VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on November 20th, 2018 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today : - Explosive activity is still occurring at the Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) - strong explosive activity occurred at the Fuego volcano (Guatemala)

 

ECUADOR - Guagua Pichincha volcano


June 16th, 2016

The Washington VAAC reported that on 14 June 2016 a possible ash emission from Guagua Pichincha was visible in satellite images drifting NW. Seismicity was elevated. A VAAC report issued about five hours later noted that no further notices of activity had been received. Previous news 2015 - IGEPN reported that seismic activity was detected since end of March 2015. (58 earthquakes during the 31st of March) A second swarm has been reported from 14th to-15th of April probably due to rocks fracturation. As of the 17-18 and 19th of April sulfur odor was detected from the rifugio and according to visual observation the main fumarole close the 1981'crater was more active that the previous days. As of the 20th of April, two phreatic explosions occurred (at 5:06 and 5:58 local time) on the Cristal dome complex active zone. As of the 29th of April, IGEPN recorded a signal tremor type probably in relation with geothermal activity under the volcano. Last previous activity was reported on 2010 : As of the 14 th of September 2010, IG reported that no significative change between 6-12 September period. Seismic network continues to record important number of events related to fracture of rock to the interior of the volcano, nevertheless did not register any type of additional anomaly. As of the 17th of April 2010, IG reported that there no change, both the seismic activity and fumarole emission remained at a low level. Previous significative information : as of the 20th of February 2009, IG reported that the seismic stations Geophysical Institute have registered for days back a slight increase of the internal activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. In previous days 4 phreatic explosions of moderate size have been registered. These explosions happen due to an increase of the internal steam pressure, possibly related to the increase of precipitations observed in the zone of volcano. Therefore the Geophysical Institute recommends that it is not allowed to descend to the interior of the crater since the phreatic explosions could be repeated and the people could take the rock hit, other materials and/or rarefaction waves that are generated by these events. These phreatic explosions they happen generally at times of much rainfall, this is the reason why these explosions not necessarily are indicative of a substantial increase of the activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. The Geophysical Institute in its preprecautionary eagerness of the security of the people maintains a monitoring permanent of the state of this and other volcanos of the country and will inform opportunely into any change that these can present/display. The activity of the volcano shows a slight increase in its seismic activity with respect to the previous months. 40 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes have been registered, which are related to the fracturing of rocks to the interior of the complex between the 14th and the 18th of February. These earthquakes are of small magnitude, which is the reason why they have not been perceived by the population. It is possible to indicate that during the 2007, an average of 4.2 VT earthquakes per day was had. Also in this time interval 6 events of long period (LP) per day were registered when the average in the 2008 was of 0.3. LP events are related to resonances of cracks full of flowed inside the volcano. In addition it is important to mention the presence of explosions of moderate magnitude, related to the phreatic activity. The 16th of February the guardian of the refuge of the volcano perceived an increase in the scent to sulphur in the high part of the crater. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador's capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. - Information : I G Quito

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Cratère du Guagua Pichincha - Aôut 1999 -Viracucha

ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

October 6th, 2016

IG reported that during 27 September-4 October seismic activity at Tungurahua remained at moderate levels, characterized by 1-8 long-period earthquakes and up to three volcano-tectonic events per day. An hour-long period of tremor was recorded on 1 October. Minor fumarolic emissions rose above the crater rim. IG reported that Tungurahua's seismic network detected a significant increase in the number of long-period (LP) earthquakes on 12 September and small episodes of tremor beginning on 16 September. A swarm of 24 LP events were detected during 0408-0424 on 18 September. Starting at 1400 on 24 September the number of LP events again increased. Gas emissions were low, and together with the increased seismicity, possibly indicates a blocked conduit. IG noted that a possible large-scale eruption may happen within hours to days. In response, the Secretaria de Gestion de Riesgos (SGR) announced that the Alert Level was raised from Yellow to Orange (the second highest on a 4-color scale) on 26 September. Previously IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate-to-high levels during 16-17 March, moderate levels during 18-21 March, and low levels on 22 March. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano; the weather cleared for a brief period on 20 March and no activity was observed. IG reported that moderate-to-high levels of activity at Tungurahua continued during 9-15 March. Gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater on most days, often to heights less than 2 km above the crater, and drifted NW, W, WSW, and SW; cloud cover sometimes obscured views of the volcano. Explosions were recorded daily, and crater incandescence was reported almost nightly. Ash fell on 9 March in Pillate (8 km W), El Manzano (8 km SW), Cotalo (8 km NW), and Macas. On 10 March a small pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km NW down the Achupashal drainage. On 15 March residents in the Runten sector (NNE) heard an explosion and sounds resembling rolling rocks on the NE flank. Ash fell in Patate (NW) and Juive (7 km NNW). Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano. Tungurahua - Live webcam

ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

October 11th, 2018

During 3-9 October IG reported a high level of seismic activity at Reventador, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes sometimes rose higher than 1 km above the crater rim and drifted W, NW, N, and NE. Crater incandescence was visible at night, and incandescent blocks sometimes
rolled down the flanks. During 29 August-3 September IG reported a high level of seismic activity at Reventador, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes rose as high as 600 m above the crater rim and drifted NE, NW, and W. Crater incandescence was visible. IG stated that an explosion at Reventador was detected at 11 :16 on 2 July, producing an ash plume that was reported by the Washington VAAC to have risen 3 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in the Cayambe (57 km WNW) and in the town of Juan Montalvo. Fine ashes also fell on the two provinces of Pichincha and Napo.
The activity of the volcano remains at a high level, erupting since November 2002. The internal seismicity is characterized, between July 1 and July 2 at 11am, by 15 LP earthquakes and 2 explosions.During 23-28 May IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador. Steam, gas, and ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NW on 23 May, and a plume of gas, water vapor, and ash rose 300 m on 26 May; cloudy weather prevented views of emissions on most days. A lava flow had advanced to 900 m on the NE flank. On 27 May incandescent blocks were observed rolling as far as 800 m down the flanks in multiple directions. An ash plume rose 3 km above the crater rim and quickly drifted W, causing ashfall in Papallacta (62 km SW), San Antonio de Pichincha (90 km W), Tabacundo (63 km WNW), Cayambe (57 km WNW), Puellaro (85 km WNW), and Puembo (80 km W). During 9-15 May, IG eported ongoing high levels of eruptive activity at Reventador. Steam, gas, and ash emissions continued, with plumes moving to the N and W. On 12 and 13 May, a small lava flow was observed on the E flank 700 m below the summit. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sangay volcano

September 25th, 2018

Based on satellite images and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 19-20 September ash emissions from Sangay rose to 5.8-6.1 km (19,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted WNW and W, and became diffuse after 37 km. Based on satellite images and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11, 13, 15, and 17 September ash emissions from Sangay rose to 5.8-6.4 km (19,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. A thermal anomaly was visible each day, and also on 16 September.Based on satellite images and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 28 August-3 September ash emissions from Sangay rose to 5.8-6.7 km (19,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly was sometimes visible. In a special report IG stated that a new phase of activity at Sangay began on 8 August, with surficial activity characterized by low-energy ash emissions rising as high as 2.3 km above the crater rim and a possible new lava flow on the SE flank. The Washington VAAC reported that prior to 1500 on 8 August an ash emission rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l., or 500 m above the crater rim, and drifted SW. On 11 August a possible ash plume rose to 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l., or 2.3 km above the crater rim, and drifted WNW. Thermal anomalies were identified in satellite data on 14 August. That same day a webcam image showed incandescence on the upper part of the SE flank, suggesting a lava flow from the Ñuñurco dome. The report stated that no activity at Sangay had been observed since the last eruption ended in November 2017. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Cuicocha - Cotachi

October 6th, 2018

IG reported that, after an earthquake swarm consisting of 62 volcano-tectonic events during 2-3 October, seismicity at Cuicocha returned to background levels on 4 October. Carbon dioxide levels were normal, and deformation data did not show any anomalies. IGEPN reported an increase of the seismic activity of the Cuicocha-Cotacachi volcanic complex in Ecuador. During the days of October 2nd and 3rd, 60 VT earthquakes associated with rock fracturing were recorded; almost all earthquakes are located near the Cuicocha volcano. Ten earthquakes, the strongest of magnitude 2.5 occurred on October 2 at 10:58 local time, were reported as significant by Quiroga population. The scenic lake-filled Cuicocha caldera is located at the southern foot of the sharp-peaked Pleistocene Cotacachi stratovolcano about 100 km N of Quito. Both Cotacachi and Cuicocha were constructed along the Otavalo-Umpalá fracture zone. Eruptive activity began about 4500 years ago and continued until about 1300 years ago. The 3-km-wide, steep-walled caldera was created during a major explosive eruption about 3100 years ago that produced nearly 5 km3 of pyroclastic-flow and fall deposits. Four intra-caldera lava domes form two steep-sided forested islands in the 148-m-deep lake. A pre-caldera lava dome is situated on the outer E side of the caldera. Pyroclastic-flow deposits cover wide areas around the low-rimmed caldera, primarily to the east. Gas emission continues from several locations in the caldera lake.The last historical eruption dates back to the year 650. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sierra Negra volcano (Galapagos)

September 2nd, 2018

As of the 1st of September IG reported that due to the continuous decrease in seismic energy levels, reaching even earlier values ​​at the beginning of the eruptive period from June to August 2018 at the Sierra Negra volcano, and the decrease in the number of thermal alerts and SO2 emission , the IGEPN reported the possible end of the eruptive activity or the entry into a period of calm after 58 days of eruption. By 25 August the lava flows in total covered an area of 30.6 square kilometers. Activity continued to decline the last week of August with decreased
seismicity, gas emission, and no surficial activity visible. . IG reported that during 20-21 August both steam-and-gas emissions and incandescence from lava flows were visible on the Sierra Negra webcam. No activity was noted when the weather was clear during 22-28 August. On 15 August satellite images showed lava from Fissure 4 continuing to enter the ocean. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 7-14 August. Incandescence from active NNW lava flows was visible almost nightly. A steam-and-gas plume rose 1.8 km a.s.l. and drifted W on 7 August. IG reported that on August 9, at 17:45 GMT, the tremor increased in amplitude, in relation with a new surge of activity on the northern flank.
Seismicity is further characterized by 52 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, and 6 LP earthquakes.The largest earthquake occurred at 10:55 am M3,1 TG and a depth of 2 km. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 1-7 August. Incandescence from active lava flows was visible daily. An increase of tremor began at 2220 on 3 August and lasted two hours, signifying a new pulse of activity on the N flank. Small gas emissions were visible on 4 August, and steam-and-gas emissions were noted on 6 August. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 25-31 July. Sulfur dioxide flux was as high as about 1,400 tons per day (on 28 July), and daily counts of volcano-tectonic and long-period events were 24-65 and 3-32, respectively. Nightly incandescence from advancing lava flows was visible. Gas plumes rose more than 1.8 km above the vents and drifted N, NW, and W. As of the 20th of July, IGEPN reported that the activity remains unchanged, at a superficial and high internal level.During the last measurement period, 18 to 19 July at 11am, the number of VT earthquakes decreased, with 39 events; the number of LP earthquakes is 11.The gas emissions are at least 1,800 meters above sea level, and go to the WNW.Nighttime glow is observed at the emission points, and on the lava flows.As of the 10th of July, IGEPN reported that Sierra Negra's surface and internal activity levels remain high. The eruptive process continues, as evidenced by numerous volcano-tectonic earthquakes and emission tremor; thermal anomalies are noted as well as the emission of a plume of vapor, gas and ash rising to 2,400 meters in height, then moving towards the southwest sparing the populated areas for the moment. Lava flows come from a source located in the lower part of the northwestern flank of the volcano; the emission of lava would have increased significantly since July 7 at 17h local. From July 2nd to 3rd at 11am local time, the IG reports 241 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 37 LP earthquakes and 2 VLP earthquakes. During the last 24 hours, about fifty volcanic earthquakes have been located at a depth of less than 5 km; the strongest was on the east flank of the volcano, at a depth of 2 km, with a magnitude of 3.4.The satellite images show gas and vapor emissions, and the presence of lava flows. IGEPN reported that after a small earthquake on July 1, 2018 at 15:52 GMT, tremor appeared. At 18 o'clock, the National Park staff reports incandescence and the presence of lava flows on the northwest flank of the volcano. The IGEPN informs, for the period from 01 to 11 am to 02 July at 11 am, 286 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 43 LP earthquakes, 3 VLP earthquakes and emission tremor. An ash emission was mounted 1,000 meters above the crater, then headed west. IGEPN reported that the activity of the past 12 hours was characterized by a gradual decrease in seismic and acoustic tremor, but these signals nevertheless indicate the continuation of the eruption with a lower intensity.One hundred and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded; the largest, with a magnitude of 3.3, is located south of the caldera at a depth of 4.3 km. The others are located at a shallower depth, and in the western part of the caldera. Previously, IGEPN and PNG reported that following a rise in seismicity for some months, and some more recent major earthquakes, including one of M 4.2 on June 22 at 6:24 GMT and another of M 5.3 on June 26 at 3:15 GMT under the Sierra Negra volcano / Isabela Island to the Galapagos, the seismicity was marked by replicas and tremor. On June 26, from 11:17 am TG, a new seismic swarm began in Sierra Negra; earthquakes are characterized by a depth of between 3 and 5 km and a magnitude of 4.6 maximum. Since the earthquake of M 4,2 at 13:38 TG, the amplitude of seismicity and infrasonic signals has greatly increased. Galapagos National Park staff reported rumbles from the volcano. all these signs suggest the beginning of the eruptive process. Images from the GOES-16 Satellite show a strong thermal anomaly in the northern area of ​​the caldera. The Park staff then reported lava flows inside the caldera and on the northern flank of the volcano towards Bahia Elizabeth. As Isabela Island is populated, the authorities have ordered the evacuation of 50 residents, who will be cared for by host families; tourist access to the Sierra Negra volcano area and the El Cura area is restricted. On 8 June IG reported a continuing high level of seismicity at Sierra Negra, characterized by a larger number and magnitude of earthquakes, indicating magma movement. The number of events per day had been significantly increasing since mid-2016. In the previous 10 days there was an average of 42 local events/day; on 25 May there were 104 events, the largest number of earthquakes per day recorded since 2015. In addition, in a 24-hour period during 7-8 June there were a total of 48 volcano-tectonic events, two long-period events, and three hybrid earthquakes; a M 4.8 long-period earthquake was recorded at 0715 on 8 June. The earthquake epicenters were mainly located on the edges of the crater, in two NE-SW trending lineaments; the first covered the N and W edges of the crater and the second went from the NE part around to the S edge. Data showed very large deformation at the caldera's center, compared with lower levels of deformation outside of the caldera. The broad shield volcano of Sierra Negra at the southern end of Isabela Island contains a shallow 7 x 10.5 km caldera that is the largest in the Galápagos Islands. Flank vents abound, including cinder cones and spatter cones concentrated along an ENE-trending rift system and tuff cones along the coast and forming offshore islands. The 1124-m-high volcano is elongated in a NE direction. Although it is the largest of the five major Isabela volcanoes, it has the flattest slopes, averaging less than 5 degrees and diminishing to 2 degrees near the coast. A sinuous 14-km-long, N-S-trending ridge occupies the west part of the caldera floor, which lies only about 100 m below its rim. Volcan de Azufre, the largest fumarolic area in the Galapagos Islands, lies within a graben between this ridge and the west caldera wall. Lava flows from a major eruption in 1979 extend all the way to the north coast from circumferential fissure vents on the upper northern flank. Sierra Negra, along with Cerro Azul and Volcan Wolf, is one of the most active of Isabela Island volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Fernandina volcano (Galapagos)

June 20th, 2018

IGEPN reported that after two days of intense eruptive activity, tremor levels decreased significantly, thermal anomalies decreased (though continued to remain intense), and a significant
drop in sulfur dioxide emissions was recorded. Previously, IGEPN reported that earthquakes occurred on Fernandina Island on June 16, from 8:37 am; the largest at 9:22 am TG was of magnitude 4.1 and a depth of 4 km.
The seismic swarm preceded an eruptive activity that began between 11h and 11h15, confirmed by a boat passing to the Galapagos National Park. Located on the NNE side of the volcano, the eruption is characterized for the moment by lava flows, and gas plumes 2-3 km high.The entrance to the lava at sea generates a powerful plume of steam and gas.Fernandina, the most active of Galápagos volcanoes and the one closest to the Galápagos mantle plume, is a basaltic shield volcano with a deep 5 x 6.5 km summit caldera. The volcano displays the classic "overturned soup bowl" profile of Galápagos shield volcanoes. Its caldera is elongated in a NW-SE direction and formed during several episodes of collapse. Circumferential fissures surround the caldera and were instrumental in growth of the volcano. Reporting has been poor in this uninhabited western end of the archipelago, and even a 1981 eruption was not witnessed at the time. In 1968 the caldera floor dropped 350 m following a major explosive eruption. Subsequent eruptions, mostly from vents located on or near the caldera boundary faults, have produced lava flows inside the caldera as well as those in 1995 that reached the coast from a SW-flank vent. Collapse of a nearly 1 km3 section of the east caldera wall during an eruption in 1988 produced a debris-avalanche deposit that covered much of the caldera floor and absorbed the caldera lake. (GVN/GVP)

