three-peaked 774-m-high Mount Cerberus volcano was constructed during the Holocene within the caldera. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the northern flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the southern side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical 855-m-high Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented historical eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone within the caldera could have been active during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

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Pu'u'u cone ( Kilauea volcano)

Color photograph of lava lake

Kīlauea’s summit lava lake, in Halema‘uma‘u, just after sunset on January 8, 2021. This view is to the north, from the south rim of the crater.(HVO)

ITALY - Etna volcano ( Sicily)

April 28th, 2021

INGV reported that Etna presented two strong explosions on the night of April 24-25 and on the morning of April 26 at the Southeast Crater; the ash emissions quickly dispersed. From around 6.30 p.m., there is a slight resumption of Strombolian activity at the CSE. Activity remains modest for now. In the evening of April 27, a slight Strombolian activity is observed at the south-eastern crater, seen from Monte Fontane on the eastern flank of the volcano, with falls of incandescent materials on the slopes. INGV reported that after a series of paroxysmal episodes between February 16 and April 1 (and all the activity that preceded it in the last two years), Etna presented two strong explosions on the night of April 24-25 and in morning of April 26 at the Southeast Crater; the ash emissions quickly dispersed. From about 6.30 p.m., there is a slight resumption of Strombolian activity at the CSE. Activity remains modest for now. From a seismic point of view, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor shows an increasing trend, currently focusing on medium-low values. The location of the source of the tremor is located near the SE crater area at 2,500 m. altitude. Regarding infrasound activity, it remains at medium-low levels, with events localized in the area of ​​the SE crater. Deformation data does not show significant changes. INGV reported continuing episodes of lava fountaining, intra-crater explosive activity, and discontinuous ash emissions at Etna's Southeast Crater (SEC) during the week of 29 March-4 April, though weather conditions often prevented visual observations. Gas emissions rose from the other summit craters and occasional explosive activity was visible; puffs of ash sometimes rose from Voragine Crater during 31 March-2 April.INGV report on 1st of April at 9:37 p.m. noted from surveillance cameras, that the lava flows that took place in the upper western sector of the Valle del Bove (at least three main ones can be distinguished) seem less fed by the fronts which are located between approximately 2100 m and 1700 m of altitude. In addition, still on the western edge of the Valle del Bove, there are thermal anomalies probably attributable to the fronts of other lava flows which have not yet overflowed from the edge and therefore remain confined to an altitude of around 2700 m. above sea level. The lava overflows from the eastern edge of the SE crater cool down further, mainly blocks are observed which, standing out from the fronts, roll towards the Valle del Bove. Finally, the flow that has developed in the SW direction no longer appears powered and cooled. From the surveillance cameras, no explosive activity was observed at the SE crater; the intracrater activity at the NE and BN crater remains, and the intracrater explosive activity of the Voragine crater which generates discontinuous ash emissions which are rapidly dispersed in the summit area.As of the 1st of April, at around 11:20 UTC, the decrease in explosive activity at the SE crater was observed. Due to the cloud cover, the observation of the current activity from the surveillance cameras is very limited and discontinuous, but the lava flows and the the first lava overflow, which took place in the Valle del Bove, and the second overflow, which reached the eastern base of the SE crater, appear to be less fueled than previously reported. The cloud cover does not currently allow any observation of the lava flows which have spread to the SW, S and ESS. INGV staff on the ground this morning confirms that the front of the SW lava flow is about 2,600 m above sea level. and that the SSE flow front also reached an elevation of approximately 2600 m. at the time of observation.INGV reported that the thermal anomaly, observed by surveillance cameras from around 09:00 UTC on March 31, 2021 at the south base of the southeastern crater of Etna, was produced by the site of a flow of lava. This, observed by INGV staff in the field, wasgenerated by the same field of fractures that fed the lava flows that developed in the same area from March 2021. The eruptive activity at the level of the other summit craters remained unchanged. From approximately 17:50 UTC, an increase in Strombolian activity was observed with the emission of ash at the SE crater. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud disperses in the SSW direction. Concerning effusive activity, the lava flow expanding in the SSE direction was well fed and the front has reached the high edge of the western part of the Valle del Bove. From around 11:00 p.m. UTC on March 31, Strombolian activity in the SE crater gradually turned into a lava fountain. According to the forecast model, the ash cloud, which reached a height of about 7000 m above sea level, disperses in the SSW direction. At the same time, starting at 12:18 UTC on April 01, an overflow of lava is observed from the eastern edge of the SE crater which expands in the upper part of the Valle del Bove. The effusive vent was active at 2:30 UTC and was feeding a lava field made up of several lava flows that were propagating in the SSW, S and SSE direction. In the observation period, the SSW and S lava flows appeared to be poorly fed and their fronts The flow of the SSE was well fed and its front, which rose to about 2,750 m above sea level, had almost reached the edge of the Valle del Bove. INGV reported that a powerful explosion, followed by a loud noise and a compression wave occurred at 07:07 local time today March 30, 2021 at the southeastern crater of Etna. Since then, a weak resumption of Strombolian activity has been observed at the SEC, with a center of gravity of the tremor from 1:30 p.m. under the southeast crater.On the other hand, the explosive activity continues in the other summit craters - Bocca Nuova, northeast crater and Voragine -, especially with frequent puffs of ash at the Voragine crater.The infrasonic activity, located in the SEC is increasing. INGV reported that a new increase in Strombolian activity was observed at the SE crater on March 23, 2021 at around 8:32 p.m. UTC. At around 10 p.m. UTC, a lava fountain is underway at SE Crater. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity if it is dispersed towards the southwest. At 02:37 GMT a pyroclastic flow was also used for the INGV-OE surveillance cameras, even confirmed for the INGV staff present on the scene. The flow was oriented towards the Bove valley reaching about 2900 m in height. On the seismic level, the increase in the magnitude of the volcanic tremor on very high values ​​continued.From 02:30 UTC, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor is decreasing, while still remaining on high values.Two flows were generated by the activity, one well fed towards the Bove Valley which reached around 1900 to 1800 m, and another less fed towards the south which settled in the summit area. The INGV announced at 5:43 am UTC that according to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity if it was dispersed towards the south-east. The maximum height estimated by satellite east of 6000 m at sea level. It was also reported by staff INGV-OE to relapse of ash in Catania. INGV reported that on 19th of March, two strong explosions that occurred at 06:15 h 06:15 and 06:29 h were heard at the Southeast crater. The amplitude of the tremor increased, reaching the high level threshold. The sources of the signal were located under the southeast crater at a depth of about 2500 m. asl. Infrasound activity was currently increasing with 1 to 2 events per minute. Explosive activity at the southeast crater continued. The forecast model indicates the dispersion of the eruptive cloud in the ENE direction. As of the 17th of march, INGV reported that from 00:55 UTC, there was an increase in Strombolian activity at the Etna CSE. The level of tremor increased rapidly to reach high values. The source of the tremor was located southeast of the SE crater at a level of approximately 2,800 meters above sea level. Strombolian activity from the southeast crater shifted to a lava fountain from around 02 a.m.  UTC. Due to the cloud cover, it was not possible to continuously observe the activity in progress. From surveillance cameras from 02:25 UTC, an overflow of lava occurred from the southeast crater towards Valle del Bove was observed.At around 6 a.m., the INGV reported that the amplitude of the tremor was clearly decreasing and at average levels. The sources were located south-east of the SE crater at a depth of about 2000 m above sea level. The infrasonic signal did not detect volcanic activity. The lava fountain activity at the South Crater ends after 6 a.m.A moderate Strombolian activity persisted. INGV reported that the 13th climax in a month at the southeastern crater of Etna occurred under heavy cloud cover on the night of March 14 to 15, 2021. From the surveillance cameras from 20:10 UTC on 14.03.2021, the resumption of Strombolian activity at the Southeast crater was observed. At the same time, Strombolian activity continued at the craters of Voragine, Bocca Nuova and the northeast crater. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed an increase reaching high values. The sources of the quake were located in the CSE at a depth of about 2.5 km asl. Following a further increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor, the second level threshold is reached, the source being located in correspondence with the south-eastern crater at about 3000 m altitude. Infrasound activity was also supported both in the rate of occurrence and in the energy of events. The strombolian activity of the south-eastern crater has turned into a lava fountain. Due to the cloud cover, it was not possible to observe the activity in progress.Around midnight, the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etneo Observatory, reports that an overflow of lava is observed from the East zone of the SE Crater which extends towards the Valle del Bove. In its report of 03.15 / 03.43 am, the INGV indicates that the activity of the lava fountain at the South-East crater is over. Moderate Strombolian activity persists and the lava flow that expands along the western slope of the Valle del Bove continues to be fed. From the seismic point of view, the amplitude of the volcanic tremor has decreased, returning to average values. The source of the tremor is located near the SE crater at a depth of 2500 m above sea level. Analysis of the clinometric data of the paroxysmal event showed variations at different stations, with cumulative maximum values ​​(less than 3 microradians) recorded at the Cratere del Piano (ECP) station. GNSS network data over the past few hours did not show significant changes.As of the 12th of March, INGV reported that a weak strombolian activity occurred at the southeastern crater of Etna at the start of the day, at the same time the intracrater explosive activity continued at the Voragine craters, at Bocca Nuova and at the crater. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed an increase reaching high values ​​and the sources of the tremor were located in the CSE at a depth of about 2.5 km s.l.m. From approximately 05:30 UTC, there was an increasing in the intensity and frequency of Strombolian activity at the southeast crater. The activity produced an eruptive cloud which reached a height of about 4000 m above sea level, and based on the forecast model provides a dispersion of the eruptive cloud and relapse of ash to the east. Eruptive activity towards the other craters continues.From 06:30 UTC, Strombolian activity at the southeast crater intensified further; in addition, from 06:54 UTC, an overflow of lava was observed from the eastern area of ​​the CSE which expands towards the Valle del Bove; at this time, the lava front was at an altitude of about 3000 meters above sea level. From the seismic point of view, the increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor continued to reach high values ​​and the source of the tremor is near the south-eastern crater at a depth of about 2.5 km s.l.m. The number of infrasound events was high and their location seems to be close to the Southeast crater. At 07:41 UTC, the INGV announced that the Strombolian activity has turned into a lava fountain with the production of an eruptive cloud up to a height of about 6000 m. in an easterly direction. The lava flow continued to expand towards the Valle del Bove and has reached altitude 2800. At 8:39 UTC, the observatory reported that the eruptive cloud, produced by the activity in progress, reached an altitude of about 8,500 meters and dispersed towards the east; an ash fall on the town of Fleri has been reported. The lava flow produced by the overflow was fed and the flow has reached an altitude of about 2,100 meters above sea level. INGV reported that strombolian activity resumed at the level of the SE crater of Etna on March 9, 2021. As for the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor from 17:30 GMT, there was an increase, which emained in average values -high. The source of the quake was located at the SE Crater at a depth of about 2,500 meters above sea level. The infrasound activity also increased and is localized in the SE crater. Data from GNSS soil deformation monitoring networks and clinometry showed no significant changes.Surveillance camera showed simultaneous explosions at the Voragine crater and the southeast crater. March 9, 2021 in the evening. From around 19:13 UTC, an overflow of lava could be observed from the SE crater towards the Valle del Bove. From 20:00 UTC, there was an increase in strombolian activity at the CSE, accompanied by the emission of ash which rapidly dispersed in the atmosphere towards the NE. The lava flow continued to be fed and the front is at an altitude of about 2900 meters above sea level advancing towards the Valle del Bove. The intracrateric explosive activity at the summit craters continued. After a short return phase, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, from 9:30 p.m. GMT, began to increase again to reach the second level threshold, with the Strombolian activity located at the southeast crater, which increases to a lava fountain; the lava flow is fed and reached an altitude of about 2200 meters above sea level. Due to cloud cover, it is not possible to observe the ongoing activity continuously. The activity of the lava fountain at the southeast crater ended at 03:30 UTC, the lava emission that is developing along the western slope of the Valle del Bove continues to be moderately fed and at the time the lava front reached the altitude of about 1800 m asl. From the seismic point of view, the amplitude of the volcanic tremor has returned to average values. INGV reported that rom around 1.00 UTC on 7th of March,, a small lava flow is observed emitted by the effusive vent which opened on March 4, 2021 at the base of the SE crater. At the same time, the resumption of Strombolian activity at the level of the SE crater was also observed. Strombolian activity continues confined to the craters of Voragine, Bocca Nuova and and NE. Also from 1.00 UTC there is an increase in the volcanic tremor which at the moment was on medium-high values. The source of the tremor is located near the SE crater. Infrasound events were few in number and low in energy. From 01:30 UTC there was a further rapid increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor which is currently at high values. The source of the tremor was located near the SE crater.From around 06:00 UTC, the Strombolian activity at the SE crater (SEC) passed through a lava fountain and from 06:20 UTC, it formed an eruptive column which exceeded the height of 10,000 m above sea level. . dispersing eastward. As for the lava flows, which develop in the Valle del Bove, due to the cloud cover, it is not possible to make observations to estimate the share of the fronts. The volcanic tremor of the last half hour reached a very high average amplitude and is constantly located near the SE crater The number and energy of infrasound events are high and their locations are in the crater of the SEC. From around 07:20 UTC, the SE Crater lava fountain ceased. INGV reported that ninth paroxysm occurred in two weeks at Etna. As of 4th of March from 00:20 UTC, a resumption of weak strombolian activity at the SEC is observed. A slight increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor is observed. Infrasound activity also shows an increase in the number of events. The locations of the tremors indicate a movement from the source to the SEC. From 01:00 UTC, there was an increase in strombolian activity at the SEC, accompanied by the emission of ash which rapidly disperses in the atmosphere towards the NE. At the same time, the Voragine crater also shows lively Strombolian activity with episodic explosions that rise above the level of the crater rim. the Strombolian activity at the SEC gradually increased and to pass at around 02:20 UTC to the stage of  lava fountain. At the same time, there was a further gradual increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor, the source of which was located in correspondence with the SEC at nearly 3000 m. Then from 03:05 UTC, an overflow of lava can be observed from the SEC towards the Valle del Bove.From 02:50 UTC, there was a decrease in the amplitude of the tremor which is at an average level; from 3:15 a.m., there wa also a decrease in infrasonic activity, both in the frequency of occurrence and in the amplitude of the signals. At 4:15 a.m., the strombolian activity at the SEC  was also significantly reduced while the lava overflow towards the Valle del Bove remains active. From around 06:00 UTC, the tremor has started to rise, returning to a high level, while intrasonic activity remains low. The small flow continues to be fed through an open mouth at the eastern base of the CSE which shows spattering activity. The activity also continues at the other summit craters. Previously, INGV reported that the 8th paroxysm of Etna that occurred on March 2, 2021, was largely masked by atmospheric conditions, only the top of the plume being observed. From 10:45 UTC, there is a slight increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor, and the resumption of weak Strombolian activity at the southeast crater / SEC. Infrasound activity also shows an increase in the number of events. From 11:34 GMT, Strombolian activity in the SEC increases, accompanied by the emission of ash which quickly disperse into the atmosphere. After a short stationary phase, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, around 11:30 GMT, started to increase again, the sources moving towards the south-eastern crater.From 12:24 GMT, a rapid increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor was observed, whose source is located at the southeast crater at about 3000 m. Infrasound activity was also supported both in the rate of occurrence and in the energy of events. The strombolian activity of the south-eastern crater has turned into a lava fountain. Due to the cloud cover, it was not possible to make continuous observations. The INGV OE reported that activity of lava fountains at the SEC has ceased at 14:50 GMT. From 14:40 UTC, there was a rapid decrease in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor which reached average values ​​at 15:00 UTC.At 15:06 UTC, an ash fall was reported in the southern sector of the volcano. In particular in the areas of: San Gregorio (motorway exit); Trecastagni; Aci S. Antonio; Pedara and Catania. INGV reported that after a small calm of a few days, Strombolian activity resumed at the southeast crater of Etna on February 28 at around 7.45 am local time, with a sudden increase in the tremor. Strombolian activity, characterized by a continuous jet, was mainly concentrated in two vents and reached an initial height of about 300 m. An overflow feeds a lava flow towards the Valle del Bove. At 10:20 a.m. local time, a sudden decrease in tremor to medium-low values ​​was observed. The source of the quake remains in the area of ​​the SE crater at a depth of about 2,600 m above sea level. At 10:33 a.m. local time, the SEC fountain stopped almost suddenly, while the lava flow to the Valle del Bove remained active. A resumption of Strombolian activity in the SEC, accompanied by the emission of ash is observed from 11:20 a.m., with a further increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor ... to drop around 12 p.m. The source of the tremor is still located in the area of ​​the SE crater, at a depth of about 2500 m above sea level, while showing a gradual slide towards the other summit craters, during the last hours.INGV reported that on 24th of February, at 6 p.m. local time there is an increase in the intensity and frequency of Strombolian activity at the southeastern crater of Etna, this activity involves two mouths located in the easternmost part of the southeast crater. A weak ash emission persists. The phase of increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor continues, showing medium-high values.he sources are located under the south-eastern crater at a depth of about 2500 m above sea level. Infrasound activity is also increasing and the sources of the events are located in the southeast crater. At 7 p.m. local, an increase in Strombolian activity was recorded at the CSE. In particular, the two mouths where Strombolian activity was concentrated produced a lava fountain, the height reached by this activity was about 400 m. The ash emission activity into the atmosphere continued above the SEC. From the surveillance cameras from 8:30 p.m. a lava overflow from the CSE towards Valle del Bove was observed. At 22:00 local time, the lava fountain reached the height of about 500 m from the edge of the crater, the eruptive column expands vertically for several kilometers. A well-fed lava overflow was in progress in the southwestern sector of the CSE. The stream flowing in Valle del Bove wais always fed. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed high values ​​with a tendency to increase further. The source location remains within the CSE area at a depth of approximately 2800 m above sea level. Infrasound activity is also high in both the rate of occurrence and the energy of the events. The localization of infrasound events remained with the SEC. At 23:35 the activity of the lava fountains at the SEC has ceased, the lava flows remain active in the southwest sector and in the east zone. As for the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, after a phase of increase to very high values, at 21:20 UTC, it showed a sharp drop reaching the average level, where it is still found. The source of the quake is located in the SEC area at a depth of about 2900 m above sea level. At the same time, the infrasound activity also suffered a sharp break. decrease in both the rate of occurrence and the energy of events, which are localized to the SEC. Previous paroxysm - INGV reported that on 22nd of February around 8:50 p.m., a weak Strombolian activity occurred at the level of the SE crater. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor gradually increases while remaining at the current state at the average level. At 9:10 p.m., the INGV recorded an increase in the frequency and intensity of Strombolian activity at the south-eastern crater, with the launch of products in abundance outside the rim of the crater. The mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor shows a further sudden increase and is in the high level. The source of the tremor shows a gradual displacement of the Bocca Nuova towards the SE crater, at a depth of 2500 m above sea level. The infrasonic activity is dramatically increased with a high rate of occurrence of infrasonic transients. These are located in correspondence with the SE crater. At 22:05 GMT, the eruptive activity further intensified with jets of lava 300m high above the SE crater. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor shows high values ​​with an increasing trend. The source of the tremor is located under the SE crater, in a depth range of 2800 to 2900 m above sea level. At 22:27 UTC, a second vent was activated in the SE crater producing lava fountain activity. At 22:28 UTC, there was an overflow towards Valle del Bove. The lava front is currently at an altitude of about 3000 m. Activity around 23:30 GMT intensified further, generating lava jets up to 1,000 meters high above the SE crater. This activity produced an eruptive column which rose several kilometers from the summit of Etna. At the same time, the activity started another lava overflow from the mouth of the saddle, feeding a lava flow directed towards the southwest. As of 00:15 GMT, there was a sudden decrease in the lava fountain. The effusive activity of the two lava flows continues; they overlap with the streams of the previous episodes. The explosive activity at the summit craters also continues. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, after reaching its maximum value at 23:50 UTC, suffered a sudden decrease, while remaining in the upper range. The source of the tremor is located in the area of ​​the SE crater, at a depth of 2700-2800 m above sea level. From 03:50 GMT, there is an increase in the frequency and intensity of Strombolian activity, accompanied by the emission of ash at the SE crater, with the launch of products abundantly outside the rim of the crater until 'at a height of about 300 m. At the same time, two small lava flows formed, one towards the Valle del Bove and the other towards the southwest. Regarding the amplitude of the volcanic tremor, after reaching average values, after the end of the previously communicated fountain activity, from 3h50 GMT, it showed a sudden increase moving upwards. The location of the source remains below the SE crater at an altitude of about 2,800 meters above sea level. Previously paroxysm : as of the 22nd of February, INGV reported that after 04:15 UTC and the end of the fourth paroxysmal episode of Etna, no more eruptive activity occurred at the Southeast Crater. At the other summit craters, on the other hand, the explosive activity continues as observed in the last days. In the hours following the activity of the lava fountain and until the present state, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor has remained confined mainly to the average level. INGV reported that a weak Strombolian activity at the eastern mouth of the SE crater was observed from 17:30 UTC on February 20, 2021. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor gradually increases, being located in the average level. The source of the tremor is located under the SE crater, at a depth of 2500-2600 m above sea level. From around 19:30 UTC, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed another sudden increase, in the high level. Lava overflow was observed from the mouth east of the SE Crater, which began shortly after 9:30 p.m. UTC. The lava flow was s heading towards the Valle del Bove. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor continued to increase. Around 10 p.m., the activity at the eastern mouth of the SE crater gradually shifted to a pulsating lava fountain. The lava flow generated by the overflow on the eastern flank of the cone, previously communicated, has traveled approximately 150-200 m.At 12:28 am - 12:30 am on February 21, according to the INGV, the activity of the lava fountain further intensified, generating jets of lava at an altitude of 800-1000 m above the southeast crater. , but remains however confined to the eastern part of the south-eastern crater. A relatively diluted eruptive column forms at the top of the volcano. The lava flow directed towards the Valle del Bove has reached a length of about 1 km, with a front that rises to about 2800 m. Shortly afterwards, an overflow of lava began from the "saddle mouth", feeding a lava flow directed towards the southwest. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor shows high values ​​with a tendency to increase further. The location of the source of the tremor remains below the SE crater. Infrasound signals also increase in both the frequency of occurrence and the energy of infrasonic transients. INGV report dated on 19th of february 9:20 UTC mentionmed an intense lava fountain at the southeast crater, which produced an eruptive cloud that dispersed into the atmosphere at an altitude of about 6.000 m in the southeast direction. The lava flow that propagated in the direction of the Valle del Bove continued to be fed and the front reaches an altitude of about 2.700 m. asl. All seismic parameters remained at high values. The distortion data from the GPS network did not record any significant variations, limited variations (0.1 - 1 microradians) of the clinometric network were recorded.The eruptive cloud produced by the lava fountain pushed by the wind to the east south-east causes the fall of ash and lapilli on the colonies of this sector of the volcano. The lava flow which propagates in the Bove valley remains at an altitude of about 2700 m above sea level. All seismic parameters remain at high values. From around 9:30 a.m. UTC, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor and infrasound activity decrease and return to levels comparable to those which preceded the activity of the lava fountain. Around 09:50 UTC, the lava fountain is exhausted, and the lava flows that have spread in the Valle del Bove, are no longer supplied and are maintained at an altitude of around 2600 meters asl.The eruptive cloud, produced by the explosive activity, dispersed in an east-southeast direction at an altitude of about 10,000 m asl, causing ash and lapilli to fall over the inhabited areas on the east side of the volcano.  INGV reported that at the end of last night's paroxysmal activity, Etna's eruptive activity declined sharply, with isolated explosions from the southeast crater and other summit craters. Since the early hours of Friday the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor has remained at average values, with a progressive upward trend. The location of the volcanic tremor affects the area of ​​the summit craters, affected by the different sources that are activated under each active crater, in the depth range between 2800 and 2900 m above sea level. During the lava fountains phase, several lava flows developed, in addition to the first, which spread east, northeast, and southwest. The most important flow, directed towards the east, reached a length of approximately 3.5 to 4 kilometers. The flow front stopped a few hours later at an altitude slightly below 2000 m. a new lava overflow from the southeast crater is observed, starting just before 07:55 UTC. The lava flow descends the east side of the cone, towards the Valle del Bove. The amplitude of the tremor is increasing, and returns to the high value zone.INGV reported that another violent climax during the night 17th to 18th of February from the South-East crater of Etna, the second in less than 36 hours: A new lava overflow from the Southeast crater is observed, which began just before 10:30 p.m. UTC on February 17. The lava flow descends the east side of the cone, towards the Valle del Bove. The tremor increases and is raised. At 01:13 local time on February 18, a lava fountain animates the south-eastern crater. The lava flow reported in the previous press release has currently traveled about 1 km, with a front at an altitude of about 2,700 m. An eruptive column heads south-east. Around 1:25 am local, a second flow of lava flows on the north side of the south-eastern crater, e, direction of the Valle del Leone. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor shows high values ​​with an increasing trend. The source of the tremor is located under the SE crater, in the depth interval 2800-2900m., And the infrasound activity seems to be high. The lava fountain activity ended at approximately 00:55 UTC. The lava flows progress slowly but are no longer fed. The main lava flow extends over the bottom of the Valle del Bove at an altitude slightly below 2000 m, after a course of 3.5 to 4 km. The small flow towards the Valle del Leone is about 1 km. long, with a lava front at an altitude of about 2900 m. Another overflow occurred on the south side of the southeast crater, feeding a small flow to the southwest.The eruptive cloud was blown towards the south-east by the wind, causing fallout of ash and lapilli on this sector of the volcano. INGV reported that in the early hours of February 15, 2021, a gradual intensification of explosive activity was observed at the southeastern crater of Etna.While activity is continuous at the eastern mouths of the south-eastern crater, sporadic and sometimes violent explosions are also observed at the "mouth of the saddle". The intracratical explosive activity also continues in the craters of Bocca Nuova, Voragine and Northeast. Regarding the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, an upward trend is noticed from the first hours, with a significant increase from around 16 GMT.On February 16, starting at around 4:00 p.m. UTC, the start of a lava overflow was observed from the east side of the southeast crater. At 16:05 UTC, it produced a modest subsidence of the side of the cone generating a pyroclastic flow which developed along the western wall of the valley of the Bove. The phenomenon produced an ash cloud which quickly dispersed by the high wind to the south.From 4:10 p.m., the explosive activity at the Southeast crater increased further, evolving into lava fountaining activity, with the formation of an ash cloud which disperses to the South. (Video) From a seismic point of view, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor over the last few hours has remained at high values, increasing from 4:00 p.m. UTC.The source of the quake remains confined under the SE crater in the depth range of 2,900 to 3,000 meters above sea level. The increase in the tremor is accompanied by violent infrasound activity with high amplitude signals. A fall of lapilli, of centimeter dimensions were reported on Nicolosi and Mascalucia. A fall of ash and lapilli occurred in Catania. INGV reported At nightfall on February 11, 2021; strombolian activity continues at the south-eastern crater, sporadic sequences of explosions occur at the Voragine crater, and rarer but fairly powerful explosions at the Bocca Nuova crater.INGV reported that on February 5, that Strombolian activity continues at the Southeast Crater with frequency and intensity varying over time. On the morning of February 6, from around 04:30 UTC, an intensification of Strombolian activity at the mouths present in the eastern summit sector of the cone produced for about an hour a cloud of dilute ash which dispersed towards the 'Is. Four vents were active there almost simultaneously. Intense Strombolian activity also continues from several mouths present at the bottom of the Bocca Nuova crater, with a launch of equipment that also manages to exceed the edge of the crater. Strombolian and effusive activity was observed at La Voragine Crater, which feeds a small intracrateric lava flow towards New Bocca. Intra-crater explosive activity also continues at the Northeast Crater. INGV reported that on February 2nd, with a particular Strombolian activity at the SEC. The tremor remained in the upper zone; sulfur dioxide emissions were significant.he new scoria cone established in the eastern vent area of ​​the southeast crater at the top of Etna continues to grow - the comparison photographs below show the changes in 4 days, between January 29 and February 2, 2021. INGV reported that at the end of January, all the summit craters were showing activity. Strombolian activity of varying intensity and a weak emission of volcanic ash are observed at the southeast crater. An intracrateric strombolian activity with sporadic and diluted ash emissions and intracrateric effusive activity mark the Voragine crater. Strombolian intracrateric activity is noted at the Bocca Nuova crater and at the northeast crater, with occasional and diluted ash emissions. INGV reported that A slight eruptive activity continued at the south-eastern summit crater of Etna on the evening of January 30, 2021. A strong glow (caused by the reflection of the incandescence in the gas plume) was observed at the East vents, and Strombolian activity, accompanied by ballistic projections at the "saddle vent" (center) . As of the 28th of January, INGV reported that, from the surveillance cameras, the activity produced by the summit craters remains unchanged compared to the last update. In particular, Strombolian activity continues at the level of the Southeast crater fed by at least two explosive vents with deposition of products in the upper northeast flank of the cone and the intracrater Strombolian activity at the Northeast crater, Bocca Nuova and Voragine. INGV reported that a swarm of small earthquakes took place on January 24 under the eastern flank of Etna. Seismic activity started early on the morning Almost 50 earthquakes have been recorded with magnitude up to 2.3 and activity appears to be continuing. Most earthquakes have occurred at a depth of between 10-20 km and were located in a linear area with an east-west trend between the summit and the country of Jarre, mainly centered under the municipality of Sant 'Alfio.On the surface, Etna continues to be very active. When visibility permitted, strombolian-type lights and explosions could be seen through New SE Crater, Central Voragine Crater, and other possible air intakes. Analysis of images from INGV-OE video surveillance cameras on 20th of January showed that from around 5.30 p.m. GMT the flow produced by the lava overflow on the north side of the south-eastern crater is no longer supplied. and cools. Weak Strombolian activity continues at the southeast crater. As for the volcanic tremor, no substantial change is noted. The amplitude of the tremor remains high, although it does not reach alarm levels. The sources of the quake are located in the area of ​​the south-eastern crater, at a level of 2900-3000 m above sea level. In the last hours there is a decrease in infrasonic activity. INGV reported that a slight eruptive activity continued at the southeastern crater of Etna, on the evening of January 19, 2021, and from time to time, the crater of Voragine also appears active. From around 00:40 hours, a new lava overflow is observed on the north side of the South East Crater. In addition, moderate Strombolian activity is still present at the South East Crater. With regard to the volcanic tremor, we notice an increase in magnitude which reaches high values. The infrasonic activity is modest. Etna's GPS network data shows no significant variation. INGV reported that following a lava flow on January 17, starting at 19:15 GMT on 01/18/2021, a new lava overflow occurred at the southeastern crater of Etna. The front moves towards the Valle del Bove and reaches the 2900 m elevation. An intense Strombolian activity occurred on the part of the SEC. From 19:00 UTC, an increasing in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor was recorded, which is currently reaching high values. At the same time, there is also an increase in infrasound tremor. Etna's GPS network data does not show significant variations. The intense Strombolian activity produced by the southeast crater suddenly turned into a faint lava fountain reaching its peak at around 8:30 p.m. GMT. This activity generated a volcanic cloud which dispersed east-south-east and formed a deposit of volcanic ash on the eastern flanks of the volcano. In fact, during the explosive activity, a relapse of volcanic ash was reported in Fleri. Explosive activity has declined significantly from the start from around 9:00 p.m. GMT. As for the effusive activity, the CCTV cameras of the INGV-OE show, as previously communicated, two distinct lava flows: one goes towards the East, inside the Valle del Bove, the another to the north. From 21:00 UTC, a rapid decrease in volcanic tremor and infrasound signal was recorded. At around 9:30 p.m. UTC, both signals reached the levels that preceded the eruptive activity. INGV reporterd that since around 06:40 GMT on January 17, 2021, surveillance cameras show a lava overflow produced by the eastern mouth of the Southeast Crater (SEC ). The overflow extends on the eastern flank of the south-eastern crater in the direction of the Bove Valley and currently the front is located at about 3000 meters at sea level. For the moment, the flow is advancing on the eastern base of the cone. of the Southeast Crater, probably invading one of the open mouths on December 24, 2018 at the start of the flank eruption.INGV reported that between January 4th and 10th, 2021, Strombolian activity continued with varying intensity, associated with ash emissions at the southeast crater. At least 2 episodes of increased Strombolian activity occurred on January 4th and 6th with abundant and continuous emission of thick ash. During the most energetic phases, the ejection of coarse material passed over the crater rim and the products fell outside, settling on the sides of the crater. Strombolian activity within the crater of the northeastern craters, the Voragine and the Bocca Nuova, continued with sporadic emissions of dilute ash is also observed. About activity on 6th of January, INGV reported that from 09:05 hours UTC a gradual intensification of the explosive strombolian activity at the eastern mouth of the SE Crater has been observed. This activity produced abundant dark ash which disperses eastward. In addition, almost continuous Strombolian explosions were observed at Voragine. The little cone, present since September 2019, is growing. Regarding the other craters, the activity remained unchanged from the previous press release. No significant variation in tremor, strain and infrasonic activity was reported. INGV-Etna Observatory, reported that from 05:45 hours, UTC, on 04.01.2021, the video surveillance network have highlighted a weak and sporadic emission of ash from the Voragine and South Craters. East of Etna. These pulsatile emissions disperse rapidly eastward. From 8:18 a.m. UTC a gradual intensification of the explosive strombolian activity was observed at the eastern mouth of the SE Crater with a strong emission of dark and dense ash associated, still dispersed towards the east. Previous news 2020 - INGV reported that from 06:50 UTC, on December 29, the video surveillance network showed an intensification of the explosive strombolian activity at the eastern mouth of the southeast crater, with associated ash emission. Strong winds at high altitude disperse them quickly in the ENE direction. At around 08:00 UTC, this activity intensified further, to produce the launch of coarse pyroclastic material on the crater rim, which fell copiously on the east side of the SE crater cone. From 09.00 hours, UTC, the intensity of the Strombolian explosive activity has considerably diminished, just as the ash emission which has become weak is discontinuous while remaining confined in the summit area. Strombolian intracrateric activity continues, unchanged, in the craters of Voragine and NE crater.On the evening of December 28, an explosive strombolian-type activity animates the craters of Voragine and south-eastern of Etna. INGV reported that following the latest paroxysm from the New SE crater early yesterday morning 22nd of December , the volcano has continued to produce mild strombolian activity, mainly from the eastern summit vent of the SE crater complex. The saddle vent on the summit of the crater, which has been protagonist during the recent paroxysms, has been producing steam and ash emissions, sometimes relatively intense and forming columns of several hundred meters in height, but only few incandescent ejections.INGV reported that On December 22nd, from 02:50 GMT, a sharp increase in Strombolian activity in at least two mouths of the SE crater was observed which, from around 03:15 UTC feeded a lava overflow from the landslide slot open on the southwest flank of the southeast crater during the paroxysmal activity of December 13. The lava emission formed a small lava flow towards the west which overlaps the cooling lava field of December 21, 2020. From the images of the thermal cameras, it is also observed that the lava flow directly in the Valle del Bove is no longer powered and cools down.From 04:19 UTC the Strombolian activity described above suddenly evolved into a lava fountain. The activity feeds two distinct lava flows: one heads southwest and branches west and east of Monte Frumento Supino; the second goes east, inside the Valle del Bove.INGV reported that on 21st of December at 07:48 UTC the early warning system recorded an increase in infrasound parameters and seismic tremors associated with strong explosive activity in the summit craters of Etna. From 09:08 UTC, a strong intensification of the strombolian activity of the SE crater. However, weather conditions do not allow continuous observation of the activity. From a seismic point of view, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed high values ​​in the SE Crater area. The infrasound activity was also quite strong.The activity affected at least two of the CSE's vents at the same time, rapidly evolving into a lava fountain a few minutes later.From 11:03 UTC, following a very brief improvement in the visibility conditions, it is possible to observe an emission of lava from the landslide slot that opened on the southwest side of the South Crater. The lava emission formed a flow towards the west. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed a sudden and significant decrease, to fall back around 10:30 UTC in the range of values ​​lower than those which marked the eruptive phenomenon in the previous hours. Modest infrasound activity remained in the SE crater area. INGV reported that since the end of the morning of December 17, the visual and thermal surveillance systems show a weak explosive activity at the easternmost mouth on the Southeast Crater . At 14:37 hours UTC (15:37 local) on the images of the EMOT thermal camera, an anomaly was brought to the level of the lava overflows of December 13-15, generated either by a shooting of the emission of washes either by a collapse of still hot material. INGV reported that intense explosive activity of the three mouths of the Southeast Crater and the emission of the new lava flow continued until the end of the morning of December 15 and was followed by a rapid decline. At the morphological level, we notice an opening towards the bottom of the edge of the "mouth of the Saddle", bordered by deposits of pyroclastic flows, following the activity of December 13th. By late afternoon, Southeast Crater activity essentially ceased, as ash from Voragine and Bocca Nuova craters continued. In the evening, the front of the lava flow, around 2900 m, still showed incandescent spots. However, the lava front was no longer supplied. INGV reported that on the evening of December 14th, a high lava fountains was visible and the emission of lava flows occurred to the south and southwest. A strombolian activity occurred from two mouths of the Crater of the South-East (that of the " Saddle " and what is called " New Crater of the South-East "). Sometimes, after a while, activity is visible at the Voragine Crater. Seismic signals do not show significant changes. The GPS and clinometric networks do not show any significant deformation in progress. INGV reported that from12:52 p.m. on December 14, the explosive activity has produced an eruptive cloud that disperses towards the south reaching a maximum quota of about 4 km at sea level. A field surveys carried out on December 14 by the INGV OE showed significant morphological changes in the cone of the SE Crater, in particular the absence of the southwestern part of the crater due to collapse phenomena. The latter on the night of December 13 generated the three pyroclastic flows. The second pyroclastic flow of 22:16 UTC, which was the most energetic, traveled about 2 km west of Monte Frumento Supino.As of the 14th of December during the early morning hours, the intense explosive-effusive activity that had started last night from the New SE summit crater decreased significantly. Clearer pictures from the morning showed that the protangonist of this eruptive episode was mainly the summit vent of the SE crater complex as well as what seems to be a fissure on its southern flank, emitting the new lava flow that has reached approx. 2700 m elevation and traveled west of the 2002 craters. Ash emissions and strombolian activity continue at the summit vent, but at much lesser intensity than last night. Tremor has decreased, but remains well above the previous average levels confirming that activity continues at reduced rate. As of the 13th of December, a strong eruptive episode (likely to be classified as paroxysm) occurred at the volcano's New SE summit crater: starting from around 21:20 local time with strombolian activity from one of the crater's vents (likely the so-called saddle vent) began to increase gradually. Activity quickly intensified again an hour later, accompanied by a strongly rising signal of volcanic tremor indicating rapid magma flux towards the surface. Although difficult to judge from webcam imagery, it appears that the crater started to produce lava fountains of up to perhaps a few 100 m height, as well as a tall and dense ash plume that rose to estimated 5 km altitude, according to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Toulouse. At the same time, a rapidly advancing lava flow emerged from either the summit or a new flank vent on the southern slope of the crater, branching into two main arms flowing around the 2002 craters. INGV reported that on December 2nd, 2020, at dawn, Strombolian activity simultaneously occurred from the two mouths of the South-East Crater of Etna, known as the "saddle mouth (or cone)", and the most eastern, also called "puttusiddu" which showed a gradual return to activity from the evening of November 14, first with puffs of steam and gray or brown ash (old material), then with a first weak incandescence a few nights ago, and finally, from the night of November 30 to December 1, with Strombolian activity. The last activity of this mouth took place during the first half of December 2019. INGV reported that during the week of November 16th to 22th, the meteorological conditions severely limited the observation of eruptive phenomena at Etna. Strombolian activity, of variable frequency and intensity, accompanied by ash emissions was observed at the new south-eastern crater. During the inspection carried out on November 21 in the summit area, it was found, through images taken with the drone, that the Strombolian activity at the NSEC came from a single eruptive vent. Intermittent intracrateric strombolian activity at the Bocca Nuova crater, associated with low emissions of dilute ash and degassing.Degassing activity marks the crater of the Voragine. INGV reported that during the period from November 9 to 15, 2020,an intracrateric Strombolian activity with discontinuous ash emissions occurred at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), also a strombolian intracrateric activity at the Northeast crater (NEC) and at the Bocca Nuova crater (BN); degassing was observed at the VOR; the deformation did not showed significant changes. As of the 14th of November, INGV reported that a strombolian activity, still very modest but practically continuous, occurred from the Crater of the South-East. On the same day, it was possiblre to observe sporadic emissions of ash (cold material) from the New Mouth (Bocca Nuova), more specifically the " BN-1 ", the westernmost of the two mouths which have been reopening for a few month inside the crater, also known as  " The 1968 Mouth ". INGV report about activity of Etna between October 26 and November 1: Strombolian activity at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was variable in intensity with discontinuous ash emissions and the ejection of pieces of lava. At the level of the northeast crater (NEC), activity persisted, of the superficial intracrateric Strombolian type, with the formation of small lava flows confined near the slag cones, the products of this activity remaining confined in the crater. At Bocca Nuova, small intracrateric collapses and the consequent emission of light ash indicate the beginning of the craterization of the eastern part. The Voragine crater showed occasional explosive activity with material ejections above the crater rim. The seismic activity of fracturing remains modest and the amplitude of the tremor at the average level. The infrasound activity is moderate. The other parameters are without major changes. INGV reported that activity of Etna between October 19th and 25th, 2020 remained similar and continued in alternating phases since mid-July of this year consisting of strombolian activity of varying intensity at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), which produced discontinuous ash emissions and the ejection of lava shreds; a deep intracrater Strombolian activity is observed at the Northeast crater (NEC) and degassing at the Voragine (VOR) and Bocca Nuova (BN) craters accompanied by rare and light ash emissions. INGV press release dated 23rd of October.2020 / 8:32 UTC announced that the increase in explosive activity at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), reported in the previous press release (Etna Communiqué 'Update n. 87 at 06:41 UTC), is no longer observable, like the associated ash cloud. However, strombolian activity of varying intensity remains at the NSEC, which fuels sporadic and light ash emissions that are rapidly dispersed in the summit area. Sporadic and light ash emissions could be also be observed from the Bocca Nuova (BN) crater. The temporal trend of the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor and the location of its source, like infrasound activity, did not show significant changes. Signals from soil deformation monitoring stations do not show significant changes. INGV reported that degassing, more or less colored by the ashes continued at the mouth of the saddle of the NSEC during the day of October 22. The National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etneo Observatory, announced that in the early hours of the day on October 23, a moderate and variable intensification of Strombolian activity was observed at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). The explosive activity produced an ash cloud which, in the distal zone, rose for about 4.5 km s.l.m. dispersing towards SSE.The mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed a stationary trend, in the range of mean values.The location of the source of the quake waslocated near the area of ​​the New Southeast Crater, at a depth of about 2900-3000 meters above mean sea level. INGV reported that activity of the summit craters continues on October 10th, with gas emissions at the NE crater (NEC), fumaroles in the Bocca Nuova and Strombolian activity and ash emissions at the Selle vent of the new crater SE (NSEC). Mirova reports a high thermal anomaly on October 11 of VRP 170 MW. INGV OE reported that on October 7th an increase in explosive stombolian activity at the Etna NSEC, with the production of an ash cloud rising over 4.5 km towards the SEE; ashes fell on the Citelli refuge. The tremor remained within the mid-range, and the infrasonic activity was characterized by low occurrence. No significant changes in soil deformation measurements. As of the 7th of October xplosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Toulouse warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 and is moving at 30 kts in E direction.As of the 26th of September INGV reported that from 13:30 UTC, Strombolian activity at the new south-eastern crater increased slightly in intensity. The eruptive activity of varying intensity produced a cloud of volcanic ash that reached a height of about 4 km above sea level, dispersing eastward. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor does not show significant variations, remaining on average values. Regarding infrasound activity, the current strong wind does not allow a detailed assessment of its performance.The signals from the soil deformation monitoring stations show only a modest variation at the level of the tilt station of Pizzi Deneri and GNSS of Cratere di Nord-Est. From 16:00 UTC, ash emissions from the new southeast crater ceased. There remains an activity of Strombolian explosions, sporadic and weak, accompanied by discontinuous and soft ash emissions, which are quickly dispersed near the area of ​​the summit of the volcano. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor remains at average values. On September 24th,an explosion occurred around 11 p.m., accompanied by loud rumbling (distinctly audible from ethnic countries). Material ejected from the mouth covered the entire NSEC (New South-East Crater) complex.As of the 20th of September, INGV reported that the activity of the volcano continued with little changes, characterized by mild to moderate, near continuous strombolian explosions from the saddle vent of the New SE crater.Some of the eruptions throw incandescent lava bombs onto the upper outer slopes of the crater. INGV weekly bulletin, posted on September 15, reporting that a Strombolian activity occurred alternating with the emission of ash at the New Southeast Crater, an intracrateric Strombolian activity at the northeast crater, and degassing at the craters of Voragine and Bocca Nuova. In detail, this activity is characterized by strombolian intracrateric activity, with discontinuous ash emissions, are observed at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) During the more energetic phases, the ejections of coarse materials reached heights of several tens of meters on the edge of the crater and the products sometimes fell outside the crater, settling on the southern flank of the cone. Volcanic ash emissions were observed sporadically, with the formation of diluted clouds that were rapidly dispersed by winds in the atmosphere. The observations made during the inspection on September 9 showed the continued intense degassing of the pit crater, formed in the center of the crater depression of the Bocca Nuova. To the northwest of it, a new crater formed on September 3; it continues to widen due to the collapse of the vertical wall materials. During the period analyzed, the Voragine crater was affected by modest degassing of the main slag cone and occasional light ash emissions. Finally, during the week, intracrater Strombolian activity continued at the Northeast crater. INGV reported that the activity between August 24 and August 30 concerned all the craters. The New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was characterized by explosive intracrateric activity, significantly variable in frequency and intensity, with ejection during the most energetic phases of coarse pyroclastic material on the crater rim. This activity produced the progressive widening of the mouth of the "saddle cone". The Etna geophysical monitoring network system reported that on 30th of August from 12:33:13 p.m. 12:33 UTC a rapid increase in infrasonic activity was recorded associated with a sharp increase in explosive activity at the summit craters, which, since 17:16:16 UTC, has led to EW1 alert levels (explosive activity above the norm). INGV informed that around 14:55 UTC on August 29th, the emission of ash at the new south-eastern crater has ceased. There remains an intense degassing, sometimes accompanied by a discontinuous and light explosive activity. As of the 29th of August, INGV reported that that activity of the new SE crater of Etna was characterized, from the morning of August 28, by a discontinuous and modest ash emission which produces a strongly volcanic cloud. diluted, light gray in color. The volcanic cloud, which reaches a height of about 4.5 km above sea level, was quickly dispersed eastward by high-altitude winds. As of the 26th of August, INGV reported that Strombolian activity continues at fluctuating intensity from the saddle vent of the New SE crater characterized by occasional ash emissions. An explosion occurred at 15:30 local time on 25th of August that generated plume of ash which reached approx. 14,763 ft (4,500 m) altitude and drifted SE. Ash fall was reported in Viagrande and Trecastagni areas. Fluctuating seismicity continues including periods of average amplitude tremor. The seismic station records internal tremor at 2900-3000 m altitude in area of New SE Crater. INGV reported that on the morning of August 14th, an increase in Strombolian activity was observed at the NSEC / New south-eastern crater (saddle cone) of Etna producing an ash emission which generates a dark plume of ash dispersed by the wind in a south-southeast direction and with ash falls in the region of Pedara, Trecastagni and Viagrande. The plume height reached between 700 and 1,200 meters above the summit, justifying the passage of the aviation code from orange to red.The fall of coarse pyroclastic material on the sides of the NSEC cone was reported by ground crews. This explosive activity was characterized by persistence and fluctuation in intensity and was associated with modest ash emissions. INGV reported that almost continuous Strombolian activity has been underway at the Southeast Crater, one of Etna's four summit craters since mid-July 2020. Although the activity is almost continuous, it fluctuates widely, with episodes of more intense activity every 4 to 10 hours. One of these episodes occurred on the evening of August 10, 2020 and lasted with variations in frequency and intensity of the explosions until the early hours of August 11, with bomb projections on the outer flanks of the cone. A plume of gas and ash rises about 3,500 meters above the vent. An increasing of the strombolian activity occurred at the NSEC's "saddle cone" on the night of August 9th, followed by ash emissions with an impressive plume seen from Torre del Filosofo at 3,000 meters.INGV reported that during the period from July 27 to August 3, 2020, the activity of the summit craters of Etna was characterized by an intracrateric Strombolian activity of the northeast crater (NEC), by a sporadic Strombolian activity and weak volcanic ash emissions from the Voragine crater (VOR), a modest Strombolian activity and discontinuous ash emissions with the formation of a diluted volcanic cloud towards the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and degassing activities by all the summit craters.INGV reported that two craters showed Strombolian activity on July 30, respectively at 1:46 am, with nocturnal incandescence; and 10:50 am local, with plumes of gas, sometimes loaded with ash : the Voragine and the "saddle cone" of the New Southeast Crater.INGV reported that during the week from July 13th to 19th, intracratical explosive activity was observed mainly affecting the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and the Voragine (VOR) of Etna, with low ash emissions which quickly dispersed to high altitude and with materials thrown on the crater edges. On July 15, surveillance cameras recorded a slight increase in the variable Strombolian explosive activity of the aforementioned craters, with ash emissions that quickly dispersed near the summit area and with spatter projections above the edges. from the crater. This Strombolian activity continued at the "saddle cone" on July 21 in the early hours.The other summit craters were mainly characterized by outgassing activity.The fracturing seismicity remains moderate and the amplitude of the tremor on average values. Low infrasonic activity. Etna's soil deformation monitoring networks did not show significant changes during the week SO2 flux is at a medium-low level. INGV reported that a weak Strombolian activity was observed on July 11, 2020 in the evening at the saddle vent located between the new and the old southeast cone of Etna. Previously INGV reported that from June 29 to July 5, 2020 (bulletin posted online on July 7) a modest deep intracrateric strombolian activity and degassing at the new southeast crater. The degassing activity also concerns the craters of Bocca Nuova, Voragine and the northeast crater.In particular, observations made during the inspection on July 3 showed that the pit formed at the center of the depression of the Bocca Nuova crater is affected by a modest degassing from below. Fumaroles developed in the southern sector of the bottom of the crater and also along the flows of Voragine in the BN until the end of April. The Voragine crater is affected by a modest degassing of the main ash cone. The North-East crater presents degassing activity from below which occasionally (July 2), was accompanied by a weak intra-crater strombolian activity. Finally, during the week, a modest intra-crater strombolian activity continued at the vents of the "saddle cone" of the New South-East Crater. This activity does not produce hot materials visible on the surface, but rather a night glow, and is associated with an intense pulsed degassing. INGV reported that during the period from 1st to 7th of June 2020, the activity of Etna was characterized by eruptive activity in the New Crater of Southeast (NSEC) and the degassing of a variable character from the other summit craters. A modest intracratric strombolian type activity continued at the NSEC without interruption of time in the saddle cone reported in the previous bulletin. On the surface, this activity produced an intense pulsating degassing, which at night resulted in lightning flashes of variable intensity, discontinuous and weak emissions of ash which quickly dispersed in the atmosphere and occasional expulsion of shreds of lava at - above the edge of the cone crater. For a few days, the activity of the crater of the Voragine had strongly decreased. This morning May 24, 2020, activity showed a slight increase for a few hours, and one of the explosions produced this magnificent ring of vapor, seen from the region of Monte Grosso, on the south side of the volcano.INGV Osservatorio Etneo, reported that from 02:12 UTC, strombolian activity increased in the saddle cone of the new crater of south-eastern of Etna. Explosive activity produced a cloud of volcanic ash reaching 4,500 m (above sea level) dispersed by the wind to the southwest. The VONA went red at 07:12 hours, before finding the Orange level at 13:16 hours. Explosive activity also continues at the Voragine crater with periodic emissions of ash, which disperse rapidly near the summit area. The magnitude of the volcanic tremor, compared to yesterday, has undergone a moderate increase, with large fluctuations around medium and high values. Currently, the amplitude values ​​are high and the source of the tremor continues to be located near the New SE crater. The infrasonic activity has shown a moderate increase and the sources are mainly located in the New SE crater. The soil deformations do not show significant variations.INGV reported thatt Strombolian activity was recorded by surveillance networks at 12:12 local time (10:12 UTC) at the saddle cone located between the old and the new cone of the Crater of South-East of Etna. Strombolian activity began to increase from 08:45 UTC in the New Southeast crater, and is accompanied by a modest emission of volcanic ash, which is blown by the wind towards the northeast. From a seismic point of view, since 09:20 UTC, the amplitude of the volcanic tremors has shown an increase in high values. The source of the volcanic tremor is located near the new southeast crater about 2,900 m above sea level. The infrasonic activity also showed a slight increase, with events being located at the new southeast crater. The deformation on the ground shows no significant impulsive variation associated with continuous activity. However, a trend of northward movement at the Pizzi Deneri and Northeast crater stations initiated in early May continues.INGV reported that From 00.45 hours UTC on May 16, 2020, the surveillance cameras revealed an explosive strombolian activity in the New Crater of SE of Etna, with regard to the vent called the "saddle". This activity quickly intensified, producing a modest cloud of ash that the winds dispersed at high altitude to the north. From the seismic point of view, there is no significant variation in the recorded signals. The source of the volcanic tremor is located at the new SE crater, at a depth of about 2900 m above sea level. From 6:45 h UTC, the strombolian activity at the NCSE ceased. The explosive activity remains at the Voragine crater, although it has decreased in intensity and frequency, according to the location by INGV staff on May 15. INGV reported that during the first hours of May 10, 2020, a new episode of modest Strombolian activity took place in the "saddle cone" of the New Crater southeast of Etna. The INGV also reported that the surveillance networks recorded at 03:27 hours (01:27 UTC), a continuous strombolian activity, with an ejection of products beyond the crater. Some blocks partially accumulate at the edge of the crater while others roll along the slopes. At the same time as the eruptive activity of the New Southeast Crater, there is also an increase in the eruptive activity of Voragine, with ballistic ejections beyond the crater edge. From approximately 04:00 hours, there was a significant decrease in Strombolian activity in the New Crater of Southeast, where a strong degassing remains. At La Voragine crater, an explosive activity was less strong and frequent than the previous hours. As for the amplitude of the volcanic tremor, it showed a sudden increase from 11:30 p.m. UTC on May 9, reaching its maximum value around 12:30 p.m. UTC on May 10, and then remained at high values. A rapid decline was observed, with a return to waaverage levels around 02:20 UTC on May 10. The location of the source of the tremor was located near the area of ​​the New Southeast Crater, at a depth of about 2800-3000 meters above mean sea level. INGV reported that activity was characterized between 1st to May 7th, 2020 by a continuous degassing of the BN / VOR / NEC crater sectors (Bocca Nuova, Voragine, NE crater) and SEC / NSEC crater (SE crater and new SE crater). Explosions continue from the easternmost slag cone inside Voragine. This activity is often violent with the projection into the atmosphere of coarse pyroclastic fragments. Strombolian activity continues at the bottom of the northeast crater. Since around 5:00 p.m. on May 8, there has been a slight increase in ash emissions from the NSEC, this pulsating activity has formed a plume of diluted ash towards the ESS. INGV personnel present near the new southeast crater observed a strong degassing, with deep roars and associated ash emissions. As for the amplitude of the volcanic tremor, it oscillates on medium-high values; the source of the tremor is located near the new southeast crater, at a depth of about 2,800 to 3,000 meters above mean sea level. INGV reported that during the week of April 27 to May 3, Etna presented a strombolian activity to Voragine (VOR) and to the new southeast crater (NSEC). At La Voragine, an inspection on April 30 revealed that the effusive activity of the vent of the principal cone had stopped, in progress since September 12, 2019, and the lava field is being cooled. Strombolian activity continues on the other hand at the level of the intracrateric cones of the VOR, with gray-black ash emissions several hundred meters high, during the main cone explosions. During the night of May 3-4, the strombolian explosions from the VOR crater appeared particularly energetic, and the coarse material produced fell outside the edges of the crater, settling on the southern flank of the Bocca Nuova crater. It was also observed that the depression that formed inside the BN of the crater has increased compared to what was observed during the inspection of April 18, 2020. During the week, a pulsatile degassing of the new Southeast crater continued. The presence of flashes at night showed that strombolian activity continued at the level of the "saddle cone", without expelling incandescent materials. Sometimes this activity was accompanied by the emission of reddish ash, quickly dispersed in the atmosphere. INGV reported that eruptive activity at the new southeast crater on April 19 began around 06:30 UTC local 8:30 am with a sudden increase in the tremor, showing strombolian activity at the "saddle cone" of the NSEC; from 07:15 h UTC, it gradually evolved into a pulsating lava fountain. From 07:50 UTC, modest lava flows are observed at the top of the NSEC and remain confined to the upper eastern and southern flanks of the cone. The activity generated the emission of an ash plume which was quite weak at the beginning and which gradually increased in intensity from 08:45 UTC, reaching around 5,000 meters in height. The ashes fell on the eastern side of the volcano for the most part in the Bove Valley and fallout of fine materials were also reported on the city of Zafferana. From 09:55 UTC, the lava fountain activity gradually diminished until it stopped. Finally, it was reported that strombolian activity at the crater of La Voragine, which started in September 2019 continued with slight fluctuations compared to what has been communicated so far. From a seismic point of view, after a significant drop in the tremor, the eruptive episode was announced by a rapid increase in the volcanic tremor from 5.40 hours GMT - 7.40 local hours, which reached the highest energy level at 7.00 hours GMT (9.00 local time). The sources of the signal were located in the area of ​​the New Southeast Crater at shallow depth. The episode was accompanied by remarkable infrasound activity, which is also decreasing. The INGV announced at 23:55 (21:55 UTC), the return of parameters to normal activity. Previously, INGV reported that from 20.50 hours UTC on April 17th, we observe at Etna a sudden increase in the magnitude of the volcanic tremor which reached the maximum value at 21.26 hours UTC, attesting to high values. This activity was accompanied by a moderate increase in infrasound activity, which is localized in the area of ​​the SEC / NSEC craters. In addition, from the network of surveillance cameras, it is possible to observe, with regard to the "saddle cone" of the New Crater of Southeast, gleams attributable to an intracrateric strombolian activity, associated with an accentuation of the thermal anomaly that has long characterized the same area. Strombolian activity at La Voragine crater, which began in September 2019, continues with small fluctuations; The lava emitted by the cone complex of Voragine filled the crater of Bocca Nuova, where a new pit crater / collapse well is present in the central part. INGV reported that strombolian and intracrateric effusive activity continued at Etna, between April 6 and 12 from the Voragine crater. Strong degassing of the new southeast crater and the northeast crater was noticed during the same period. The activity inside the Voragine crater, in progress for 7 months, continued with slight fluctuations. This activity consists of three-mouthed Strombolian explosions, which build slag cones in the crater and an effusive activity, mainly from a mouth located on the south side of the largest cone. The explosive activity was more continuous at the largest cone, formed as the first, from September 12, 2019. As of the 11th of April, INGV reported that activity at three of the four summit craters of Etna continues, although slightly decreased compared to the last weeks. This activity consists of Strombolian explosions and emission of an intracratric lava flow with Voragine (VOR), an intense and very noisy degassing in the Northeast Crater (NEC), and a fluctuating incandescence with a strong degassing in the "cone of the saddle "from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC).INGV reported that for the period from 9 to 15 March an abundant degassing activity could be observed of the upper craters: the northeast crater (NEC), produced emissions of ash which immediately dispersed into the atmosphere on March 13, and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was also characterized by sporadic ash emissions accompanied by audible roars even at long distances.In the intra-crater area of ​​Voragine, a strombolian-like eruption continued. This activity was produced by two separate ash cones. In the main cone, active since September 12, 2019, the explosive activity was generated by a single mouth located in its summit crater and characterized by sporadic events of high intensity with bombs and shreds of lava expelled between intervals of several minutes of rest. INGV reported that during the period from March 2 to 8 activity of the upper craters of Etna was mainly characterized by Strombolian explosions and an effusion at the level of Voragine (VOR), and degassing with intermittent intermittent ash emission of strombolian ash from the new south-east crater (NSEC) and the north-east of the crater (NEC). At the seismicity level, there was a low seismic fracturing activity and a stationary state of the volcanic tremor parameters. The infrasonic activity remained moderate. No significant deformation. The flow of SO2 was at an average level. The flow of CO2 from soils is at medium-low levels. INGV reported that between February 24 and March 1, 2020, activity was characterized by an effusive strombolian activity in the crater of Voragine, and an activity of the northeast craters and the new southeast crater, characterized by discontinuous ash emissions and discontinuous strombolian activity. A drone observation shows a cone of slag in the Voragine, flanked on the south side, by a mound provided with a mouth feeding active lava flows. These flows have formed a large, partially cooled lava delta in recent months. At the NEC, sporadic explosions and emissions of ash were observed, and occasional intracratric strombolian activity is reported at the vents located at the bottom of the crater.Activity at the NSEC level is reported at the level of the saddle cone, strombolian, with continuous ash emissions; the soil is fractured and produces fumaroles. INGV monitoring data between February 17 and 23, reported that a strombolian and effusive intracrateric activity occurred in the Voragine crater. Discontinuous ash emissions were observed at the northeast crater and at the new SE crater. Low seismic fracturing activity was reported; amplitude of the volcanic earthquake in the middle level. The Etna soil deformation monitoring networks have not shown any significant change to report during the last week. INGV reported that during he week of February 10th to 16th, 2020 eruptive activity was characterized at Etna by a strombolian and effusive intracrateric activity of the Voragine crater, an episodic strombolian activity in the New Southeast Crater, and an ordinary degassing activity with soft and discontinuous ash emissions from the northeast crater. INGV reported that during the week of February 3rd to 9th, Etna activity was mainly characterized by eruptive activity from the Voragine crater (VOR), by discontinuous ash emissions from the northeast crater (NEC) and new South-East crater (NSEC) and ordinary degassing of the other summit craters. Intra-crater strombolian activity at the VOR crater continues, emitting shreds which extend beyond the edge of the crater by a few hundred meters and which has led to a further increase in the ash cone, particularly in the northern part.The effusive activity flowing from the southern flank of the intracraterial cone continues in the adjacent Bocca Nuova. Field observations and images recorded during the helicopter's overflight revealed that lava filled the eastern sector (BN-2) and reached the crater of the western well (BN-1). INGV reported that strombolian activity continues on January 30.INGV reported continuing eruptive activity at Etna's Voragine Crater (VOR), New Southeast Crater (NSEC), and Northeast Crater (NEC) during 21-26 January. Intracratric eruptive activity continued in Voragina during the period from January 20 to 26, with Strombolian explosions and the emission of a lava flow, which rises on the south side of the intracratric cone, with spill in the adjacent Bocca Nuova. By the end of the week, lava had completely filled the eastern well of the Bocca Nuova (BN-2). During the week, an increase in the frequency of Strombolian explosions is observed, which led to rapid growth of the cone, especially in its northern part.The cone in VOR produced Strombolian explosions which increased in frequency and resulted in rapid cone growth (especially the N part). Lava traveled down the S flank of the cone and into the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater, filling the E crater (BN-2). Activity at NEC was characterized by discontinuous Strombolian activity and periodic emissions of very diffuse ash plumes. During 21-22 January there were several episodes of ash emissions at NSEC, originating from the vent that had opened on 11 December 2019 on the side of the saddle area. Ash emissions rarely rose form the E vent. INGV reported that activity of Voragine intensified during the night from 10th to 11th of January with a lava flow in the direction of Bocca Nuova, separated in two arms.The thermal anomalies, noted by Mirova, are between 32 and 177 MW. On the day of January 10, a plume of ash also rose above the southeast crater. INGV reported that the pyroclastic cone, which has been building since September in the Voragine crater, emitted a small lava flow on January 9 in the afternoon; it pours into the crater of Bocca Nuova. In the evening of January 8, the INGV noticed a glow in the Northeast craters and Voragine. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank. (webcam). . www.ct.ingv.it . Live cam Etna - Etna monitoring page - New Etna Southwest crater webcam