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Tungurahua volcano 1999 - H. Gaudru

MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

September 4th, 2016

No recent news since 2016 - latest MVO Weekly Report for the Period 26 August to 2 September 2016 - Activity at the Soufriere Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded eight rockfalls, seven volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week. Four of the volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred in a very brief swarm on 28th August. The rockfalls were probably a continuation of the increased activity following the heavy rainfall on 24 August. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were not possible during the reporting period.
No recent activity reported since September 2015 - Based on satellite image analyses and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 September 2015 possible re-suspended ash from Soufriere Hills drifted WNW at an altitude of 1 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. - latest previous report about eruptive activity dated for the period from 8th of March 2013 to 5th of July 2013 -
Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 28th of June to 5h of July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 271 tonnes/day with a maximum of 427 and a minimum of 161 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 21st to 28th of June. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 353 tonnes/day with a maximum of 459 and a minimum of 221 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded four rockfalls and nine volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes the week from 14th to 21st.of June. Six of the VT earthquakes occurred in a brief swarm on 16 July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were only possible on three days this week and gave an average flux of 289 tonnes/day with a maximum of 332 and a minimum of 247 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 7th to 14 th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 281 tonnes/day with a maximum of 428 and a minimum of 185 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded nine rockfalls, five volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event the previous week frm 31st of may to 7th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 485 tonnes/day with a maximum of 543 and a minimum of 430 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event this week from 24th to 31st of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 395 tonnes/day with a maximum of 588 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. . The seismic network recorded three rockfalls the week from 17th to 24th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 380 tonnes/day with a maximum of 536 and a minimum of 281 tonnes/day. Many residents of Montserrat felt an earthquake at 7:51 pm on 18 May 2013. This earthquake had a magnitude of 4.9 and was located south-west of Barbuda; about 100 km north of Montserrat. It was not associated with the Soufrière Hills Volcano. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic this week from 10th to 17th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 373 tonnes/day with a maximum of 553 and a minimum of 137 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week from 3rd to 10th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 313 tonnes/day with a maximum of 435 and a minimum of 160 tonnes/day. Measurements were only possible on three days this week because of adverse wind conditions. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 26th of April to 3rd of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 379 tonnes/day with a maximum of 466 and a minimum of 254 tonnes/day. The wind has been mainly towards the north and north-east since the night of 1/2 May. This has blown the volcanic plume over inhabited areas and the smell of volcanic gases has been noticeable at times. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 19th to 26th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 366 tonnes/day with a maximum of 535 and a minimum of 181 tonnes/day. There have been no good views of the dome for over a month now. Reports from helicopter pilots suggest that most of the large slab on the eastern side of the dome is now gone; removed by the pyroclastic flow on 28 March 2013. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week from 12th to 19th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 556 tonnes/day with a maximum of 1155 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. Past week 5th to 12th of April, the seismic network recorded no seismic events related to the volcano this week. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 325 tonnes/day with a maximum of 585 and a minimum of 186 tonnes/day. MVO reported that during 22-29 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the Tar River Valley (E) at about 0500 on 28 March. The flow was not observed directly, but the deposits indicated that it traveled halfway down the valley, 1-1.5 km from the dome. There were no reports of ashfall; any ash was probably blown over Plymouth and out to sea. The source of the flow was not known due to cloud cover, but was likely from the failure a large slab that had been slowing moving away from the dome. Heavy rainfall during the evening of 28 March generated large lahars in several valleys around the volcano, including in the Belham Valley (NW). These started at about 1900 and lasted for several hours. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded one rockfall and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 15th to 22nd of March.Sulphur-dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 359 tonnes/day with a maximum of 540 and a minimum of 258 tonnes/day. There appear to have been no changes in the large slab recently observed to be peeling away from the dome above the Tar River Valley. The slab is now estimated to have dimensions of 80 by 60 by 4-6 metres. If this slab falls as a single block it will produce a large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas. previously , the seismic network recorded one rockfall this week from 8th to 15th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 251 tonnes/day with a maximum of 264 and a minimum of 227 tonnes/day. During a helicopter inspection on 8 March 2013, we observed a large fissure in the cliff on the eastern side of the dome, part of which has existed since 2007. This fissure is the result of slow cooling and erosion of the dome. It is parallel to the cliff face and is estimated to be two metres wide, suggesting that a large slab is slowing peeling away from the dome. If this slab falls as a single block it will probably produce a moderate-to-large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas The seismic network recorded one rockfall, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one hybrid event this week from 1st to 8th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements for the week gave an average flux of 368 tonnes/day with a maximum of 552 and a minimum of 213 tonnes/day. Variable winds blew the volcanic plume over inhabited areas for much of the week, particularly the first half, and the smell of volcanic gases was very noticeable at times. There has been no visible emission of ash from the volcano this week. Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)
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Grenade - Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano

March 25th, 2018

On 22 March the University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) and the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) reported that seismicity at Kick 'em Jenny continued to decline. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the maritime exclusion zone was adjusted to a radius of 1.5 km.
The University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) and the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) reported that during 12-15 March seismicity at Kick 'em Jenny significantly decreased. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) with a 5-km maritime exclusion zone. The University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) and the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) reported that on 12 March the Alert Level for Kick 'em Jenny was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) due to non-specified increased activity. The report reminded marine operators of the 5-km maritime exclusion zone. Kick 'em Jenny, a historically active submarine volcano 8 km off the north shore of Grenada, rises 1300 m from the sea floor. Recent bathymetric surveys have shown evidence for a major arcuate collapse structure that was the source of a submarine debris avalanche that traveled more than 15 km to the west. Bathymetry also revealed another submarine cone to the SE, Kick 'em Jack, and submarine lava domes to its south. These and subaerial tuff rings and lava flows at Ile de Caille and other nearby islands may represent a single large volcanic complex. Numerous historical eruptions, mostly documented by acoustic signals, have occurred at Kick 'em Jenny since 1939, when an eruption cloud rose 275 m above the sea surface. Prior to the 1939 eruption, which was witnessed by a large number of people in northern Grenada, there had been no written mention of Kick 'em Jenny. Eruptions have involved both explosive activity and the quiet extrusion of lava flows and lava domes in the summit crater; deep rumbling noises have sometimes been heard onshore. Historical eruptions have modified the morphology of the summit crater.

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Soufriere Hills dome on December 6, 2000 (Courtesy Caraibean Helicopter)

 

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

November 18th, 2018

CENAPRED reported that the last 24 hours were marked by 68 exhalations of a mixture of gas, steam and a small quantity of ash. The seismicity is characterized by a VT earthquake of magnitude2.6 at 21:17 on November 17 and 12 minutes of low amplitude tremor. The exhalations continued in the afternoon of November 18, with a plume rising to 1,000 meters above the summit, dispersing to the northeast. CENAPRED reported that each day during 31 October-6 November there were 89-192 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Periods of volcanic tremor were detected almost daily. Explosions at 1638 and 1727 on 3 November ejected material NE and generated plumes that rose 1.5 and 1.6 km above the crater rim, respectively. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). CENAPRED reported that two explosions occurred on October 4, including one at 7:37, in addition to 173 exhalations; the plume with an estimated height of 1,000 meters above the summit has tilted westward. Ash fallout is possible on San Pedro Nexapa, Amecameca, El Salto, San Antonio Zoyatzingo and San Diego Huehuecalco. At the seismicity level, 2 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of M 1,5 and 2,4 and 358 minutes of harmonic tremor were recorded. Cenapred reported that 64 exhalations occurred for the last 24 hours at Popocatepetl, accompanied by plumes of steam, gas and a little ash, and 11 explosions, the largest of which produced a plume of 2,000 meters above the summit, and incandescent projections.At the seismicity level, there are 2 volcano-tectonic earthquakes and harmonic tremor, with a total duration of 484 minutes.CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours were marked by 40 exhalations, three explosions on 22nd September, at 14h11, 15h18 and 20h23 respectively; the first explosion was accompanied by a plume of 2,800 meters above the crater.In the early evening, explosions occurred at 20:56, 21:47 and 22:07, interspersed with emissions of steam and gas, and incandescence. This activity is related to the destruction of the dome observed during the flight on September 21st.CENAPRED reported that each day during 12-17 September there were 64-189 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Nighttime crater incandescence was sometimes visible. Explosions were detected almost every day: eight on 12 September; one on 14 September; five on 15 September; three on 16 September. A series of emissions and explosions accompanied by tremor began at 0425 on 17 September and lasted for 365 minutes; incandescent tephra was ejected. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.CENAPRED reported that each day during 25-31 July there were 24-42 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, and nightly crater incandescence. Explosions were detected almost every day: five on 26 July; nine on 27 July; one on 28 July; three on 30 July. A series of gas-and-ash emissions began at 0307 on 31 July and lasted for 215 minutes. Ejected incandescent tephra landed on the flanks. The gas-and-ash plumes rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted WSW, causing ashfall in Tetela del Volcan, Yecapixtla, Tlalnepantla, and Totolapan (Morelos state), and in Amecameca, Acuautla, Ecatzingo, Ozumba, and Tepetlixpa (Mexico state). The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours were marked with 51 exhalations of steam and gas, and an explosion on July 19 at 8:31. From around 9:30 pm, Popocatepetl presented a series of small explosions, accompanied by light ash emissions in a westerly direction.Previously, CENAPRED reported that each day during 6-12 June there were 19-34 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, and nightly crater incandescence. Explosions were detected almost every day: at 2026 on 7 June; 0130 on 8 June; 1756, 1931, and 2358 on 9 June; 1724 on 10 June. An explosion at 0220 on 11 June ejected incandescent fragments. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. CENAPRED reported that each day during 9-15 May there were 51-137 steam and gas emissions from Popocatepetl as well as ongoing incandescence from the summit. Additionally, three explosions were recorded: at 1834 on 11 May, at 0912 on 11 May, and at 1452 on 14 May. These explosions dispersed ash to the S and SW. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes up to M 2.8 also occurred throughout the time period. CENAPRED reported that each day during 25 April-1 May there were 63-114 steam and gas emissions from Popocatepetl, often containing ash. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. As many as five explosions per day were recorded during 25-29 April, with resulting eruption plumes rising around 1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. CENAPRED reported that during an overflight of Popocatepetl on 16 March scientists observed a small lava dome, number 78, at the bottom of the inner crater. The dome was 50 m in diameter and 30 m thick, and produced gas plumes visible above the main crater rim. The inner crater was 320 m in diameter and about 100 m deep; remnants of the previous dome had been deposited on the walls of the inner crater. Each day during 21-27 March there were 20-233 emissions, often containing slight amounts of ash. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. Plumes of gas and water vapor drifted WSW, SSW, SSE, and SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. CENAPRED reported that each day during 7-13 March there were 105-361 steam and gas emissions from Popocatepetl. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. Explosions were recorded on 7 March. An explosion at 1042 on 12 March generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. Each day during 7-13 February CENAPRED reported 25-101 emissions from Popocatepetl, with emissions during 11-13 February containing slight amounts of ash. Explosions were detected at 0130 and 2213 on 7 February, at 0457 on 8 February, at 1729 on 12 February, and at 0631 on 13 February. Minor crater incandescence was visible on the morning of 9 February, and at night during 11-12 February. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City and is North America's second-highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages. (GVN/GVP) . - Live cam of Popocatepetl -

MEXICO - Colima volcano

January 27th, 2018

As of the 26th of January 2018, UNAM and Jalisco State Civil Protection recently executed an inspection flyover of the Fuego de Colima volcano which showed that after the destruction of the dome between December 2016 and January 2017, there are morphological changes: the west terrace has decreased by 4.000 m².The presence of sulfur deposits, which replaced the smoking activity, indicates a "cold crater".The bottom of the crater is slowly deformed, probably due to the rise of new magmatic materials. The University of Colima has indeed recorded 20 to 26 January 2018, 20 volcanotectonic earthquakes, 8 LP episodes related to exhalations, and the tremor in relation to the internal movements of fluids; 3 landslides left traces. Previously; on 2 June 2017 the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week seismic data revealed 21 high-frequency events, 14 long-period events, 1.7 hours of tremor, 12 landslides, and zero explosions.On 2 June the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week seismic data revealed 45 high-frequency events, 12 long-period events, 1.2 hours of tremor, 3 landslides, and one low-intensity explosion. Two lahars descended the La Lumbre ravine (SW) and three descended the Montegrande ravine (SSE); both ravines are in Colima state. During 25-26 May sulfur dioxide emissions were low at 35-51 tons per day, close to the detectable limits. On 26 May the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week seismic data revealed 36 high-frequency events, 20 long-period events, 2.6 hours of tremor, 12 landslides, and three low-intensity explosions. On 23 May sulfur dioxide emissions were below detectable limits (8.6 tons/day). A short-lived, low-amplitude episode of tremor was detected on 24 May. On 19 May the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week seismic data revealed 25 high-frequency events, 15 long-period events, 2.2 hours of tremor, 12 landslides, and three low-intensity explosions. During 15-16 May sulfur dioxide emissions were below detectable limits (8.6 t/d). On 12 May the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week seismic data revealed 26 high-frequency events, 21 long-period events, 2.5 hours of tremor, 12 landslides, and three low-intensity explosions. On 28 April the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during the previous week seismic data revealed 34 high-frequency events, 26 long-period events, 2.5 hours of tremor, 8 landslides, and one low-intensity explosion. During fieldwork on the N part of the volcano, scientists found deposits of ballistics within 1.9 km of the crater. A higher density of deposits was found to the NNE, and deposits from pyroclastic flows were noted as far as 1.5 and 1.7 km N of the crater. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base - new webcam *************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