ITALY - Stromboli volcano (Eolian Islands)

April 27th, 2021

INGV reported that during 19-25 April activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity from Area N (North Crater area) and in Area C-S (South-Central Crater area), though sometime weather conditions prevented visual observations. Explosions from two vents in the N1 vent (Area N) ejected lapilli and bombs 250 m high, and produced minor ash emissions. Explosions at N2 vents (Area N) averaged 11-14 events per hour. Periods of visible spattering were most notable on 24 April. Explosions from at least three vents in Area C-S occurred at a rate of 1-5 events per hour and ejected coarse material more than 250 m high. As of the 1st of March, INGV reported that analysis of Stromboli camera footage revealed explosive footage in the North Zone, which began with three events of lesser intensity at 1:32:50, 1:33:00 and 1:33:10 UTC, respectively. After approximately ten seconds, a major explosion occurred at 1:33:30 UTC lasting approximately 10 seconds and ended at 1:34:00 UTC. This latter activity produced a fall of coarse material along the Sciara del Fuoco and part of the material fell in the direction of Pizzo.From the seismic point of view, after the phase of increasing the amplitude of the tremor, which followed the explosive sequence, the values ​​returned to the standard around 01:37 UTC approximately. No significant change is observed in the frequency of occurrence of explosive events. INGV and LGS reported that at 00:00 UTC on January 25th, 2021, the Stromboli monitoring network recorded a tremor peak which reached very high values. This peak was in relation with the start of a new lava overflow which generated a clear soil deformation of about 0.35 microradians. Seismic tremor exhausted after about 3 hours and was associated with a increased material turnover figures in the currently high Fire Sciara (21 n / day). Stromboli activity continues to be characterized by an intense phase of spattering and strong explosions at the NE crater, while explosive activity in the SW and Central sector is weak or absent. Since the last update of January 23, the tremor remains on ALTI values ​​with a slight upward trend. The VLP seismicity is shallow stable and indicates a very shallow magmatic column. The SO2 and CO2 fluxes maintain a weak but progressive tendency to increase, which has persisted for several weeks, indicative of a recharge of the superficial magmatic system. As of the 24th of January, INGV eported that at 4:57 p.m. GMT there was an explosion that was energetically more intense than ordinary activity in Stromboli, but could not be classified as a major explosion. The analysis of the INGV-OE surveillance cameras also revealed that the products generated by this explosion fell along the Sciara del Fuoco. Further lava overflow from the North Crater area is also visible from around 7:05 p.m. GMT. The seismic signals do not show any significant change from the previous update. As of the 23rd of January, INGV reported a slow decrease in effusive activity due to the lava overflow in the area of ​​the north crater. The lava was no longer supplied and is being cooled. Also in the area of ​​the North crater, a spattering activity was observed. There were also no particular variations in the explosive strombolian activity of the north and central south crater areas. On the morning of January 23, 2021, the amplitude of the tremor slowly decreased. The amplitude of explosive events remained low and the frequency was also similar to the previous period, with an event every 5-10 minutes. Stromboli returned to its normal activity patrameters on January 23 at 4:24 p.m. UTC. INGV reported that from 11:45 hours GMT on January 22, 2021, on the images of the surveillance cameras of the INGV-OE show a lava overflow of the crater zone North of Stromboli. At 16:14 UTC that the lava flow produced by the overflow formed at the North crater area continues to be well fed, and the front is located at about 600 m. The incandescent blocks that stand out from the front roll along the Sciarra del Fuoco, reaching the coast line. In addition, there is ordinary Strombolian activity from both North and South crater areas. INGV reported that since 9:45 hours GMT on January 18, 2021; INGV-OE surveillance cameras show an overflow of lava produced by mouth N2 of the northern crater zone of Stromboli. This overflow, preceded at night by spattering activity, was well fed between 10:10 GMT and 11:30 GMT approximately, reaching a height of about 700 m above sea level. Analysis of the footage from the INGV's video surveillance cameras also showed glowing blocks that stood out from the front and rolled along the Sciara del Fuoco. At 12.58 UTC, this overflow is no longer supplied but a thermal anomaly visible by the video surveillance cameras of the INGV-OE remains. In addition, there is ordinary Strombolian activity from both North and South crater areas. From 14:10 GMT the images from the CCTV cameras of the INGV-OE show a projection activity present in the area of ​​the Center-South crateric zone which produces incandescent blocks which roll episodically along the Sciara del Fuoco. The projection activity continued in the central-south crater area until the evening, with incandescent boulder falls rolling into the Sciara del Fuoco. Previous news 2020 - LGS reported that A new major explosion occurred on 21st of Novembe at 9pm UTC. INGV reported that on November 16th at 09:17:50 UTC, an explosion, considered as major, was observed at Stromboli, in the center-south zone, accompanied by a plume ash about 1,000 meters high. A small pyroclastic flow rolled down the Scira del Fuoco to sea level, where it continued for some 200 meters. Shortly after the eruption, ashes and lapilli fell; the color of the particles, a few mm., brown to red-brown (old materials present in the vent), however a small amount of lighter pumice was also present in the ash (small fraction of fresh magma which has produces the eruption). From the seismic point of view, the phenomenon, clearly visible on all the seismic stations of Stromboli, was characterized by a sequence of explosive events which started at 9:17 (UTC) for a duration of 4 minutes. Regarding the magnitude of the volcanic earthquake there are no significant variations. INGV reporte that at 8:04:20 UTC / 9:04 p.m. local on November 10, a major explosion occurred at Stromboli from the south-central crater terrace.The event lasted about 6 minutes and produced an eruption column that rose higher than the Pizzo [sopra la Fossa]. The products of the explosion were mainly distributed on the Sciara del Fuoco and caused a turnover of pyroclastic products, while a small proportion fell on the Pizzo sopra la Fossa. The event lasted until 20:10:00 UTC, with at least three explosions of minor intensity than the Big Blast.In terms of seismicity, the event, which was visible on all seismic stations in Stromboli, was characterized by a sequence of explosive events that started at 20:03.50 (UTC). Surveillance networks indicate that at 11:11 p.m. local time (22:11 UTC), the parameters of the eruptive activity returned to normal levels. INGV reported that during 19-25 October activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity from Area N (north crater area) and in Area C-S (south-central crater area). Explosions from two vents at the N1 vent (Area N) ejected lapilli and bombs 80-150 m high, and produced ash emissions. Explosions at two N2 vents ejected a mix of coarse and fine material at a frequency of 5-10 events per hour. Explosions from vents in Area C-S also ejected both coarse and fine material 250 m high at a frequency of 1-3 events per hour. Following observations made by INGV-OE staff during the Stromboli inspection on August 22, the morpho-structural arrangement of the crater terrace consisted of three eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and by at least three eruptive vents located in the Center-South crater area. All the vents are placed inside the epression which occupies the crater terrace. In the area of ​​the north crater, the N1 crater, with three emission points, produced explosions of low to high intensity (the products of some explosions exceeded 200 m in height) of coarse materials (lapilli and bombs) which are fallen profusely with a radial distribution. The mouth N2 showed a low intensity explosive activity (less than 80 m in height) of coarse material. The average frequency of the explosions varied from 3 to 10 events / h. In the Central-south zone, the explosions were mainly of fine materials, mixed with coarser ones, of medium-high intensity (the products emitted often exceeded 250 m in height). The frequency of the explosions varied from 2 to 8 events / h. INGV and LGS published details about 19 July explosive activity : the sequence of explosions was characterized by 4 explosions, the largest of which resulted in the fall of lava material along the Sciarra of Fire and Lace which then slipped into the sea. The explosion produced a 1 km high column of ash and the ejection of large material (>50 cm). A small amount of the ejected material also reached Smooth and Rocks. The explosive sequence was just preceded by an increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor that reached its peak at the major explosion and then returned to normal levels. Fortunately there was no damage or injuries. From 10 o'clock, the volcano has returned to normal activity. Previous news - INGV surveillance network recorded on July 19th at 0300 UTC a major explosion. The products of the explosion were distributed throughout the crater terrace and on the Sciara del Fuoco. From the seismic point of view, the phenomenon was characterized by a brief sequence of explosions and an increasing in the amplitude of the tremor up to 3:10 UTC. INGV reported that during 6-12 July activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity mainly from three vents in Area N (north crater area) and three vents in Area C-S (south-central crater area). Moderate explosions from both areas ejected lapilli, bombs, and ash with decreasing frequency and intensity through the week. INGV reported that during the past week, normal Strombolian-type explosive activity was observed accompanied by degassing and spattering activities. The total hourly frequency of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(10 events / h on July 3) and high values ​​(21 events / h on June 29). The explosive activity was mainly produced by 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and by 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. All the vents are placed inside the depression which occupies the crater terrace. Previously, INGV reported that during the week from May 1st to May 7th, 2020, the explosive activity remained stable at a low level and was mainly localized in the SW crater until May 1, then decreased slightly and mainly moved towards the central crater. This activity is accompanied by a slight swelling (max 40 mbar) also located in the C-SO secctor. The number of VLP events stable at high values ​​until May 5 then increased to average values ​​(between 10.5 and 10.9 events / hour). The seismic tremor is stable on the average values. INGV reported that volcanic activity of Stromboli was characterized between 17 and 23 April by Strombolian explosions rich in pyroclastic material located mainly in the NE crater and continuous degassing in the C / SW crater. This activity is associated with a high to very high number of VLP earthquakes and acoustic pressures with variable values ​​between between medium and high (max 1.08 bar).INGV and LGS reported that on April 14, at 4:12 UYC, the LGS surveillance network recorded a deflation of the ground, presenting all the typical characteristics of the lava overflows recorded in 2014 and March 31, 2020. The webcams did not corroborated the effusion, which is most likely intracratric, and concerned small volumes. The INGV OE reported on April 15 from 7:16 UTC a lava overflow from the north crater of the Stromboli terrace. Glowing blocks detach from the lava front and roll into the Sciara del Fuoco. A VLP seismic signal is observed and reported by the LGS, comparable in amplitude and frequency to the signal recorded on March 31 which accompanied a small lava overflow. The signal is associated with a fall of blocks of approximately 20 minutes (7:16 a.m. - 8:00 a.m. UTC). The depth of the VLP seismic source is compatible with a magmatic column which has been very shallow for weeks. The VLP seismic signals remained at very high values. Explosive activity at the NE crater, increased over the past week, has rapidly decreased overnight, starting at 23:00 UTC yesterday. The thermal anomalies of April 14 are between VRP 10 and 14 MW, those of April 15, between 21 and 73 MW. Previously, INGV informed that the surveillance networks recorded from 23:40 hours UTC approximately on March 30, 2020, a lava overflow from the crater terrace of Stromboli; lava reached the coast line at approximately 1:50 a.m. UTC on March 31. At the same time as volcanic phenomenology, there is a seismic signal associated with episodes of rolling incandescent blocks along the Sciara del Fuoco and small landslides that generate clouds of dust. LGS of the Department of Earth sciences of the University of Florence recorded an increase in the seismic tremor at Stromboli, accompanied by events of roll (such as "rockfall"), the longest of which (approximately 3 minutes) took place on March 29 at 16:57 UTC. This phase of increase in tremors is associated with an overflow, that is to say an overflow of lava, from the NE crater as in the images of the Labronzo camera and caused the collapse of small portions of the edge of the crater. At the moment, there is no significant change in the other parameters monitored. This activity is still ongoing. INGV reported that during the period from March 16 to 22, 2020, the explosive activity was mainly produced by at least 3 (three) eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and at least 3 (three) eruptive vents located in the area of Center-South crater. All the vents are placed inside the depression which occupies the crater terrace.In the northern zone, the explosions were mainly of low to low intensity (less than 80 m high) to high (more than 150 m high) of coarse materials (lapilli and bombs); the abundant fallout has covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del fuoco and the blocks are rolled until they reach the coast line. The INGV specifies that on March 19 from 2:50 p.m. UTC and until 4:30 p.m. UTC, intense spattering activity animated one of the north mouths overlooking the Sciara del fuoco, and gave birth to a modest rheomorphic flow in the upper part of the Sciara for a few hundred meters. the average frequency of explosions in the North zone was variable, between 7 and 9 events / h. The explosive activity of the Center-South zone caused explosions of mainly fine materials (ashes) mixed with large grains of medium to high intensity (150-250 m in height). The frequency of explosions from the CS area was variable, between 5 and 16 events / h. INGV reported from 9th to 15th of March, the explosive activity of Stromboli was mainly produced by at least 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and by at least 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. All the mouths are placed inside the depression which occupies the crater terrace. In the North zone, the explosions were mainly of variable intensity, from low (less than 80 m high) to high (greater than 150 m high) of coarse materials (lapilli and bombs). in numerous explosions, abundant fallout products covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del fuoco and the blocks rolled to the coast. The average frequency of explosions in zone N varied between 8 and 11 events / h. The explosive activity of the Center-South zone produced explosions of mainly fine materials (ash) sometimes mixed with coarse medium intensity (less than 150 m high) sometimes high (the products exceeded 250 m in height). The frequency of explosions in the CS zone varied between 6 and 14 events / h. INGV reported that between February 24 and March 1, 2020, an explosive activity of normal Strombolian type continued accompanied by degassing activity; the hourly rate of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(11 / h on 26.02) and high average values ​​(17 / h on 24.02). At least three vents, in the area of ​​the North crater, expelled bombs and lapilli, which covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del Fuoco, where blocks rolled to the sea. Three vents, in the center-south zone, were the site of mainly fine material explosions.All the vents are located in the depression of the terrace. Normal activity was observed during period from 17th to 23rd of February with explosive strombolian type accompanied by degassing. The hourly rate of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(12 events / h on February 21) and high values ​​(21 events / h on day February 17). The intensity of the explosions was mainly medium to high in the region of the North Crater and medium in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. In the morning of February 21 and 22, 2020, INGV-OE staff carried out an inspection to monitor the explosive activity and the orphological changes of the crater terrace. INGV reported that a normal activity was observed during the period from February 10th to 16th, 2020. Explosive strombolian type, accompanied by degassing; the hourly rate of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(12 events / h on February 11) and average-high values ​​(18 events / h on February 16). The intensity of the explosions was mainly medium-low in the region of the North crater and medium-high in the zone of the Center-South crater. INGV reported that as of the 3rd of February from around 08:20 h UTC, via surveillance cameras, a modest overflow was observed from the northern area of ​​the Stromboli crater terrace, which is currently confined to the summit area. The flow front disintegrates on steep slopes and causes the rolling of material along the Sciara del Fuoco. The magnitude of the volcanic tremor does not show significant associated variations.The daily number of VLP earthquakes is high (18 episodes / hour). The thermal activity recovered from the cameras is average. The flow of SO2 results in low values ​​(59 t / d), like the flow of CO2 (121 t / d). The explosive activity is centered on the NE crater sector, with the emission of gas, ash and slag. The Central and SW crater sectors are characterized by continuous degassing. INGV reported a small lava flow on January 18 from 9:36 pm UTC located in the northern area of ​​the Stromboli crater terrace; it remains confined in the summit area, and following an overflow at the very beginning of the day on January 19, materials roll in the Sciara del Fuoco. This activity did not last and is considered to have ended in the report from 19.01 at 10:03 UTC. Normal seismicity persists and the deformations of the soil do not show significant variations. News 2019 - .INGV reported that activity of Stromboli has increased slightly in recent days. The number of VLP earthquakes remains high, with 19.4 episodes per hour on 28.12 - 18.8 on 29.12 - and 20.4 on 30.12 (standard values: 5-12 / h.) The amplitude of the tremor is middle, and the exit speed of the pyroclasts is around 24 m / s, average, and estimated by the images of thermal cameras. Tiltmeters do not show significant deformation. Thermal activity remains average. The flow of sulfur dioxide in the NE sector of the terrace fluctuates between 115 and 20 tonnes / day. According to the L.G.S., volcanic activity remain stable at an average level. INGV reported that a normal activity was observed during the period from December 16 to 22, 2019, of explosive Strombolian type, accompanied by degassing and splashing activities; the hourly frequency of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(13 events / h on December 17) and very high values ​​(32 events / h on December 20). The intensity of the explosions was mainly at a medium-low level in the area of ​​the North crater and medium-high in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. The seismological parameters do not show significant variations.No change to report on the deformation side.SO2 flux is at medium-high level The isotopic ratios of dissolved helium in the thermal layer remain unchanged at the mid-low values.As of the 23rd of December INGV reported that during the past 24 hours, explosive activity occurred from the crater sectors southwest and northeast, with about twenty explosions per hour, very noisy (sound pressure of more than 5.4 bar compared to normal around 1 bar). The seismic tremor is high.INGV reported that during the week of December 2 to 8 eruptive activity was characterized by explosive Strombolian explosions, at an average rate of 12 hourly episodes (06.12) to 24 hourly episodes (08.12), accompanied by degassing and spattering located in the north and south-central crater areas. Seismicity and deformation do not showed significant variations. The sulfur dioxide flux remained at a medium-high level. INGV reported that during 25 November-1 December activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity mainly from three vents in Area N (north crater area) and at least three vents in Area C-S (south central crater area). Low-to-medium-intensity explosions from Area N occurred at a rate of 7-11 events per hour and ejected lapilli and bombs 80-150 m above the vents. Ejected tephra fell onto the flanks and some blocks rolled a few hundred meters along the Sciara del Fuoco. Medium-intensity explosions from Area C-S occurred at a rate of 4-8 events per hour and ejected coarse material to heights less than150 m above the vents. Material was deposited along the upper parts of the Sciara del Fuoco. INGV reported that a normal Strombolian explosive activity accompanied by degassing continued; the frequency of explosions remains between medium to high with 16 to 23 episodes per hour. The parameters of seismicity and deformation do not show significant variations. The flow of SO2 remains at an average level. The Civil Protection has raised the alert level from orange to yellow on November 7, without changes in the prohibited navigation zone in front of the Sciara del Fuoco, nor concerning the prohibition of access above 290 meters. As of the 24th of September, INGV reported that normal Strombolian explosive activity and degassing continued. In the northern crater zone, 5-6 explosions per hour, with a peak at 9 episodes, between 80 and 150 meters high, produced coarse materials, lapilli and bombs, which rolled into the Sciara del Fuoco.Activity in the south-central zone was characterized by an average explosive of 11 episodes per hour, with peaks at 15 episodes, and an expulsion at heights of up to 200 meters of fine to coarse material. Seismology and deformation do not show significant changes and the sulfur dioxide flux remains at an average level. INGV reported that the typical strombolian activity continued and affected the north and south-central of the crater terrace.Drone surveys, conducted from 11 to 13 September, identify at least seven active mouths in the northern zone and eight in the central-south zone. The number of VLP earthquakes was 31 episodes / hour on average. There was no significant variation in soil deformation. Degassing was characterized by a characteristic low-average level. INGV reported that, during the flight over August 30 by the INGV staff and through camera image analysis, it was observed that the south-central lava flow had ceased. It started around 01:50 UTC on August 30th. As a result, the lava field gradually calms down. The flow of SO2 detected by the FLAME network from 09:00 UTC showed a moderate decrease placing the degassing regime at a medium-high level. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor over the past few hours has shown a gradual decrease, reaching values ​​comparable to those observed before the explosive sequence described in update release number 32. Currently, the amplitude shows fluctuations around mid-high values. On 29 August 2019 at 20:43:41 UTC, the geophysical monitoring network recorded a new powerful explosive event at Stromboli , associated with geophysical parameters (seismic, ground deformation and sound pressure) that are higher than the ordinary explosive activity .The seismic event (speed of 4.0 x 10-4 m / s and displacement of 4.5 x 10-5 m) exceeds the values ​​of ordinary activity The infrasonic network indicates that the explosion generated pressures of about 250 Pa, at a distance of 450 m, and located the explosive event in the area in relation to the Central / SW crater. This event was accompanied by a strong signal of soil deformation (1.17 μrad in the OHO inclinometer of Rina Grande), preceded by about 2 minutes of a net swelling of the soil. Following the explosion, there is an increase in seismic tremor to very high values ​​and an increase in the lava flow from the crater NE crater of Sciara del Fuoco. As of the 28th of August a second paroxysmal explosions occurred at Stromboli. . Similar to that of July 3, 2019, although less strong. INGV noted that Stromboli has already experienced such explosions separated by several years, or decades, but never in a lapse of so short time. This strong explosion occurred at 10:17 UTC without any particular changes in the monitored parameter levels before and after the episode, which remained high to very high. Only an increase in SO2 flux (264 t / d) is reported from high to very high values ​​that preceded the paroxysmal event of a few hours. A strong deformation of the ground was observed ( inflation) has been recorded onlyl five minutes before the explosion. The MODIS image at around 10.15am (UTC) measured a very high thermal anomaly of 3.799 MW, equivalent to effusive flows of about 15 m3 / s, an order of magnitude higher than the effusive flows recorded from the July 3, 2019 (0.3-3 m3 / s). The paroxysm generated an eruptive column of 2,000 meters in height and the ejection of large ballistic material up to 200-300 meters from the coast; a pyroclastic flow occurred in the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco and spread over several hundred meters on the surface of the sea, creating a small tsunami; according to the images of the webcams and the weather, its approximate speed was 180 km / h. Then, INGV reported that strombolian activity on the crater terrace was slightly down. An aerial observation from an helicopter of the coastguards of Catania on August 23, showed the opening of many igneous vents in this area. INGV reported that from 18 August at 0h35 UTC, the thermal camera of Punta Dei Corvi / on Stromboli, showed the resumption of effusive activity from a probably ephemeral vent at altitude 550-600 meters, above the area of ​​the central crater . The products issued run along the Sciara del Fuoco. A Modis image at 1:50 UTC records a thermal anomaly of 125 MW to 148 MW, compatible with this activity.The explosive activity continues without significant modification. INGV reported that Stromboli's crater terrace activity was analyzed during 5-11 August through webcam views, and field inspections during 7-8 August. At least nine vents in Area N (north crater area, NCA) were active on 7 August, three of which had well-formed spatter cones, with Strombolian activity ejecting material 150 m high. A large scoria cone in Area C-S (South Central crater area) jetted material 200 m high. Lava from Area C-S vents continued to travel down the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, reaching 500-600 m elevation. INGV and LGS reported that the explosive activity of Stromboli has increased since the beginning of August at the level of the central craters / south-west and the cones of the NE sector, with explosions rich in ash and scoria at 200 meters height above the terrace; these materials accumulate in the crater zone and on the Sciara del Fuoco, where they produce frequent rock slide events. The effusive activity in the SW sector shows an increase in the supply rate which has now reached values ​​of about 1.2 m³ / s, and corresponds to an increase in SO2 levels. All measured parameters suggest a new phase of feed rate increase and the arrival at the surface of a gas-rich magma coinciding with phases of sharp increases in both peak explosive activity and ratios. effusion. INGV and LGS reported that the volcano is still showing a high explosive activity, mainly in central / southwest and northeast craters, with ash-rich explosions and ejection of centimeter sized projectiles. An active overflow of lava marks the upper area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco, visible on July 30 at 12:49 local / 10:49 UTC on the thermal camera on the northern edge of the Sciara at 400 m. altitude, and from the ROC camera at 11:52.The parameters are consistent with the explosive and effusive activity: oscillations of the tremor at high values, an average of 28 VLP earthquakes / hour, thermal anomalies between 202 MW and 49 MW, tendency of the flow of sulfur dioxide to the increase. Thermal data from satellites and cameras recorded during the last 12 hours on July 17 indicate an increase in the effusive activity of the south-west crater of Stromboli. MODIS images acquired over the last 12 hours, in favorable meteorological and satellite conditions, show elevated thermal anomalies up to 744 MW (01:50 UTC) which correspond to an increase in effusive activity, with effusive velocities (TADR) estimated at about 2 m3 / s (+/- 0.6 m3 / s).The increase in thermal luminance measured by MODIS is confirmed by the SENTINEL image acquired at 10:00 UTC on 17/07/2019, which shows a clear increase in the lava front surface. From the images, it is possible to estimate a maximum stream length of about 600 m and a maximum width of 80 m. The lava front is installed at an altitude of about 300 m. In line with the increase in effusion activity, there is a further increase in the SO2 flux measured by the UV Roccette camera which attests to a very high level. This increase is visible on the images of the Ginostra thermal camera, showing a well-fed and organized flow in several branches.The LGS reported for July 14th and 15th an increasing in thermal activity which corresponds to an increase in effusive activity: from 276 MW at 21:05 UTC on the 14th, it has risen to 347 MW at 1:20 UTCINGV reported that a powerful explosive and effusive activity continues in Stromboli. This magmatic feed continues at a very shallow level and fills the crater terrace which is now much wider than the geometry preceding the explosion of July 3, 2019. Due to the absence of parts of the edges of the crater terrace, the Magma escapes in recent days through a series of overflows both in the western portion (Ginostra side) and in the central area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco (eastern crater side).Since 6 am UTC on July 15, there has been characterized by an increasing of the release of gas from the NE portion of the crater terrace, with SO2 flux reaching very high values ​​(254 t / d, at 9:45 UTC)On the evening of July 12, the northern crater area was more active, with a series of overflows in the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco, while the emission of a modest lava flow continued from the center-south crater zone. According to the INGV's surveillance cameras and field observations, strombolian this activity continued from the north and south-central zones of the terrace. Lava flows are emitted from the central-south zone and reach the mid-slope in the Sciara del Fuoco. The July 12 Sentinel 2 image shows hot spots on the terrace and in the Sciara del Fuoco. LGS inspection carried out in Punta dei Corvi at 15:30 on 10 July with the help of the thermal camera has allowed to observe several active lava overflows at the summit, from which two flows start along the central and south part of Sciara del Fuoco.The southern front rises to about 600 m., while the front of the central part of the Sciara reaches about 400 m. altitude. These flows bring hot materials to the bottom of the slope where they accumulate as small deltas. INGV reported that from 8 pm local time on July 8, 2019, an overflow of lava from the south-west crater of Stromboli generated a lava flow of up to 500 m along the Sciara del Fuoco. The overflow is also confirmed by the analysis of the images of the thermal camera of Punta Dei Corvi, restored after the paroxysmal explosion of July 3th, 2019.A thermal anomaly of 125 MW recorded at 20:50 UTC on 08.07, and 211 MW at 01h UTC, by Mirova This heat flux value is in agreement with the current lava overflow, indicating an effusion rate of about 0.5 mc /s (LGS - 08.07.2019). INGV reported that a paroxysmal eruption occurred on 3 July 2019 – at 16:46 Local Time (UTC+2). The eruptive column, at least 2-km-high, produced severe ash and lapilli fall-out on the volcano flanks, affecting especially the village of Ginostra located in the eastern part of the island. In particular, two main explosive events were distinguished at 14:46:10 H and 14:46:40 H UTC, respectively. The sequence was preceded at 14:44 h UTC by lava overflows of all the active vents of the crater terrace towards the Sciara del Fuoco. One person died during hiking on the trail “Punta del Corvo” downward to Ginostra and several other persons would be injured. The fall-out has also triggered several fires in various sectors of the upper/intermediate volcano flank .After the paroxysm of 14:46 UTC, no other high intensity explosive event was observed. The seismic route returned to the levels preceding the explosive sequence and, thanks to the surveillance cameras, it was possible to observe normal strombolian activity and cooling of the relapsed material deposited along the Sciara del Fuoco, which produces continuous rolling towards the coast. INGV reported that a major eruption occurred on 25th of June at about 11 PM involving the central Southern area of the terrace.Pyroclastics material has fallen onto the Sciara del Fuoco and inside the crater terrace. The seismic signal associated at this event lasted 4 mn. After this strong eruption, no further explosive event occurred. INGV reported that during 3 and 6-9 June activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian explosions and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace. Explosions from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N (north crater area, NCA) occurred at a rate of 1-4 per hour, ejecting material 80 m high and producing ash plumes. Explosions from two vents (S1 and S2) in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 3-8 per hour, ejecting material 80-150 m high. Gas plumes rose from vent INGV reported that during 15-21 April activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace, though activity intensified on 19 April. Explosions originated at a rate of 3-16 per hour mainly from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N (north crater area, NCA) and at least four vents (including C, S1, and S2) in Area C-S (South Central crater area). Explosions from the N1 vent ejected lapilli and bombs mixed with ash no more than 150 m high. Low-intensity explosions at the N2 vent ejected tephra to heights under 80 m. Vent C produced gas emissions. Incandescent material from S1 jetted as high as 150 m above the crater. Explosions from two vents at S2 ejected tephra more than 150 m high. Previously on 21st of January, the Italian Experimental Geophysical Laboratory / LGS reports strong Strombolian activity at the northeastern vent of Stromboli, and strong explosions at the other six vents on the platform.The new cinder cone that has recently been built around the northeastern vent shows spattering and a strong nocturnal incandescence, and explosions with projections at about 150 meters, sometimes up to 250-300 meters, every 10- 20 minutes. INGV reporterd that since December 24, 2018, Stromboli has recorded seismic signals of frequency and waveform compatible with a phenomenon of fracturing in the summit zone spattering has been on the rise since December 26, at the crater terrace, where seven vents are active. The Civil Protection issued an advise of "early warning" on January 4, defining a "high level of activity", motivating the ban on access to the volcano above 400 meters above sea level, except in the context of operations monitoring.The level of activity increased further in the evening of January 5, 2019, especially in the northeastern vents, where a new cinder cone grew and produced explosions and spattering. Previously, a new " strong explosion" was recorded on August 18 on Stromboli by the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV). Particulary, at 17:08 (local time), an intense explosion involved the vent of the south-central zone located on the crater terrace. The explosion produced a small cloud of ash, which dispersed rapidly, and the ejection of pyroclastic material, which fell mainly on the crater terrace and on top of the Sciara del Fuoco. The seismic signal associated with the event lasted a little over 4 minutes. Subsequently, the volcano returned to its normal Strombolian activity.INGV reported that activity at Stromboli during 9-15 July was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents. Explosions mainly from two vents in Area N (north crater area) and three vents in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 14-19 per hour, except four per hour were recorded on 15 July. Low-intensity explosions from the N1 vent (NCA) ejected lapilli and bombs as high as 80 m. Explosions at the N2 vent (NCA) ejected tephra 120 m high. Vent C (Area C-S) produced gas emissions and sporadic spattering. Low-intensity explosions at S2 (Area C-S) ejected tephra less than 80 m high. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean."Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout historical time. The small, 926-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a horseshoe-shaped scarp formed as a result of slope failure that extends to below sea level and funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli since Roman times.www.ct.ingv.it - Live webcam

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Iceland - Reykjanes peninsula

May 13th, 2021

IMO reported that on May 10, gas emissions were about 10 to 11 thousand tons / day of CO2, 4000-5000 tons / day of SO2 and about 10 tons / day of hydrogen fluoride (anhydrous hydrofluoric acid).The latest lava and lava flow size data are based on flights between 12 p.m. and 1 p.m. on May 10, 2021  There was a significant increase in the lava flow at Fagradalsfjall last week. The average flow over the period is 13 m³ / s, which is much more than the almost 8 m³ / s measured at the beginning of May. The eruption of Fagradalsfjall continues, with the resumption of lava fountains on May 9th, 2021. The images taken by the Landsat 8 satellite in infra-red show that the active lava flow from vent # 5 is heading towards Meradalur. IMO reported changes in activity occurred on May 8, 2021 in the morning at Fagradalsfjall. Just before the disturbances, the lava fountain was very powerful, around 8:58 a.m., exceeding 450 meters in height. At 9:20 am, a small vent opened in the inner wall of the cinder cone on crack 5S. After the start of activity at this location, the fountaining stopped in favor of a weak spattering of the active vents. Since then, the emission of lava by the vent system has been continuous and no longer fluctuates. Lava flows spread south into Nafnlausi Dalurinn (the unnamed valley). The fountaining seems to have resumed, in a more modest way at vent 5, according to the images of the webcam langihryggur N. IMO reported that the eruption in Geldingadalur continues with spaced pulses. On 7th of May, vent # 5 is still active and its lava is now also pouring into Meradalur, on the green grass, and is about to cross one of the drains, tracing earthquake faults on the surface. IMO eported that there was a slight change in the measurements of the seismic tremor at Fagradalsfjall on May 5 shortly before 4.30am. The rytme  was the same until then, with about 10 min between lava jets. But on the morning of the 5th, about half an hour passed between powerful jets of lava. At 5:40 a.m., an unusually high lava fountain passed the frame of the RÚV webcam. It seems estimated at more than 460 m. IMO reported that the lava flow last week (April 26 - May 3) averaged 7.5 m3 / s. This is a slightly higher number than the number obtained last week compared to the previous week. So there is no sign that the rash is giving way. The volume of eruptions has now reached 23 million cubic meters, and the lava area is 1.41 km2. The biggest change last week is in the depression between Stórahrút and the humps east of Geldingadalur and in the lava spit from Geldingadalur to MeradalurIMO reported that on 3rd of may, the current eruptive phase of Fagradalsfjall, characterized by stops of about 3 minutes, then a sharp increase with jets higher than before (about up to 300 m. In height), which lasts about 10 minutes, continues. The lava fountains are visible from the coast.IMO reported changes in activity have been observed since 1 a.m. on May 2, with pulsating activity in the lava fountain at Crater # 5 in Geldingadalur, also reflected in the seismic tremor. It is characterized by stops of about 3 minutes, then increases with great force and jets higher than before (about up to 300 m. In height), an activity that lasts about 10 minutes. As of the 1st of May, around 11:45 p.m., a small fountain-fed lava flow flowed through a slit on the southern rim of crater 5b and a short distance down the slope. The first lava flow fed by a fountain in the eruption. Fountain-fed lava, also known as splash / spatter-fed lava, is formed when large drops of molten magma (splattering bombs). fall in such rapid succession that they are re-amalgamated into a cohesive liquid which then flows like lava. Volcanic activity continued from Geldingadalur crater on April 29, with a dramatic change in the appearance of the eruption since it erupted in 7-8 craters. The activity generates jets of magma, which rose up to 250 meters into the air. As of the 28th of April, IMO reported that the most eruptive activity was now located in the last craters of the eruption area, and in particular in the crater that can be seen on the mbl.is webcam. Near this crater, steam is emitted by mosses which burn, under the effect of the intense heat of the eruption (The naturalist of the Meteorological Office). There is no more activity in the southernmost crater and the northernmost one, from which only steam comes out. Thermal anomalies remain significant according to Mirova. IMO reported that explosive activity increased in Fagradalsfjall : Just before 8:30 p.m. on April 26, there was a phase shift in the activity of Vent # 5 - the southernmost vent of those that opened and have been active since April 13. The intensity (and vigor) of the explosive activity suddenly increased and began to support a lava fountain 40-50 m high, instead of 10 -15 m. usual. The eruption continues to support a more vigorous fountain on April 27 at 10:30 a.m. As a result, the lava flow in the "Nameless Valley" has increased dramatically. Additionally, activity in the northernmost vent (# 6) from April 13th appears to have decreased significantly, but the one just south of it (# 4) is still active. Not easy to judge the condition of the original vents in Geldingadalir, but there was still some glow in 'Norðri' last night. Volcanic activity in the Reykjanes Peninsula has remained stable recently. A large plume of steam emanates from the Geldingadalur eruption site on April 26, following favorable weather conditions which allowed the residents of Reykjavik to follow the eruption from a distance, both day and night. A summary from the Institute of Earth Sciences states that the average lava flow for the first 30 days of the eruption was 5.6 m3/s. Compared to most other Icelandic eruptions, the flow is remarkably low and relatively stable. The measurements on the lava now show that there has been some increase in the last 1-2 weeks. The average flow for the first 17 days was 4.5-5 m3 / s, but for the last 13 days it is close to 7 m3 / s.IMO reported that on 22nd of April Fagradalsfjall eruption continues without much change. On 20th of April, A magnitude 4.1 earthquake was measured at 11:05 p.m. this evening about three kilometers northeast of Mount Þorbjörn (6 km southwest of Fagradalsfjall). On the surface, old craters are called Sundhnúkagígaröðin. As of the 18th of April, IMO reported that the northernmost crater in the Reykjanes Peninsula's eruption zone, which opened on April 5, has ceased to erupt, as evidenced by aerial photographs by experts from the Institute of natural history yesterday. This crater was the highest on the eruptive site; these conditions may explain why the lava flow found it more convenient to exit through other openings. A summary from the University Institute of Earth Sciences indicates that the average lava flow during the first 30 days is 5.6 m³ / s. Compared to most other eruptions, the flow is relatively stable. Lava measurements now show that there has been some increase over the past 1-2 weeks. The average flow for the first 17 days was 4.5 to 5 m³ / s, but for the last 13 days it is close to 7 m³ / s.The results are the total flow from all craters over a six-day period, April 12-18. The month of April had averaged nearly 8 m³ / s. , slightly increasing from the average eruption flow and confirming that in parallel with the opening of more craters last week, the power of the eruption increased somewhat, the lava area reached 0.9 km² and the total volume now exceeds 14 million cubic meters. The development of the lava zone is not as "linear" as the development of volume, but this is because at first the lava field increased to thickness inside Geldingadalur rather than to spread. Iceland eruption update : Since new eruptive systems formed in Geldingadalur-Meradalur on Tuesday, it is possible to speak of magma now appearing in 8 places. Lava flowed from the last openings on the new hiking trail A on April 14 afternoon. There are no new measurements of the total lava flow from the eruption sites, but according to measurements taken by the Institute of Earth Sciences before the news was formed, the lava flow had remained fairly uniform at over the past four days, or about five cubic meters. per second on average. There was considerable pollution at the eruption sites yesterday; and the sites were closed. Experts from the Icelandic Meteorological Office carried out an overflight of the Geldingadalur / Meradalur eruptive site on April 13, revealing that the vents had increased to eight. The eruptions are all on the same fissure and the fissure is still directly above the magma chamber in communication with the earth's crust since February, so a number of earthquakes have been observed in many parts of the southwestern part of the country. The lava flow in Geldingadalur is constant, there is now around five to eight cubic meters of lava flowing per second and it has been so for quite some time. The eruptions that formed yesterday had no effect on the lava flow, according to an expert from the meteorological office.Gases circulated in the greater Reykjavík area throughout the day, at concentrations of 100 to 600 μg / m³. Changing winds will begin to carry the gas westward around 5:00 p.m. The eruption site in Geldingadalur, Iceland / Reykjanes Peninsula is constantly changing, and on the morning of April 13, four new craters opened. Lava flows at the end of the second hiking trail to the eruption sites. IMO reported that the latest lava flow size and lava flow data at Fagradalsfjall are based on the April 12 afternoon flight. The results show that the total flow from all craters over the past four days has averaged nearly 5 m³ / s. It's almost equal to the average bitrate from the start. It seems that the increase that took place last week, alongside the opening of new craters, was rather short-lived. The lava area has increased relatively little in recent days, as the recently formed magma mostly started to increase the thickness of the lava. The total volume now exceeds just over 10 million cubic meters. As of the 8th of April, IMO reported that the lava flow from the latest eruption fissure seems to mostly flow down into Geldingadalir. This third eruption fissure opened at midnight on the 6th of April and is between the two existing fissures. Rescue teams from the Icelandic Association for Search and Rescue had detected subsidence in the area on the 6th of April about 420 meters northeast of the original eruption area in Geldingadalir, which was about 150m long and about 1 meter deep.In the photos that were taken during the reconnaissance flight on the 7th of April it can be seen that the lava fields from the three eruption fissures are now merging. Lava from the third fissure has flowed south into Geldingadalir and northeast towards the eruption site above Meradalir. There is a continuous lava field between the three eruption sites, which in fact belong to the same volcanic fissure over the magma intrusion at Fagradalsfjall.IMO reported that eruption continues; The flow in the main channel was measured from video at a flow speed of 7.7 m./s., or 28 km / h. Photos taken on April 7 show that the new (central) fissure emits on both sides, and in the process swallowed the webcam, and that the lava fields have merged : a continuous lava field and three eruptive sites, which belong to the to the same eruptive fissure. This extends from Natthaga north-east to Kellir, above the magma corridor drawn since February. A new study of lava was carried out in the Reykjanes Peninsula ton April 6, using vertical aircraft photogrammetry. The results indicate that the lava flow is very weak in Geldingadalir and that the average flow since yesterday in the new crack is 4-5 m3 / s. The total flow is estimated at 5-6 m3 / s. Apparently, the increase seen yesterday was temporary. The intensity of the rash is therefore similar to what it was in the days before the new crack opened. A third crack opened at midnight between the two eruptive sites in Reykjanes, according to Einar Hjörleifsson, a nature conservation expert at the Icelandic Meteorological Office. The new crack opened directly in front of the web camera, 420 meters north of the spring in Geldingadalur. Rescue teams saw a landslide in the area yesterday, which was about 150 m long and about 1 meter deep, likely location of the new activity. Lava flows from the new fissure towards Geldingadalur. Information Officer for Landsbjörg, announced earlier today that it has been decided to expand the danger zone, as there are now eruption sites in two places and cracks between both. The area is closed until a new assessment.As of the 5th of April IMO reported that eruption was still going.  A new additional fissure opened at ca. 12:00 hrs on 5th of April near the initial eruption site in Geldingadalir. First estimates of the length of the fissure is ca. 200 meters, and the middle of the fissure is approximately 1 kilometer NE of the eruption site in Geldingadalir. The lava from the new fissure flows toward Meradalir valley, east of the new fissure. The lava from the fissures is non viscous and flows fast in a narrow lava-river into Meradalir valley, east of the new fissures, where a new lava field is forming. Helicopters from the Icelandic Coast Guard are at the new eruption site to make sure the area is evacuated. An airplain with scientists is on its way to the fissure for evaluating more presicely the location and the size of the new fissure.  Because of the lack of ash and tephra emission in the atmosphere, the aviation color code for Keflavik airport remains orange as there are no imminent hazard for the aviation. As of the 2nd of April, IMO reported that the vents, Nor ðri and Su ðri, were bustling today, with a fairly stable flow of gas drifting east with consequent pollution. The lava flow was stable, and the lava river appears to be elevated from the start of the week and is sustained at substantial levels. Part of the southern scoria cone collapsed on April 2 around 5:45 p.m., changing the morphology of the eruptive site. University of Iceland reported that analyzes of lava samples show trace elements and isotopes which confirm that the magma fueling the eruption in Geldingadalur has a different composition from that which caused the historic eruptions in the Reykjanes Peninsula. IMO reported that eruption in Geldingadalur is still ongoing. The activity of the lava fountain is low and no volcanic ash has been detected. The latest lava volume study was carried out today (March 31) by the University of Iceland, using vertical aircraft photogrammetry. This does not indicate that the rate of lava discharge is significantly decreasing. The average lava discharge rate over the period 29-31 March displayed on the graph is slightly above 5 m³ / s. The new geochemistry results do not show significant changes since the start of the eruption. IMO report - 29th of March : the volcanic eruption in Geldingadalir has now been ongoing for nine days. The lava is basaltic and highly fluid with little explosive activity. It is a very small eruption and the lava flow has been steady at 5-7 m3/s since its onset. Currently the extent of the lava field is within Geldingadalur but if the eruption keeps ongoing at a similar rate, it is modeled that the lava will flow east towards Merardalur valley. If the volcano continues to erupt it could eventually end up being categorized as a shield volcano. Shield volcanoes are generally formed over long time periods with lava fields extending from a few to several kilometers around its source. There is no way to tell how long the eruption will last.  The current magma is rich in MgO (8.5%) which indicates that it is from depths of around 17-20 km. There has been constant gas pollution close to the eruption site, spatially determined by local wind conditions. Gases can accumulate to life-threatening levels in certain weather conditions. There have been no indications of significant tectonic movements since the eruption started. There is currently no indication of new openings at other locations along the magma injection path. This eruption calls for specific and targeted monitoring of the eruption itself and also of the gas´s effects on air quality and the downwind environment. IMO reported that just before noon on March 28, 2021, the two craters of the volcano in Geldingadalur began to change their morphology somewhat. The craters have been given nicknames and the highest is called the south and the lower north. The flow of this through a southwest facing breach merged with the flow in the southern channel to the side of the lava rivers.On the morning of Sunday March 28, the lava reached an estimated 4 million cubic meters. To date, there has been no change in the chemical composition of the total rock samples. These measurements indicate that the magma originated from a deep magmatic reservoir, which probably lies near the crustal and mantle limit below the Reykjanes Peninsula..Lava that has formed over the Geldingadalur craters over the past nine days has now covered the valley floor. There are three to seven million cubic meters of lava rising from the earth, which may seem less on another scale as it is 0.003 to 0.007 cubic kilometers. The lava flow increases rather than decreases. Besides an explosion and a small plume of brown ash around 4:25 p.m., many people noticed beautiful pyrocumulus, visible as far as Reykjavik. As of the 26th of March, IMO reported that eruption in Geldingadalur is still ongoing. (new video with sound)The activity of the lava fountain is low and no volcanic ash was detected, but a high level of volcanic gases was measured near the eruption site, as well as very high thermal anomalies (measurements are less attenuated by the atmospheric conditions, this March 26, where we reached a VRP of 1172 MW). The lava field in Geldingadalur continues to expand steadily. (drone video). The Met Office has now made a lava flow forecast and, based on an eruption rate of five to six cubic meters per second, one can expect the lava field to pour into the next valley at Easter - likely Easter Monday (April 5). As of the 25th of March, IMO reported that eruption continues in Geldingadalur, with low fountaining activity, no ash production, but significant gas releases.According to the latest news from IMO, InSAR data suggests that the dyke is only shallow around the eruptive site, and that there is no indication of the presence of near-surface magma elsewhere along the dyke. As of the 24th of March, IMO reported that effusive eruption continued with some changes : - a second prominent vent formed adjacent to the existing main vent. - lava pools quickly form in Geldingadalur. It has been estimated that the flow of magma through the Geldingadalur craters is approximately 5.7 cubic meters per second. As part of monitoring the eruption, Pleiades images were used to measure lava thickness in the lava field, which reached up to 22 meters, lava volumes and effusion rates. As of the 23rd in the afternnon, IMO reported that a new, smaller fissure opened better on the side of the main crater during the eruption of Geldingadalur at Fagradalsfjall, where a large amount of dense lava flows. In recent days, most of the activity has taken place in the main crater, but now it's highly visible in both places. The southwest wind eased making the air quality unhealthy near the eruption site after 7:00 p.m. on March 23, 2021. The concentration of SO2 near the volcano can exceed 9000 µg / m3, and be higher in the valleys, like that of CO2. IMO and the Suðurnes police chief advise to leave the area before 5:00 p.m. and get away from the valleys. As of the 23rd of March inthe morning , IMO reported that eruption in the Reykjanes Peninsula / Geldingadalsgos is now stabilized on a single vent from the initial fissure. The explosive activity is low with the emission of lava packets, projected near the explosion zone and welded to the underlying projections. It built a cone of projections with steep walls, 25 meters high, in successive phases of construction-subsidence. Most of the lava comes out in the form of flows. This lava is smooth, pahoehoe, forms lava tunnels and builds a lava field which gradually fills the valley.As of the 22nd of March, IMO reported that vigorous lava spattering continues from the main vent, which has been building a steep-sided cone above the eruptive fissure. Over its two and half days of existence, this cone (also called a hornito currently) has been growing, sometimes partially collapsing, and thus changing its shape a lot, and it might evolve eventually into a new small mountain. At the moment, the main vent contains a small cauldron of boiling lava from where several lava flows descend into the valley, where they form a spreading field of lava that slowly but surely is covering the valley As of the 20th of March, IMO reported that at the end of afternoon, eruption showed a change on March 20 in the past four hours. At least 4 spatter cones are observed. The eruption is of low intensity but there is still a lot of magma in the crust. Temporary results indicate that the eruption fissure was originally about 200 m. in length, the lava about 10 to 15 m thick where it is thickest, and its total volume has grown to about 0.4 M m3. (video live) .The seismic activity does not disappear even in the event of an eruption, but it decreases; earthquakes can be expected as long as the lava is flowing. About 500 earthquakes were measured in Reykjanes on Saturday, but at worst at the start of the month they were in the thousands a day. IMO update 20th of March 1:45 PM : IMO update - 20th of March - 1:45 PM - The eruption site is in a valley, about 4.7 km inland from the southern coast of the peninsula. The coastal town of Grindavík is the closed populated region to the eruption site, located approximately 10 km to the southwest. The aviation colour code for Keflavik international airport has been lowered to orange as there is no indication of production of ash and tephra and no imminent hazard for the aviation. Volcanic gas (SO2) has been detected at the source of the eruption. A model for gas dispersion can be seen at the IMO web site. Currently, gas pollution is not expected to cause much discomfort for people except close up to the source of the eruption. The gas emissions will be monitored closely. IMO reported that at approximately 8:45 p.m. UTC on March 19, a volcanic eruption started in Geldingadalur, near Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The eruption was first seen on a web camera positioned near the mountain. It was also confirmed on thermal satellite imagery. At the time of writing, the weather on the peninsula is wet and windy, and an orange glow can be seen in the low clouds on the horizon from Reykjanesbær and Grindavík. The eruption site is in a valley, about 4.7 km inland from the southern coast of the peninsula. The coastal town of Grindavík is the closed, populated area of ​​the eruption site, located about 10 km to the southwest.The eruption is considered small at this point and the eruptive fissure is approximately 500 to 1,000 m long. The magma zone is approximately 1km2. The lava fountains are small. As of March 15, IMO reported a total of 1,800 earthquakes have been detected by the IMO seismic network, including seven M3.0 or more. The strongest M4.3 earthquakes occurred at 10:32 p.m. northeast of Fagradalsfjall Most of the earthquakes detected today were located near Fagradalsfjall and in the evening mostly northeast of Fagradalsfjall. Between midnight and 5:43 am on March 16, around 500 earthquakes were detected in the Reykjanes peninsula, no earthquakes were measured above M3.0. The activity was mostly centered around Mt. Fagradalsfjall and east of Mt. Þorbjörn. IMO reported that on March 14, 2021, just over 3,000 earthquakes were located on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The largest M5.4 earthquake was measured just west of Nátthagi at 2:15 p.m. It was widely felt, north of Sauðárkrókur and east of Vestmannaeyjar. Twenty-eight earthquakes greater than M3.0 were counted, mostly south of Mount Fagradalsfjall, but just under 10 earthquakes greater than M3.0 were scattered west towards the Blue Lagoon. On 13th of March, , around 2,600 earthquakes were detected. The biggest earthquake occurred at 1:34 am on M4.6. by the southwest end of Mt. Fagradalsfjall, it was widely felt, on the Reykjanes peninsula, north of Borganes and east of Fljótshlíð. In the evening at 10:06 p.m., an earthquake from an M4.1 was also measured by Mt. Fagradalsfjall. As of the 11th of march, IMO reported that Over 1700 earthquakes have been measured in the Reykjanes Peninsula since midnight, few of which were over M3, the largest one measured M4,6 at 08:53 GMT this morning. As before, the magmatic activity is centered around Mt. Fagradalsfjall southwest of Mt. Keilir. IMO reported that on March 10, around 2,500 earthquakes were detected in the Reykjanes Peninsula. About 30 of these were of magnitude M3.0 and above, the largest of which was M5.1 at 3:14. About 800 earthquakes have been detected since midnight. The largest was M3.4 magnitude at 2:10 a.m. Scientists are closely monitoring the magma channel that has formed between Keilir and Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The magma chamber is only about a meter wide but about 7 kilometers long and has moved two to three kilometers south over the past two weeks as the magma entered it. At the bottom of the magma chamber, at a depth of about five kilometers, there is a channel and from there flows about 15 to 20 cubic meters per second upwards, about three to four times the average flow of the Elliðaán rivers. The magma chamber is estimated to be about one kilometer from the earth's surface on the south side, but about two kilometers at Keilir. IMO reported that around 5:20 a.m. on March 9, 2021, increased seismic activity was detected in the southernmost part of the magma passage beneath Fagradalsfjall. A tremor pulse was detected at around the same time and lasted until about 7 a.m. This probably means that the passage of magma is developing towards the SW. Since then, there has been regular activity of small earthquakes. At 23:01, an earthquake of M4.0 occurred in Fagradalsfjall, a few minutes later another of M3.7 followed. They were felt in the southwest of Iceland. At 6:45 p.m. last night, the frequency of minor earthquakes increased but no sign of a volcanic tremor was detected. A few earthquakes of magnitude greater than M3.0 were detected during this activity, the largest one M3.4 at 8:40 p.m. As of the 8th of March, IMO reported that earthquake swarm on the Reykjanes Peninsula continues, but has decreased a little bit. Since midnight, about 500 earthquakes have been detected in the area - fewer than during recent nights - and that there were no signs of unrest.The largest earthquake was 3.3 magnitude event at 00:34. The activity was greatest at Fagradalsfjall, but earthquakes were also measured at Reykjanestá, Þorbjörn and Trölladyngja. (map) Yesterday (7 Mar) about 2800 earthquakes were measured on the peninsula, of which about 300 were analyzed manually. The largest quake was a 5.0 magnitude at 02:01, which was felt everywhere in the SW corner of the country. IMO reported that just after midnight at 12:22 am on March 07, 2021, a tremor was detected which lasted 20 minutes. This tremor was similar to that measured on March 3, which had lasted several hours. Following these events the seismicity intensified with earthquakes of more than 4. The biggest earthquake of the night was M5 at 2:02 am about 3 km west of Fagradalsfjall. As of midnight, more than 30 earthquakes on M3 have been located and 5 larger than M4. More than 22,000 earthquakes have been detected in the region since the start of the activity. According to IMO, on 5.03.02021, around 2800 earthquakes were detected and as of midnight around 700 were detected. At 11:29 p.m. an M3.5 earthquake was located by Fagradalsfjall No quakes were measured overnight, but the seismic activity is still significant. At 4:11 am on 03/06/2021, an M3.7 earthquake occurred by Fagradalsfjall. Five other earthquakes were measured above M3 this evening. There were 3 earthquakes of magnitude greater than M3 detected at noon, felt by the population. IMO reported that a tremor pulse was detected at 2:20 p.m. on March 3, 2021, and was observed at most seismic stations in Iceland. The pulse is located near Litli-Hrutur, halfway between Keilir and Fagradalsfjall. (webcam) .Similar signals have been observed leading to an eruption, but no eruption has been confirmed. IMO is working on a more in-depth analysis of the tremor drive.At 4:20 p.m., the measurements do not give clear indications on if and when the magma will reach the surface. Experts from the Meteorological Bureau are currently carrying out surveillance flights to see if silt depressions are forming in the area, indicating that the magma is very shallow.As a precautionary measure for domestic and international air travel, the Reykjanes Peninsula volcanic aviation color code has been raised from yellow (high unrest) to orange (increased unrest). The orange alert represents the third highest level, with red reserved for an imminent or ongoing volcanic eruption. Previously, IMO reported that since noon on the 26th seismic swarm started it increasing again and several earthquakes above M4 were recorded. The largest earthquake on February 26 was M4.9 at 10:38 p.m. This was widely felt in the SW eg. in Vestmanneyjar, Borgarfjörður, Rangárþing. Three earthquakes on M3.0 were detected around 2:30 a.m. The largest was M3.8 and was felt in the southwest and west of Iceland. Such intense swarms are not unheard of eg. on June 10, 1933, five earthquakes M4.9-M5.9 were recorded at Fagradalsfjall. The swarm is still ongoing and since February 23, the SIL system has detected more than 6,000 earthquakes in the region. IMO reported that the seismic swarm continues in the Reykjanes Peninsula. On 25th of February, at 14:35, an earthquake of M3.5 was detected near Fagradalsfjall and another at 14:21 of M3.2. The earthquakes were felt in Reykjanes and the capital region. The swarm is still ongoing and since February 24, the SIL system has detected more than 4,200 earthquakes in the region. IMO reported that after several severe earthquakes in the Reykjanes Peninsula on the morning of February 24, police, civil defense and the Earthquake Watch Service of the Meteorological Department declared the level of danger for the peninsula and region of the capital. On February 24 at 10:05 am, there was an M5 earthquake. 7 to 3.3 km SSO of Keili. This powerful seismic swarm is spreading over a relatively large area of ​​the Reykjanes Peninsula and Kristín Jónsdóttir, director of natural hazard monitoring at the Icelandic Met Office, said in Iceland Review that residents should be prepared for the possibility of even larger earthquakes. At least 45 of the earthquakes in the swarm are greater than magnitude 3, and at least 9 above M4, according to preliminary reports released around 12:30 p.m. Earthquakes have more than one point of origin extending between Lake Kleifarvatn and the town of Grindavík in southwest Iceland. Rocks fell from high points in Reykjanes and white steam jets from geothermal areas were seen in the area. IMO reported that seismic swarms have returned to the Reykjanes Peninsula since January 7, still without any sign of the start of an eruption. On January 10 at 03:15 UTC, a 4.1 Mw earthquake was felt over Reykjavik, preceding a daytime swarm of lower magnitude. An increase in the number of earthquakes was observed between December 28 and January 3, with 400 earthquakes during the week against 140 the previous week. Previous news 2020 - A small swarm marked the peninsula south of Merardalir on December 29 and 30, 2020. Previous news 2020 - IMO reported that at 1:43 p.m. on October 20, an M5.6 earthquake occurred in Núpshlíðarháls, about 5 km west of the Seltún geothermal area on the Reykjanes peninsula. The earthquake was felt widely across the country, particularly in the southern part of the Reykjanes peninsula and in the capital region, about 25 km from the epicenter.The earthquake was felt also in the Westman Islands and Borgarnes. To date, more than 250 aftershocks have been detected, the most important of the period between 3:27 pm and 3:32 pm The most important was M4.1, the other earthquakes between 3.0 and 3.8 . There is no sign of volcanic unrest in the area. IMO reported that at 7:06 p.m. and 7:08 p.m. on August 29, earthquakes M3.6 and M3.0 occurred just west of Kleifarvatn on the Reykjanes peninsula. Two earthquakes of similar magnitude, M3.4 and M3.0 occurred in the same location at 4:23 pm and 4:39 pm yesterday. The earthquakes were felt in the Reykjanes Peninsula, the capital region and Akranes. Smaller aftershocks have since occurred and are expected to continue.IMO reported that on August 26, 2020 at 4:15 PM, an M4.2 earthquake occurred about 10 km NE of Grindavík. Another M3.7 earthquake occurred in a similar location at 1:43 p.m. IMO has received many felt reports from the southwestern part of Iceland regarding these earthquakes. At 5:06 am on August 27, an M2.9 earthquake was detected near Fagradalsfjall but a swarm of earthquakes is still in progress there. In total, the IMO reported five earthquakes of magnitude equal to or greater than 3 over the last two days. IMO reported that an earthquake between M5 occurred on 20th of July at 23:36 in the area of ​​Fagradalsfjall, a tuya formed during the Pleistocene. The earthquake was widely felt in the southwestern part of Iceland. A considerable number of aftershocks occurred, the most significant were M3.5 at 00:08, M3.4 at 00:55, M3.0 at 02:19 and M3.4 at 03:09 and these were also felt in the southwest of Iceland. At 5:46 am, an M4.6 was detected. Rockfall was reported at Festarfjall, about 6 km SW of the epicenter of the earthquake. On July 18 at 05:56 a.m., an M4.1 earthquake was detected 4.1 km north of Grindavík. Earthquakes around Grindavík have continued in recent months due to deformation in the area. As of the 18th of July, IMO reported that a magnitude 4.1 earthquake occurred 4.1 km from Grindavik, on the Reykjanes Peninsula. It was preceded by another of magnitude 3; 2. Both were felt in Grindavik and Reykjanesbaer. The persistent seismic activity is, according to the IMO, in relation to the deformation due to magmatic intrusions in the earth's crust. IMO reported that the seismic swarm at the Eyjafjörður was still in progress. Since the crisis began on June 19, the National Meteorological Office's earthquake system has located more than 13,000 earthquakes, including three magnitude 5 earthquakes. There were still many small earthquakes in the region and it is still likely that there will be more larger earthquakes. As of the 11th of July, two earthquakes of more than magnitude 3 were measured just west of Herðubreiðartöglar on the Reykjanes peninsula.The first of magnitude 3.2 at 2:15 p.m. and the second at 5:47 p.m. of magnitude 3.1, but a report was received that the second earthquake was found in Drekagil by Askja.Earthquakes have persisted in the Grindavík region in recent months due to landslides. IMO reported that on July 8 at 5:41 p.m., an earthquake of magnitude 4.2 occurred approximately 13 km from the CP of Gjögurtá. The Icelandic Meteorological Office has received reports that the earthquake occurred in many parts of the Eyjafjörður region. The seismic swarm is still in progress. Since the onset of the crisis on June 19, the IMO has located more than 10,000 earthquakes. Three earthquakes larger than 5 were detected in the hryvnia, the largest being on June 21, the size of 5.8 at 30 km NNE from Siglufjörður. Other earthquakes of magnitude greater than 5 were 5.6 and 5.4 magnitude on June 20 and were located more than 20 km northeast of Siglufjörður. There are still many small earthquakes in the region, and larger earthquakes are likely to occur. IMO reported that the seismic swarm at the Eyjafjörður was still in progress. On 2nd of July at 7.20pm, an earthquake of magnitude 3.6 was detected between Olafsfjörður and Dalvik. IMO reported that the seismic swarm in the Tjörnes fracture zone, north-east of Siglufjörður, was still in progress. During the night of June 27th at 4:52 p.m., an earthquake of magnitude 4.0 was measured at approximately 35 km NNE from Siglufjörður, this morning at 6:02 a.m., another of magnitude 3.2 was measured at approximately 20 km northeast of Siglufjörður. On June 26th, the automatic system measured more than 700 earthquakes in the region, an earthquake> 3.0 was detected at a magnitude of 3.2 at 1:55 p.m. about thirty kilometers northeast from Siglufjörður. IMO reported that a third injection of magma since the beginning of the year was occurring beneath the Reykjanes peninsula. Data suggested that the current inflationary period began in mid-May, though earthquake activity did not increase until around 30 May. During 30 May-15 June the seismic network recorded more than 2,000 events, with the largest, an M 3.4, with more than 70 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 3, the largest reaching M 5.6 and 5.7. In total, the IMO has located more than 2,000 earthquakes since the start of this crisis.IMO also reported considerable rock collapses in Tröllaskagi, but also accident reports in Malmö. A power outage in Kelduhverfi was also reported after the second earthquake. There is a considerable risk of rock accidents and landslides on steep slopes in the northern fjords and on the Tröllaskagi and Flatey Islands. The seismic swarm is still in progress and may move east along the Húsavík-Flateyjarm gang. Larger earthquakes cannot be excluded. IMO recorded on 13 June a seismic swarm probably assiciated with a intrusion which was located about 1 km W of Thorbjorn at a depth of 3-4 km, and had an estimated volume of about 1.2 million cubic meters. This third intrusion was similar to the previous two intrusions, characterized as a sill that was a few hundred meters wide and about 6 km long. In total about 12 cm of uplift has been recorded since January. The Svartsengi geothermal plant noted no chemical changes in the geothermal system, though measurements showed increased fluid flow in the rocks within the system, along with the opening of old cracks and the formation of new ones. IMO reported that at 8:27 p.m. on June 13, an earthquake of magnitude M3.5 occurred approximately 3.7 km north of Grindavík, on the Reykjanes Peninsula. Residents of Grindavík felt the earthquake. It is part of a swarm of earthquakes in progress since May 30, and about 2000 earthquakes have been detected there since, mainly small earthquakes, sometimes more intense, including 3 of M between 2.5 and 2 , 9 and one of M3.5 on June 13. Observations of the area indicate signs of re-swelling around Þorbjörn. IMO reported that seismic activity has resumed on the Reykjanes peninsula since May 30. The IMO reports about 300 earthquakes since midnight, the strongest of M 2.7 felt in Grindavik.During the week of May 20 to 27, 120 earthquakes were counted. New GPS, InSAR, and radon measurements taken on May 26 indicate soft re-inflation near Þorbjörn; a longer-term series of measures is necessary to understand the processes and assess the risks. The phase of uncertainty declared by the Protecton Civile is still in force. IMO reported that uplift detected in the Thorbjorn area decreased in the beginning of April and stopped later in the month. Seismicity, which had occurred across three main volcanic systems: Eldey, Reykjanes-Svartsengi, and Krisuvik, had significantly decreased. These data indicated that the injection of magma beneath Thorbjorn had stopped, though there were indications of deformation over a larger area. On 4 May the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. IMO reported that seismic swarms continue. On April 11 at 9:55 am, an earthquake of Magnitude 3.2 occurred 4.6 km northwest of Grindavik, preceded by another of M2.8 at 9:32, both felt in Grindavik. Seismicity remains continuous in the Reykjanes peninsula, probably according to the IMO following three magmatic intrusions as reported on April 3. IMO reported that GPS measurements, along with detailed analysis and model calculations of the available data, now testify to a new magma deposit west of the Reykjanes Peninsula under Rauðhólar and Sýrfell.IMO reported that on March 25, at 9:44 am, an M3.4 earthquake occurred just north of Grindavík. The earthquake was felt in Grindavík. Considerable seismic activity has continued in the region in recent weeks due to the deformation of the region. The phase of uncertainty due to the uplift by Mt. Þorbjörn that declared civil protection is still in force.This confirms the data that was collected in collaboration with the Institute of Earth Sciences, ÍSORs, HS Energy and the Icelandic Meteorological Office after the start of activities in Thorbjörn.One model places the magmatic intrusion about 8-13 km deep, which is probably deep in the earth's crust at a depth considerably higher than the two magma deposits at Thorbjörn. IMO reported that activity in Grindavík remained high during the week of March 16 to 22 after a swarm of earthquakes that started on March 12. This is the same area as where previous earthquake swarms occurred earlier this year. About 1,000 earthquakes have been located on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The biggest earthquake of the week was M4.2 on March 18, about 5 km NW of Gunnuhver on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The earthquake was widely felt in the southwestern part of Iceland. On March 19, an M3.5 earthquake occurred 3.5 km NW of Grindavík. An M3.0 earthquake occurred on March 20 by Kleifarvatn on the Reykjanes Peninsula, where a small swarm of earthquakes occurred on the same day. IMO reported that on March 20, at 8:30 p.m., an earthquake swarm started close to Krysuvik. By midnight, 60 earthquakes had been detected in the region. The biggest M3 happened at 9:21 p.m. No reports were received. Then the activity decreased.IMO reported that on March 19 at 16 h 53, an earthquake of M3.3 was detected approximately 3 km NW of Grindavik. Few aftershocks followed. The IMO has received feeling reports from the Reykjanes Peninsula. On March 18 at 03:42 am, an M3.0 earthquake occurred approximately 5 km VNV from Grindavík. The uncertainty phase due to the uprising in Reykjanes is still valid according to the Ministry of Civil Protection. The latest distortion results around Mount Thorbjorn on the Reykjanes Peninsula indicate that inflation causing an uprising in the region has resumed. The uprising is slower than when it was measured in January, but seems to be in the same place. The most likely explanation for the signal is that the influx of magma has started again. IMO reported that at 10:32 a.m. on March 18, an M4.2 earthquake was detected approximately 3 km northwest of Gunnuhver on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The latest distortion results around Mount Thorbjorn on the Reykjanes Peninsula indicate that inflation causing an uprising in the region has resumed. The uprising is slower than when it was measured in January, but seems to be in the same place. The most likely explanation for the signal is that the influx of magma has started again.The inflation is occurring on plate boundaries and within the volcanic system of Svartsengi which is either considered a separate system or part of the Reykjanes volcanic system. The last known eruption was during Reykjanes fires, which occurred between 1210-1240 AD. Within that period a several eruptions occurred within that system, thereof there were three eruptions in Svartsengi system. The eruptions were effusive (non-explosive) fissure eruptions erupting on 1-10 km long fissures. No explosive eruptions are known from this system. The largest eruption in the swarm, from 13th century, formed Arnarseturshraun lava (estimated 0,3 km3 and 20 km2). The duration of these eruptions are usually from a few days up to several weeks. Seismic activity is very common in this area and is linked to the plate boundaries, geothermal activity and possible magma intrusions. The largest earthquakes measured in this area are about M5.5.