November 20th, 2018

INSIVUMEH reported that the strong eruption of the Fuego was accompanied on November 19 in the morning by constant explosions, and a sustained ash plume rising to about 7,000 meters asl, before dispersing 50-60 km to the west and southwest.The incandescent source was observed 800-1000 meters above the crater, with ballistic materials scattered for more than one kilometer around the volcano.The main lava flow reached about 3,000 meters in length towards the barranca Ceniza ; two other shorter flows, of about 300 meters, were observed in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. The flows was accompanied by avalanches and mobilization of ashes.Pyroclastic flows descended from the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. Abundant falls of ash and particles are falling on Panimache, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Paolo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, San Juan Alotenango, and Antigua Guatemala.The Conred also reported light ash falls on Mazatenango, San Bernardino, San Antonio, San Miguel Panán, Chicacao, San Juan Bautista, Santa Bárbara Río Bravo and Patulul, and that 2,052 people were safe and 3,000 have been evacuated; 76,145 people would be affected. At about 11h40 AM slight decrease in seismicity was observed, as well as a decrease in the height and extension of the ash plume: height of 6,000 meters asl dispersing over 20-30 km. In the evening (6PM) the seismogram and the RSAM showed a drop in activity, and according to the observatory this 5th eruptive phase of the year was over, after a duration of 32 hours. However, Explosions were always recorded, weak to moderate, accompanied by a plume of ash at 4,800 meters asl, drifting to a west and southwest sector over 15 km.The incandescent impulses were reduced to 100-300 meters, generating weak avalanches mainly in the crater contour; some ejections reach the limit of vegetation towards the main barrancas. A special INSIVUMEH bulletin of 18 November reported that at 10.10 local, the fifth eruption 2018 started. It was characterized by a permanent ash plume at 4,900 meters asl, dispersing to the south for 15-25 km, and generating moderate to strong avalanches in the Ceniza and Tanilyua Barrancas, up to the vegetative limit. The incandescent fountain was observed up to 300 meters high above the crater. A lava flow, 2,000 meters long, in the direction of the barranca Ceniza, has a front generating avalanches and ash rising. A possibility exists of the beginning of lava flow in the Taniluya barranca in the next hours, and of pyroclastic flows.Ash falls have been reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, and Finca Paolo Verde.During the night, the explosions generated a plume rising to 5.200 meters in height before dispersing 20-30 km in a westerly and north-easterly direction; the incandescent fountains rose up to 500-600 meters above the crater and the ballistic ejections reached 800 meters in various directions. The lava flow towards the Ceniza gorge reaches a length of 2,500 meters.At the time of the 0h40 report, a pyroclastic flow descended in the direction of the Seca barranca. Comred declared the red alert and activated the Emergency Operations Center-COE-Municipal to coordinate the response actions. National Highway 14 is closed. Self-evacuation is in progress. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that on 18th of November, the activity increased again rising: 8 to 14 explosions, low to moderate, per hour are accompanied by emission of plumes of ash to 4,700 meters asl., drifting on 15-20 km to the southwest and west. Incandescent pulsatile emissions at 150-200 meters are observed, as well as moderate avalanches in the crater contour. A lava flow reaches a length of 1,300 meters in the Ceniza barranca, permanently fed.Ash falls are reported on Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde.INSIVUMEH reported that 7-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 8-12 November. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 8-20 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porveni, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-300 m high and caused avalanches that traveled far, reaching vegetated areas in multiple drainages. Lava flows as long as 1.2 km advanced in the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, though lava-flow activity greatly decreased by 12 November. As of the 9th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity continued; the lava flow in the Ceniza barranca reached a length of 1 200 meters. Avalanches were reported in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas.Low to moderate explosions occurred ranged from 12 to 18 per hour, with ash plumes rising to 4,600-4,700 meters asl, before dispersing over 10-15 km. towards a western sector, accompaznied with fallout of fine particles on this zone, including Sangre de Cristo, Santa Sofia, Panimaché I and II, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir. The explosions were accompanied by outgassing noises for 2 to 5 minutes.INSIVUMEH reported that a new eruptive phase began on November 6 in Fuego, the fourth in 2018.Low-to-moderate steady-state explosions are recorded, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,800 m. asl.,then drifting 20 km westerly and southwesterly, and with shock waves and sounds.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finac Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Incandescences impulses are visible in the crater that rose to about 200-300 meters high, generating avalanches around the crater, impacting the vegetation towards the Seca and Taniluya barrancas, and feeding a 1000 meter long flow, then reaches 1,200 meters in the Ceniza gorge.The effusive activity then continued until the evening, weakening very slightly. As of the 5th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that activity of Fuego increased, with 10 to 15 hourly explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 4,700 meters asl. dispersing 15 km in a westerly and southwesterly direction. Nighttime glow is observed to 200-300 meters above the crater; the explosions generate weak to moderate avalanches, and lava flows 600 meters long towards the Tanilyua and Ceniza barrancas.The ash falls concern Panimaché, El, Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde and San Pedro Yepocapa.t INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 20 October hot lahars descended Fuego's Las Lajas (SE) and Mineral drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter along with branches and tree trunks. The lahars were 20-30 m wide and 2 m deep. During 20-23 October there were 8-15 weak explosions recorded per hour, producing gray ash plumes that rose 750-850 m above the crater rim and drifted 12 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimaché (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Lava fountains rose 100-200 m high. Avalanches of blocks descended the El Jute (SE), Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, with material reaching vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-16 October explosions (8-18 per hour) produced ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 8-12 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, and Panimache I and II (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-200 m high, causing avalanches of material within the crater, though some of the avalanches traveled long distances, reaching vegetated areas. The lava flow on the W flank was still visible but by 14 October no longer active. On 13 October a steaming lahar descended the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reported that from 3.50 am on October 12, a new phase of the eruption began, effusive: fountains of 400 meters above the crater generated a lava flow that reaches 600 meters long towards the west drainages of the volcano. A possibility of pyroclastic flows is considered towards the seca, Las Lajas and Cenizas barrancas. On the evening of October 12, pyroclastic flows are reported in the Barranca Seca, where the lava flow reaches a length of 1,500 meters. Its advance causes a lifting of materials and some avalanches. A pyroclastic flow is also observed in the Barranca Santa Teresa. The eruptive dynamics is maintained with moderate explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 5,000 meters asl, dispersing to the SW, O and SE over 15-20 km. ; incandescent impulses are observed 200-300 meters above the crater. The fallout of ashes concerns Panimache I, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde..INSIVUMEH reported that on October 11, a slight increase in the explosive activity of the Fuego was reported characterized by 10 to 14 hourly explosions, weak to moderate, accompanied by plumes of ash rising to 4,600 meters asl. traveling 15 km to the west and southwest. Incandescent impulses are observed 100-200 meters above the crater, generating the fall of volcanic materials and avalanches towards the Santa Teresa and Las Lajas barrancas. This activity is accompanied by moderate fallout, shock waves and constant outgassing noise.INSIVUMEH reported that on September 29 in the evening an increase of the explosive activity occurred ; tremor and degassing pulses lasting up to 3-4 hours were accompanied by aircraft turbine sounds and block avalanches on the southwestern flank. About Five to nine hourly explosions were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,400 - 4,700 meters.In the evening, 10 to 15 hourly explosions were recorded, weak to moderate, and accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500 meters asl. moving 10 km to the west and southwest, and fallout of volcanic materials that generate small avalanches.Ash falls are reported on San Pedro Yepocapa, Finca Palo Verde, Morelia, and Panimache.The summit is marked by a constant incandescence during the night.INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 and 24-25 September explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted 12 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimache (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). On 25 September hot, steaming lahars descended the El Jute (SE) and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reporterd that on 7 September at 7:31 local time, an avalanche occurred on one of the flanks of Fuego due to a fissure in the upper part of the Barranca Las Lajas, the destabilization of materials accumulated during the eruption of June 3, and preceded by a small ash emission from a vent located lower down the slope.During the last 24 hours about 5 to 12 low to moderate hourly explosions occurred , accompanied by ashes and gas reaching 4,700 meters above sea level, before moving west-southwest 15 km INSIVUMEH reported that heavy rain generated lahars during 29 August-1 September that descended Fuego's El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), Cenizas (SSW), Taniluya (SW), Seca (W), Mineral, Honda, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. The lahars were hot, had a sulfur odor, and carried tree branches and blocks (2-3 m in diameter). On 1 September lahars disrupted roads between San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW) and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and from Finca Palo Verde and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). During 2-4 September explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Avalanches of incandescent material were confined to the crater. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH reported that during 18-21 August explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 850 m above the crater and drifted 12 km NW, W, and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area and down drainages on the flanks. According to CONRED, as of 22 August, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 169, and 256 remained missing. On 17th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that volcanic activity remains moderate with 6 explosions, accompanied by ash plumes at a height of 4,100-4,200 meters asl, drifting to the northwest and west; low avalanches are reported towards the Cenizas barranca.The heavy rains remobilized the ashes and caused a lahar in the barranca Honda. INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 August heavy rain triggered lahars that traveled down the Seca drainage on Fuego's W flank and the Mineral drainage, carrying tree trunks and blocks as large a 2 m in diameter. During 12-14 August weak-to-moderate explosions generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m high, and avalanches of blocks descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Santa Teresa (W) SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), and finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH rported that a strong explosion, accompanied by avalanches around the crater, fallout and shockwaves, occurred on August 8 at 21:20 local. Incandescent materials were ejected at 4,800 m Asl., Evening about 1,100 meters above the summit; the ash plume moved 12 km to the west. This is the first strong explosion recorded in the last six weeks.INSIVUMEH reported that during 29-30 July avalanches of material descended the Cenizas drainage on Fuego's SSW flank. Hot lahars generated by heavy rains on 30 July descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), El Jute (SE), and Cenizas drainages, carrying blocks 2-3 m in diameter and smelling of sulfur. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported relatively quiet conditions at Fuego during 4-9 July characterized mainly by gas emissions and block avalanches on the flanks. During 7-8 July there was about one explosion detected every two hours, producing diffuse ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Cenizas (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, while lahars were present in the El Jute (SE), Las Lajas, Cenizas, Taniluya (SW), Seca, Mineral, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. Seismicity increased on 10 July. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km and drifted 12 km SE, causing ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimaché (8 km SW). According to CONRED, as of 4 July, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 332 remained missing. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that 2-7 weak explosions per hour at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 650 m above the crater rim and drifted W and SW during 27-29 June and 1-3 July. Ashfall was reported on 27 June in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo and Yepocapa. Avalanches of material descended the S, SW, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, El Jute, and Cenizas drainages). INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 20-26 June multiple lahars at Fuego were often hot, steaming, and had a sulfur odor, and were generated from heavy rains and the recent accumulation of pyroclastic-flow deposits from the 3 June events. Lahars remained a significant hazard, and descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Santa Teresa (W), and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. They were 25-45 m wide, as deep as 3 m, and often carried blocks up to 3 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. The agencies warned that because the Las Lajas drainage is full of deposits, lahars can continue to descend that drainage or create new channels in San Miguel Los Lotes (one of the hardest-hit areas). Explosions continued, producingash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde on 22 June. Avalanches of material descended the SE, S, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages). According to CONRED, as of 26 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 remained evacuated. During 16-19 June as many as seven explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km W, SW, and S. Some explosions were heard in areas within a 10-km radius. Avalanches of material descended the Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages during 17-18 June, producing ash plumes, and ashfall in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde. According to CONRED, as of 19 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows remained at 110, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 people had been evacuated. As of the 15th of June, INSIVUMEH reported that following heavy rains hot lahar traveled down in Santa Teresa Barranca and Rio Mineral, a tributary of Rio Pantaleon. Large of 20 to 25 meters and 2 meters high, and carrying fine and pasty materials, blocks of 3 meters in diameter and trunks. At 17:40, a lahar descended the river Ceniza. Other lahars were reported in Taniluya and Las Lajas barrancas, about 30 to 45 meters wide and 3 meters high As of the 13th of June INSIVUMEH reported that a lahar was observed traveling down in the Ceniza gorge; about 25 meters wide and 2 meters high, it carries fine and pasty materials, blocks one to three meters in diameter and tree trunks. Another lahar has taken the Las Lajas barranca, 30-40 meters wide and 3 meters high, characterized by the transport of similar materials.As of the 12th of June INSIVUMEH reported that at 7 am local an increasing of the explosive activity occurred, characterized by columns of ashes between 4,500 and 5,000 meters height asl., dispersed on 15 to 25 km to the northeast . Ashfall is likely to occur in Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja and San Miguel Duena. At 7:35 local time, the observatory reported a pyroclastic flow in the Seca barranca, producing a curtain of ashes that reached 6,000 meters asl before dispersing to the north and north-east. The explosive activity causes avalanches that produce thick columns of ash, which disperse along the same axis.These episodes are likely to impact the main drainages in next hours or days.In addition of the danger created by the pyroclastic flows, there are lahars due to the remobilization of the ashes following the heavy rains. On 11th of June at the end of the afternoon, hot lahars descended the barrancas Las Lajas and El Jute, made of fine and pasty materials, blocks of large diameter up to 3 meters, and trunks and branches; his measurements were 35 to 55 meters wide and 5 meters high. Other lahars have been reported in the Seca and Mineral barrancas, with the risk of overflowing rivers.As of the 8th of June,INSIVUMEH reported lahars in Santa Teresa, Mineral, Taniluyá and Ceniza barrancas, tributaries of the Pantaleón and Achiguate rios; these lahars are hot, emit fumes, and carry fine materials, and rocks 2-3 m in diameter, as well as tree trunks. In parallel, pyroclastic flows are reported in El Jute and Las Lajas drainages, accompanied by co-pyroclastic plumes up to 6,000 meters asl.The latest assessment given to 8 June / 8:30 by the Conred, is 109 dead, 197 missing, and 1,713,617 people affected by the climax and its aftermath. As of the 7th of June, at the beginning of the evening, new pyroclastic flows descended the Las Lajas and El jute drainages, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic cloud rising to 6,000 meters asl.CONRED reported that by 0630 on 6 June a total of 12,089 people had been evacuated, with 3,319 people dispersed in 13 shelters. One bridge and two power networks had been destroyed. According to news sources on 6 June, Guatemala's National Institute of Forensic Sciences stated that 75 people were confirmed to have died and 192 were still missing. Many, possibly thousands, received burns and other injuries. Weather conditions, continuing activity at Fuego, poor air quality, hot pyroclastic flow deposits, and rain made rescue efforts difficult. On Tuesday, an explosion forced relief to stop the research. The disaster has affected, to varying degrees, a total of 1.7 million Guatemalans.Details about volcanic event : the strong eruptive phase occurred at the volcano on Sunday 3rd of June). Lasting for about 16-17 hours until the evening, it generated ash clouds reaching up to 10 km, which drifted into westerly directions for more than 40 km, lava flows descending on the flanks, heavy ash fall in nearby areas and secondary mud flows triggered by strong rainfall. Massive pyroclastic flows - fast-moving turbulent avalanches of gas and hot rock material have claimed lives as well. Information from official side at least 69 victims have been confirmed. All fatalities occurred as result of being engulfed in pyroclastic surges, it seems mainly on the eastern flank.The eruption has abruptly decreased after 18:45 local time and returned to small to moderate intermittent explosions and minor rockfalls. Incandescence is visible at the crater, where fresh lava flows begin to cool. Civil protection has declared the highest alert level RED for the areas of Escuintla, Alotenango, Sacatepéquez, Yepocapa and Chimaltenango, while Escuintla is kept at the second highest, ORANGE. More than 3000 people are reported to have been evacuated and ash fall from the eruption has been affecting an area with a population of more than 1.5 million, roughly 10% of the country's population total. Previously, local news reported that a violent eruption occurred on the evening of Sunday, June 3 (local time), leaving at least 25 people dead and injured several other people after pyroclastic flow entered into Rodeo village. Volcanic ash has reportedly covered nearby villages, including San Pedro Yepocapa and Sangre de Cristo, ashfall has also been reported in Guatemala City. Some 100 people have been evacuated from affected areas. Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales has declared that a national emergency response has been mobilized. La Aurora International airport was closed on Sunday due to ashfall. Further eruptions, evacuations, and transportation disruptions are expected in the coming hours and days. INSIVUMEH reported that beginning at 1400 on 17 May a lahar descended the Seca (Santa Teresa) drainage on Fuego's W flank. The lahar was 25 m wide, 1 m deep, and carried trees and blocks 1.5 m in diameter. During 19-21 May explosions occurred at a rate of 5-8 per hour, and generated ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Some explosions were accompanied by rumbling audible more than 30 km away, and shock waves that vibrated structures in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimache (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material within the Seca, Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages that reached vegetated areas. Ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia, Panimache I and II, and Finca Palo Verde. A lava flow 700-800 m long was active in the Ceniza drainage. Small ash explosions at Fuego on 11 and 12 May rose to 5 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. or approximately 1 km (3,280 ft) above the summit. The ash dispersed quickly to the southwest and was visible on webcams. Activity increased on 14 April and remained elevated through 17 April. Moderate-to-strong explosions were detected at a rate of 6-9 per hour, and sometimes produced shock waves that vibrated houses in Morelia and Panimache. Dense ash plumes rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20 km W and S, though winds also carried the ash to higher altitudes to the SE. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in Santa Sofía, Morelia, Panimache I and II, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde. The rate of explosions increased to 7-10 per hour on 16 April; explosions sometimes caused structures in Panimache, Morelia, La Reina, and Alotenango (8 km ENE) to vibrate. A lava flow traveled 1.3 km down the Seca drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-10 April explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 10-15 km SW and S. Sometimes the explosions were accompanied by weak shock waves. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 200 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the Seca (Santa Teresa, W), Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Trinidad (S) ravines. During 9-10 April ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). (INSIVUMEH) - Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

November 8th, 2018

CONRED and INSIVUMEH reported that the number of avalanches at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex increased on 2 November. The avalanches traveled long distances from the crater, down the S and SE flanks, to the volcano's base. Some avalanches generated ash plumes. Explosions during 2-6 November produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m
above the crater rim and drifted SW, causing local ashfall. Avalanches descended the SE and NE flanks during 4-5 November. INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-23 October explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 500-700 m and drifted SW and W. Avalanches of material descended the W and E flanks of the lava dome. INSIVUMEH reported that heavy rain at Santa Maria on 20 September produced hot lahars in the San Isidro-Tambor River (S), a tributary of Salama River. The lahars were 25 m wide, 2 m deep, had a sulfur odor, and carried branches, tree trunks, and blocks up to 2 m in diameter. Lahars also descended the Nima I (S) drainage. On 21 September explosions generated ash plumes that rose 800 m above the crater rim and drifted W and SW; minor amounts of ash fell locally. Lahars descended the Nima I, Salama, and San Isidro drainages. During 24-25 September explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-700 m and drifted SW. Avalanches of material traveled down the SE and NE flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that during 1-4 September weak explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 600-700 m and drifted SW. Avalanches of material descended the SE flanks of the lava dome. Ashfall was reported to the south in Monte Claro. INSIVUMEH reported that during 28-30 July explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated white plumes that rose 600-800 m and drifted SW. Avalanches of material descended the NW, E, and SE flanks of the lava dome. INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-10 July explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted SW and W. Local ashfall was reported. Avalanches of material descended the SE and W flanks of the lava dome. CONRED noted that a Yellow Alert Level was declared for Quetzaltenango (18 km WNW) on 16 June due to continuing rains and an increased threat of lahars. Weak explosions during 16-18 June generated diffuse ash plumes that rose 700 m above the complex and drifted SW and W. On 13th of June, INSIVUMEH reported moderate lahars from 12:20 and from 14:15 in Rio Nima , a tributary of Rio Samala; Large 18 meters high and 1-2 meters, the last episode is loaded with volcanic materials, blocks up to a diameter of 2 meters and partly frontal, shrubs and tree trunks.INSIVUMEH reported that explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, detected by the seismic network during 1-2 and 5-6 May, generated ash plumes that rose 600-700 m and drifted SW. Avalanches of material descended the SE flank of the lava dome. INSIVUMEH reported that explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, detected by the seismic network during 27-28 February and 3-5 March, generated ash plumes that rose as high as 700 m and drifted S and SW. Avalanches of material descended the SE flank of the lava dome. Ash fell locally on the flanks and in San José. INSIVUMEH reported that explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, detected by the seismic network during 7-13 February, generated ash plumes that rose as high as 700 m and drifted SW. Avalanches of material descended the E and SE flanks of the lava dome. Ash fell on La Florida ranch (5 km S) on 10 February.
scientific blog about Santiaguito). The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