Iceland - Grimsvotn volcano

October 12th, 2020

As of the 11th of october, according to the Icelandic Met office, several signs of increasing activity (frequency of earthquakes, inflation, geothermal activity and rising heat flow) are noticed at Grimsvötn, which saw its aviation code change from green to yellow on September 30. Local volcanologist explains that an increase in seismicity and heat flux is observed 6 months to 2 years before an eruption. The water level of the subglacial lake, present above the Grimsvötn, increased sharply and reached higher values ​​than in 2004 and 2010, marked by jökulhlaup (glacial debacles) ... the sudden pressure relief destabilizes the volcano, and may cause an eruption. Increased monitoring of the volcano is required during this period of increased activity.As of the 30th of September, IMO has changed the aviation color code of the Grímsvötn volcano from green to yellow. Volcanic activity at Grímsvötn has gradually increased over time, as indicated by several regularly monitored geophysical and geochemical parameters that are now above known background level:- Seismicity over the past month has been above average.- Geothermal activity has increased in recent months with clear signs of cauldron deepening in several places around the caldera.- The deformation of the surface has exceeded the level it was at before the 2011 eruption.- Magmatic gases were measured in geothermal emissions this summer.- In addition, the water depth in the subglacial lake is comparable to the level prior to the 2004 and 2010 floods, which increases the likelihood of flooding in the months to come.Several datasets now indicate that the Grímsvötn volcano has reached a level of unrest comparable to that seen before the historic eruptions.For these reasons, the aviation color code has changed from green to yellow. This does not mean that a rash is imminent. As of the 12th of June, IMO reported that a research team measured an increase in volcanic gases from the Icelandic volcano Grímsvötn. The water surface of the subglacial lake in the caldera is high and a jökulhlaup (a glacial debacle) could occur in weeks / months, which can trigger an eruption following a discharge of weight on the magma chamber, according to Magnús Tumi Guðmundsson, professor of geophysics at the University of Iceland. Higher seismic activity, increased geothermal energy, and magmatic gas flow indicate that Grímsvötn is preparing for an eruption, according Magnús Tumi. Grímsvötn, Iceland's most frequently active volcano in historical time, lies largely beneath the vast Vatnajökull icecap. The caldera lake is covered by a 200-m-thick ice shelf, and only the southern rim of the 6 x 8 km caldera is exposed. The geothermal area in the caldera causes frequent jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) when melting raises the water level high enough to lift its ice dam. Long NE-SW-trending fissure systems extend from the central volcano. The most prominent of these is the noted Laki (Skaftar) fissure, which extends to the SW and produced the world's largest known historical lava flow during an eruption in 1783. The 15-cu-km basaltic Laki lavas were erupted over a 7-month period from a 27-km-long fissure system. Extensive crop damage and livestock losses caused a severe famine that resulted in the loss of one-fifth of the population of Iceland.The last major eruption of the Grimsvötn dates back to 2011, and emitted 0.8 km³ of tephra, preceded by smaller eruptions in 1998 and 2004.

Iceland - Oraefajokull volcano

July 15th, 2018

The IMO changed the status of Öraefajökull on 13 July. This volcano shows clear signs of instability, coupled with a phase of inflation for a year and a half, reflected by an increase in seismic activity and deformation, which are persistent. The probable cause of this inflation is one injection of new magma, with an estimated volume of about 10 million m³, a volume comparable to the intrusion under the Eyjafjalajökull before the eruption of 2010.Despite a drop in geothermal activity since the end of December, new resistivity measurements indicate the presence of altered rocks at superficial levels within the caldera due to high temperatures. IMO reported a seismic swarm is in progress at Öraefajökull; it began on June 26, 2018 with a magnitude 3.1 earthquake and continues with earthquakes of lesser magnitude.A magnitude 2.1 earthquake occurred outside the volcano, while appearing connected to it. Previous news 2017 - On 22 December 2017 IMO reported that activity had been fairly stable during the previous weeks, though still above background levels; the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. In December the largest earthquake detected was a M2.5, but most events were smaller than M1. Earthquakes were located close to the caldera 2 and 10 km. The Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that that on 17 November the Aviation Color Code for Oraefajokull was raised to Yellow because satellite images and photos showed that a new ice cauldron had formed within the caldera the previous week. The new cauldron was about 1 km in diameter and 15-20 m deep, and signified a recent increase in geothermal activity. Scientists conducted an overflight on 18 November; in addition, while on the ground, they took water samples, measurements of electrical conductivity, and gas levels at the Kvojokull outlet-glacier, a valley glacier on the SE flank of Oraefajokull . There was no obvious sign of flooding in the Kvoro river. A sulfur odor, which had been reported for about a week, was also noted. An increase in the seismic activity was recorded for the last few months (the largest earthquake, an M 3.4, occurred on the 3 October), but was low for the past few days. IMO noted that there were no signs of an imminent volcanic eruption, though there was considerable uncertainty about how the situation will evolve. Oraefajokull Iceland's highest peak, is a broad glacier-clad central volcano at the SE end of the Vatnajokull icecap. A 4 x 5 km subglacial caldera truncates the summit of the dominantly basaltic and rhyolitic volcano. The extensive summit icecap is drained through deep glacial valleys dissecting the SW-to-SE flanks. The largest-volume volcano in Iceland, 2119-m-high Oraefajokull was mostly constructed during Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods. Holocene activity has been dominated by explosive summit eruptions, although flank lava effusions have also occurred. A major silicic eruption in 1362 CE was Iceland's largest historical explosive eruption. It and another eruption during 1727-28 were accompanied by major jokulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) that caused
property damage and fatalities. (GVN/GVP)

ICELAND - Bardarbunga volcano

July 15th, 20205

IMO reported that shortly before midnight on July 13 at 11:41 p.m. an earthquake of magnitude 3 shook the southeastern part of the Bárðarbunga caldera and about an hour later on July 14, another earthquake of magnitude 3.6 shook the region. Previous news 2015 - On 26 April the Icelandic Met Office (IMO) lowered the Aviation Color Code for Bardarbunga to Green (the lowest on a four-color scale). No further signs of unrest had been noted since the end of the eruption on 27 February; seismicity within the caldera and the associated dyke intrusion continued to decline.Previously, the Icelandic Met Office reported that the eruption at Bárdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, which began on 31 August 2014, had ended on 27 February; the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow. During an overflight scientists did not see any incandescence from the vents, although gas emissions persisted. Radar measurements showed that no increase in the extent of the lava field had been detected since mid-February.During 17-19 February, Icelandic Met Office reported continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, though the overall intensity of the eruption continued to decrease. Only one active vent was present in the crater, and the lava level in that crater continued to sink. The eruption plume rose no more than 1 km above the ground and drifted NE, and the lava channel was crusted over beyond the uppermost 200-300 m. The lava tube continued to feed the N and NE parts of Holuhraun, inflating the lava field. The reduced effusion rate was no longer able to sustain active breakouts in an area 17-18 km ENE from the vent. A 24 February report noted that the rate of subsidence was less than 2 cm per day and lava flows decreased substantially. Seismic activity continued to decrease although it was still considered to be strong. During 11-17 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; the overall activity was persistent, but lower compared to recent weeks and months. Seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 85 square kilometers on 14 February; measurements from 4 and 12 February showed almost no changes in the extent of the field. During 4-10 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A 6 February statement noted that although there was a visible reduction in activity during the previous two weeks, seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS easurements showed that subsidence continued.During 27 January-3 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, with a lava-flow rate of about 100 cubic meters per second. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. On 27 January the plume rose an estimated 1.3 km. A map made on 21 January showed that the lava field was thickening and not expanding significantly; the erupted volume was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers (15% uncertainty). During 21-27 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Ba¡rdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded along the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Very high values of sulfur dioxide, about 84,000 mµg/m3, were recorded at the eruption site on 21 January; this value was the highest recorded at ground level since the eruption started. Total subsidence of the Bárdarbunga surface since mid-August was 61 m, and the volume of erupted lava was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers. The lava field covered 84.7 square kilometers on 22 January. A report issued on 27 January stated that the average rate of lava emission during the previous three weeks was just less than 100 cubic meters per second, herefore the intensity of the eruption was slowly decreasing.During 14-20 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.3 square kilometers on 15 January. During 7-13 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.1 square kilometers on 10 January. During 31 December-6 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Subsidence continued at a rate of 25 cm/day. The lava field covered 83.4 square kilometers on 6 January. Preliminary analysis of radar measurements taken during an overflight on 30 December showed that the lava is on average 10 m thick in the E part, 12 m thick at the center, and about 14 m in the W part. The maximum thickness, near the craters, was about 40 m at the E margin of the lava lake. A preliminary estimate for the volume of the lava was 1.1 cubic kilometers. Total subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga surface since mid-August was 59 m. During 24-30 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. The lava field covered 82.8 square kilometers as of 29 December.During 10-16 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A decreased rate of subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field covered just over 78.6 square kilometers on 15 December.During 3-9 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection reviewed data from the beginning of the eruption on 31 August to 3 December and found a decreased rate of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera from up to 80 cm/day to 25 cm/day, with most of the subsidence concentrated at the center of the caldera. Data also showed a decline in the intensity of the eruption at Holuhraun, although seismic activity remained strong. After 100 eruptive days the lava field covered just over 76 square kilometers on 9 December, making it the largest lava field in Iceland since the Laki eruption (1783-1784). Additionally, the gas emissions have had an impact all over Iceland for the first time in 150 years.During 26 November-2 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Based on a field report from 25 or 26 November the activity was characterized as pulsating; lava surged from the vent for 2-3 minutes, every 5-10 minutes, causing bulges in the upper parts of the lava channel. Measurements obtained during an overflight on 26 November indicated that the total amount of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera was about 50 m, with an estimated volume of 1.4 cubic kilometers. The rate of subsidence in the center of the caldera had decreased slowly compared to the first month of the eruption. Observers in Dyngjusandur, NE of the vent, photographed the plume at 1441 on 27 November and indicated that the top of the plume was 3.1 km above Dyngjusandur, and the base of the aerosol-laden lower part of the plume was about 1.4 km above the sand plain. A thermal image from 1 December showed several changes to the lava field: in just over 24 hours a new lava extrusion at the NE margin traveled 450 m; a new flow traveled N, just W of the lava lake; and a new flow was forming S of the lava lake, and then to the E of that flow. The lava field covered just over 75 square kilometers on 1 December. During 18-25 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; FLIR thermal images of the craters on 18 November showed that the most intense area of thermal convection was at the northern part of the eruption site, called Heimasjta. Lava flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. On 20 November observers characterized the eruption as pulsating explosions in the crater every 10-15 minutes, followed by a gush of lava down the main channel with splashing on either side During 12-18 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; lava from the lava lake in the main vent, Baugur Crater, flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Seismicity remained strong, although a report on 14 November noted that the number of earthquakes over M 5 seemed to be decreasing. The lava field covered 71.9 square kilometers on 14 November.During 5-11 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued, and seismicity remained strong. The lava field was 60 square kilometers on 9 November. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted.During 29 October-4 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued; by 31 October the depression was about 42 m. The lava field was 65.7 square kilometers on 31 October. As of the 28th of october, effusive activity is still continuing. Lava is still issuing and is covering about 0.79km2/day. caldera subsidence continued at a rate 50cm per day. During 15-21 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued at a rate of 30-40 cm per day, concentrated in the NE part of the caldera, and on 15 October was an estimated 0.75 cubic kilometers. On 18 October a M 5.4 earthquake was detected at 0940 in N Bardarbunga making it one of the biggest earthquakes since the start of the eruption. The lava field continued to grow and the lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 60.7 square kilometers on 19 October. From 15th to 16th of October seismic activity increased. About 130 earthquakes were recorded. Lava flows are still running to the North ans to the East. During 8-14 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field continued to grow, with lava production unchanged. Seismic activity was low in the N part of the dyke and around the eruption site.During 1-7 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued. Seismic activity at the N part of the dyke and around the vents declined, although the lava field continued to grow and lava production continued at the same output. Lava field measured more than 50 km2. On 5 October a new lava front at the S edge of the main lava flow advanced E. During 23-30 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga caldera continued and had reached 27-28 m by 24 September. On 29 September the subsidence rate slowed slightly and was about 40 cm per 24 hours. Lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 46 square kilometers on 30 September. During 17-23 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Chemical analysis and geophysical modeling indicated that the source of the magma was at a depth of more than 10 km. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera and crustal movements signified that the volume of magma in the dyke slightly increased. On 21 September the lava field measured 37 square kilometers. Field scientists estimated that about 90% of the sulfur dioxide gas from the eruption originated at the active craters and the rest rose from the lava field. Dead birds were also found around the eruption site. A report on 22 September noted that the total volume of the erupted lava was 0.4-0.6 cubic kilometers and the flow rate was 250-350 cubic meters per second. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bárdarbunga caldera; the volume of the depression was an estimated 0.6 cubic kilometers on 23 September During 10-16 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Lava flows continued to advance at a consistent rate toward the E and W, and by 13 September, the lava field measured 24.5 km2. The main flow had entered the river bed of Jokkuls Follum and continued to follow its course; steam rose from the river where the lava was in contact but no explosive activity occurred. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera; approximately 23 m of total subsidence was measured during a survey on 14 September. Seismicity persisted mainly around the caldera and the Dyngjujokull glacier. The largest earthquakes, M 5.5, M 5.3, and M 5.0, were detected on 10, 11, and 15 September respectively. IMO reported continued elevated SO2 emissions during 10-16 September and issued warnings to the public in the municipality of Fjarjarbyggen on 13 September. As of the 4th of September in the afternoon IMO reported that eruptive activity was continuing. Lava fountaining slightly increased during previous hours et lava emissions continued. (total covered surface is now about 10.8 km2. Lava tongue strench about 4km distance to the Northeast. During the past hour a graben formed below the Dynjujokull icecap. The seismicity remained at a high level. As of the 3rd of September, IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing and characterized by small lava fountaining above the central part of the fissure and lava flows emissions around. In the morning the lava rate emisssions was 150 m3/s. The surface covered from the beginning of the eruptive phase is 6,5 km2 and the total volume between 30-40 millions/m3 (about 1/10 of the estimated dyke volume). Seismic activity remained important and a strong eartquakes mag 5.5. occurred in the morning located close the caldera. During 27 August-2 September the Icelandic Met Office reported ongoing seismic activity at Bárdarbunga volcano. On 27 August an overflight showed a 4-6-km-long row of cauldrons 10-15 m in diameter S of Bárdarbunga. The Aviation Color Code remains at Orange. As of the 1st of September in the morning , IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing, characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emission along the fissure. As of the 31st of August IMO reported that a new eruptive phase (second one) started probably on Sunday early morning. At 5:49 AM webcam showed an eruptive activity at the same place of the previous activity along the fissure. Eruptive activity was characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emissions. Seismic activity remained important, mainly concentrated along a - 15 km line strenching from from Dynjujokull icecap to the area of the 29th of August eruption. As of the 30th of August, IMO reported that the first fissural eruptive phase ended. The new bulletin reported that the eruptive activity culminated between 00:40 AM - 1:00 AM, then dropped. At about 4:00 AM the short lava flows were not longer supplied. Alert level lowered from red to orange. Previously, as of the 29th of August, IMO reported that an 100 m -long eruptive fissure opened at midnight at about 10 km North Vatnajokull. Webcam images showed red glowing and small lava fountaining above the basaltic fissure. Later bulletin reported that the fissure strenched 400 m to 1 km long. The activity dropped at 2:40 AM . On the morning webcam showed only a small gas plume issued from the fissure. On 26 August the location of the seismicity was located primarily along the 10 km long tip of the dike that extended 5 km beyond the glacier margin. During 22-26 August several earthquakes in the 4.7-5.7 magnitude range had been detected at or near the volcano. On 23 August seismic tremor indicated a small lava-eruption 150-400 m beneath the Dyngjuj0kull glacier, prompting a change in the Aviation Color Code to Red. On 24 August observations from an overflight indicated there was no eruption and the Aviation Color Code was changed to Orange. However the seismic activity remains important with 700 eathquakes from Sunday 00 AM to 2:30 pm (two with more than 5 in magnitude). As of the 23rd of August, RUV reported that a possible mall sub-glacial volcanic eruption has started near Bardarbunga volcano, under the icecap of Dyngjujökull glacier in the northern part of Vatnajökull Glacier, according to the Icelandic Met Office. All air traffic is now prohibited in a large radius around the volcano. The National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police has raised the alert phase to emergency phase accordingly. Furthermore, the Met Office has raised the aviation color code from orange to red resulting in the air space above the eruption site being closed. The eruption is considered a minor event at this point. Because of a pressure from the glacier cap it is uncertain whether the eruption will stay sub-glacial or not. The Coast Guards aircraft, TF-Sif, is currently monitoring the area and there are no visible signs of a plume at this moment. Nothing indicates floods because of the eruption. At this stage measurements taken are based on a small event. The Jökulsárgljúfur canyon has been closed and evacuation of tourists in that area and around Dettifoss waterfall has started. The situation at this stage does not call for evacuation of habitants in Kelduhverfi, Öxarfjördur and Núpasveit. People in those areas are encouraged to watch news closely and have their mobiles switched on at all times.This story, by the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV), was updated on 23 August 2014, at 15.13 GMT - Previously, during 13-19 August the Icelandic Met Office reported increased seismic activity at Bardarbunga volcano. On 16 August more than 200 earthquakes were reported under the NW Vatnajokull ice cap, and GPS stations have shown an increasing signal upward and away from the volcano since early June 2014. On 16 August the Aviation Color code was increased to Yellow. On 18 August the Icelandic Met Office reported an earthquake swarm to the E and another to the N of Bardarbunga. A M4 earthquake was recorded that was the strongest in the region since 1996. By 18 August there had been 2,600 earthquakes detected at the volcano; earthquake locations from N and E swarms had been migrating NE, but in the evening activity of the N swarm had decreased significantly. That same day the Aviation Color code was raised to Orange. The large central volcano of Bárdarbunga lies beneath the NW part of the Vatnajokull icecap, NW of Grimsvotn volcano, and contains a subglacial 700-m-deep caldera. Related fissure systems include the Veidivotn and Trollagigar fissures, which extend about 100 km SW to near Torfajokull volcano and 50 km NE to near Askja volcano, respectively. Voluminous fissure eruptions, including one at Thjorsarhraun, which produced the largest known Holocene lava flow on Earth with a volume of more than 21 cu km, have occurred throughout the Holocene into historical time from the Veidivotn fissure system. The last major eruption of Veidivotn, in 1477, also produced a large tephra deposit. The subglacial Loki-Fogrufjoll volcanic system located SW of Bárdarbunga volcano is also part of the Bárdarbunga volcanic system and contains two subglacial ridges extending from the largely subglacial Hamarinn central volcano; the Loki ridge trends to the NE and the Fogrufjoll ridge to the SW. Jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods) from eruptions at Bardarbunga potentially affect drainages in all directions. ( Icelandic Met Office) - Webcam and seismic recording

ICELAND - Askja volcano

November 13rd, 2019

On 13rd of November the Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that seismic swarm which started on Thursday, November 7, just east of Askja, continued. This morning at 7:30 am, an M3.1 event occurred in Askja. About 1000 earthquakes have been recorded in the area since the beginning of the swarm. The largest earthquake was M3.4 and occurred on November 9th. In addition to this swarm, an earthquake> M3.0 has been detected during the swarm so far and about 20 earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 2.0. No volcanic tremor has been detected in the area. This is more like fragile-type tectonic earthquakes related to continental drift. Swarms of earthquakes occur regularly around Herðubreið and Askja. IMO monitors the activity 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Askja is a large basaltic central volcano that forms the Dyngjufjöll massif. It is truncated by three overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 8 km wide and may have been produced primarily from subglacial ring-fracture eruptions rather than by subsidence. A major rhyolitic explosive eruption from Dyngjufjöll about 10,000 years ago was in part associated with the formation of Askja caldera. Many postglacial eruptions also occurred along the ring-fracture. A major explosive eruption on the SE caldera margin in 1875 was one of Iceland's largest during historical time. It resulted in the formation of a smaller 4.5-km-wide caldera, now filled by Öskjuvatn lake, that truncates the rim of the larger central caldera. The 100-km-long Askja fissure swarm, which includes the Sveinagja graben, is also related to the Askja volcanic system, as are several small shield volcanoes such as Kollatadyngja. Twentieth-century eruptions have produced lava flows from vents located mostly near Öskjuvatn lake. (GVN/GVP) - Icelandic volcanoes data base ******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

European volcanoes Catalog online

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Etna from space

 

Strombolian activity - Etna 13th of January 2021 (Photo Giusa)

Etna eruption - 16th of February 2021 (Photo G.Giusa)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fagradalsfjall eruption on 20th of March (Iceland)

 

FRANCE - Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion island)