November 14th, 2018

As of the 13th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that seismicity was characterized by internal tremor associated with the rise of magma and gases; Strombolian explosions were standing with bomb ejections 5-25 meters above Mackenney crater and a lava flow reached 200 meters in a northwesterly direction. A white degassing was observed meanwhile, with a plume rising to 400 meters in height. INSIVUMEH reported that during 11-15 October Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim, and gas plumes rose 200-700 m. A lava flow that first emerged on 11 October traveled NW towards Cerro Chino, and by 15 October was 250 m long. As of the 30th of September INSIVUMEH reported that trombolian activity continued, with occasional explosions 50 meters above the crater and lava flows, lengths between 300 and 700 meters, towards the Cerro Chino.INSIVUMEH reported that during 17-18, 20-21, and 24-25 September Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 25 m above the crater rim. As many as four lava flows originating from Mackenney Crater traveled 50-250 m NW. INSIVUMEH reported that during the night of 6-7 September ncandescence was visible in the crater and two lava flows towards the northwest, visible from the commune of Saint-Vincente Pacaya. During the day, a white and blue degassing fumaroles rose to about 50 meters above the crater. Based on information from INSIVUMEH, CONRED reported a slight increase in explosive activity at Pacaya during past week , with 3-5 explosions per hour recorded by the seismic network. A 600-m-long lava flow originating from Mackenney Crater was visible on NW flank. INSIVUMEH reported that during 12-14 August Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 30 m above the crater rim. A 300-m-long lava flow originating from Mackenney Crater was visible on NW flank. INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-10 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 30 m above the crater rim. White gas plumes drifted SW. A lava flow originating from Mackenney Crater traveled 500 m down the N flank during 7-8 July, reaching the volcano's base. INSIVUMEH reported that during 28-29 June and 1-3 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 30 m above the crater rim. White gas plumes drifted S. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 13 and 16-18 June Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 50 m above the crater rim. An ash plume rose 3.5 km above the summit and drifted 10 km N and NE. INSIVUMEH reported that following an increase in activity for several months marked by Strombolian explosions and lava flows, activity produced on June 13 a sustained column of fine ash and gas, amounting to 3,500 meters asl. and dispersing north and northeast 10 km. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 6 June a lava flow emerged from a vent on La Meseta (the Mesa) on Pacaya's NW flank and traveled 200 m over a period of six hours. Strombolian explosions ejected material as high as 50 m above the crater rim during 7-10 June. INSIVUMEH reported that during 1-2 May Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 50 m above the crater rim. A 500-m-long lava flow advanced NW towards Cerro Chino. Nighttime crater incandescence was visible, and rumbling was heard in areas within 2-3 km. Activity increased on 4 May, with explosions ejecting tephra as high as 80 m. The lava flow continued to advance and by 6 May was 600 m long. Strombolian explosions ejected material 15 m above the crater rim, and nighttime incandescence continued to be present. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 27-28 April seismicity at Pacaya had increased, and moderate-to-strong explosions ejected material as high as 150 m above the crater rim. Lava originating from the 2010 fissure traveled about 500 m NW, towards Cerro Chino. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone. New Webcam

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COSTA RICA - Arenal volcano

September 16th, 2013

No recent notable events since 2013 - OVSICORI-UNA conducted an overflight of Arenal on 14 September 2013 to measure gas emissions, and found low concentrations of carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen sulfide. An infrared camera detected a ring of thermal anomalies along the rim of Crater C.OVSICORI-UNA reported that plumes composed mainly of water vapor rose from the NE and SE edges of Arenal's Crater C on 8 and 9 September. Tremors indicative of hydrothermal and magmatic activity were detected on 8 September. The report noted that seismic and fumarolic activity had been very low in the past three years; however steam plumes associated with heavy rains had been frequent. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank. New webcam

COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

November 8th, 2017

OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Poas at 0915 on 6 November generated a plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Poás at 0820 on 13 September generated plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim. OVSICORI-UNA reported that events at Poas at 0920 and 0930 on 24 August and at 0945 on 29 August generated plumes that rose 500-600 m above the crater rim. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Poas at 1517 on 22 August generated a plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 11-14 August seismicity at Poas was characterized by low-amplitude tremor, some volcano-tectonic earthquakes, and high-frequency signals indicating gas emissions. Weather clouds mostly prevented visual observations. On 3 August OVSICORI-UNA reported that plumes of magmatic gases, water vapor, and aerosols continued to rise from Poas's vent A (Boca Roja), and plumes of water vapor and abundant yellow particles of native sulfur were emitted from vent B (Boca Azufrada). Plumes rose as high as 1 km above the vents and drifted SSW. Incandescence from the bottom of the crater was recorded at night by the webcams. Recent measurements indicated that sulfur dioxide was emitted at a rate of 1,000-1,500 tons per day, which were values similar to those measured in the first months of 2017, before the phreato-magmatic eruptions of April and May. Gas plumes continued to rise from the vents and drift SW and NW at least through 8 August .OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 1 August an event at Poas passively produced a plume that rose 500 m above the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 19-24 July plumes of magmatic gases, water vapor, and aerosols were emitted from Poas's vent A (Boca Roja), and plumes of gases, water vapor, and abundant yellow particles of native sulfur rose from vent B (Boca Azufrada). Plumes rose 300-500 m above the vents and drifted W and SW. OVSICORI-UNA reported that the seismic activity generated on July 20th started at 5:52 pm local and during the night, started decreasing around 8 pm. The first earthquake was magnitude 4.6. The earthquake of Mw 4.8, located in an area north of the active crater of the Poas, is located at 17h58, an earthquake of Mw 3.8; at 18h17, another of Mw 4.2, and at 19h32, an earthquake of Mw 4,8, all at a depth of between 2 and 4 km. During the morning of the 21st, the seismic activity showed a significant decrease, but remained. The Ovsicori recorded 192 volcano-tectonic earthquakes on July 21 at 11:30 am, with a magnitude of less than 3.8. The volcano maintains normal conditions, characterized by the emission of water vapor and gas from the main exit points of the active crater, as in the previous days, as well as nighttime incandescence. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 12-17July gas plumes that rose as high as 1 km above Poás’s vents A (Boca Roja) and B (Boca Azufrada) drifted SW and NW. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 4-9 July plumes of magmatic gases, water vapor, and aerosols rose 200-600 m above Poas vents A (Boca Roja) and B (Boca Azufrada). Minor incandescence from the bottom of the crater was observed during 4-5 July, and a strong sulfur odor was reported in some areas of Alajuela and Heredia. During 5-7 July grayish-red ash emissions rose intermittently from vent A, and on 7 July a loud  sound was noted in Mirador. A strong sulfur odor and minor ashfall was reported in some areas of Alajuela. An event at 1450 on 10 July generated a plume that rose 300 m. OVSICORI-UNA reported low-to-moderate-amplitude tremor with occasional periods of high-frequency volcano-tectonic events detected at Poas during 28-29 June. Webcams recorded intense incandescence at night from the bottom of the crater. A sulfur odor was noted in San Rafael de Poas and Vara Blanca. An event at 1115 on 19 June generated a plume that rose 1 km above the vents. An event at 1450 may have generated a plume, but poor visibility did not allow for confirmation. During 1-4 July frequent but small Strombolian activity ejected incandescent material that fell around vent (Boca Roja). Plumes of water vapor, magmatic gases, and particulates rose at most 500 m from the vents. OVSICORI-UNA reported low-amplitude tremor with occasional periods of low-amplitude lng-period events detected at Poas during 20-25 June. Plumes of reddish-colored ash, water vapor, and magmatic gases were recorded rising as high as 500 m above two vents during 20-21 June. Magmatic gases and water vapor plumes rose as high as 1 km above the vents the rest of the period. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 13-15 June gas emissions from Poas rose no higher than 500 m above the crater rim and drifted N. During breaks in weather, observers near the crater on 16 June noted ash emissions rising less than 1 km above the crater rim and drifting N. Ash emissions from events at 1340 on 18 June, and 1100 and 1350 on 20 June, rose less than 1 km. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. Web camera from OVSICORI-UNA.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

November 14th, 2018

OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 6-11 November low-level ash-and-gas emissions at Turrialba were continuous, though occasionally punctuated by energetic explosions which elevated the plumes as high as 500 m above the crater rim. The emission drifted towards the Valle Central. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Cascajal de Coronado,
Desamparados (35 km WSW), San Antonio, Guadalupe (32 km WSW), Sabanilla, San Pedro Montes de Oca, Moravia (31 km WSW), Heredia (38 km W), and Coronado (San José, 35 km WSW). Emissions likely continued on 12 November, though inclement weather did not allow for visual confirmation. Passive ash emissions were visible during 1-6 November. A 70-minute-long event began at 0530 and generated plumes that rose 500 m and drifted SW. Several short-duration (2-3 minutes) events were recorded at 1523 and 1703 on 2 November and at 0109 on 3 November; they generated ash plumes that rose 500 m. Ashfall was reported in Coronado. Seismic activity remained high, with moderate-to-high amplitude banded tremor. At 0620 on 5 November a plume rose 600 m and drifted NW. OVSICORI-UNA reported that when weather conditions allowed for observations gas and periodic ash emissions rising from Turrialba were recorded by the webcam during 25-30 October. An event at 0134 on 26 October produced an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted NE, causing ashfall in the neighborhoods of Coronado (San José, 35 km WSW) and San Isidro de Heredia (Heredia, 38 km W). Events at 0231 on 29 October and 1406 on 30 October produced plumes that rose 500 m and drifted NW and W respectively. OVSICORI-UNA reported that most days during 10-16 October intermittent, passive gas-and-ash emissions at Turrialba rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim. The emissions drifted W, SW, S, and NE. There were also some explosive events; an energetic explosion was recorded at 1712 on 14 October, though cloudy weather prevented estimates of a plume height. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption occurred on October 10 from 6:40 local, accompanied by a plume of ash that rose 200 meters above the active crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that intense crater incandescence was visible at Turrialba the night of 3 October. At 0800 on 8 October an event produced an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted N. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption began in Turrialba on September 30 at around 10 pm and continued on October 1, with the emission of a plume of ash of variable shape between 300 and 500 meters above the active crater. These ashes drifted toward the northeast of the volcano.OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive gas-and-ash emissions from Turrialba were continuous in September through the 13th. Events during 17-18 September produced plumes that rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW and NW.OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption, lasting 8 minutes, marked the Turrialba on 11 September at 6:39 local time; the ash column rose about 300 meters above the active crater before dispersing to the WNW. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an explosive activity occurred on September 10 at 12:10; it was accompanied by a column at 300 meters above the crater emitted passively and containing some ashes.The activity continued during the day with emissions of vapors and gases, and in the evening and night, by incandescence due to high temperature gas emissions.
OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1340 on 30 August an event at Turrialba produced an ash plume that passively rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Gas-and-ash emissions became continuous during 31 August-1 September, with plumes rising 200 m and drifting SW and W. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 27-28 August emissions from Turrialba rose continuously to 200 m above the crater rim, and drifted SW. OVSICORI-UNA reported that pulsating, passive ash emissions rising from Turrialba and drifting W were visible during periods of clear weather on 10 August. The next day a strong sulfur odor was reported in parts of Heredia (38 km W) and San José (36 km WSW). OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 2-4 August activity at Turrialba was characterized by sporadic, passive gas-and-ash emissions. Events at 0023 and 0700 on 2 August generated diffuse ash plumes that rose 1 km and 300 m, respectively, and drifted W. An event at 1600 on 4 August produced a diffuse ash plume that rose 300 m. OVSICORI-UNA reported thazt on August 1, the activity has been more sustained and accompanied by a persistent tremor of greater magnitude. The eruptive column reached a little higher, up to about 500 m, and dispersed towards the west-southwest, affecting the areas of Coronado, Carthago, areas south of the volcano Irazú, and Heredia, among others.At 0223 on 2 August, an eruption was accompanied by a plume of ash rising to 1,000 meters above the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 23-31 July activity at Turrialba was characterized by sporadic, passive gas-and-ash emissions detected almost daily. The plumes rose no higher than 300 m above the vent rim, and drifted NW, W, and SW. Ashfall was reported in several neighborhoods in the Valle Central, including Coronado, Tibias (35 km WSW), Goicoechea (28 km WSW), and Moravia (31 km WSW) on 24 July, and in Tres Ríos (27 km SW) on 31 July. A sulfur odor was occasionally reported. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Turrialba at 0930 on 28 May generated a plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted SE. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Turrialba at 0900 on 21 May generated a plume that rose to an unknown height due to poor visibility. OVSICORI reported that there were strong emissions of SO2 from Turrialba, accompanied by vigorous fumarolic activity and jetting noises. An ash plume was reported on 10 May, with ashfall in La Pastora de Santa Cruz de Turrialba and Pacayas. A weak water vapor and gas plume was detected at 0920 on 13 May, rising 300-500 m (1000-1600 ft) above the summit. Seismicity was low, with low-amplitude long-period earthquakes and some low-amplitude tremor. Continuous low-amplitude tremor was report on 13 May. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at Turrialba at 0700 on 26 April generated a small ash plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted W. The Washington VAAC reported that on 11 April an ash emission from Turrialba were seen through an OVSICORI-UNA web camera. OVSICORI-UNA reported that events at Turrialba at 1230 on 5 April and 0609 on 9 April generated plumes that rose 500 and 300 m above the crater rim, and drifted S and W, respectively.The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

COSTA RICA - Rincon de la Vieja volcano

November 10th, 2018

OVSICORI-UNA reported a two-minute-long eruption at Rincon de la Vieja began at 1703 on 9 November. Weather conditions prevented webcam views and estimates of plume heights.
OVSICORI-UNA reported that a short phreatic eruption was recorded at Rincon de La Vieja on November 5th at 15:11 local time; it was accompanied by a column of gas and vapor of 100 meters above the crater, dispersing to the west. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that a phreatic eruption occurred at Rincon de La Vieja on October 17 at 5am local time; it was accompanied by a plume of water vapor, gas, aerosols and sediments from the hyperacid crater lake at a height of 1,000 meters. The duration of activity was 2 minutes.
The summit of Rincon was covered with a white cope of water and sediments, observed via the webcam located at Sensoria Land of Senses, and observers north of the volcano.OVSICORI-UNA reported two distinct, two-minute-long eruptions at Rincon de la Vieja beginning at 0434 and 1305 on 31 August. Weather conditions prevented webcam views and estimates of plume heights. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a three-minute-long eruption at Rincon de la Vieja began at 1828 on 14 August. Foggy conditions prevented webcam views and an estimate of a plume height. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a small explosion at Rincon de la Vieja was recorded at 1828 on 28 July, and was followed by tremor. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1758 on 9 January an eruption at Rincon de la Vieja produced a plume that rose 1 km above the crater rimOVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1048 on 9 October a small eruption at Rincon de la Vieja produced a plume that rose 700 m above the crater rim. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0858 on 29 September a new small phreatic explosion at Rincon de la Vieja produced a plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim; material also flowed down the S flank. On 3 October events at 0848 and 1445 generated plumes that rose 700 m and 1,500 m, respectively. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0849 on 5 July a small phreatic eruption at Rincon de la Vieja ejected material that fell within the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1456 on 23 June a phreatic eruption at Rincon de la Vieja ejected sediment onto the upper N flank and generated a plume that rose 1-2 km above the summit. The plume dispersed sediments to the W and NW, near the Von Seebach crater (about 3 km SW of the active crater). OVSICOI-UNA reported that a phreatomagmatic eruption at the Rincon de La Vieja produced an eruptive plume on 23.06.2017 at 14:56 local, which rose to 2,000 meters above the crater, ie 3916 meters above sea level. The eruption lasted over one minute, and produced lahars on the north slope of the volcano. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 15 June a diffuse plume of mainly water vapor rose 50 m above Rincon de la Vieja's crater rim. A small hydrothermal explosion from the crater with the highly acidic lake was detected around noon on 18 June. In a report posted the next day OVSICORI-UNA noted that seismicity was characterized by low-frequency events, volcano-tectonic events, and tremor with intensifying amplitude; the seismic patterns were similar to those that preceded the phreatomagmatic events on 23 May and 11 June, though the recent seismicity was not as energetic. Rincon de la Vieja, a composite stratovolcano in Northwestern Costa Rica forms a NW-trending ridge consisting of several eruptive centers that have coalesced through time. Elevations of the individual cones range from 1670 to 1920 meters and nine craters are readily identified by their topographic expression. Numerous phreatic eruptions have occurred since 1851 (as recently as November, 1995), all from the Active Crater. The last major eruption involving juvenile magma occurred at ~3,500 ybp, producing the Rio Blanco tephra deposit. Ash, pumice, and lithics ejected during this eruption were deposited in a highly asymmetrical dispersal pattern WSW of the Active Crater, indicating strong easterly prevailing tradewinds at the time of the eruption. Historical descriptions of the summit crater morphology suggest that conditions there have changed little over the past century.
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NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

May 20th, 2017

The Washington VAAC reported that on 13 May a west-drifting ash emission from Masaya was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot.
Previously, based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 21 January a possible emission from Masaya with minor ash content drifted almost 25 km NW.Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 5 January a gas, steam, and ash plume from Masaya drifted W. Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that a steam-and-gas plume from Masaya possibly contained some ash on 3 November. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 28 August a gas plume with possible ash rose from Masaya to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 15 August a possible ash plume from Masaya rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Elevated seismicity and a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images indicated increased activity. In a report posted later that day the Washington VAAC noted that the webcam recorded minor ash emissions. Previously, INETER reported that during 18-19 May RSAM values at Masaya fluctuated between 300 and 700 units which are low-to-moderate values. The lava lake in Santiago Crater continued to strongly circulate and the vent widened through 24 May. INETER reported that between 1700 and 2400 on 3 May volcanic tremor at Masaya increased; RSAM values spiked at 1,000 units and then dropped to 250. Gas emissions at Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels, and the lava lake continued to strongly circulate. On 5 May RSAM values fluctuated between 250 and 500 units which are low-to-moderate values. INETER reported that during 27 April-3 May gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels. Seismic tremor decreased though continued to fluctuate between low to moderate levels. The lava lake continued to strongly circulate. INETER reported that during 20-23 April gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels and RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 22 April the level of the lava lake decreased, though strong lake circulation was reported on 23 April. INETER reported that during 6-12 April the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. (Time-lapse video). Previously on 30 March INETER reported that the lava lake rose in Masaya's Santiago crater and several landslide deposits from the precious few days were visible in the NE crater. RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that tremor continued and the widening of the vent in the SE part of the crater persisted. According to a SINAPRED report on 28 March INETER noted that lava-lake activity at Masaya's Santiago crater was intense and the craters continued to gradually widen. Emissions were at low levels. INETER reported that on 3 March the lava lake on the SW floor of Masaya's Santiago crater was very active. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. Previously, INETER reported that the lava lakes in three vents on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater were active during 20 February-1 March. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. On 23 February small explosions ejected spatter onto the crater floor. During fieldwork volcanologists observed active lava lakes in all three vents on the crater floor, and noted that the inner walls of the crater were being eroded due to the lava lake. A new vent was forming on the SE part of the crater floor. During a second visit on 24 February INETER staff noted that the vents had become larger due to landslides on the crater walls. Small streams of lava sporadically originated from the NE vent. By 1 March the two vents in the SW part of the crater had almost merged. On 17 February INETER reported that the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. During 10-11 February sulfur dioxide emissions at Masaya rose to high levels (1,500 tons per day), and RSAM values were at moderately-high levels due to higher levels of volcanic tremor. This activity coincided with an increase in the size of the lava lake. Gas emissions were at moderate and low levels on 12 and 16 February, respectively. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindiri­ and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage.
(GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Telica volcano

August 18th, 2018

SINAPRED reported that on 15 August an explosion at Telica generated an ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim. INETER reported that a moderate explosion took place in June 21, 2018 at 7:08 local time. A plume of gas, ash, and some rocks rose 500 meters above the crater, before drifting east, south and southwest. Rockfall occurred near the crater, while the finer and sandy material was found more than one kilometer. Ash falls are reported on Los Manglares, Las Marias, Pozo Viejo, El Porvenir and Monte de Los Olivos.The explosion was followed by gas emissions; new explosions are likely during the day. INETER reported that a small gas explosion was heard by local residents on 10 September 2017. INETER warned the public to stay at least 2 km away from the crater. Previously in 2016 based on information from INETER, SINAPRED reported that 30 explosion at Telica occurred during 7-8 May, producing gas-and-ash plumes that rose 600 m and drifted S and SW. The explosions originated from a new vent in the N part of the crater; lava emissions were also observed. INETER reported high micro-seismicity and low outgassing during 11-16 May. Incandescence from vents on the crater floor was visible during 11-12 May; sounds from jetting gasses were noted on 11 May. RSAM values were 180-190 units during 11-12 May, dropping to 80 units during 12-14 May. INETER reported that during 6-11 April micro-seismicity at Telica remained high and lava in a vent on the crater floor was observed. Gas emissions were at low to moderate levels and RSAM values were low. On 30 March INETER reported that micro-seismicity at Telica remained high and was characterized by small, high-energy earthquakes. Incandescence emanated from the crater floor. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that seismicity continued at a high level and warned the public to stay away from the crater. In a 28 March report, SINAPRED noted that incandescence from Telica's crater continued to be observed, and reminded people to stay away from the crater. Previously, INETER reported high micro-seismicity at Telica during 20 February-1 March. Incandescence from the vent on the crater floor increased; lava in the vent was first observed on 25 February and persisted through 1 March. Five gas-and-ash explosions were recorded during 19 February-1 March, generating plumes that rose 300 above the crater and drifted W and SW. The strongest event started at 0819 and produced gas-and-ash emissions for 14 minutes. INETER reported that high micro-seismicity at Telica was associated with gas explosions during 16-17 February. On 18 February SINAPRED stated that a small amount of lava was visible in a vent. Based on satellite data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 13 February a gas plume possibly containing ash rose from Telica to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. On 16 February INETER reported that high micro-seismicity was associated with gas explosions. Previously INETER reported that four 5-minute-long explosions at Telica were detected at 0602, 0818, 0934, and 1124 on 25 November, and generated ash-and-ash emissions. On 26 November multiple gas-and-ash explosions were detected; the strongest explosion occurred at 0941 and produced an ash plume that rose more than 800 m above the crater. During 26-27 November a total of 29 explosions were detected, with 16 of those producing ash plumes. Based on wind and satellite data, pilot observations, and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 November an ash plume from Telica rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 100 km W. According to news articles, (at least) two explosions, at 0847 and 0848, generated ash plumes that rose 2 km and ejected tephra at least 900 m away. An unstated number of people living within a 900-m-radius evacuated, and residents in Agua Fría (also 900 m away) noted it was the first time variously-sized lapilli and blocks had reached their community. Ash fell in at least 70 communities in the municipalities of Quezalguaque (13 km SW), Posoltega (16 km WSW), Chichigalpa (20 km WSW), and Chinandega (30 km W). Previously, INETER reported that a 30-minute period of moderate-intensity explosions at Telica began at 0800 on 23 September. Abundant gas-and-ash emissions initially rose 400 m above the crater and drifted WNW, but then decreased to 50 m. Ashfall was reported in the community of Guanacastal. Explosions occurred at 1645 and 1648. Scientists conducting fieldwork observed deposits on the crater floor from an inner-wall landslide that had occurred on 17 July, and new fumaroles on the crater floor. Five explosions were detected on 24 September. Based on wind and satellite data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 September ash plumes rose as high as 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and N. During 28-29 September INETER noted that voluminous gas plumes rose from two vents on the crater floor. Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of 1061-m-high Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately SE of Telica, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.(GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Momotombo

April 15th, 2016

2016 eruption reports - INETER reported that three explosions at Momotombo during 5-6 April ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater. During 6-7 April there were 27 small explosions for a total of 438 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. The explosions ejected some incandescent material, and generated ash plumes that rose 200 m and drifted SW. RSAM values were low during 5-12 April. SINAPRED reported that on 2 April explosions at Momotombo produced gas-and-ash plumes and ejected incandescent tephra. On 28 March SINAPRED reported that 38 explosions were detected at Momotombo over a period of 24 hours, which ejected gas-and-ash plumes and incandescent tephra. The strongest event occurred at 1140 on 27 March and generated a plume that rose 1 km. During 2-3 March INETER reported that 53 small explosions at Momotombo generated low-energy gas plumes that rose 300 m above the crater. On 3 March some of the explosions produced ash plumes that drifted W and SW. RSAM values were at low to moderate levels. SINAPRED reported that during 5-6 March there were 78 explosions for a total of 279 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. One of the most significant explosions occurred on 6 March. The next day gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater. INETER reported that during 19 February-1 March explosions at Momotombo were detected daily; 88 explosions were detected during 1 December 2015-1 March 2016. Explosions produced ash plumes, and ejected incandescent material onto the N, NE, E, and SE flanks. Ash plumes rose 1.7-2.3 km above the crater and drifted SW during 21-22 February; gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.8 km on 24 February; an ash plume rose 1 km on 25 February; and a small gas-and-ash plume rose 300 m on 26 February. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the N and NW flanks during 23-24 February. Explosions on 27 February ejected tephra 300 m above the crater. At 0646 on 1 March explosions ejected gas and incandescent tephra; an ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted W and SW. The gas-and-ash emissions lasted 16 minutes, causing the plume to widen and darken the sky. INETER reported that during 16-17 February two explosions at Momotombo were accompanied by tremor, and produced ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The first and largest explosion (recorded at 0344) ejected incandescent tephra 800 m above the crater. RSAM values were at low-to-moderate levels. Based on webcam views and satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 February ash emissions rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and WSW. The next day ash emissions drifted SW. On 21 February ash plumes drifted about 80 km W and 25 km E. INETER reported moderate levels of gas emissions at Momotombo on 10 February; volcanic tremor and gas emissions increased to moderate-to-high levels the next day. An explosion on 12 February produced small ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the N and SE flanks. An explosion at 1305 on 15 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and ejected incandescent tephra onto the N and NE flanks. INETER reported that during 4-5 and 7-8 February both RSAM values at Momotombo were low to moderate and emissions were at moderate levels. INETER reported that during 26-29 January RSAM values at Momotombo were at low to moderate levels, and gas emissions were at moderate levels. Crater incandescence from high-temperature gas emissions was observed at night during 26-27 January. A Strombolian explosion at 0344 on 30 January ejected tephra onto the E, NE, N, and NW flanks, and produced gas emissions. At 0529 on 31 January another explosion also ejected gas, ash, and incandescent material. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas including the communities of Boqueron, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), and La Sabaneta. Moderate levels of gas emissions drifted SW towards Puerto Momotombo.INETER reported that during 20-21 January both RSAM values and emissions at Momotombo were low. Volcanic tremor increased at 0900 on 22 January, causing RSAM values to rise to high levels. There were no changes to emissions. INETER recommended to the public to stay at least 6 km away from the volcano. INETER reported that at 1209 on 12 January a large explosion at Momotombo ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and generated an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater. Tephra was deposited on the E, NE, N, and NW flanks. Ash plumes drifted downwind and caused ashfall in the communities of Flor de Piedra, La Concha (40 SSE), Amatistan, Guacucal (40 km N), La Palma, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), La Sabaneta, Mira Lago, Asentamiento Miramar, Pancasan, Rene Linarte, Raul Cabezas, and Betania. At around 0500 on 15 January strong volcanic tremor was accompanied by small explosions in the crater; ejected ash and incandescent tephra were deposited on the W flank. Seismicity decreased during 16-17 January. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, three gas-and-ash explosions on 2 January, at 1333, 1426, and 1434, excavated the remaining parts of the lava dome which was emplaced about a month ago. An ash plume rose 500 m above the crater, drifted S and SW, and caused ashfall in Puerto Momotombo (9 km WSW). Possible ash plumes from an explosion at 2129 were hidden by darkness. At 0420 on 3 January an explosion ejected lava bombs 2 km away and caused ashfall in La Paz Centro (18 km SW). Lava flows had advanced as far as 2 km down the NE flank. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, activity at Momotombo continued through 10 December. Fieldwork revealed a small, incandescent, circular crater halfway up Momotombo's E flank that was fuming during the morning on 6 December. An explosion on 7 December destroyed part of the crater. On 10 December SINAPRED reported that material had been accumulating in the crater since the beginning of the eruption on 1 December. Seismicity during 9-14 December was low and stable. Based on satellite and webcam observations, and seismic data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Momotombo rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-225 km NW and WNW. INETER reported that series of at least 4 small explosions occurred at the volcano on the morning, at 07:49, 08:17, 08:42, and 08:55 local time on 1st of December. The eruptions, in particular the last and largest one, produced steam and ash plumes that rose up to approx. 1 km from the summit. Light ash fall was observed in the community of El Papalonal and near the Momotombo geothermal plant to the SW of the volcano. Later, during the day, It seems that the volcano continues to erupt and have been intensifying its activity with near-continuous strombolian explosions accompanied with hot incandescent material and a small et slowly lava flows went down from the summit crater on the Northeast flank.Ashfall was reported in nearby communities to the W and SW, including La Concha, Los Arcos, Flor de la Piedra, La Paz Centro, and Leon. Some families in La Paz Centro self-evacuated. This is the first eruptive activity of the volcano in 110 years, the last confirmed eruption of Momotombo occurred in 1905 . Momotombo is a young, 1297-m-high stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows from Momotombo have flowed down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms a 391-m-high island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional larger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after an April 10, 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the southern flank of the volcano. INETER

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

April 25th, 2018

INETER reported that at 1320 on 22 April a small explosion at San Cristobal generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in the La Bolsa region and Hacienda Las Rojas. Previously, INETER reported that a series of 14 explosions at San Cristobal began at 2134 on 7 November 2017. The first explosion was the strongest, causing an increase in RSAM to 150 units; RSAM dropped to 50 after the last explosion. Ash fell in areas to the W and NE, including in the communities of Los Farallones, San Agustin, La Mora, El Naranjo, and Chinandega. Based on seismic data INETER reported that a period of tremor recorded at San Cristobal during 1939-2005 on 9 September ended with an explosion signal. INETER and Sinapred reported that an ash eruption began this 18 August around 6:30 am local time at the San Cristobal volcano, the highest volcano in Nicaragua, and continued during the day. No rumblings or explosions were reported. The likely hydrothermal or phreatic episode began with a large degassing. Many communities have been impacted by ash falls, which have mainly affected the communities of La Grecia, Las Hamacas, Ranchería, La Joya and Mocorón. Based on analysis of satellite images and information from INETER, the Washington VAAC reported that a small ash puff from the volcano rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NW. Later that day a gas emission possibly containing ash rose 300 m and drifted W. An ash plume identified in satellite images extended as far as 265 km W. Seismicity was elevated. Steam-and-gas emissions continued through the rest of the day. Previously, INETER and SINAPRED reported that at 1020 on 22 April 2016 an explosion at San Cristobal produced an ash-and-gas plume that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted SW. The seismic network recorded 10 additional explosions by 1200. Ashfall was reported in local areas including Las Brisas (10 km S), San José (8 km SSE), Santa Narcisa, Pellizco Central (12 km SSE), Los Albanos, Los Lirios (18 km WSW), Santa Cruz (35 km SE), Las Grietas (14 km E), El Liberal, and San Lucas (13 km E). The INETER report noted that the last explosive activity occurred on 6 June 2015, though explosions that day were of lesser magnitudes. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP

NICARAGUA - Concepcion volcano

October 16th, 2015

Based on seismic data, INETER reported that a lahar at Concepcion detected between 1210 and 1305 on 14 October impacted local communities. Material was deposited in the streets of La Chirca (N), La Union (SE), and Los Ramos (SE).Previously, INETER reported that gas explosions continued to be detected at Concepcion; by 30 June a total of 2,417 explosions, 113 since 23 June, had been detected by the network since activity increased (date not specified).INETER reported that gas explosions continued to be detected at Concepcion; by 23 June a total of 2,304 explosions, 320 since 15 June, had been detected by the network since activity increased (date not specified). INETER reported that gas explosions continued to be detected at Concepcion; by 15 June a total of 1,984 explosions, 309 since 9 June, had been detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity.In an 9 June statement, INETER noted that 38 gas explosions had been detected in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number to 1,675 detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity INETER noted that 159-177 gas explosions had been detected during 27 May-1 June, bringing the total number to 1,493 detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity. INETER reported According to a 6 May news article, activity at Concepcion had increased about three weeks prior and was characterized by fluctuating levels of seismicity and gas explosions. In a 8 May statement, INETER noted that seismic activity and gas explosions at Concepcion had decreased since the day before; 15 gas explosions has been detected in a 24-hour period. By 24 May there had been a total of 987 gas explosions detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity. Volcano Concepcion is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighboring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks of the volcano have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepcion was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the north flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated.(GVN/GVP)

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El SALVADOR - San Miguel volcano