May 14th, 2021

As of the 13th of mat, OVPF reported that images of the cameras of the OVPF and the OVPF / IRT of the last 24 hours, as well as the images taken by the SAG and the PGHM during an overflight yesterday around 3:30 p.m. show that: the two cones are still active with strong degassing. The lava level in the two cones is now very low, and the most downstream cone has closed considerably compared to the day of May 11. The most downstream cone projects lava fountains at 5 minute intervals to a height of 5-6 m above the cone. the flow of lava at the exit of the eruptive vents is mainly in tunnels up to the upper limit of the large slopes, where lava resurgences are sometimes visible on the surface; the flow front continues its slow progression in the Grandes Pentes, it was yesterday around 3:30 p.m. at an altitude of 920 m. The CO2 fluxes in the soil are always increasing in the far field (Plains region). However, over the last 48 hours, no significant deformation has been recorded. An overview of the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise by SAG and PGHM on May 12 afternoon showed that the lava level in the 2 cones is now very low. During the morning, the lava lake located in the upstream cone seemed to have disappeared. Strong degassing was still present. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor (indicator of a surface lava emission) continues its slow decrease that began on May 2. The images from the OVPF and OVPF / IRT cameras over the past 24 hours show that the lava flow at the outlet of the eruptive vents, is mainly in tunnels and up to the upper limit of the large slopes. , where lava resurgences are sometimes visible on the surface; the flow front continues its slow progression in the Grandes Pentes, now only in spurts. The flow front was located at 3:30 p.m. at an altitude of 920 m. The CO2 fluxes in the soil are still increasing in the far field (Plains region) and decreasing in the near field (Volcano Gîte) suggesting that deep recharge is continuing. OVPF reported that the slow decrease in the tremor initiated at Piton de la Fournaise since May 2 continues. However, its amplitude remains significant, still reaching 30% of the maximum amplitude observed during this eruption on April 13. The two cones are still active, with degassing and projections of lava present at the downstream cone. A significant gas plume on May 12, covering the whole of the Enclos. As of the 11th of May, OVPF reported that the two cones are still active, with a degassing which is always more marked and projections of lava always present at the level of the most downstream cone. The main cone has a base cone width of 226 m and a height of around 35 m. The flow front has still not reached Piton Fréri (located at an altitude of 1000 m), confirming its slow progression. The lava, however, engulfed the small cone above the Piton Fréri. As of the 9th of May, OVPF reported that the amplitude of the volcanic tremor (indicator of an emission of lava on the surface) continues its slow decrease that began on May 2. However, its amplitude remains significant, still reaching 40% of the maximum amplitude observed during this eruption on April 13.The 2 cones remain active on May 8, with a more marked degassing of the downstream cone.The flow front continues its progression in the Grandes Pentes and reached an altitude of approximately 1,200 meters on May 8 during the day. As of the 7th of May, OVPF reported that the tremor decreases slightly, with an amplitude which remains significant at 50% of the max. observed on April 13. Both cones are active; degassing is more marked on the downstream cone. The flow of the lava at the exit of the eruptive vents, takes place mainly in tunnels and this almost to the upper limit of the large slopes, where resurgences of lava are visible on the surface. The flow front continues its slow progression at the top of the Grandes Pentes. As of the 6th of May, OVPF reported that eruption continues. Images taken on 5th of May in the morning by OVPF/IRT confirmed that two cone were sill active. The lava front is still progressing slowly on upper part of the Grandes Pentes at about 1400 m elevation. A flight carried out on May 4th in the morning by a team from the Piton de La Fournaise observatory confirmed that the two cones were still active; projections of lava were only visible this morning at the smallest cone downstream, while a lake of lava was still present at the level of the most imposing cone upstream. The flow of the lava at the exit of the eruptive vents, is done mainly in tunnels and this almost to the upper limit of the large slopes, where resurgences of lava are visible on the surface. The flow front continues its slow progression at the top of the Grandes Pentes. In 24 hours, the flow front progressed by around 180 m, and this morning was around 1,500 m altitude. As observed during the last two days, fires in the vegetation located at the foot of the rampart and at the flow front were observed. As of the 3rd of May, OVPF reported that eruption continues. The amplitude of the tremor after having stagnated from April 29 to May 1, resumed its tendency to slowly decrease since May 2. However, its amplitude remains significant, still reaching 50% of the maximum amplitude observed during this eruption on April 13. Over the past 24 hours, 6 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (between sea level and the surface) have been recorded, all located directly above the summit craters. As of the 2nd of May, OVPF reported that improvement in weather conditions on site since last night has made it possible to observe the eruption from Piton de Bert and more generally from the rampart on the Enclos Fouqué. We can distinguish, the two vents, a more intense plume on the vent located most downstream, the flow from the eruptive site and up to the break in slope, as well as the smoke produced by the fire present at the foot of the rampart. at the level of the Nez Coupé du Tremblet. Surface flows estimated from satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) remain below 8 m³ / s. However, the lava flow, now largely tunneled, probably leads to an underestimation of this flow. Note, since this morning the presence of a fire in the vegetation located at the foot of the cut nose of Tremblet.On May 1st local observers report the closure of the two cones, and an activity that takes place in tunnels. Over the past 24 hours, a single superficial volcano-tectonic earthquake (between sea level and the surface) has been recorded, located directly above the summit craters.The CO2 fluxes in the soil are always increasing in the far field (Plains region). A slight inflation (swelling) of the summit area and the base of the terminal cone seems to appear. As of the 30th of April, OVPF reported that eruption continued. Over the past 24 hours, a single superficial volcano-tectonic earthquake (between sea level and the surface) has been recorded, located directly above the summit craters. CO2 fluxes in the soil are still increasing in the far field (Plaine des Cafres). As of the 29th of April, OVPF reported that eruption continued without notable change. OVPF reported that after a few days without much visibility and visual observations, the intensity of the tremor seems to have started to decrease for 2 days.Over the last 24 hours, 2 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (between sea level and the surface) have been recorded under the summit craters. CO2 fluxes in the soil are still increasing in the far field (Plaine des Cafres and Plaine des Palmistes). As of the 28th of April, OVPF reported that hat eruption continues. An overflight carried out on the volcano confirmed that two cone were sill active . Few lava flows were visible at the surface. As of the 23rd of April, OVPF reported that the weather conditions and the observation of the eruption remain very poor at Piton de la Fournaise , for a few days. The eruption continues at the level of the two cones at a relatively stable level for several days, as indicated by the intensity of the tremor.OVPF reported that the eruption continued . No direct observation of the eruptive site could be made on April 22nd given the very bad weather conditions on the volcano. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of a surface lava emission) over the last 24 hours has remained relatively stable and comparable to that observed in previous days. CO2 fluxes in the soil are still increasing both in the far field (Plaine des Cafres and Plaine des Palmistes) and in the near field (Gîte du volcan).The flow front has now been frozen for several days at a hundred meters upstream of the Bonnet crater, . and that the lava field now extends laterally, and by thickening at the level of the network of lava tunnels that have developed on the plateau downstream of the cones. The total length of the flow was of the order of 3.5 km and its maximum width of 750 m. As of the 20th of April, OVPF reported that eruption continues. Over the past 24 hours has remained relatively stable and comparable to that observed in previous days.Observations of the eruptive site made during an overflight aboard a microlight on April 20 still show a main eruptive cone and a secondary eruptive cone about a hundred meters downstream (resulting from the merger of the two secondary vents which were still visible at the end of last week), each presenting an activity of lava fountains and degassing. The flow activity focusing on the plateau downstream of the eruptive site, with a regime of lava tunnels showing this morning a main resurgence about a hundred meters from the secondary cone. The absence of active flow at the level of the Grandes Pentes with a front which therefore remains frozen just upstream of Piton le Bonnet. Volcanic tremor remains stable. Observations on 19th of April of the eruptive site still show that the activity of lava fountains continues, mainly on the main cone located most upstream, and that the flow activity is focused on the plateau downstream of the eruptive site, with the setting in place of a lava tunnel regime showing numerous resurgences. Over the last 24 hours, 22 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (between sea level and the surface) have been recorded under the summit craters. An observation flight carried out on 17th of April in the morning over the eruptive site revealed that the flow front located at the top of the Grandes Pentes was now frozen; the lava ront activity is now focused on the plateau downstream of the eruptive site, with the establishment of a lava tunnel regime showing numerous resurgences; the three eruptive cones are now fully enclosed laterally, only letting the lava escape through their top mouths and through tunnels. A merger between the two most downstream cones is taking place.Pélé's hair was observed at Le Baril, in Saint-Philippe. OVPF reported on 15th of April that eruptive site now show three distinct eruptive vents, one main and two secondary ones of lower activity downstream. These two secondary mouths correspond to the mouth located downstream of the main mouth from which two regimes of lava fountains had escaped and which formed by accumulation of projections two small distinct conesThe eruption continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) has increased steadily since yesterday morning to reach a level higher than that observed during the first hours of the eruption. After five days of eruption, activity is not waning. Unfavorable weather conditions allowed only rare observations of the eruptive site. the explosive activity maintains two eruptive vents, a main one upstream, and one below with two contiguous vents animated by more modest activity. The intensity of the main lava fountain fluctuates, alternating phases of calm (~ 20m high) with more intense phases (80-100m high). As of the 14 th of April OVPF reported that eruption that began at Piton de La Fournaise on 04/09/2021 at 7 p.m. (appearance of the tremor) continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) is always very fluctuating. On the last 24 hours, 36 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (between sea level and the surface) have been recorded under the summit craters. Observations of the eruptive site still show two eruptive vents, a main and a secondary of lower activity slightly downstream from which two regimes of lava fountains escape. The height of the lava fountains emitted by the main mouth was between 20 and 40 meters depending on the periods of activity. The surface flows estimated from satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) remain very disturbed by the cloud cover on the eruptive site with values ​​between 8 and 30 m3 / s since the start of the eruption. As of (the 13th of April, OVPF reported that eruption continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) over the last 24 hours has been very fluctuating. These fluctuations can be linked to either: - the cone under construction which undergoes construction and dismantling phases, thus influencing the speed of the lava flows at the level of the vent; or to punctual releases of pockets of gas trapped in the supply ducts which can be released suddenly causing an increase in the tremor with a certain periodicity. Observations of the eruptive site always show two eruptive mouths, a main and a secondary of lower activity slightly downstream. The height of the lava fountains emitted by the main mouth fluctuates between 20 and 60 meters depending on the period of activity. On the evening of April 12, the flow front was located in the Piton le Bonnet sector at an altitude of around 1500-1550m, the flow had thus traveled about 3.6 km since the start of the eruption. OVPF reported that eruption that began on 04/09/2021 at 7 p.m. (appearance of the tremor) at Piton de La Fournaise continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption), after a relatively stable phase on the day of 04/10/2021, has been declining gradually since 9 a.m. local time on April 11. Following an overview of the eruptive site carried out this morning with the assistance of the SAG and the PGHM, the eruptive fissure could be located with precision, 700 m southwest of the Château Fort crater. During the flyby, around 8:40 a.m. local time, activity focused on two main eruptive vents in which several regimes of lava fountains were observed. The upstream part of the crack is no longer active. The lava fountains did not exceed thirty meters in height. The flow had traveled about a mile to the east and the flow front, consisting of aa lava, was spreading very slowly. It was this morning at 8:40 am around 1800 m altitude. OVPF reported that a reconnaissance flight took place in the morning of Saturday 10th of April, making it possible to determine that the situation was stable, after a drop in intensity recorded on Friday evening around 9 p.m. "The flow is very slow, but the eruption remains stable for the time being" details Aline Peltier, director of the OVPF. "During the overflight, around 8.40 am local time, the activity focused on two main eruptive vents in which several regimes of lava fountains were observed" underlines the OVPF. The eruptive activity continues on a main mouth and a secondary mouth. The front of the flow was located this morning at 7am at an altitude of 1750m upstream of the Grandes Pentes broken. As of the 9th of April, OVPF reported that since 2:57 p.m. local time (10:57 a.m. UTC), a seismic crisis has been recorded on the instruments of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory. This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading towards the surface.Between 2:47 p.m. and 5:45 p.m. (local time), more than 700 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded by the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory. The source of the deformation and the seismicity show a propagation of magma under the southern flank, with events located less than 1 km from the rampart of the Enclos Fouqué. The volcanic tremor synonymous with the arrival of magma near the surface has been recorded since 19:00 local time. According to OVPF records, the source of this tremor is located on the southern flank of the volcano inside the Enclosure. No visual confirmation of the start of an eruption could be made on webcams yet due to bad weather conditions However, the presence of a tremor shows the emission of hot and incandescent gases on the surface, and the possibility of lava emission in the very short term.  first flight on April 10, commented by Nicolas Villeneuve, provides indications: "The eruption is quite weak in intensity. The projections do not exceed 20 meters high. The flow which has advanced 1.5 km spreads out. 150 meters. She has difficulty moving forward since she is now on a plateau. Two arms have formed at first. The first stopped quite quickly. The second is well fed upstream, but it is cooling down fast enough and for the moment the flow is frozen. " The OVPF has just reported that: "The activity is currently focused on two main eruptive vents. The upstream part of the crack is no longer active". OVPF reported that seismicity and inflation under the Piton de la Fournaise continue. For the day of April 8, 2021, 48 earthquakes were recorded under the summit area. The GPS of the summit zone and in the far field record an ingflation, witness of the pressurization of a superficial and deep source.This recharging process observed since March 13, 2021 can last several days to several weeks. OVPF reported that after an increase in seismicity from March 22 to 26, 2021, with a number of earthquakes peaking at 95 on March 26, the daily number of earthquakes is decreasing, with on March 27 and 28 respectively : 55 and 8 earthquakes . The OVPF points out that during the recharge phases, the rate of seismicity can be erratic. A rapid increase in seismicity may be linked to a destabilization of the hydrothermal system located under the summit, due to the rise of magma. Inflation continues on the other hand; with a source located between 1,500 and 2,000 meters below the Dolomieu crater, at the level of the superficial magmatic reservoir. The composition of the fumaroles at the top shows a "hydrothermal type" composition, dominated by water and H2S, with low amounts of SO2 and CO2. Sulfur dioxide flows are decreasing around the perimeter of the Enclosure. OVPF reported that following the resumption of seismicity on March 13 under the Piton de la Fournaise, it continued and intensified. Thus between March 13 and 24, 250 summit volcano-tectonic earthquakes, with a magnitude between <1 and 2.6, were recorded and located under the Dolomieu crater between 0 and 0.9 km above sea level. (ie between 1.6 and 2.5 km deep). Yesterday, March 24, 81 earthquakes were recorded under the summit area, including an earthquake of magnitude 2.6. This seismicity leads to destabilization of the edges of the Dolomieu crater and the number of collapses, 31 yesterday, is also increasing. OVPF reported that following the resumption of seismicity on March 13 under the Piton de la Fournaise, it continues. Thus between March 13 and March 21, 90 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, of magnitude between <1 and 1.8, were recorded and located under the Dolomieu crater between 0.2 and 0.9 km above the level of the sea ​​(ie between 1.6 and 2.3 deep). This seismicity is accompanied by a resumption of inflation in the building. The source at the origin of this inflation is located about 2 km deep under the Dolomieu crater, at the level of the superficial magmatic reservoir. OVPF reported that since March 13, a resumption of seismicity has been observed under the Piton de la Fournaise. Between March 13 and 17, 20 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, of magnitude less than 1, were recorded and located under the eastern part of the Dolomieu crater between 0.3 and 0.9 km above sea level (ie between 1.6 and 2.2 deep).This seismicity is accompanied by a resumption of inflation (swelling) of the top of the Piton de la Fournaise building. This inflation remains very low for the moment and will have to be confirmed over time in the coming days. This resumption of seismicity follows a change in the composition of fumarole emissions recorded at the top of Piton de la Fournaise at the end of February 2021 (presence of small quantities of SO2, coupled with CO2) and an increase in CO2 fluxes in the soil. in March 2021, especially on the sides of the volcano in the far field (Plaine des Cafres and Plaine des Palmistes sectors). OVPF reported that January 2021 was calm at Piton de la Fournaise with only 7 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes recorded in one month under the summit area, and the cessation of the magma recharge of the superficial magmatic reservoir.Previous news 2020 - OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption on 8th of December/2020 at around 7.15 a.m. local time at Piton de La Fournaise, 21 volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded during the day of 12/08/2020 under the western edge of the Dolomieu crater, approximately 900 m above sea level (ie approximately 1,700 m below the surface), and already 6 today (between 0 a.m. and 5 a.m. UT, i.e. until 9 a.m. local time). A possible resumption of inflation (swelling) of the building will be followed in the coming days. The gas emissions in the air or in the ground have returned to pre-eruptive conditions, namely CO2 fluxes in the stable soil and SO2 emissions in the air at the level of the summit of the volcano below or near the threshold detection. OVPF reported that eruption stopped onDecember 8, 2020 around 7.15 a.m. local time (3.15 a.m. UT time), following a gradual drop in the tremor and a 3-hour phase of "gas piston" at the eruptive site (puff of gas or intermittent tremor) which are generally observed when the quantity of gas available is exhausted, and often synonymous with a decrease in surface activity. No more surface activity is observed but no hypothesis is ruled out as to the evolution of the future situation (permanent shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity elsewhere), seismicity still being recorded under the summit of the volcano. OVPF reported that the third eruption of the year which began on December 07, 2020 at around 4:40 a.m. (appearance of the volcanic tremor) continued during the all the day of 7th of December. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) after an increase phase at the start of the eruption, has been falling since 6 a.m. local time, even if this decrease has been decreasing since 9.15 a.m. local time (5.15 a.m. UT) . At 3:00 p.m. local time, the highest altitude crack was the most active with the formation of 5 small eruptive vents. The two lower cracks showed a noticeable drop in activity. The OVPF-IPGP field teams were able to sample the gas and volcanic bombs. The estimated surface flows, based on satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), relate to flows for the day of 07.12.2020 between 5 and 30 m³ / s. Sulfur dioxide levels were high, and the gas plume rose on the west coast of the island. Previous day - OVPF reported that on 7th of December, at 02:28 local time, a new seismic crisis has been recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicated that the magma was leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading towards the surface. An eruption was likely shortly within the next few minutes or hours. The volcanic tremor synonymous with the arrival of magma near the surface has been recorded since approximately 4:40 a.m. local time. Analysis of the data and observations from our cameras show that the eruptive fissure (s) have opened on the western flank of the volcano and that the first lava poured out around 04.55-05.00 local time. Given the presence of hot and incandescent gases, and the emission of lava in progress, the Prefect decided to implement the alert phase 2-2 "eruption in progress in the enclosure" of the specific device ORSEC volcano this Monday December 7 at 5:30 am.Following an overflight of the eruptive site carried out with the assistance of the SAG and the PGHM, the cracks could be located with precision. Three cracks opened on the west southwest flank of the volcano, at an altitude of between 2300 and 2190 m and over a total distance of about 700 m. During the overflight, between 7 a.m. and 7:30 a.m. local time, the three cracks were active, projecting lava fountains of about fifteen meters in height, accompanied by a significant degassing above the enclosure and much further towards the interior of the island. The flow front was spreading very slowly and was located at an altitude of about 2120 meters.Previously, as of the 4th of December, OVPF reported that  since 5:10 am local time, a seismic crisis has been recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation, This indicates that the magma was leaving the magmatic reservoir and is spreading towards the surface. The seismic crisis ended around 05:54 a.m. local time. This episode was accompanied by surface deformations which remained extremely weak and localized at the top of Piton de la Fournaise. Since then, no deformation has been observed and the seismicity has greatly decreased (4 earthquakes between 6 a.m. and 7 a.m. local time). OVPF reported that the month of November 2020 was calm  with only 4 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit area and 9 deep earthquakes under the eastern flank, recorded in one month and the cessation of the magma recharge of the magmatic reservoir. superficial. Inflation stopped at the end of October. The GPS did not record any particular signals, apart from the subsidence and eastward displacement of the station located in the area of ​​the intrusion at the end of September 2020. As of the 7th of October, the seismic activity continues to decrease. During the day of 07/10/2020, 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes deep under the eastern flank, 2 long-period earthquakes, and 1 earthquake classified as "undetermined" (because of low magnitude) were manually pointed.No shallow landslides / collapses were recorded in the eastern flank sector for the last 24 hours. As of the 5th of October, OVPF reported that seismic activity is still recorded under the Piton de la Fournaise (summit zone and eastern flank) even if it continues to decline. Thus for the day of 04/10/2020, 16 deep volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the eastern flank, 1 earthquake classified as "indeterminate" (because of low magnitude) and 16 landslides/superficial collapses in the eastern flank area, were manually pointed. OVPF bullletin (4th of October - morning) reported that seismic activity is still recorded under the Piton de la Fournaise (summit zone and eastern flank) even if it continues to decline. Thus for the day of 03/10/2020, , 25 deep volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the eastern flank, 4 earthquakes classified as "indeterminate" (because of low magnitudes) and 24 landslides/superficial collapses in the eastern flank area, were manually pointed. No superficial volcano-tectonic summit earthquakes were recorded.As of the 3rd, OVPF morning bulletin reported that seismic activity was still recorded under the Piton de la Fournaise (summit zone and eastern flank). So for the day of 02/10/2020, 2 surface summital volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 24 deep volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the eastern flank, 3 long-lived earthquakes, 15 earthquakes classified as "indeterminate" (because of low magnitudes) and 37 landslides/superficial collapses in the eastern flank area were manually pointed.OVPF reported that seismic activity is still recorded under the Piton de la Fournaise (summit zone and eastern flank). So for the day of 01/10/2020, 8 summit surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 35 deep volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the eastern flank, 1 long-term earthquake, 14 earthquakes classified as "indeterminate" (because of small magnitudes) and 52 landslides/superficial collapses in the eastern flank area, were manually pointed.OVPF reported that after a decrease in the number of earthquakes, the seismic crisis (in the strict sense of the term), which began on September 28, 2020 at 12:04 p.m. local time, ended at around 12 p.m. local time on September 30. On the other hand, the seismicity still persists with on average over the last hours, 4 earthquakes or landslides / hour. Given the sharp decrease in the number of earthquakes, the term "seismic crisis" is therefore no longer applicable at present. During the day of 09/30, the deformations continued on the eastern flank of the volcano, so the GPS station "GPNG" of the OVPF located in the upper part of the Grandes Pentes, at 1414 m altitude, has continued its eastward slide of 10 cm, or about 70 cm in total since the onset of the crisis, and has risen by about 25 cm since the onset of the crisis. The persistence of seismicity and deformation under the eastern flank shows that the intrusion of magma towards the eastern flank is still active and that an eruption cannot be excluded. The observatory teams remain mobilized. As of the 29th of September, OVPF reported that seismic crisis that began on September 28, 2020 at 12:04 p.m. local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues; even if a decrease in the number of earthquakes has been observed since the start of the day on 29/09 and is even more marked on 30 September. During the day of 29/09, the deformations continued on the eastern flank of the volcano, so the GPS station "GPNG" of the OVPF located in the upper part of the Grandes Pentes, at 1414 m altitude, slid eastward by 50 cm, or 60 cm in total since the beginning of the crisis, and rose about 20 cm since the beginning of the crisis. Since the beginning of the crisis and until on Wednesday 30th, 09:30, 2300 earthquakes and 442 landslides/superficial collapses have been recorded by the OVPF. This seismicity is still located below the summit and under the eastern flank of the volcano (between 1.6 and 5.2 km deep OVPF reported that seismic crisis that began on Monday 28th of September at 12:04 local time continued. Between 12:04 p.m. and 9:30 p.m., more than 1,300 earthquakes were recorded by the OVPF. This seismicity is localized under the summit zone and under the eastern flank (between 1.6 and 5.2 km deep). One hundred and twenty-one landslides were counted during the day of September 28, at the summit cone and in the Enclos Fouqué. The seismicity and the source of the deformations show a migration of the magma in depth towards the eastern flank of the volcano. At 6 a.m. on Tuesday 29th, more than 2,000 earthquakes were recorded. The strongest VT earthquake, M 2.5, lasted 48.36 s. OVPF reported that since September 20, a resumption of seismicity has been observed under the Piton de la Fournaise. Between September 20 and 22, 21 earthquakes, of magnitude less than or equal to 1, were recorded and located under the Dolomieu crater between 1.7 and 2.2 km deep. This seismicity is accompanied by a resumption of inflation (swelling) of the base and top of the Piton de la Fournaise building. This building inflation remains very low for the time being and will need to be confirmed over time over the next few days. This seismicity and deformation are synonymous with a pressurization of the superficial magmatic reservoir located about 2-2.5 km below the summit. OVPF reported that since the July 3rd intrusion, seismic activity has remained low and inflation has stopped around July 13th. In July, OVPF recorded at the level of the Piton de la Fournaise massif a total of 224 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (0 to 2.5 km deep) under the summit craters; 2 deep earthquakes (2.5 to 5 km deep); 247 collapses (in the Crater Dolomieu and at the ramparts of the Enclos Fouqué and the Rivière de l'Est). OVPF reported that the seismic crisis, which began on 3 July 2020 at 07:20 local time, ended at about 08:00 local time. This episode was accompanied by surface deformations that remained extremely weak and localized at the top of Piton de la Fournaise. Since then, no resumption of seismic activity or deformation has been observed. Several hours, without any activity, testify to the deep shutdown of the magma in the building. However, given the recovery in inflation observed since 16 June, a medium-term eruption cannot be ruled out.As of the 3rd of July, OVPF reported that since 07:20 local time, a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magmatic reservoir and is spreading to the surface. This crisis lasted half an hour, then activity dropped, and there is no acceleration. An eruption is likely in the short term in the next few minutes or hours. Additional information will follow regarding the area affected by this magmatic propagation to the surface. however all options remain open. OVPF reported on June 27th that 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the largest of which is M2.01 occurred under the summit cone. The GPS of the summit area and in the far field record an inflation, witnessing the pressurization of a surface source and a deep source. SO2 emissions at the top of the volcano are below the detection threshold, and CO2 emissions from the ground show a decreasing trend at all stations. OVPF reported that since 16th of June, a resumption of seismicity has been observed under the Piton de la Fournaise. Thus 18 surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes (2 km below the summit) were recorded under the summit zone between 16 and 22 June. This seismicity is accompanied by a resumption of inflation (swelling) of the base and top of the Piton de la Fournaise building (Figures 2 and 3). This inflation of the building is synonymous with a pressurization of the superficial magmatic reservoir located around 1.5-2.5 km below the summit.OVPF bulletin of April 14, 2020, reported a resumption of inflation (swelling) in the summit area. The GPS of the summit area recorded an inflation, witnessing the pressurization of a surface and deep source ... For two days, a resumption of inflation and a significant presence of CO2 were noted. This means that the magma is still present and going up. OVPF reported that sharp drop in the intensity of the tremor was observed on 06/04/2020, around 1:30 p.m. local time (09:30 CET;, heralding the end of the surface eruption. No hypothesis is ruled out as to the future situation (final shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity at another site), taking into account the high seismicity recorded since the day of 5/4/2020 00h (TU time) and until 09:00 (TU time; 13:00 local time) on this day: with 243 superficial tectonic earthquakes (2km deep) recorded under the summit craters. Although since the end of the eruption seismic activity has decreased considerably. Following a reconnaissance flight of the SAG and the PGHM carried out on 6th of April in the morning at around 10 a.m. local time, the flow front was able to be precisely located. The active front (south flow arm) was 360 m above sea level, about 2 km from National Highway 2 (compared to 550 m altitude and 2.7 km from the road yesterday at 10:30 a.m. for the north flow arm). Thermal images acquired last night by an OVPF/IPGP team estimated a speed of 40-60 m/h of the flow front on the evening of 5/4/2020. As of the 6th of April - 7:30 am OVPF reported that the eruption that began on 02/04/2020 on the eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise, at around 12:20 p.m. local time, continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively stable over the last 24 hours.A strong seismicity is still recorded at Piton de La Fournaise. Since the day of 5/4/2020 00h (TU time): 189 surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes (2km deep) have been recorded under the summit craters. These earthquakes are still located under the southeastern part of Dolomieu Crater. These earthquakes testify to the weakening of the environment, either by a flow of fluid or the emptying of a reservoir, most certainly in connection with the power of the eruptive site and its resurgence of activity. Given this fragility, a risk of collapse of the Dolomieu crater (or part of the crater) is not excluded.Estimated surface flows, from satellite data via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne) and MIROVA (University of Turin) platforms, although still strongly disturbed by cloud cover around piton de la Fournaise, are still on the rise. Over the last 12 hours, average flows have been estimated at 30 m3/s.The thermal images made by an OVPF team yesterday evening and the images of the webcams of the OVPF of that night show that the lava front is still very active (Figures 4 and 5). Last night, the OVPF team on site reported that the northern-most flow fronts had stopped, with activity focusing on a new lava arm to the south. The flow front on this new flow arm certainly progressed tonight. OVPF reported that on April 3, at 6:25 a.m., the lava front could be estimated at around 1,000 m above sea level at the top of the Grandes Pentes, and 3.8 km from the national road, according to visual feedback from the webcam of the OVPF / IPGP located in Piton Cascades. The eruption has stabilized on the central part of the eruptive fissure. The number of fountains is reduced little by little and soon the eruption will only be active on one or two mouths. In the meantime, the projected pieces of lava fall back and build a spatter-rampart which has already grown well.The estimated surface flows, from satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) are greatly disturbed by the cloud cover around the Piton de la Fournaise. Estimates since the start of the eruption fluctuate between 2 and 45 m³ / s with an average around 7-10 m³ / s. As of the 2nd of April 4:30 pm , OVPF reported that the eruption that started on April 2, 2020 around 12:20 local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues. Following the seismic crisis, no earthquake had been recorded. This particular case of propagation without seismicity is to be related to an environment already weakened by the eruption of February 2020 and those of 2019, which took place on the same flank. A second particular characteristic: the eruption started very quickly, in less than 2 days from the first warning sign, because very little magma had been emitted on the surface in February, making it available quickly. An overview of the SAG and the PGHM confirmed the opening of a crack on the eastern flank of the volcano about 1.7 km from the center of the Dolomieu crater at around 1900 m above sea level. This crack is located slightly below the eruption of February 10-16, 2020. During this overflight, the lava fountains did not seem to exceed 30m in height. A significant signal of sulfur dioxide, with 31.37 DU, is observed by Tropomi above La Fournaise. The estimated surface flows, from satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) are greatly disturbed by the bad weather conditions observed around Piton de la Fournaise. The rare measurements carried out, relate to flows of the order of 4 m³ / s but these are probably underestimated. As of the 2nd of April, 12:45 pm OVPF reported that following the morning's seismic crisis, between 8:15 a.m. and 8:51 a.m. local time, and after a lull of more than 3 hours, a volcanic tremor, synonymous with the arrival of magma at near the surface, has been recorded since about 12:20 p.m. local time. According to the OVPF records, the source of this tremor is located on the eastern flank, at inside the Enclos.OVPF reported that seismic crisis was recorded on the instruments on April 2, with 92 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes detected between 8:15 am and 8:51 am local time. This seismic crisis was accompanied by rapid deformation (of the order of 10-20 micro-radians). This indicates that magma has left the surface magmatic reservoir and has spread to the surface. OVPF bulletin 17th of February - Following the stop of the volcanic tremor on 16/02/2020 at 14:12 local time, no resumption was observed. The eruption stopped on 16/02/2020 at 14:12. No earthquakes have been recorded since the eruption stopped. Note that a satellite acquisition on 16/02/2020 at 10:35 a.m. local time still showed a thermal anomaly at the eruptive vent. This anomaly, as well as persistent gas puffs on the morning of 16/02/2020, indicated low residual subsurface activity until the final stop of the trestle at 2:12 p.m.OVPF report - OVPF report 16 th of February 4am - After falling rapidly during the day yesterday (15/02/2020) from 14:00 (local time), a residual tremor was recorded on the seismological stations closest to the eruption until 14:12 local time (6/02/2020). Since then only a few sporadic puffs of gas are recorded on seismological stations. OVPF bulletin 16th of February 8:30 am -Aerial observations this morning by helicopter company pilots report that no more surface activity was visible at around 7:30 a.m. to 8:00 a.m. local time at the eruptive site. Nevertheless, a residual tremor whose intensity has been increasing since about 4:40 a.m. local time is still recorded on the seismological stations closest to the eruption as well as a degassing, meaning that there is still magma close to the surface at the eruptive site level. 14th of February - 2pm - The eruption continued. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively stable over the last 48 hours Note the presence of some fluctuations, certainly related to a resonance effect within the volcanic cone that was closing laterally. Two volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded today under the summit craters.The lowest-altitude (1400 m) lava front observed at the beginning of the eruption was no longer active during the day yesterday and the maximum extension of the now active flows was around 1900 m altitude, below the bottom of Marco Crater. Last night's observations from the RN2 confirmed that the active flow front has only little progressed. OVPF report - 13th of February (3:30 pm) noted that improved weather conditions provided access to the eruptive site on foot and overflight. These two missions showed tonly the eastward flow was still active. Its front was at about 12:00 (local time) below Marco Crater at an altitude of about 1900 m, about 6.5 km from the RN2. A cone less than 30 m high, began its construction around the 3 vents remaining active in themorning. These vents, located at an altitude of about 2200m, produced modest lava fountains of 10 to 15 m in height (above the volcanic cone under construction). As of the 12th of February OVPF reported that he eruption continued. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively stable over the last 24 hours (Figure 1). The increase in the tremor observed at around 3 a.m. local time (11 p.m. GMT) was related to the arrival of a rainy and stormy front on the volcano that noises the signals.An accurate mapping of the lava flow dated 10/02/2020 in the evening by the OI2 platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) from satellite data showed a larger extension of the flows than previously estimated, with a lava field on the upper part of the terminal cone and a flow arm that has flowed southward. During the flyover on 10/02 between 1 3pm and 1.30pm, the high part of the summit, which was heavily cloudy, had not been able to observe them. These most upstream and southern flows were most likely not active until the first hours of the eruption. Currently only the north arm that flows eastward remained active. This new mapping shows a lava front at an altitude of about 1400 m. It is noteworthy that the highest fissuresat altitude (not visible during the 10/02 flyover and now inactive) opened in the same area as the fissuresin the eruptions of February 18 and June 11, 2019. This location shows that the dike ("superficial conduit set up in a reservoir and allowing the flow of magma to the surface") that fed this eruption has partially taken up in depth a "path" already opened during previous eruptions, explaining the speed that magma took to reach the surface (23 minutes between the beginning of the seismic crisis and the opening of the first eruptive cracks on the surface). As of the 11th of February, OVPF reported that the eruption, which began on 10/02/2020 at around 10:50 a.m. local time, continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption), after decreasing continuously and relatively stable since 20:00 local time (16:00 GMT) on 10/02. OVPF report 10th of February - 4:30pm - Following an aerial reconnaissance in the early afternoon, the fissures were able to be located. Several fissures opened on the eastern flank of the terminal cone between the upper part of the terminal cone and 2000 m altitude (at Marco Crater). All of these fissures extend for a distance of about 1 km. During the flyover (1pm-1.30pm local time), the lava fountains did not exceed 10 m in height. Due to the location of the eruptive fissures and steep slopes in the area, the lava flows had reached 13:15 local time 1700 m above sea level and the flow front was less than 150 m from the broken of the main slopes. Nevertheless, the lava front was severely slowed by a flat zone.Previous morning news : OVPF reported that following a seismic crisis on February 10th, 2020, 10:27 am local time on February 10, 2020, accompanied by rapid deformation, the volcano erupted around 11 a.m. on Monday morning as confirmed by the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory. the site of the eruption is located on the eastern flank of the volcano."The eruption is visible from the National Road at the level of the Burned. The eruptive vent is located at 2000 meters above sea level. The first photos and videos showed a flow emanating from a fissure, which quickly divides into several arms and which has already traveled a good distance on the slope. Previous news - OVPF reported that following the short seismic crisis recorded on January 7 between 9:28 p.m. and 9:44 p.m. UT, seismic activity continued under the Piton de la Fournaise (with respectively 8, 9, 11 and 1 volcano-tectonic earthquake (s) ( s) superficial (s) registered under the summit craters on January 8, 9, 10 and 11). On January 12, between 6:17 p.m. and 6:24 p.m. UT, a new seismic crisis was recorded under the summit area of ​​Piton de la Fournaise with 41 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes. A total of 51 earthquakes were recorded during the day of January 12. OVPF reported that the number of volcano-tectonic earthquakes wasincreasing: 14 on January 6, and 40 on January 7, 2020 under the summit cone. The OVPF reported a magnitude of 1.04 / duration 8.96 sec. for the strongest on 07.01. - Previous news 2019 - In the bulletin of December 30 OVPF reported that , CO2 concentrations in the far field (plain sectors of Cafres and plain of Palmists) have been increasing since October 25-27, in agreement with an increase in magma towards the surface. The alert level remains vigilant for the moment.OVPF reported that for the past week of December, inflation (swelling) of the base and the top of the volcano has been observed again by the deformation network. This resumption of volcano inflation is synonymous with the prelsurization of a deep source located under the summit craters.In parallel, the CO2 concentrations in the far field soil (Plaine des Cafres and Plaine des Palmistes sectors) are still increasing since the end of the eruption of October 25-27. These CO2 concentrations are in agreement with a deep rise in magma. These two parameters CO2 concentration and resumption of inflation) are in agreement with a pressurization of the surface magmatic reservoir (located between 1.5 and 2.5 km deep) due to its re-supply by fluids deeper magmatic. For the moment the seismicity does not show a significant increase: only 9 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded in the last week (between 23 and 29 December). As of the 27th of October at 5PM OVPF reported that the eruptive activity started on October 25, 2019 at 2:40 pm local time stopped on October 27, 2019 at 16:30 local time, after a phase of activity in" gas piston "of about 1 hour however no assumption is discounted as to the evolution of the situation to come (final shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity further downstream), given the observables following: - 29 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded during the day yesterday,- "Piston gases" are always registered,- very little lava was emitted on the surface..Previously, the day before, OVPF reported the front of the lava flow was at 17:00 on October 26 about 250m from the national road 2. The front of the flow has increased by about 150m in 9h. The progression of the flows is now on average slopes of 19% (against 16% on the morning). The slow progression of the lava front of these last hours is explained by the decrease of surface flows and by the slopes which are lower than those traversed by the lava during the day of 25/10/2019. On the morning of October 27, the activity is generally located at a single fountain of lava from the eruptive cone; a third lava front, which had rounded Piton Tremblet on Saturday afternoon, stopped; and the lava front near the RN2 has frozen and no longer glows. Previously, OVPF reported that two eruptive fissures opened at around 14:40 on October 25 at an altitude of 1,400 meters near the southern rampart near the Piton Passage (1976), and least two lava flows were formed advancing very rapidly in the Grandes Pentes. The activity was intense, with lava fountains about thirty meters high, and the progression of the front of the main stream was of the order of 250 meters per hour. The location of the eruption is very close to the position of the previous eruption, and low in altitude. Around 17h local, the main flow was under the Piton Tremblet, evolving at the interface of the 2007 flows and the forest area; following overflows in the vegetation, fires broke out, quickly taken into account by firefighters. Three passages of the Dash 8 with retardant product release were made to limit the magnitude of the fires.The lava then flowed in the Grand Brûlé. Various parameters will influence its progression: the feed and the flow down slightly, the nature of the terrain less steep. On the morning of October 26 at 8 am local lava was located 400 meters from the lava road. The OVPF / IPGP teams are on site to perform the first lava sampling and temperature measurements. As 11am local time the eruptive activity time continued. After 3 hours of stability, the intensity of the tremor began a gradual decline that continues this morning. Since the beginning of the eruption, 37 summit surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded. No earthquakes were recorded in the eruption area. Yesterday, OVPF reported that since 4:15 local time on October 25, a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise.This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. An eruption is likely in the near future in the next minutes or hours.The prefecture has decided to go on alert 1 of the specific device ORSEC volcano from 07:00 this morning. Previous news - OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption of August 11-15, inflation was recorded again. CO2 fluxes in the soil also remain important.This shows that magma continues to accumulate in the superficial reservoir and that an eruption is possible in the medium term (days / weeks). OVPF reported that since the eruption stopped on 15/08/2019 at approximately 22:00 local time, 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded. These earthquakes are located under the summit zone. The deformations recorded by the OVPF measuring devices on the ground do not show any discernible signals since the end of the eruption.It should be noted that the deformation field associated with the eruption of 11-15 August 2019 did not extend outside the Enclos Fouqué (as of 15/08/2019 5:47 a.m., the date of the satellite acquisition. Previously OVPF reported that the eruption stopped again on August 15th, 2013 at approximately 22:00 local time, after a little more than 6 hours of activity of "gas piston" or "puffs of tremor". The eruptive activity on the surface is currently stopped, only persistent degassing at the level of eruptive fissures and glowing at the lava flows that are being cooled. Following the eruption stopped on 15/08/2019 at about 04:20 local time, the eruptive tremor resumed at 8:30 a.m. This was confirmed by on-site observations, the activity of lava fountains resumed within the same eruptive cone.OVPF reported that the eruption that began on 11/08/2019 at 16:20 local time stopped on 15/08/2019 at about 04:20 local time.The eruptive activity on the surface is stopped for the time being, only a degassing at the level of eruptive fissure and redness at the lava flows that are being cooled. Howeve ra residual tremor wasstill recorded on the NTR station, located on the Tremblet's Coupé Nose and the recording of deep earthquakes that indicate that deep magma movements are still present.Bulletin of the OVPF (13th of August - 11AM) reported that the eruption continues. After a decline in the late afternoon yesterday, the intensity of the eruptive tremor was relatively constant since 21:00 local time (17:00 UT). An aerial reconnaissance was carried on the morning with the help of the SAG and the PGHM. In total, two eruptive fissures, about 1400 m apart, opened on 11 August 2019 in the eastern, south-east sector of the upper Slopes at 1700 and 1500 m above sea level. On the morning at 09:30 (local time), only the lowest fissure at altitude was active which formed three separate cones by accumulation of lava fountain deposits. An area of fumarole not related to an eruptive crack or lava flow was observed between the two fissures at an altitude of about 1100 m. The three active flows from these cones joined in a single channel whose front was on the morning at 09:30 at 665 m altitude (near Piton Tremblet), about 2.1 km from the road . Estimated surface flows, based on satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), are in the range of 2 to 9 m3/s at the beginning of the eruption. Small fires were observed along the lower part of the flow as a result of its entry into a heavily vegetated area.An overflight of the eruptive site on August 12 at 9:15 found that only the lowest elevation crack (1500 m) was active and fed a flow whose front was at 665 m altitude, or 2.1 km from the road. As of the 12th of August the bulletin of the OVPF (4PM local time) reported that the eruption began on August 11, 2019 at around 4:20 p.m. local time and continues. The intensity of the eruptive tremor (witness to the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively constant since 08:00 local time (04:00 T.U). At 3 p.m. local time, the lava front was visible from the RN2 and had reached an altitude of about 1000 m (200 m, taking into account the uncertainties associated with remote observations). OVPF reported that after 9:30 of seismic crisis, the volcanic tremor, synonymous withspread deep from the southeastern edge of Dolomieu crater towards the east flank, southeast. At 4:00 pm local time), the spread continued in this direction.The source of this tremor is located on the eastern flank, southeast, inside the Enclos Fouqué, in the sector of the Great Slopes / les Grandes Pentes.No visual confirmation of a start of eruption could be made at 16:04 UTC on webcams due to poor weather conditions and OVPF could not not confirmated the arrival of lava on the surface. Nevertheless the presence of a tremor shows the emission of hot and incandescent gas on the surface, and the possibility of lava emission in the short term or already in progress. Previously OVPF reported that on Sunday 11th of August since 07:00 local time, a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis was accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. An eruption was likely in the near future. Previously,a fter a sustained activity during the night of the 20th-30th of July, the eruption has weakened and stopped this day, the 30/07/2019 at 04:30 local time (00:30 T.U), after a gradual decline of the volcanic tremor.The eruption started on July 29, 2019 continued during the day. The intensity of the eruptive tremor (witnessing the intensity of the eruption) has decreased by a factor of 2 since the beginning of the eruption.Three fissures, open in echelon, on the northern flank of the volcano (600 m from the Formica Léo) over a total length of about 450 m, poured lava on the remains of the July 2018 flow, and built by accumulation three small slag cones.The first observations, on site and by helicopter, of the OVPF teams always showed at 17h (local time) an activity on the three fissures with lava fountains of the order of 20-30m high maximum and flows of aa type lava extending for a short length (about 500 m) given the relatively flat topography.As of the 29th of July (12:15 local time) OVPF reported that following the seismic crisis started that day at 05: 13 local time, volcanic tremor synonym of arrival of magma near the surface is recorded since 12:00 hour local. Records of the OVPF, the source of the tremor is located on the northern flank.No visual confirmation of an eruption early could be carry out for the moment on the webcams of the fact of the bad weather conditions and we cannot confirm the arrival of the lava to the surface. However the presence of a tremor shows the show the possibility of emission of lava and gas hot and glowing surface, short term. Previously OVPF reported that since 5:13 am local time on 29.07.2019 , a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. According to OVPF an eruption is likely in the near future in the next minutes or hours. Previously : The eruption started on June 11, 2019 at 06h35 (local time) stopped on June 13, 2019 around 12:00 pm local time. Records only detected noise associated with bad weather on the volcano. SO2 levels in air at the OVPF stations, located on the perimeter of the Fouqué enclosure, have returned to background noise values. On June 12, the OVPF did not report any significant deformation or volcano-tectonic earthquake. A decrease in sulphur dioxide levels was observed, and CO2 emissions from the soil showed high and stable values in the distal zone (plains of the Cafres) and were again increasing in the proximal zone (Gîte du Volcan). The images of the OVPF's webcam located in Piton des Cascades allowed to locate the lava front this morning at around 1200-1300 m altitude. OVPF reported trhat the second eruption of the year is still continuing. The lava spreads at the foot of the summit cone on a shelf, fed from a vent at 2200-2250 meters; it will have to cross this zone before reaching the Great Slopes and be visible from the RN2. The OVPF reported for Tuesday, June 11 a total of 178 volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit cone, the strongest being of magnitude 1.38 and lasting 13.4 sec.As of the 11th of June, OVPF reported that after a restless month of May (359 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes between 0 and 2 km deep, 3 deep earthquakes with more than 2 km, and 229 collapses in the crater Dolimieu and the ramparts of Enclos), and a crisis Seismic recorded from 6:03 local June 11, the Piton de La Fournaise erupted at about 6:35. OVPF reported that following a reconnaissance this morning (around 09:30 local time), the eruptive site could be confirmed. At least four eruptive fissures opened on the south-south-east external slope of the Dolomieu crater. The cloud cover did not allow to see the presence of other vents especially at lower altitude, nor to locate the front of flows. Lava fountains less than 30m high and well-drained lava flows escaped from the three lowest cracks. The two highest cracks, near "Petit Plateau" were no longer active or in extinction when flying over. A rapid progression of the flows on the east flank was observed because of the steep slopes in this sector.  According to Aline Peltier, OVPF director " this second eruption of the year started exactly in the same place as that of February, but it takes a different direction, the last one has spread towards the North-East, this one goes towards the South. " A rapid progression of the flows on the east flank was observed because of the steep slopes in this sector. Previous eruption - OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption on March 10th, glowing areas were always observed on the surface, three days later on the image Sentinel 2 bands 12,11,4 ... the coatings remaines warm. As for geophysical and geochemical records, seismicity has dropped and CO2 emissions from the ground are decreasing in the proximal (Gite du Volcan) and increasing distal (Plaine des Cafres) on March 16th. The obsservatoire reports 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit cone and 10 landslides for the enclosure and the summit cone. OVPF reported that following the stop the surface eruptive activity on March 10 at 6:28 local time, a seismicity is still recorded under the summit area of ​​the volcano. About 26 superficial superficial earthquakes and 1 deep earthquake have been recorded since the end of the eruption on March 10 at 6:28 am local time and 19:30 local time. Because of this seismicity, no hypothesis is disregarded as to the evolution of the future situation (final shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity on another site). The sudden stop of this eruption was preceded by a very intense surface activity and lava fountains a hundred meters high were postponed to 23h on 9 March. The lava volumes emitted on the surface between February 18 and March 10 could be estimated at about 14.5 (+ or - 5) Mm3 from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) and MIROVA (University of Turin). OVPF reported that the front of lava progressed quickly this Friday night 8th of March and went from 1.000 meters of altitude this Friday morning with 700 meters of altitude towards 22h.OVPF also reported that the intensity of the eruptive tremor continues the rise started 48 hours ago. Over the last 36 hours, the surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 50 m3 / s (these measurements can be affected / reduced by cloud cover). It should be noted that most of the measurements remain however less than 30 m3 / s and that following the cloud cover these measures are no longer possible since 9:30 this morning. Previously, OVPF reported that the activity was intense during the night with a reverberation of the incandescence on the clouds, visible from the 4 webcams. The Mirova site lists a very high thermal anomaly on March 7th at 10:20 pm, of 3,281 MW. As of the 6th of March, following the opening of a new crack yesterday, new eruptive fissures opened this morning. 6 points of emission were visible this morning around the Piton Madoré. The OVPF will perform aerial reconnaissance as soon as weather conditions permit.As of the 6th of March, OVPF confirmed the opening of a new crack, upstream of the eruptive site, on the northwest flank of Piton Madoré.This new lava emission point was probably opened on March 5th between 9:00 am (local time, crack not present during the flight of an OVPF team) and before 7:00 pm (local time, time of day). acquisition of a satellite image on which an extremely weak signal can be detected at the level of the new crack (OI2 data, Clermont Auvergne University). On the morning, according to the photos and satellite images just provided, a small cone was already being formed and a new flow had begun to progress north of the main eruptive site. Due to the location of this new crack in the vicinity of the active vent since February 19 and associated low flow rates, its seismic signal coincides with that of the 19 February vent. As of the 5th of March, OVPF reported that the eruptive activity continued. Despite slight fluctuations in intensity and an upward trend in recent days, the intensity of the tremor has remained at a relatively constant level for 24 hours. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 7 m³ / s. Note that low values ​​(or zero values) are recorded when cloud cover does not allow acquisition.The cone closed laterally but still has an open vent at its summit On the morning around 8:30 local time, the cone had a base 100 m in diameter, a height of 25m and an eruptive vent at the top of 50m about diameter. As of the 4th of March OVPF reported that despite slight fluctuations in intensity and relative consistency since February 25, an upward trend seems to be emerging in recent days. Now, the crater in cone at the foot of Piton Madore is blocked and lava comes out through tunnels. The total SO2 emissions to the atmosphere recorded by the OVPF's NOVAC network since the beginning of the eruption are estimated at 2.5 kton, a value in the norm of the average of the Piton de la Fournaise eruptions.A cartography of the lava flow dated 01/03/2018 carried out by the OI2 platform (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne) from satellite data shows that a third pouring arm has been put in place to the north. between 28/02/2018 and 01/03/2018. During this time the other two arms already in place do not seem to have progressed.A new satellite acquisition on March 1st shows that this new arm split in two during the day of March 1st. As of the 1st of March OVPF reported that despite slight fluctuations in intensity since February 25, the eruptive tremor remained relatively constant for several days. Over the last 36 hours, 3 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 16 m3 / s. Note that low values ​​(or zero values) are recorded when cloud cover does not allow acquisition. A mapping of the lava flow dated 28/02/2018 carried out by the OI2 platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) using satellite data confirmed the slow progression of the lava flow (300 m in 5 days). The casting front is located 1200m above sea level and only the north arm is currently active. OVPF reported that on 27th of February, despite some fluctuations, the intensity of the eruptive tremor remained relatively constant, and the flows fluctuate in an area below 15 m³ / sec.Over the past 36 hours, 8 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded.After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals.The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high.The flow went down slowly towards the sea. As of the 26th of February, OVPF bulletin reported that the eruptive activity that began on February 19, 2019 continues. Despite some fluctuations, the intensity of the eruptive tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) remains relatively constant. Over the last 36 hours, 11 upper superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high.Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC-University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 13 m3 / s. According to Mirova, the radiative power remains high, with 1927 MW this 25 February. OVPF reported that over the past 36 hours, 10 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the volcano related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between 2.5 and 13 m3 / s. Observations from the OVPF webcam located in Piton des Cascades show that the casting front has not progressed or very little since 21 February. According to the observations carried out during an overflight on the 22nd of February in the morning of the eruption zone, by OVPF, showed that the contour of the flow has slightly changed even if its propagation remained is slow. The eruptive cone continued to grow and is now occupied by a lava lake from which ejecta escape during the explosion of bubbles arriving at the surface. A well-channeled flow escapes downstream of the cone. After 1 km (and 200 m of negative elevation) it is no longer one but two lava arms that are observable. The separation of the flows is at the level of Guyanin crater. The longest lava arm has traveled a distance of 1900 m from the eruptive vent and is still 4.3 km from the road and 5.3 km from the ocean. The different lava fronts are currently in the Grandes Pentes. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were between 2.5 and 15 m³ / s. The amount of lava emitted since the resumption of activity on 19/02/2019 is between 1 and 3 million cubic meters.Observations from the RN2 by an OVPF team, on February 20th, showed that the flows continued their progression in a discontinuous way (with periods of stagnation - stagnation of the lava front - and periods of faster progression) and that the main pouring front had crossed the "broken of the Great Slopes". A point was made this February 22 around 7:30 on the advance of the lava flow, following an overflight by a team of the OVPF. Over the last 24 hours, the lava front changed and was still located in the upper sector of the Grandes Pentes. On the other hand, the flow showed two visible arms on the s morning, one to the north and the other to the south of the Guyanin piton. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were between 2 and 8 m3 / s.The eruptive tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) is relatively stable since February 20 at 06h local time.OVPF reported that effusive activity continued on the 20th of February. The eruptive tremor remained relatively stable since 6am local / 2h UTC. Only one crack was active and the eruptive activity has built a cone rampart breached towards the lava flow. According to OVPF the lava is at 1,200 ° C, and the gases are measured up to a temperature of 1,000 ° C. In the evening, the incandescence could be observed on the Cascades webcam; Mirova noted a thermal anomaly of 1,357 Mw at 6:15 pm, a little stronger than that recorded at the beginning of the phase on 19.02 at 19:10, of 1.072MW. 5 volcano-tectonic earthquakes and inflation were recorded by OVPF, testifying to the pressurization of a superficial source and a distant source. As of the 20th of February, in the morning OVPF point reported that the crack opened yesterday at 1800 meters altitude on the east side of the Dolomieu, and an active fountain feeds two lava flows, whose front advances at a speed of about 1 km / h. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne), remain low and are between 3 and 7 m3 / s. The first flow cuts the crater Madoré and stops upstream of the crater Guyana,forming a small lava lake. The second lava arm descends the slopes to join the part of the Grand-Brûlé destroyed by the fire of January 2019. It spreads over 1,600 meters, and to continue towards the sea, depends on a sufficient supply upstream. As of the 19th of February, following the eruptive pause, OVPF reported renewed activity : at 3 pm local this February 19, a new seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is for the moment accompanied by no rapid deformation. Around 17h, tremor occurred and opening of a new crack began just above the Cassé des Grandes Pentes and the the lava flowed rapidly and descended the slopes .At 17:50, the first observations showed a gas plume by a team of the OVPF in the area of ​​"Signal de l'Enclos" (south-east flank). OVPF reported that the eruption stopped on 18/02/2019 at 22:00 local time. Some lava flows glowing remained nevertheless visible, but these will probably gradually cool down with the end of their feeding by the eruption. At this time, no assumptions are possible about the evolution of the future situation (definitive shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity further downstream), given the persistence of seismicity. As of the 18th in the afternoon OVPF reported that the eruption started on February 18, 2019 continued, with a slight drop in tremor intensity observed since 14:45 local time (10:45 UTC). This drop in tremor may be linked to a drop in activity on one or other of the two cracks. Surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were included at the beginning of eruption between 25 and 40 m3 / s, values ​​classically observed in beginning of eruption at Piton de la Fournaise. The flows were visible from the Route des Laves, and the webcam of Piton Cascades. As of the 18th of February 2019, OPVF reported that following the new seismic crisis started at 09:16 local time and always accompanied by rapid deformation. the volcanic tremor, synonymous with the arrival of magma near the surface, has been recorded since about 9:48 am local time and an eruptiion started.  But in the first time the fog prevented the exact counting of the fissures and their precise location. According to latest news at 10 AM from OVPF at least two eruptive fissures and a dozen lava fountains" are located on the eastern flank of the massif. Previous news 2018 - The cone of the last eruption, from September 15 to November 1, was named after the writer and storyteller Creole Daniel Honoré, who died on October 18, 2018 at the age of 79 years.As of the 1st of November, OVPF reported that on midnight UT, which is 4:00 local time, on 01 November 2018, no more signs of activity was recorded at Piton de La Fournaise. The eruption started on September 15, 2018 at 4:25 am local time seems stopped on November 01, 2018, at 04:00 local time. As of the 30th of october OVPF reported that eruptive activity is still slowly continuing. The volcanic tremor dropped since 24h ago. As of the 25 of October OVPF reported that the eruption started on September 15 continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor is stable since 24h ago. As of the 19th of October, OVPF reported that the effusive eruption is still continuing. The volcanic tremor dropped slowly since several days ago. Previous observations carried out on 8th of October from Bert Piton and from the air by OVPF teams located the lava front. Since September 30, the northern front has progressed of 1.8 km and was, on October 8 at 08:00 AM local time, 500m of the great slopes, the southern and central fronts did not move. On the morning the north lava front was less than 120 m from the southern wall of Enclos Fouqué.OVPF bulletin (4th of October) reported that the eruption is still continuing. The volcanic tremor increased since yesterday 10 pm ( local time) and then doubled. The surface activity remained weak. As of the 3rd of October (2 am - local time) OVPF reported that eruptive activity was still continuing. - Estimated lava flux on the surface from stallite data, via HOTVOLC (OPGC – Université Clermont Auvergne) was between1 m3/s et 3 m3/s during the past 24h. OVPF bulletin ( 2nd of October) reported that the the eruptive activity is still continuing. The intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained stable during th"e past 24h. OVPF reported that the eruption continues.An overflight of the eruptive site by a team of the OVPF, reported a falling surface activity with rare lava projections at the level of the eruptive vent, and resurgences of lava from the main lava tunnel of small extensions (<600 m). Apart from a slight increase in early afternoon on September 30, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity at the surface) has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) were less than 2 m3 / s over the last 24 hours. OVPF reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing on 28th of September. The tremor remained stable during past 24hthAs of the 27th of September, OVPF reported that the eruption continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours. Estimation of the lava effusion rate on the surface from satellite data , via HOTVOLC (OPGC – Université Clermont Auvergne) are still between 1 m3/s et 3 m3/sduring the past 24h.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded during the day of 25 September or during the current day.No significant deformation is noticeable.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne) are maintained and are always between 1m3 / s and 2m3 / s over the last 24 hours. The cone continue to growth; The lava flows are running by a tunnel and emerge by resurgences located about 150m downstream of the cone. As of the 26th of September, OVPF reported that the eruption started on September 15th is still continuing. Following a slight increase at the beginning of the day, the intensity of the volcanic tremor has returned to a relatively stable level with some minor fluctuations. The surface flows were estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne),between 0.5 and 5.3 m3 / s on September 24th..The cone continues to growth and main lava flow is still running toward the south then heading south-east. As of the 24th of September, OVPF reported the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity on the surface) has slightly increased since 8:00 am local time (04:00 UTC time) and thus doubled in intensity during the day.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded during the current day. No significant deformation are noticeable since the onset of the eruption. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) are maintained and are always between 1 m3 / s and 3 m3 / s over the last 24 hours.The decrease in SO2 flux by a factor of about 6 compared to the beginning of the eruption is maintained and is confirmed by the notable decrease in SO2 pollution at the summit of Piton de la Fournaise; the plume is now smaller and almost confined in the Enclos Fouqué and drifted to the south and west. The cone is still growing and a lava flow is still issuing to the south from an opening, then heading to the south-east. The eruption began September 15 at 4:25 local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues. The volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity on the surface) has undergone many fluctuations in the last 24 hours.A deep volcano-tectonic earthquake (about 2.6 km below sea level) was recorded under the east flank of the volcano during the day of 21 September. No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded during the current day.No significant deformation are noticeable since the onset of the eruption.Surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) are between 1 m3 / s and 3 m3 / s over the last 24 hours.OVPF reported that after several hours of increased seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise a seismic crisis began at 0145 on 15 September, accompanied by rapid deformation. Tremor began at 0425, contemporaneous with the opening of fissures on the S flank near Rivals Crater. Around 1000 an estimate of the lava flow rate, based on satellite data, was 30 cubic meters per second. During an overflight about an hour later observers noted five fissures. The central fissure was the most active, producing lava fountains 30 m high; two lava flows that merged downstream had already flowed more than 2 km towards the wall of the Enclos Fouqué. By the afternoon of 16 September the estimated flow rate was between 2.5 and 7 cubic meters per second. Only three vents were active and a cone had started to form. lava flows continued to advance during 16-18 September. IRT- OVPF HD Webcam direct - (OVPLF ) The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Reunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. (OVPF information) - Journal de l'île de la Réunion - ). Live webcam - IPGP