June 5th, 2018

SNET reported a significant increase in the number of low- and high-frequency earthquakes beneath San Miguel's crater beginning on 22 May. RSAM values fluctuated between 142 and 176 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 30 May-1 June. Webcam images on 30 May showed a small gray gas emission. On 2 March SNET reported that gas plumes rose as high as 400 m above San Miguel's crater rim during the previous week. Ash was in the emissions on 24, 26, and 28 February, and 1 March. RSAM values fluctuated between 70 and 179 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 1-2 March. At 2200 on 5 March seismic amplitude began to increase, with RSAM values rising to 318 units by 0600 on 6 March. A webcam recorded minor gas emission during 5-6 March. SNET reported that during 0800-1100 on 19 February gas-and-ash emissions from San Miguel rose 350 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Ash fell on the upper flanks of the volcano, and a sulfur odor was reported in La Piedra farm. On 2 February SNET reported that seismicity at San Miguel was decreasing, along with a decrease in emissions. RSAM values fluctuating between 63 and 114 units; normal values are between 50 and 150. Small pulses of gas near the crater rim were visible. SNET reported that during 25-26 January seismic activity at San Miguel was slightly higher than normal, with RSAM values fluctuating between 75 and 179 units. Small pulses of gas near the crater rim were visible. SNET reported that during 14-17 January there were four gas-and-ash emissions from San Miguel that rose no higher than 300 m above the crater rim. The report noted that prior to each emission seismicity decreased and then suddenly increased. SNET reported that at 1653 on 14 January and 1615 on 15 January gas-and-ash plumes from San Miguel rose no more than 300 m above the crater rim and dispersed SW. The report noted that prior to both emissions seismicity decreased and then suddenly increased. Previously - On 19 May 2017 SNET reported that during the previous 24 hours RSAM values at San Miguel continued to decrease, fluctuating between 69 and 80 units (typical background levels average 50 units). Sulfur dioxide flux was also lower, though changing winds may have affected readings. SNET reported that during 28 April-5 May RSAM values at San Miguel had decreased and fluctuated between 50 and 173 units (typical background levels average 50 units). Sulfur dioxide flux was also lower, though changing winds may have affected readings. SNET reported that during 27-28 April RSAM values at San Miguel fluctuated between 106 and 176 units (typical background levels average 50 units). At 1532 on 27 April a strong gas plume rose 1.2 km above the crater rim. In a special report from 17 April 2017, SNET reported an increase in seismicity and gas emissions from San Miguel in recent days. Earlier that day during 0620-0630 RSAM values spiked to 356, an increase over normal values around 50. During 18-21 and 23-24 April RSAM values fluctuated between 80 and over 300. The symmetrical cone of San Miguel volcano, one of the most active in El Salvador, rises from near sea level to form one of the country's most prominent landmarks. A broad, deep crater that has been frequently modified by historical eruptions (recorded since the early 16th century) caps the truncated summit of the towering volcano, which is also known locally as Chaparrastique. Radial fissures on the flanks of the basaltic volcano have fed a series of fresh lava flows, including several erupted during the 17th-19th centuries that reached beyond the base of the volcano on the N, W, and SE sides. The SE-flank lava flows are the largest and form broad sparsely vegetated lava fields. GVN - (SNET)

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COLOMBIA - Galeras volcano

April 22nd, 2013

INGEOMINAS reported that during 15-21 May seismicity at Galeras was at a low level; during 19-20 May earthquakes with magnitudes 2.6 or less were concentrated in an area 3 km SW at depths near 4 km. Gas plumes rose 500 m above the crater and contained small amounts of ash during 15-16 and 20-21 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). INGEOMINAS reported that during 10-16 April 2913 earthquakes at Galeras were located in various areas as far as 13 km from the crater, at depths no greater than 14 km and with maximum magnitudes of 2. Moderate levels of sulfur dioxide were detected; plumes drifted NW. Cameras recorded ash emissions all week, especially on 9, 11, 12, and 14 April, when pulsating activity produced plumes that drifted W. Plumes rose no more than 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").INGEOMINAS reported that during 30 October-6 November 2012 seismicity at Galeras fluctuated but was slightly lower compared to the previous week. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low. Cameras around Galeras recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising from the crater on 30 October and 1 November. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. Webcam image

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Ruiz

November 1st, 2018

Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 24-30 October 2018 seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest. Seismicity increased during 26-27 October, with signals concentrated in an area 4.6 km WSW of Arenas Crater at depths of 4-6 km. Plumes of water vapor, ash, and gas continued
to rise from the volcano, and on 26 October a plume rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim. A weak thermal anomaly was identified in satellite data. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Previously, Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 8-14 August 2017seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest; seismicity decreased as compared to the previous week. Plumes of water vapor and gas continued to be emitted from the volcano. A gas-and-steam plume rose 450 m above the crater rim on 8 August and drifted NW. A thermal anomaly was identified on 14 August. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 23-29 May seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest. Five episodes of drumbeat seismicity (low-energy long-period events) were recorded between 1343 and 1930 on 29 May, likely signifying growing lava domes. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas continued to be emitted. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose 880 m above the crater rim on 27 May and drifted NW and SW. A thermal anomaly was identified on 28 May. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 9-15 May seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest; the number and magnitude of events were higher compared to the previous week. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas continued to be emitted. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose 1.7 km above the crater rim on 12 May and drifted NW and SW. According to the Washington VAAC the Bogota MWO reported an ash emission on 13 May. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). .
Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption. (GVN/GVP)

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PERU - Ubinas volcano

November 24th, 2016

The Comito Cientifico de Monitoreo Permanente del volcan Ubinas, made up of scientists from IGP's Observatorio Vulcanologico del Sur (OVS) and INGEMMET's Observatorio Vulcanologico (OVI), reported that at 1829 on 17 November an explosion at Ubinas generated an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted W.
The Comito Cientifico de Monitoreo Permanente del volcan Ubinas, made up of scientists from IGP's Observatorio Vulcanologico del Sur (OVS) and INGEMMET's Observatorio Vulcanologico (OVI), reported that on 8 November three explosions at Ubinas (at 2126, 2127, and 2149) generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted E.
According to IGP's Observatorio Vulcanologico del Sur (OVS) seismicity at Ubinas increased during 9-14 September, characterized by an increased number of volcano-tectonic and hybrid events. Volcano-tectonic vents also became more intense. A small thermal anomaly was detected on 20 September. According to a news article, an "exhalation" occurred at 1921 on 2 October, and was followed by explosions detected at 2250 that same day, and 0424 and 0552 on 3 October. The largest explosion, at 2250 on 2 October, emitted a dense ash plume that rose 1.7 km and drifted 10 km NE and NW, causing ashfall in Santa Rosa de Phara and Yanapuqui. Previously, Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 12-18 January the seismic network at Ubinas recorded an increase in the number and magnitude of long-period earthquakes and a decrease in volcano-tectonic events. Thermal anomalies were detected on 13 and 15 January. At 0640 on 15 January a plume rose 500 m above the crater's base. At 1253 an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater's base and drifted S and SW. The report noted that this was the first explosive event since 5 November 2015. Previously, Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 10-16 November sporadic ash-and-gas emissions from Ubinas were observed during rare breaks in the cloud cover. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

PERU - Sabancaya volcano

November 14th, 2018

Observatorio Vulcanologico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanologico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 18 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 5-11 November. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.7 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km N, NW, and W. MIROVA detected seven thermal anomalies, and on 8 November the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 2,500 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius. Observatorio Vulcanologico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanologico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 30 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 29 October-4 November. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.4 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km W, SW, and S. MIROVA detected seven thermal anomalies, and on 2 November the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 2,300 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius. Observatorio Vulcanologico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanologico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that an average of 30 explosions per day occurred at Sabancaya during 22-28 October. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude, and long-period events were detected. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.4 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km SE, E, and NE. MIROVA detected five thermal anomalies, and on 27 October the sulfur-dioxide gas flux was high at 2,671 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius. Observatorio Vulcanologico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanologico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 23 per day during 15-21 October. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim and drifted 40 km W, NE, and SE. The MIROVA system detected five thermal anomalies, and on 19 October the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 2,200 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius. Observatorio Vulcanologico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanologico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 17 per day during 8-14 October. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km NE, E, SE, and SW. The MIROVA system detected six thermal anomalies, and on 14 October the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 3,132 tons per day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius. Observatorio Vulcanologico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanologico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 24 per day during 1-7 October. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim and drifted 50 km SE, S, and SW. Ashfall was reported in Huanca (75 km SSE). The MIROVA system detected five thermal anomalies, and on 1 October the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 5,027 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius. Observatorio Vulcanologico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanologico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosions at Sabancaya averaged 21 per day during 24-30 September. Hybrid earthquakes were infrequent and of low magnitude. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.7 km above the crater rim and drifted 50 km E, SE, and SW. The MIROVA system detected six thermal anomalies, and on 29 September the sulfur dioxide gas flux was high at 3,250 tons/day. The report noted that the public should not approach the crater within a 12-km radius. Sabancaya, located on the saddle between 6288-m-high Ampato and 6025-m-high Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three volcanoes, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. Both Nevado Ampato and Nevado Sabancaya are only slightly affected by glacial erosion and consist of a series of lava domes aligned along a NW-SW trend. The name of 5967-m-high Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua Indian language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750. (GVN/GVP)

PERU - Misti volcano

June 5th, 2014

No new data since 2014 - Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) reported that, during the last 12 months, seismicity at El Misti was dominated by volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. Two seismic swarms (more than 100 events per day) occurred during the last three months, on 19 May and 3 June. An increase in tremor was noted in April, although the total duration did not exceed 10 minutes and was generally low-amplitude. Long-period seismicity was not significant. In the last 15 days, seismicity increased slightly and tremor was recorded daily. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismicity at El Misti increased during January, and a seismic swarm consisting of 119 volcano-tectonic events was detected during 14-15 January. Despite the increase, activity remained at a low level. El Misti, Peru's most well-known volcano, is a symmetrical andesitic stratovolcano with nested summit craters that towers above the city of Arequipa. The modern symmetrical cone, constructed within a small 1.5 x 2 km wide summit caldera that formed between about 13,700 and 11,300 years ago, caps older Pleistocene volcanoes that underwent caldera collapse about 50,000 years ago. A large scoria cone has grown with the 830-m-wide outer summit crater of El Misti. At least 20 tephra-fall deposits and numerous pyroclastic-flow deposits have been documented during the past 50,000 years, including a pyroclastic flow that traveled 12 km to the south about 2000 years ago. El Misti's most recent activity has been dominantly pyroclastic, and strong winds have formed a parabolic dune field of volcanic ash extending up to 20 km downwind. An eruption in the 15th century affected Inca inhabitants living near the volcano. Some reports of historical eruptions may represent in creased fumarolic activity. Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and (GVN/GVP)

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CHILE-ARGENTINA - Copahue volcano

August 20th, 2018

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 14-15 August diffuse steam emissions with possible ash were visible in webcam views rising to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l.
According to ONEMI, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 16-31 July there were 107 volcano-tectonic events recorded at Copahue, and 266 earthquakes indicating fluid movement. Webcams recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising from El Agrio crater as high as 1.5 km and nighttime incandescence. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 1 km of the crater. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobio. The Buenos AiresVAAC reported that on 24 June diffuse steam emissions with possible ash were visible in webcam views rising to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l.
Previously, according to ONEMI, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-31 March there were 83 volcano-tectonic events recorded at Copahue, and 204 earthquakes indicting fluid movement. Tremor levels increased on 24 March, the same day as the phreatic explosion, though by the next day decreased to baseline levels. Webcams recorded gas plumes rising from El Agrio crater as high as 1 km. During an overflight on 3 April scientists observed the crater lake, and continuous white gas plumes rising almost 400 m. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 1 km of the crater. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobio. According to ONEMI, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that a hydrothermal explosion at Copahue was recorded on 24 March 2018, along with increased tremor. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 1 km of the crater. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobio. . Volcan Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Rio Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Copahue since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Osorno volcano

May 10th, 2018

Servicio Nacional de Geologia and Minera (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) raised the Alert Level for Osorno to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 8 May, due to a gradual increase in the number and magnitude of seismic events recorded during 1-30 April. Earthquakes were concentrated on the NNW flank.
The largest of the 294 total events was a M 3, located 2 km NW of the crater at a depth of 3.3 km. The symmetrical, glacier-clad Osorno volcano forms a renowned landmark that towers over Todos los Santos and Llanquihue lakes. It was constructed over a roughly 250,000-year-old eroded stratovolcano, La Picada, that has a mostly buried 6-km-wide caldera. La Picada underlies Osorno on the NE and has postglacial maars and scoria cones. The 2652-m-high dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesite Osorno is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes, and contains two small dacitic lava domes on the NW and SSE flanks. Flank scoria cones and fissure vents, primarily on the west and SW sides, have produced lava flows that reached Lago Llanquihué. Frequent explosive eruptions including pyroclastic flows and surges have occurred during the past 14,000 years. Historical eruptions have originated from both summit and flank vents, producing basaltic and andesitic lava flows that have entered both Llanquihué and Todos los Santos lakes. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Lascar

April 10th, 2018

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that, although seismicity at Lascar during March was low, characteristics of the signals were similar to patterns observed prior to previous minor phreatic explosions, particularly before events in 2013 and 2015. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 5 km of the crater. ONEMI declared an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for San Pedro de Atacama. Lascar is the most active volcano of the northern Chilean Andes. The andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano contains six overlapping summit craters. Prominent lava flows descend its NW flanks. An older, higher stratovolcano 5 km E, Volcán Aguas Calientes, displays a well-developed summit crater and a probable Holocene lava flow near its summit (de Silva and Francis, 1991). Lascar consists of two major edifices;
activity began at the eastern volcano and then shifted to the western cone. The largest eruption took place about 26,500 years ago, and following the eruption of the Tumbres scoria flow about 9000 years ago, activity shifted back to the eastern edifice, where three overlapping craters were formed. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the mid-19th century, along with periodic larger eruptions that produced ashfall hundreds of kilometers away. The largest historical eruption took place in 1993, producing pyroclastic flows to 8.5 km NW of the summit and ashfall in Buenos Aires.
(SERNAGEOMIN)

CHILE- ARGENTINA border - Lanin volcano

February 20th, 2017

Servicio Nacional de Geologia and Mineria (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that beginning at 1524 on 15 February a seismic swarm at Lanin, consisting of 59 volcanic-tectonic, long-period, and spasmodic tremor events, lasted for 45 minutes. The largest volcano-tectonic event was a M 1.8. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale); ONEMI declared an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the community of Curarrehue (32 km N).
Lanin is a large conical late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcano along the Chile-Argentina border. The dominantly effusive basaltic-to-trachydacitic volcano lies at the eastern end of a
NW-SE-trending volcanic group beginning with Villarrica that is transverse to the Andean chain. The beautifully symmetrical, 3776-m-high Lanin rises 2500 m above its base; shoulder areas on the upper flanks hint at a buried caldera. The volcano was formed in four eruptive stages dating back to the early Pleistocene or late Pliocene. The last two stages occurred during the late-Pleistocene and Holocene. A small lava dome at the summit fed blocky lava flows to the north about 2200 years ago. Lanin was reported active after an earthquake in 1906, but Sapper (1917) stated that newspaper accounts are strongly disputed, and no historical eruptions are known. A postglacial tuff ring (Volcan Arenal) is located below the SW flank in Argentina. A younger lava flow from Lanin covers deposits of Volcan Arenal and extends south into Lago Paiman. (GVN/GVP)


CHILE - Nevado de Chillan

November 7th, 2018

Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería and Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur OVDAS) reported that on November 7 by an explosion and an earthquake associated with 11:24; a plume of ashes rose to 1,500 meters. At 23:03 local time, a vigorous explosion again occurred, associated with an LP earthquake related to the dynamics of internal fluids; Incandescent blocks were ejected hundreds of meters from the point of emission and probably a more or less significant destruction of the lava dome.Servicio Nacional de Geologia and Mineria (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) and ONEMI reported the continuing, slow growth of the lava dome in Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor
Crater during 30 October-6 November. Seismicity was characterized by moderate levels of long-period and tremor events, often associated with explosion signals. Gas emissions persisted, and sometimes contained ash. Periodic explosions sometimes ejected material that was deposited around the crater. At night incandescence emanated from the lava dome as well as
from ejected ballistics. Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería and Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur OVDAS) and ONEMI reported the continuing, slow growth of the lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater during 11-17 September. Gas emissions persisted, and sometimes contained ash. Periodic explosions sometimes ejected material that was deposited around the crater. Notably, at 0057 on 12 September, an explosion associated with a partial dome-collapse event ejected incandescent material 700 m above the crater rim and onto the flanks. An explosion at 2224 on 13 September generated ash plumes that rose 2.5 km above the crater rim. The event also ejected incandescent material to the SE, and generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled as most 400 m E. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.Sernageomin reported that an explosion occurred associated with the partial collapse of the dome located in the active crater of Nevados de Chillan, this 12 September at 4:04 local, accompanied by projection of materials around the crater. The episode remains in the current alert level, in orange.SERNAGEOMIN reported that on August 8 at 12:12 local / 16:12 GMT, accompanied by a gray ash plume high about 1,500 meters, and ballistic projections.An earthquake of a superficial hypocentre, estimated at 200 meters marked the explosive episode and testifies to the instability of the volcanic system, and the evolution of the dacitic dome.SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosion occurred at the Nevados de Chillan complex on July 15 at 3:24 local / 7:24 GMT. An incandescent column about 340 meters high accompanied this explosion, ejecting an abundant material that was deposited on the NNE flank near the active crater.An earthquake with a local magnitude of 3.8 and a depth of 1,800 meters associated with the explosion and dynamics of fluids within the volcanic system was recorded. The activity has been rising for a few days: on July 14, an explosion is recorded at 15:30 local, associated with an earthquake of Ml 3,9 to 1,400 meters deep; and on July 13, at 20:55 local, associated with an earthquake of Ml 3.7 and a depth of 430 meters.These events suggest a scenario of increasing the level of activity. For the moment, the volcanic alert remains in Naranja, and in Amarilla for three communes close to the volcano, San Fabián, Coihueco and Pinto, for the Civil protection.
Servicio Nacional de Geologia and Minera (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported continuing activity during 17-18 April associated with growth of the Gil-Cruz lava dome in Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater. Seismicity consisted of long-period events and tremor associated with explosions. The webcam recorded pulsating white gas emissions with possible ash, nighttime incandescence, and an intermittent ejection of ballistics from explosions. The Alert Level remained at Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabian. During an overflight on 3 April scientists observed intermittent whitish-to-grayish emissions rising from the SE-NW-trending fissure on the lava dome's surface. They also noted lapilli deposits as far as 1 km. Even though subsidence in the central part of the dome was visible, the dome had grown compared to the last observation on 11 March. The dome had extended E to the edge of Nicanor Crater and rose higher than the crater rim, although was mostly circular. The maximum temperature of the dome surface was 670 degrees Celsius. The report noted that a decrease in daily seismic events (suggesting pressurization), two significant explosions, and the dome growing higher than the crater rim prompted OVDAS- SERNAGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level to Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabian. Servicio Nacional de Geologia and Minera (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that activity which occurred from March 7 to 31 with degassing, explosions and sporadic incandescence in the crater, in which a lava dome is extruded. The explosions occurred on March 10, 11, 12, 17, 26 and 31, the latter has been the strongest. A thermal anomaly has been observed by the ESA satellite since the beginning of the dome extrusion. Servicio Nacional de Geologia and Minera (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported continuing activity during 16-28 February associated with a low rate of growth of the Gil-Cruz lava dome in Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater. Continuous gas emissions from the SE-NW-trending fissure on the dome's surface were punctuated by emission of ash and water vapor that rose no higher than 1.8 km. During an overflight on 22 February observers noted an increased volume of the dome compared to the previous observation. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 4-km radius. As of the 2nd of February, SERNAGEOMIN reported that a strong explosion occurred at the Nevados de Chillan complex at 12:02 local time. It was accompanied by a plume of white and gray coloring, reaching a height of 2,500 meters.It is likely that part of the Gil-Cruz dome, located in the active crater Nicanor has been affected.The sound wave of the explosion was heard in Las Trancas, 10 km from the eruptive center, and Gran Hotel Termas de Chillan, 5 km away, as well as the infrasonic system.The technical alert remained at Yellow. An overview of January 31, 2018 showed that the dome growth process continued; its temperature was high, around 500 ° C according to the thermal camera. The gas emissions sometimes took on a greyish color highlighting the presence of particles.Servicio Nacional de Geologia and Mineria (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported continuing explosive activity during 1-15 January associated with a low rate of lava-dome growth in the active crater. Gas plumes from the explosions rose less than 1 km above the crater rim, and sporadic incandescence associated with some explosions was recorded at night. The lava-dome growth rate was low at 1,360 m3/day, determined by photos taken during overflights on 9 and 12 January. The total volume of the lava dome was an estimated 37,000 m3. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 4-km radius. Servicio Nacional de Geologia and Mineria (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that during an overflight of Nevados de Chillan'ss Volcano Arrau dome complex on 9 January scientists observed a new lava dome in the active central crater, corresponding to a new fissure first identified on 21 December 2017. Gas and water vapor rose from the fissure going across the dome surface, and the temperature of the surface was about 480 degrees Celsius. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 4-km radius.The compound volcano of Nevados de Chilan is one of the most active of the Central Andes of Chile. Three late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcanoes were constructed along a NNW-SSE line within three nested Pleistocene calderas, which produced ignimbrite sheets extending more than 100 km into the Central Depression of Chile. The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, 3212-m-high Cerro Blanco (Volcan Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group, and 3089-m-high Volcan Viejo (Volcan Chillan), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcan Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcan Viejo in altitude. The Volcan Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcan Nuevo between 1973 and 1986, eventually exceeding its height by 20 m. (GVN/GVP)

Chile - Villarica

November, 16th, 2018

POVI reported on November 15, the presence of a small pyroclastic cone at the bottom of the crater, with a lateral opening about ten meters in diameter, and inclined at 50 ° towards the inner wall of the crater. On November 16th, some strombolian explosions were observed, which expelled lava on the western edges of the crater.The activity of Villarica continues ons November 6 with strombolian explosions that eject shreds of lava up to 80 meters above the crater, and which fallig around.POVI reported that in addition to the incandescence on November 5, the ejection of an incandescent bomb (estimated at 1.4 meters in diameter) occurred on the upper north-east of the volcano.POVI reported that on 24 July the vent in Villarrica's summit crater was about 10-15 m in diameter and 90-100 m below the crater rim. Minor explosions and weak fumarolic emissions were noted. On 29 July a break in the cloud cover revealed more significant incandescence emanating from the summit than in the previous few days, and the largest thermal anomaly since August 2015 was identified in satellite images on 30 July. Ash and lapilli deposits on the E edge of the crater was also visible on 30 July. On 20 March 2018 POVI reported very weak and sporadic incandescence emanating from Villarrica's crater, noting very low rates of activity since mid-December 2017. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks. (GVN/GVP)

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Japan - Suwanojesima volcano

November 12th, 2018

JMA reported that an explosion at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was recorded at 0428 on 9 November. A plume could not be confirmed because weather clouds obscured views, but large pieces of pumice were observed being ejected 700 m S. Explosions had not been recorded since 2 June. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
JMA reported that during 12-13 September eruptive events at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater generated plumes that rose 1.1 km above the crater rim. Tremor increased, and nighttime crater incandescence was also visible. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that during 3-10 August white plumes rose as high as 1 km above the rim of Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater, and incandescence from the crater was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion at Suwanosejima on 2 June. The Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions occurred at Suwanosejima on 15 May. based on information from JMA The Tokyo VAAC reported explosions at Suwanosejima on 2 and 4 May, based on JMA notices and satellite data. Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion at Suwanosejima on 24 April, and that events during 27-29 April produced plumes that rose 1.2-2.1 km (4,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-6 and 9 April explosions at Suwanosejima produced plumes that rose 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E. Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 28-30 March and 2 April explosions at Suwanosejima produced plumes that rose 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, NW, W, SW, and S. Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 22-23 and 25-26 March events at Suwanosejima produced plumes that rose 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NW. Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 17 March an eruption at Suwanosejima produced a plume that rose 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 January an eruption at Suwanosejima produced a plume that rose 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Previously 2017 - Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions at Suwanosejima during 31 October, and 1, 3, and 5 November; plumes rose 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 11 October an explosion at Suwanosejima generated a plume that rose 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion on 29 September which generated a plume that rose 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions on 6 September generated plums that rose 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based onJMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 30 August-2 September.Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC S
uwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 persons live on the island.

JAPAN - Kirishimayama volcano group - Shinmoedake Peak - (Kyushu)

June 28th, 2018

A punctual emission of gas and ashes occurred from the volcano on 27th of June at 15:34 local; the plume has reached an altitude of 2,200 meters.The alert level remains at 3 out of 5, and it is recommended not to approach the volcano.A new explosive eruption occured from the crater of the Shinmoedake on June 22 at 9:09 local. It was accompanied by an ash plume rising to 2,600 meters; the ash emission lasted about 5 minutes according to the images provided by the JMA webcam. A shock wave spread from the crater over 1,100 meters.That is the 49th explosion at Shinmoedake since April 5, 2018.The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 May ash plumes from Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, were identified in satellite images drifting S at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. JMA noted that white plumes rose 100 m above the crater rim during 18-21 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that a short eruption occurred on 14th of May at 2:.44 am. An ash plume rose to about 4500 m high above the summit crater and drifted toward Southwest. This activity continued until 4:10 am. It's the first activity since the 6th of April. A pyroclastic flow travelled 2 km down the flank. Volcanic earthquake rates under the crater increased after the eruption. Shallow, low-frequency earthquakes and tremor were also reported. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). As of the 5th of April, JMA reported that a new explosive eruption marked the Shinmoedake this April 5 in the early hours. Two larger explosions were observed at 3:31 and 3:47, accompanied by high ash emissions and a plume rising up to 5,000 meters, traversed by volcanic lightning generated by friction of ash particles..Based on observations during overflights on 28 March and 2 April, JMA reported that the crack on the W flank of Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued to widen. White emissions rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. Several high-temperature regions around the margins of the lava in the crater, and from the flow on the NW flank, were detected on 28 March. The lava flow on the NW flank advanced 85 m from 9-29 March. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 300 tons/day on 30 March. The number of volcanic earthquakes began to decline after 26 March; though from 0014 to 1430 on 3 April the number increased to 239. Many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that the eruption at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued during 19-27 March. Lava effusion possibly stopped on 9 March, though the lava flow on the NW flank continued to advance. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Short-duration volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. During a field survey on 22 March scientists measured 600 tons/day of sulfur dioxide gas, and noted that the crack on the W flank had grown slightly larger. On 25 March an explosion at 0735 was followed by an ash plume that rose 3.2 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 800 m. An event at 0845 generated an ash plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater rim, and a very small pyroclastic flow that traveled 800 m W. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 300 tons/day on 24 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that the eruption at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued during 13-19 March. Lava effusion possibly stopped on 9 March, though the lava flow on the NW flank continued to advance. An explosion at 1413 on 15 March generated a gray-white plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater and ejected material 1 km from the crater. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). According to news articles, ash plumes from Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, caused the cancelation of about 80 flights in and out of Kagoshima airport on 6 March. JMA reported that daily explosions during 6-13 March generated ash plumes that generally rose 3 km above the crater rim, though an ash plume on 10 March rose as high as 4.5 km. Explosions also ejected tephra that fell 700-1,800 m from the vent. Ashfall was reported in a wide area including in the prefectures of Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima. An explosion at 1558 on 9 March rattled structures in the Kagoshima and Miyazaki prefectures. Satellite images showed an increase in the crater diameter from 550 m on 7 March to 650 m on 9 March. During overflights on 9 March observers noted white plumes rising from the margins of the lava covering the crater floor, from lava flows on the S flank, and from newly forming lava flows on the NW flank. The volume of erupted lava was an estimated 14 million cubic meters. The NW lava flow had advanced 226 m by 13 March. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Volcanic tremor was continuous from 1 March until 1536 on 8 March; afterwards the signals had small amplitudes and were intermittent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that volcanic earthquakes at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased during 24-25 February. Volcanic tremor began to be recorded at 0815 on 1 March and intensified within a few hours. Residents in Takahara-machi, 12 km E (Miyazaki prefecture), reported ashfall at 1100; poor weather conditions prevented visual observations of the volcano. Later that day a small eruption was confirmed. Ashfall was reported in the Takahara-cho neighborhood, 12 km E (Miyazaki prefecture), around 1615. The eruption was observed at 1707 during an overflight. The sulfur dioxide flux was 5,500 tons/day, but then decreased to 2,200 tons/day on 2 March. During 2-3 March gray ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater, and ash fell in Takahara-cho on 3 March. Ash plumes rose 400 m on 4 March. Explosive events on 6 March generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km. During an overflight observers noted new lava on the E side of the crater, and plumes rising from both the center of the crater and an area on the N side. Ashfall was confirmed over a wide area from Kirishima prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture to the S, to Miyakonojo city (Miyazaki prefecture) to the E. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). Kirishimayama is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene dominantly andesitic group consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1700-m-high Karakunidake being the highest. Onamiike and Miike, the two largest maars, are located SW of Karakunidake and at its far eastern end, respectively. Holocene eruptions have been concentrated along an E-W line of vents from Miike to Ohachi, and at Shinmoedake to the NE. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 8th century. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Iwo-Yama (Kirishimayama group)

August 2nd, 2018

JMA reported that during 23-30 July white fumarolic plumes rose 300-500 m above a vent on the S side of Iwo-yama (also called Ioyama, NW flank of Karakuni-dake), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group. A hot pool of water was visible on the S side, and muddy water flowed down the W side. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
JMA reported that a very small explosion at Iwo-yama (also called Ioyama, NW flank of Karakuni-dake), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, occurred at 1815 on 26 April and produced a milky white plume that rose over 200 m. The event continued until around 1826. The event occurred from a fumarole in the vicinity of the highway, on the W side of Iwo-yama,
first observed on 20 April. During a field survey on 30 April observers noted muddy water flowing as far as 500 m W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).Following the activity of 19 and 20 April,, the volcano is still showing a significant activity. The mudflow noticed on April 20 during the day, is now doubled by a second arm. Emissions at the bottom of the plateau have also intensified. Previously, JMA reported that following first signs of activity in early April, a phreatic eruption started on the volcanic group Kirshimayama / Ebino Highland, Mt.Iwo-yama on April 19 at 6:39 UTC. A gray-white plume of steam and ashes rose several hundred meters, reaching about 500 meters above the crater, at the level it seems of new vents. On the morning of the 20th, jets of black and fluid mud are visible on the webcams, at the foot of the plume, and give rise to a hot and steamy mudslide descending the Ebino plateau. The presence of ash in the plume ceased around 6:30 am on April 20, followed by a fumarolic activity.
Inflation and earthquakes mark the area of ​​activity.During overflights on 20 and 21 April scientists observed multiple vents with fumarolic emissions, and intermittent ejections of black-gray muddy water. The activity continued through 23 April. Iwo-yama is located about 6 km to the northwest of Shinmoe-dake.Iwo-yama is the youngest volcano in the Kirishima volcanic group. Kirishimayama is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene dominantly andesitic group consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1700-m-high Karakunidake being the highest. Onamiike and Miike, the two largest maars, are located SW of Karakunidake and at its far eastern end, respectively.

JAPAN - Kuchinoerebujima ( Ryu-Kyu islands)

November 8th , 2018

JMA reported that during 31 October-5 November there were very small events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater. Plumes rose 500-1,200 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). Based on satellite images and information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 24-28 October ash plumes from Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.5 km (3,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. JMA scientists noted no changes in the thermal anomalies at the crater during a field observation on 28 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that a very small eruption at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater was recorded at 1831 on 21 October, with additional activity between 2110 on 21 October and 1350 on 22 October. Plumes rose 200 m above the crater rim. During an overflight on 22 October observers noted ash in the emissions, though no morphological changes to the crater nor ash deposits were seen. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that earthquakes at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater typically occur at shallow levels, though on 15 August a swarm of deep volcanic earthquakes was recorded, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 4 (on a scale of 1-5). The earthquake hypocenters were about 5 km deep, below the SW flanks of Shindake, and the maximum magnitude was 1.9. They occurred at about the same place as the swarm that occurred just before the May 2015 eruption. Sulfur dioxide emissions had been increasing since the beginning of August; they were 1,600, 1,000, and 1,200 tons/day on 11, 13, and 17 August, respectively. No surficial changes in gas emissions or thermal areas were observed during 16-20 August. As of the 20th of April JMA reported that a low-temperature thermal anomaly persisted near the W fracture in Kuchinoerabujima Shindake crater. In addition, both the number of volcanic earthquakes (generally occurring in a large quantity) and sulfur dioxide flux remained above baselines levels in August 2014. No eruptions have occurred since 19 June 2015, and deflation had been recorded since January 2016; the Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-5). . A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km west of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. The youngest cone, centrally-located Shintake, formed after the NW side of Furutake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shintake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furutake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shintake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Kusatsu Shirane (Honshu)

April 30th, 2018

JMA reported that on 21 April the number of volcanic earthquakes at Yugama crater (Kusatsu-Shiranesan complex) increased and deformation was also recorded. The Alert Level for the crater area was raised to 2 (on a 5-level scale) the next day. Deformation slowed on 23 April. Seismicity decreased on 23 April though continued to be somewhat elevated, and low-frequency
events were recorded on 24 April. No surficial changes were noted during an overflight on 26 April. JMA reported that during 26 February-5 March the number of volcanic earthquakes recorded at the Kusatsu-Shiranesan complex remained elevated. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that minor but elevated seismicity continued through 30 January, punctuated by periods of tremor. The eruption occurred from a fissure oriented E-W, located just inside the N rim of the northernmost Kagamiike Kitahi craters. JMA noted no juvenile material in the eruption deposits. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). As of the 28th of January, JMA reported after the recent explosion, the alert is maintained at level 3 by the JMA, accompanied by a prohibited area of ​​2 km radius around the Kagamiike.Numerous volcanic earthquakes have been recorded since, including two on January 28 at around 3 pm, and four episodes of tremor on January 24, and two on January 25.On 24 January JMA noted that volcanic earthquakes were numerous but decreasing in number, and two 2-3-minute-long periods of volcanic tremor were detected at 1015 and 1049. JMA reported that a phreatic explosion occurred at Kusatsu-Shirane on January 23, 2018 at 9:59 local time; JMA simply detected a small tremor a few moments before the eruption.Skiers at the popular ski resort Kusatsu Kokusai took video showing a plume of tephra and ejected bombs rising from a vent on the Motoshiranesan edifice, about 2 km SSE of Yagama Crater on Shiranesan. JMA noted ashfall in Nakanojo-machi, in the Gunma Prefecture. Tephra hit a gondola, shattering glass and injuring four skiers. Material crashed through the roof of a lodge, where about 100 people had been evacuated. A Japanese soldier has been killed in an avalanche in central Japan that may have been triggered by a volcanic eruption.
At least 11 people have also been injured, several of them critically. The eruption sent rocks raining down over a kilometre-wide area near Kusatsu. The roof of a ski facility was damaged by rock falls and the glass of a broken cable car. Another source reports at least 25 wounded and the evacuation of a hundred tourists.Alert level went from 1 to 3 on a scale of 5. The summit of Kusatsu-Shiranesan volcano, located immediately north of Asama volcano, consists of a series of overlapping pyroclastic cones and three crater lakes. The andesitic-to-dacitic volcano was formed in three eruptive stages beginning in the early to mid Pleistocene. The Pleistocene Oshi pyroclastic flow produced extensive welded tuffs and non-welded pumice that covers much of the east, south and SW flanks. The latest eruptive stage began about 14,000 years ago. All historical eruptions have consisted of phreatic explosions from the acidic crater lakes or their margins. Fumaroles and hot springs that dot the flanks have strongly acidified many rivers draining from the volcano. The crater was the site of active sulfur mining for many years during the 19th and 20th centuries.(GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano (Kyushu)