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TANZANIE - Lengai volcano

October 30th, 2012

News and recent photos taken in September 2012 at the summit crater. Previously, as of the 22nd of February 2010 GNN/GVP reported that periodic eruptions from a small fissure and steam emissions from an area of the crater rim next to a part that had collapsed were observed on 11 February, and three fresh black hornitos were noted on the W part of the crater floor, a cone-shaped grey hornito in the middle of the floor and a new black lava flow to the S were seen during 14-15 February. Previous Informations : June-August 2009: a few reports received during the summer, including ones documenting visits in August by Thomas Holden , in July by David Gregson , and in June by Tobias Fischer , indicate that Lengai continues to produce small effusive eruptions within the pit crater. Thomas Holden reported that on his climb in late August (exact date unknown) he saw active lava flows. Tobias Fischer witnessed flows and a small lava lake ~5m in diameter in June.  David Gregson did not see significant activity but heard sounds of activity at depth. Although the activity appears to have returned to the typical eruptions of fluid natrocarbonatite lava for which Lengai is so well known, no samples of the new flows have been obtained for analysis due to their inaccessability deep inside the pit crater.  It is not known how similar the new lava is in composition to the lavas produced prior to the 2007-2008 eruption. (From Fred Belton website) Previous information : qccording to Frederick Belton team which climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on 18 June 2009reported that the new active cone covered the former crater floor entirely except for an area N of the summit. The new cone's W, N, and E sides stood about 30 m above the rim of the former crater and enclosed a deep crater. The visitors saw a few small vents on the crater's floor. Frequent emissions of ash-poor plumes originated from the SW part of the crater's floor, producing light ashfall. They heard continuous loud rumbling noises, occasional gas-jetting sounds, and rockfalls. As of the 21st of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania erupted on 19th of February, according to an aviation report. Ash was observed to 38,000 ft. Pilots have been advised to avoid flying near the volcano. The activity at Lengai seems to be increasing. In the past two weeks, explosions have ejected ash plumes rising several kilometers. On 15 Feb., Dutch pilots observed and photographed an eruption plume rising to estimated 12 km (36,000 ft). The Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 15 February and rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 24th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a visitor to Ol Doinyo Lengai informed that it erupted on 14 January. According to this visitor "shower of stones" fell at their location about 50 m from the summit and a lava flow went another direction. Typical ash eruption from the new ash cone in the N crater. A small group from Volcano Discovery , local mountain guides and partners stayed near and on Lengai volcano during 17-21 January. During this period, Lengai continued to erupt ash to several 100 metres above the new ash cone during phases lasting several hours alternating with periods of quiet when only a weak plume of very fine gray ash and gas was issuing out of the new ash cone. Photos from an eruptive phase of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano consisting in near continuous ash emissions from its new crater and taken from the summit during a recent expedition in January 2008 have been posted at the Discovery: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcano-tours/photos/lengai/0108.html . These photos also document the impressive recent changes on the volcano and help to illustrate the significant hazards present when climbing Lengai or staying at its top. The Toulouse VAAC reported previously that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by visiting scientists on 20 December and rose to an unreported altitude. As of the 20th of October, John Seach has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes. As of the 7th of September, according to Matthieu Kervyn De Meerendre, University of Gent (Belgium) has reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai has re-erupted again. A large eruption (?) seems to be taking place at Lengai volcano, this time for real On 4 September 2007, reports started coming in that a large (natrocarbonatite) lava flow is descending the West flank. A considerable ash plume was visible on satellite data. Over 30 thermal anomalies have been detected by the MODIS team since August 23 - more than during the large eruption in March 2006. On 4 and 5 Sep, the thermal anomaly at the summit was extremely strong. From this and satellite imaginery, it seems that there was a short overflow to the East and a major overflow to the West starting on September 1st (it could be a bush fire on the volcano flank ignited by lava). New overflows on 5 Sep seem to be taking place on the W and NW flanks. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep craters walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

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CONGO - Nyamulagira volcano

January 20th, 2021

On January 17 and 22, 2021, an opening in the cloud cover allowed, thanks to the Sentinel and Modis satellites, to see thermal anomalies / hot spots in the main crater. Nyamuragira has had a lava lake intermittently in its caldera since early April 2013. Previous news dated 2019 - The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that collapses of Nyamuragira's inner crater walls observed in May 2019 continued during 1-31 July. Lava fountaining from a small cone was visible. The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during early April Nyamuragira’s lava lake, which had returned in April 2018 after almost a year of quiet, continued to be active. Beginning on 12 April 2019 seismic and lava-lake activity both declined. MIROVA data showed that the thermal radiative power was at moderate levels the first half of the month then declined to low levels during the second half. Previously according recent news the activity in progress since 18 April 2018 has continued; the zone of activity in the caldera is located in a pit crater, almost full. A recent helicopter expedition took place in Februar and taken an aerial photo of the caldera and its activity. Slight thermal anomalies were detected by Mirova, when cloud cover permitted, between 3 and 21 MW on 23 February 2019. Previous news 2018 - As of the 22th of July 2018 the new eruptive phase occurred at the the volcano where  a small lava lake has formed, the magma is a few meters from the surface and seems to fill the whole surface of the crater; this activity is spectacular but without danger ". Previous news 2014 - On 29 June 2014 NASA reported that Nyamuragira vented steam and other volcanic gases and there was a glow from the lava lake. NOAA reported that an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite detected high SO2 concentrations above Nyamuragira. The University of Hawaii reported that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite data detected thermal anomalies and issued six MODVOLC alerts for the volcano's N side. Previously, according to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January 2014 showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyamuragira. Previous 2012 news about last eruption - As of the 28th of January, MODVOLC is still recording thermal anomaly on the volcano and probably the eruptive activity is still going on. (photos from M.Rietze).The initial scoria cone appeared inactive and second cone formed to the N of the first cone. Both cones were about 300 m high. The second cone was extremely active during the duration of the observations (about 15 hours) with fire fountains over twice the height of the cone; lava flowed N. The observers, about 1.5 km away, felt the heat from the eruption as well as lapilli fall. The VolcanoDiscovery Team observed the fissure eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November 2011 during 22-25 January 2012 from the newly formed cinder cones located about 10 km E of the summit crater. They reported three coalescent cones with the largest cone containing a small lava lake. The lake ejected spatter every few seconds as high as 200 m above the summit; individual bombs reached the base of the cone. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout about 2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow about 20 m wide. Burning forests were reported to the NNE. Satellite imagery acquired on 3 January from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed an active lava flow to the NE of the central vent over the fissure located 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater. A sulfur dioxide-rich plume was also detected.According to OMI data, SO2 plume is still rose above of the volcano suggesting tha the eruption is continued. As of the 8th of December, the eruptive activity is still continuing. Thermal anomaly and gas plume are still visible from satellite image. On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. An observer aboard an overflight a few days before noted that the lava did not appear to have moved any further N. A photo taken from the Rumangabo headquarters (7.5 km NE of the eruption site) on 16 November showed a tall cinder cone with lava fountains rising above the rim. The eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November, after two days of intense seismic activity, was located along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of the main crater, close to one of the 1989 eruption sites. Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. After a 3-hour hike, the team viewed the eruption from the S and noted roaring and lava fountains, as well as thunder and lightning. The observers also noted that the ground was covered by black pumice. On 11 November about 100 people, including staff, rangers, carpenters, porters, and volcanologists, traveled to a similar but safer location to set up a camp for visitors. The eruption site was described as a flat area with a 500-1,000-m-long fissure, oriented perpendicular to the Albertine (Western) rift. Lava fountains rose as high as 300 m above a cinder cone. Slow-moving lava traveled N. GORISK noted that radar images acquired on 11 November showed the largest deformation ever detected by the method (InSAR) since the early 1990's over Nyamuragira. A very preliminary analysis of the observed deformation suggested an affected area of more than 250 square kilometers. The ground rose more than 50 cm at the eruptive site where the spatter cone was developing. Another 15 cm of deformation was detected within the Nyamuragira caldera accompanied by deflation on the flanks. Satellite images acquired on 12 November showed that the lava flow had traveled approximately 11.5 km during the six days of the eruption. As of the 15th of November, The eruptive activity was still continuing characterized by lava fountain about 300 m high and lava which overflowed on the North flank of the volcano.(video) .As of the 7th of November, Rangers from the Virunga National Park reported that an eruption began last night on Nyamuragira in the Democratic Republic of Congo in central Africa. The eruption was observed from the park headquarters and it was reported that it appears to be a flank eruption. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira (Also spelled Nyamulagira) is a massive basaltic shield volcano N of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 sq km of the East African Rift. The 3058-m-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. About 40 historical eruptions have occurred since the mid-19th century within the summit caldera and from numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

CONGO - Nyiragongo

December 10th, 2019

As early December On-site observer reported that the vent opened in March 2016 on the upper terrace surrounding the lava lake showed a important activity in early December, with fountaining and intracratory flowsThe Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during 1-31 July the level Nyiragongo's lava lake had dropped, making it not visible in the daytime. Incandescence from the lake continued to be visible at night. Activity also declined at a small eruptive cone that formed in the crater in 2014. The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during 1-28 April Nyiragongo’s lava lake continued to be active, extending the episode of ongoing activity to almost 17 years. A secondary cone which had formed on 29 February 2016 was also active, as well as three other vents surrounding it. Sulfur dioxide emissions reached a high of at least 5,000 tonnes per day, greater than March highs of 2,900 tonnes per day, but still below the alert threshold. The Nyiragongo lava lake is still subject to sporadic overflows : on March 30 and 31st, 2019, an overflow was reported by local observation and confirmed by thermal camera images, indicating that the lava would recover the bottom of the crater, as well as the activity at the level of the small intracalderic cone.The thermal anomalies are considered by Mirova as "very high" since the end of March, with a VRP of 1919 MW on March 30, and 1145 MW on April 1st. Previous News 2017 - After the lateral eruption in 2002, the lava lake had re-formed and was contained in the pit crater, with rose and drop elevation.The lava lake was surrounded by spatters formed during its projections and overflows in 2010. At the end of February 2016, a new vent opened. Its activity quickly formed a spatter cone, leaning against the wall of the crater, and surrounded by lava flows. In 2017, the bottom of the Nyiragongo crater rose of 45 meters after the eruption of the little volcano in 2016, leaving the lava lake 85 meters below the second terrace.Previous news 2016 - On 12 April 2016 the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma reported that activity at Nyiragongo had declined since 6 April, and that the level of the lava lake had dropped. A report dated 17 April stated that some volcanic earthquakes had been located within 5 km E and 10-15 km N of the crater; continuous volcanic tremor was recorded during 0200-0400 on 17 April. In a photo dated 19 April an incandescent vent atop a spatter cone appears to be in the same location as a lava lake that had been first noted on 1 March. Since Monday, February 29, 2016 around 4 AM, we were alerted by the Virunga National park, the operators of the stations and the surrounding population Nyiragongo volcano rumbles heard every minute from the volcano. On urgent request from the provincial committee of security in North Kivu, the team of scientists from the Goma Volcano Observatory sits on the summit of Nyiragongo crater since  March 1st, 2016 until now for direct observations of the activity of the lake lava of the volcano. Preliminary results of these observations are: Appearance of a secondary lava lake on the East side of the crater of Nyiragongo. Weakening of the eastern part; collapses source platforms to the origin of the often heard by the surrounding population rumblings that volcano.   The manifestations of this new secondary active lava lake are in the extension of the fracture that connects the Nyiragongo to its Baruta adventive cone toward to the direction of   Kibumba  zone.   Nyiragongo volcano is in a phase of intense activity and require a particular  attention. This activity is concentrated within the central crater towards the East (towards the Kibumba area) where a new secondary  lava lake is observed. From : PRELIMINARY REPORT OF CURRENT ACTIVITY OF  Nyiragongo VOLCANO FROM  29 FEBRUARY TO 2 MARCH 2016. KASEREKA MAHINDA, SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR OF GVO. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. (From GVO) - Nyiragongo Photos gallery - January 2011 (German group)
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ETHIOPIA - Erta Ale volcano

April 1st, 2021

The hot spots in the Erta Ale caldera noticed on March 25, 2021 by Sentinel-2 remain active on March 29th, 2021. The area marked at the northern pit crater appears to have widened, while that of the southern pit crater is more confidential.Fluctuating activity has been observed with Sentinel satellite in the Erta Ale caldera in Ethiopian Afar in recent days of March 2021. It was noticed at the south pit crater 5 days ago, and yesterday marked the two pit craters, with more activity at the north pit. The thermal anomalies noted by Mirova oscillate between VRP 25 MW on March 23 and VRP 128 MW on March 25 / 08h a.m. Previous news 2020 - Images from the Sentinel-2 satellite and the Mirova site showed that the significant thermal anomaly, marking the southern pit crater on 29.11.2020, has weakened. Local observers team reported that, during a field visit on December 2, they saw the expansion of the southern pit-crater, with a diameter of around 230 meters, and of a depth of about fifty meters. The crater is quite circular, with vertical walls, and the bottom covered with a layer of recent lava in cooling. This December 4, Sentinel only allows you to see a weak hot spot. An image from the Sentinel-2 satellite from 29,11,2020 confirmed the thermal anomalies spotted at the southern pit crater of Erta Ale by the Mirova site, on November 28 at 10:45 a.m., of VRP 131 MW, on November 29 at 8:25 a.m., from VRP 81 MW, and VRP 103MW at 7.15 p.m. On the image the hot spot seems targeted at a small place south of the well, already visible during the satellite pass on 24.11.2020.The latest satellite data for thermal anomalies at the north and south pit craters date from mid-August 2020, and the north pit crater go back to September 5, 2020. From the comparison of images from the Sentinel-2 satellite, we can noted that the thermal anomalies present on August 31, 2020 in the Erta Ale caldera at the level of the two pit craters, are oriented more towards that of the north crater on September 5, 2020. , with conservation of a bluish degassing and a weak thermal anomaly in the southern pit. As of the 21st of August, Sentinel-2 images revealed hot spots at the Erta Ale caldera, both at the north and south pit-crater. No more thermal anomaly in the far field. As of the 11th of August, Satellite images shows some thermal anomalies, moderate to low, have been noted at Erta Ale in recent days by Mirova. Sentinel-2 / atmospheric penetration shows two hot spots. According to a recent visit observers reported that the lava has returned to the southern pit crater of Erta Ale, Ethiopia. Following this information on a possible reactivation of the lake on June 12, the examination of the Sentinel-2 images showed a radical change between two passes of the satellite. On June 12, a weak pixel marked a thermal anomaly ... on June 16, this thermal anomaly seems to cover the entire south pit crater, while no spot no longer marks the secondary lava field. Sentinel2 and Mirova noted that the thermal activity of Erta Ale changed slightly between December 25 and 30, 2019. The hot spots reappeared at the southern pit crater, and south of the caldera, but at a position more to the west than previously. Mirova notes moderate thermal anomalies between 8 and 44 MW for the above-mentioned period, and 35 Mw for 01.01.2020 / 22.35. According to observation and photo on early December, an activity resumes in the pit crater south, with lava flow emitted by a hornito.The northern pit crater is still degassing, and small warm spots are visible south-east of the caldera in the "new" lava field. Some thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova: between 10 and 61 MW, the highest on November 30th. Previous news - Sentinel-2 images showed that thermal anomalies in the far field have disappeared. On August 17th, 2019, large lava flows are visible about 3.5 km southeast of the caldera, which has a larger hot spot at the lava lake. As of the 29th of April, Mirova and Sentinel 2 satellite images showed that the activity was divided into two parts: a degassing at the level of the old lava lake in the caldera, and some radiative spots in the far field, of VRP between 10 and 117 MW. As of the 23rd of March, the Mirova site reported a "high" thermal anomaly at 19:20, with a VRP of 117 MW. On the Sentinel 2 satellite image of March 20, there are three hot spots: - the first, weak, at the level of the southern pit crater of the caldera, masked by an important degassing; - the second, at the SSE of the caldera, caused either by an overflow of lava, or even visible thanks to a skylight, the distribution of lava being mainly in lava tunnels; - the third, on active flows, about 15 km from the summit, north of the distal lava delta. Previous news 2018 - As of the 12th of May 2018 information reported that the thermal anomaly, discribed in recent days by Mirova and the Sentinel 2 satellite SWIR, remained high and comes mainly from the distal lava field and the intracaldeira pit crater.A weak manifestation of breakout between the position of the "new" lava lake, which no longer radiates on these images, and the distal field. Previous news 2017 - The last Sentinel2 image dated December 12 illustrated a strong outgassing of the caldera pit crater and thermal activity at the lava zone on the flank and in the northeast lava field. According to recent news in December there are three active lava lakes more or less connected. A previous clear image of the Erta Ale massif in Ethiopia, taken on October 16 by Sentinel 2, showed the changes in the current lava flows.The northeastern lava field, which had enlarged at the beginning of October in the distal part, shows a front divided into several arms; two of them have reached the sedimentary plain, a rare phenomenon. If there is no significant difference in elevation, the lava field will probably slow down in the days to come. Skylights are visible between this lava field and the source, located on the rift zone. The southwest lava field is no longer visible, due to a weakening of supply for weeks. The lava lake, present in the pit crater of the caldera, is still active. According to recent information following the flooding of the lava lake in February - March 2017, a collapse occurred in April and the eruptive activity of the volcano shaped a new volcanic landscape. A second lava lake formed south of the caldera fed lava flows and lava fields to the northeast and southwest. In September 2017, the southwest lava field does not grow, but continues to thicken. In the northeast, the lava flow continued to feed the lava field, whose front is more than 16 km from the point of emission. Previous news - A photo taken on 17th of August by the satellite Sentinel showed a developping lava flow. The flow has increased by nearly 2,000 meters on the northeast side, the lava flows being essentially through tubes, with only some surface effusions. On the south-west side, the flows have not really progressed, but have widened. The lava originates from the new lava lake located off caldera. The new flank eruption continued to be active throughout the first half of 2017 and greatly intensified in early June when overflowing of the ca 200 m diameter lava lake created new pahoehoe lava flows both in northeasterly and southwesterly direction. Satellite images confirm that there has been a continuous outpour of lava from the new fissure eruption which seems to be building a new shield with different active vents from where pahoehoe lava flows, but not much fountaining or degassing occurs.ESA/Copernicus Sentinel 2 satellite images of the Erta Ale volcanic rangeshow that between 8 and 18 June 2017 the SE fissure lava field drastically increased, with the most active lava flow growing from a ca 950 m to about 3200 m length in the timespan of 10 days. Previously, Satellite images acquired and processed by Planet Labs showed the new lava flows and gas-and-steam emissions from several vents (about 1.5 km SE from the overflow area at the SE caldera rim) on 23 January, and more new lava flows on 27 January. Both images showed lava flows advancing WSW, about 2.5 km S, and about 3 km NE. According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 26 January showed two distinct infrared hotspots representing the SE lava flows. On 27 January Simon Carn stated that the eruption produced the largest SO2 emissions from Erta Ale ever measured from space. On the morning of the 18th, all the vicinity of the south pit crater was covered with lava. In the afternoon of the 18th and the 19th, the outbreaks were more sporadic, the level of the lake fluctuating and fountains of lava Have reached more than 50m high. During the evening of 20 January explosions of very large gas bubbles ejected spatter 30 m high. Crater rim collapses affected the N crater where a new oval-shaped pit crater (150 x 30 m and 20 m depth) formed during a 24-hour period. A large collapse also occurred in the S part of the crater. The activity was accompanied by ash emissions that rose as high as 800 m. The report noted that on 21 January new fissures opened SSE from the summit caldera, producing large amounts of lava. The thermal anomaly observed by Mirova shows a maximum recorded on January 21, with 13,434 MW, passing on January 22nd between 7368 MW and 5882 MW, then decreasing the 23.01 from 5.2013 MW to 1.900 MW. As of the 16th of January 2016, according to Volcano Discovery correspondents from Ethiopia, the lava lake of Erta Ale has overflown. The first lava over-spilled the rim of the containing crater at midnight of 15-16 Jan 2016.On January 16th, from 3pm on January 17th, the lava has overflowed 70% of the edge of the lake, feeding flows that quickly covered up to 1 km ² of the caldera. It seems that the situation is similar to the spectacular events in November-December 2015 when the lava lake last overflowed. More details will be posted as soon as possible. During Volcano Discovery expedition November-December , the level of the lake had already been occasionally as close as only 1 meter beneath the rim. for three continuous days (19-21 November 2015). Upon team arrival on the morning of the 19th, the lava lake was only about 2-3 m below us. Local guide explained that the lava lake had been very active in the past few weeks and risen so highly for the first time since its overflow in late 2010. Previous News 2012 - According to a member of Activ website, and following a recently 2012 fieldtrip a lava lake lies within the South pit-crater of the Erta Ale caldera. This lake was about 15 m depth with 50-60 m diameter. Important degassing occured from incandescent hornitos within the North pit-crater. News 2010 - As of the 5th of March 2010, according to Rafael Werndli reports an unusually hight lava level in the pit crater on Erta Ale in mid February 2010. The lake surface was approximately 20m below the pit's edge. The lava lake had a diameter of 100 to 110m. Occesional floodings of the uppermost terrace were observed. In addition a hornito was active in the north crater, ejecting scoriae and small lava flows. PREVIOUS INFORMATION AND REPORTS : As of the 20th of February 2008, the Stromboli-On-Line website has reported that upon their return to volcano Erta Ale, they found it to be in eruption on the 8th of February and have confirmed this information. Volcanologique de Geneve (SVG) trip on 8-9 February 2008 noted extensions of ropy lava in the N crater. The lake was little changed from the group's last visit in 2005. The group visited the N Crater, and, given its constant degassing, was able to take gas samples. They also measured the lake's surface temperature (700°C). The descent into this crater, seemingly easy, was made difficult by a mantle of very unstable lava scoria. An elevated level of the lava lake halted a subsequent descent.Previous information reported that on 7th of October 2005, according to Ethiopian newspaper an earthquake measuring 4.2 on the Richter scale, jolted northern Ethiopia (Teru area in Afar) on Tuesday triggering eruption of the Erta Ale. According to M; Manahlo Belachew, an expert in the seismology department of Addis Ababa University, the quake which strick the remote region afar is the 11th tremblor to rumble across the region since last month. As of 5th of October a hot spot was visible on the Erta Ale from the MODIS images which could confirmed an eruptive activty this day. Previous new report about recent activity of the Erta Ale : group of scientists assessed the visible changes at Erta Ale on 26 September after activity began around 24 September. In comparison to observations made in November 2004, they found that the southern main crater/pit had widened significantly, with portions of the previous crater walls having collapsed into the lava lake. A new cone-shaped construct had grown within the southern main crater where there had been a platform. A lava lake occupied the entire width of the inner crater/pit. In the northern crater/pit, there was a solidified lava bulge and abundant “smoking” along the crater walls. No incandescent lava was visible in the pit. Based on descriptions by local residents of seeing “red and glowing light shooting and rising into the air above the volcano,” the scientists believe that a Strombolian eruption probably occurred, emitting a significant volume of fresh magma within, and possibly out of, the pit. As of 4th of 0ctober, Personal source reported from Addis Ababa University that the recent earthquake that occured in Afar state has caused landslide and big fissure in Teru locality kebele 02 of the state near the active volcano Mount Erta Ale, a team of geologists who have just returned from the site disclosed. The earthquake observed from September 10 -24, 2005 is the culmination of volcanic activities in the area since millions of years ago, geologists Dr. Derge Ayalew and Dr. Gezahegn Yirgu told WIC. The geologists said the landslide and fissure are indicators that there would be a possible volcanic eruption in the future. The Physical Observatory of the Addis Ababa University recorded on Sunday earthquake that measured 5.5 on Richter scale following earthquake. In Erta Ale the volume of material inside the Crater is actually increasing i.e. rising up to the Crator rim. Due to all this recent geological activity the government is starting to evacuate the people residing around these areas. Previous Erta Ale visit : an