November 14th, 2018

JMA reported that the volcano erupted on November 13 at 0:43 JST; the episode of the Minamidake upper vent was abrupt and significant with pyroclastic fallout on the flanks, and the emission of a plume, traveled with lightning at first, then expanding to 4,000 meters. Ashes are reported on Tarumi and Kanoya.According to the local observatory, slight deformations were observed from 10 November.JMA reported that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was high at 1,100 tons/day on 6 November, an increase from the previous measurement of 1,000 tons/day recorded on 23 October. Very small eruptive events were occasionally recorded during 9-12 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that at 1022 on 30 October an event at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) generated a plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. Two explosions occurred during 2-5 November; the larger of the two sent a plume to 2.6 km and ejected material as far as 700 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 22-26 October seven events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim. Small scale events were occasionally detected through 29 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that occasional, very small events occurred at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 12-19 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions were slightly less than 400 tons per day on 17 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported occasional, very small events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 9-15 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions decreased from 3,400 tons/day on 4 October to 600 tons/day on 10 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that very small events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) occurred during 1-5 October; no explosions had been detected since 23 September. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 400 tons per day on 1 October, and then increased to 3,400 tons per day on 4 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that occasional, very small, events at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 25 September-1 October generated plumes that rose 400 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that there were eight events and an additional five explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 18-25 September, with ash plumes rising as high as 2.1 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 1.1 km. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that there were 13 events and also 13 explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 10-18 September, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 1.1 km. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that there were 14 events and 15 explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 27 August-3 September, with ash plumes rising as high as 2.8 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 1.3 km. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,500 tons/day on 27 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that there were three events and 12 explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 20-27 August, with ash plumes rising as high as 2.1 km above the crater rim and material ejected as far as 1.3 km. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). The Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

Japan - Satsuma-Iojima ( Ryukyu islands)

April 30th, 2018

JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes at Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai's NW caldera rim, was low during 20-26 April. White plumes rose as high as 700 m above the Iwo-dake lava dome; incandescence from the crater had not been visible since 12 April. During field surveys on 25 and 26 April observers noted a slight expansion of a thermally
anomalous area compared to 24-25 March observations, and a decrease in sulfur dioxide flux from 600 tons/day on 24 March to 300 tons/day. The Alert Level was reduced to 1 (on a 5-level scale) on 27 April. JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes at Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai's NW caldera rim, was low during 27 March-2 April after an increase recorded during 22-23 March. White plumes rose as high as 1.8 km above the Iwo-dake lava dome. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night during 27-28 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). The JMA reported that volcanic earthquakes continud after a slight decline on March 20 and 21; on March 22, 48 volcanic earthquakes were recorded between 0 and 15:00 local time, and this activity continued. Since March 23, plumes of white gas and vapor have been observed above the crater, signs of  tensioning of the hydrothermal system.
The JMA has raised the level of volcanic alert of the Satsuma-Iojima, to 2 do not approach the crater , on March 19 at 11:45 JST. due to an increasong seismicity since mid-February, reaching 12 volcanic earthquakes on March 15, and 51 on March 19 (at 11:30 am) On March 16th, the JMA confirms a type of tremor associated with underground magmatic activity.An area of ​​1 km around the crater could be affected by bombs in case of eruption. Satsuma-Iojima forms part of the edge of the largely submerged Kikai caldera, 19 km wide, and located at the northern end of the Ryuku volcanic arc, south of Kyushu Island / Japan. Two post-caldera structures contributed to its current morphology: Mt.Iwodake, a rhyolitic lava dome, and the small Inamuradake scoria cone.The historical eruptions of the 20th century have mainly concerned Iwodake, which is marked by a fumarolic activity of high temperature (up to 900 ° C).The summit zone, of 400 over 140 meters, includes several craters, result of the explosive activity following the installation of the dome. The small crater Kintsuba is located southwest of the central crater Oana, a place of mining sulfur . Small ash eruptions were observed in 1999, 2001, 2002-2204, and 2013. (GVN/GVP)

Japan - Ioto (Iwo-Jima) - Izu Island

September 20th, 2018

During an overflight of Ioto (Iwo-jima) on 12 September the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force observed seawater jetting 5-10 m above the sea surface on the S coast, suggestive of a submarine eruption. Ioto (changed from Iwo-jima in 2007) in the central Volcano Islands portion of the Izu-Marianas arc lies within a 9-km-wide submarine caldera. Ioto, Iwo-jima, and Iojima are among many transliterations of the name. The volcano is also known as Ogasawara-Iojima to distinguish it from several other "Sulfur Island" volcanoes in Japan. The triangular, low-elevation, 8-km-long island narrows toward its SW tip and has produced trachyandesitic and trachytic rocks that are more alkalic than those of other Izu-Marianas arc volcanoes. The island has undergone dramatic uplift for at least the past 700 years accompanying resurgent doming of the caldera. A shoreline landed upon by Captain Cook's surveying crew in 1779 is now 40 m above sea level. The Motoyama plateau on the NE half of the island consists of submarine tuffs overlain by coral deposits and forms the island's high point. Many fumaroles are oriented along a NE-SW zone cutting through Motoyama. Numerous historical phreatic eruptions, many from vents on the west and NW sides of the island, have accompanied the remarkable uplift.

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USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

November 1st, 2018

As of the 30th of October, HVO reported that Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Deformation signals are consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone.HVO monitoring during the past week shows low rates of seismicity at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ). Earthquakes continue to occur primarily at Kīlauea's summit area and south flank (magnitude-3.8 was the largest) with continued small aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 quake on May 4, 2018. Seismicity remains low in the lower ERZ. In the ERZ, tiltmeters near Puʻu ʻŌʻō and farther east continue to record an inflationary trend, consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone. At the summit, tiltmeters have recorded a slight inflationary trend. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions at the summit averaged 50 tonnes/day as reported on October 24, and 75 tonnes/day at Puʻu ʻŌʻō on October 23. There was no sulfur dioxide detected by our instruments in the lower ERZ. Previously, HVO bulletin ( 3rd of october) reported that On Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (ERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming from the cone was visible during the past day. Webcam images of the fissure 8 cone show that a portion of the crater wall near the northern spillway area has slowly shifted during the past 2 weeks, indicating some instability of the cone in this area. As of the 2nd of October, HVO reported that no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming has been visible during the day. On the middle ERZ, a rockfall at Puʻu ʻŌʻō produced a small ash plume around noon yesterday, October 1. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Rates of tilting throughout both the summit and the ERZ are much lower than those observed during the recent period of major eruptive activity. As of the 25th of September HVO reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming is visible during the day. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. HVO reported minor incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 12-15 September, and that small amounts of fuming rose from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the Fissure 8 cone during 12-18 September. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (less than 1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. Small collapses at Pu'u 'O'o Crater during 12-14 September generated visible dust plumes. The Volcano Alert level l remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin (11th of September) reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), minor amounts of incandescence were observed overnight from a collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone, though the amount was reduced over observations from the previous night. Very minor fuming is visible from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the cone. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none have extended outside the walls of the cone. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Aftershocks from the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May are still being generated on faults located on Kīlauea's South Flank. Small collapses continued to occur yesterday at Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater, but are much less frequent than they were over the previous two days. As of the 7th of September, HVO reported that lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible at fissure 8 from helicopter overflight or UAS (drone) views this morning. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none extend outside the walls of the cone. There is no change in overall activity from observations over the past several days. As of the 5th of September, HVO reported that seismicity remains low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. A magnitude-3.1 earthquake that occurred at 5:31AM HST this morning was located below Kīlauea's South Flank and is likely an aftershock of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake from early May. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible on the fissure 8 spillway overnight. Images from the UAS (drone) crew showed that weak lava activity continues in the fissure 8 cone as of yesterday afternoon, with no lava extending outside the walls of the cone and no flows heading down the spillway. HVO reported that on 2nd of September, seismicity remained low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. Earthquakes, probably aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May, continue on South Flank faults. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), incandescence was observed in the fissure 8 cone yesterday afternoon (09/01) with reports of activity extending into early evening. In addition to a persistent spot of spattering, lava slowly covered the 65-by-15 m (210-by-45 ft) crater floor by evening. Webcam views showed weak incandescence occasionally reflected on the eastern spillway wall from the crater overnight suggesting that the lava in the crater remained active. This morning, ground crews have no view of the crater inside the fissure 8 cone, but report the fissure 8 cone is quiet when viewed from a safe distance with no visible fume. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at the summit, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate (< 1,000 t/d) is lower than at any time since late 2007. Friday (08/31), LERZ emission rates were still too low to measure. HVO reported that during an overflight on 25 August a small lava pond was visible deep within the vent at Kilauea's Fissure 8 cone; the pond was no longer visible on 27 August. Lava continued to ooze into the ocean and produce minimal laze plumes, but by 27 August only a small single breakout from the Kapoho Bay lobe was active. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin ( 24th of August - 20:30 UTC) reported that seismicity and ground deformation are negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), only a few ocean entries were oozing lava and laze plumes were minimal from overflights early this week. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007. On Tuesday, the SO2 emissions from the LERZ were too low to measure although SO2 smells were noticed. HVO bulletin (19th of August - 22:39 UTC) reported that the lull in activity at Kīlauea Volcano continues. At the summit, seismicity and deformation are negligible. On the lower East Rift Zone, the only incandescence is at the coast near Ahalanui where a few ocean entries are oozing lava. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007 HVO reported that during 8-14 August activity at Kilauea was characterized by a slowly-circulating lava pond deep within the Fissure 8 vent (though the pond was crusted over by 14 August) and a billowing gas plume, and a few scattered ocean entries. The summit area was quiet except for occasional rockfalls into the crater. Fresh black sand from fragmented lava was transported SW by the ocean current, and accumulated in the Pohoiki harbor, creating a sandbar. The westernmost ocean entry was about 1 km NE of the harbor. Earthquake and deformation data indicated no magma movement or pressurization in the system. HVO bulletin ( 9th of August - 19h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from Fissure 8 remains low and there have been no signs of reactivation or new intrusion. Up-rift of Fissure 8, Fissures 9, 10, and 24, and down-rift Fissures 13, 23, 3, 21 and 7, continue to steam. Ground crews and overflights continue to monitor these for signs of new activity. This morning's overflight crew observed a crusted lava pond deep inside the steaming cone at a level significantly lower than when viewed Tuesday morning. HVO bulletin (7th of August - 23h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from fissure 8 remains low. The morning overflight crew observed a small active lava lake within the fissure 8 cone, a weak gas plume, and a drained upper lava channel. The surface of the lava lake was about 5-10 m below the spillway entrance. There were a diminishing number of small active ooze outs near the coast on the Kapoho Bay and Ahalanui lobes and the laze plume was greatly diminished. Active lava remains close to the Pohoiki boat ramp but has not advanced significantly toward it. As of the 3rd of August, HVO reported tha fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the channel leading northeastward from the vent. Multiple overflows developed late yesterday afternoon and evening, one of which headed north toward Noni Farms Road, starting a small fire. Field crews determined the advancing overflow had ceased by 21:00 HST but that fires were still burning. Further downstream overflows were concentrated in the wide lava field west and south-southwest of Kapoho cone, also igniting small fires in adjacent vegetation. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 18-24 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that continued to spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and entered the ocean at Ahalanui. Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred about every other day (38.5 and 53.5 hours in between a few of the events). Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low. Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele's hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater; lava occasionally overflowed the channel, and on 28 July ignited nearby vegetation. Small plumes of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles) were generated at several points along a broad 2-km-wide flow front at Ahalanui. The westernmost edge was less than 175 m NE of the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park (by 30 July). HVO bulletin ( 16th of July - 19:31 UTC) reported that Fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. The channel is full but not quite up to the rim; there were no significant overflows this morning. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. Explosions were reported from the main ocean entry this morning with at least one being quite strong. Fissure 22 did not appear active this morning but sounds were heard from it last night. No other fissures are active this morning. HVO bulletin (July 15th - 21:21 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Lava levels in the upper channel increased briefly following this morning's summit collapse-explosion event at 3:26 a.m. Another short-lived overflow of the channel at the vent spread east-southeast this morning, but did not advance beyond the existing flow field. The channelized ʻaʻā flow west of Kapoho Crater continues to be the main ocean entry at the southern edge of the flow front. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. No other fissures are active on the morning. At 3:26 a.m. HST July 15, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath the summit of Kīlauea with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.2 earthquake. Seismic activity at the summit decreased immediately following the event, but is beginning to increase at this time. Earthquakes in the summit area have resumed following 12th of july collapse/explosion event at 2:42 PM HST, which had an energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. (updated map 12th of July). HVO bulletin ( July 10th - 19:57 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava steadily into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Disruptions to the mid-channel occurred yesterday afternoon producing localized overflows along the margins of the flowfield, mostly atop earlier lavas. A significant overflow north of the cinder quarry advancing yesterday and last night towards Cinder Rd. has stalled. An overflow lobe moving around the west side of Kapoho Cone remains active this morning and small brushfires are reported along the margins. Downstream, lava appears to be reoccupying the channel leading to the ocean entry were multiple fingers of lava are active. The southern margin of the ocean entry shows little sign of movement. Yesterday's channel disruption and overflows were caused by blockages that developed along the channel. Additional blockages and resulting overflows are likely to occur as long as the activity continues. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin ( July 10 - 3:05 UTC) Early on afternoon observers reported multiple overflows occurring along both sides of the main lava channel, in an area extending from near the "Y" intersection at Pohoiki Road eastwards to an area just west of Kapoho Crater. Overflows on the upper part of the channel did not extend beyond areas previously covered in lava. Overflows further down the channel have reached beyond the flow field, including one flow lobe that is moving northeast from the main channel towards Cinder Rd. Residents are urged to heed warnings and notices from Hawaii County Civil Defense. Based on information from ground observers and morning and afternoon overflights, the lower part of the main lava channel has undergone significant reorganization. In particular, the channel that had been open near Four Corners is now mostly crusted over, and plumes from ocean entry are significantly reduced. It is likely this is due to a blockage that formed in the early morning in the main channel upstream of Kapoho Crater. Flow volumes coming out of Fissure 8 remain significant, and it is possible that changes in flow channels will continue to occur in the coming days. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. At 9:20 AM HST on July 9, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath Kilauea caldera with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. The number of earthquake dropped from 25-40/hr to less than 10/hr. We expect the earthquakes to increase over the next day until the next collapse/explosion tomorrow. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halemaʻumaʻu continues in response to the ongoing subsidence at the summit. HVO bulletin ( 4th of July - 18: 53 UTC ) Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. ( video vortex ) At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing pasty lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Ag and Beach Lots. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the flow front. As shown by the July 02 thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is oozing from the flow's molten interior into the ocean along most of its broad front. Temporary channel blockages of the Fissure 8 channel causing minor overflows were observed just north of Kapoho Crater by USGS and Civil Air Patrol overflights. Fissure 22 is spattering about 50-80 m above a conical spatter cone and feeding a short lava flow that is moving slowly to the northeast along the edge of earlier flows. (updated map - 30th of June) . HVO bulletin ( 29th of June - 8:28 pm ) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. These overflows rarely extend beyond the existing flow field. No active overflows were observed during this morning's helicopter overflight.The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots and a few burning areas were observed on the south side of the flow and west of highway 137. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the entry area. As shown by yesterday's thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is moving beneath the crust and into still-molten interior of earlier flows before it enters the sea. HVO bulletin ( 27th of June - 8:07 pm) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. Small overflows on both sides of the upslope portion of the channel occurred shortly after midnight, June 27. None of these overflows extended past the existing flow field. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The morning overflight revealed that the northern margin of the flow field at the coast is oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots. HVO bulletin (June 26th of June - 7:13 pm) reported that funtains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern portion of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 0.6 mi wide area with multiple laze plumes from smaller oozing lobes. Fissure 22 showed weak spattering and tiny flows around the base of the cone. This morning's overflight crew also observed minor incandescence at Fissure 16/18. HVO bulletin ( June 25th - 10:59 pm) reported that the eruption in the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) continues with no significant change during the past 24 hours. Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area marked by billowing laze plumes. Fissure 22 is weakly active and Fissure 16/18 was not observed on the morning.At 4:12 p.m. HST on June 24, after approximately 17 hours of elevated seismicity, a collapse explosion occurred at the summit producing an ash-poor steam plume that went undetected by the weather radar. Visual observations suggested the plume rose less than 2000 ft above the caldera before drifting downwind to the southwest. The energy released by the event was equivalent to a magnitude 5.3 earthquake. HVO bulletin 23rd of June - 18:40 UTC) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. During an overflight early this morning, geologists observed incandescence from Fissure 22, but no associated spattering or flow. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The entry areas are marked by billowing laze plumes. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 13-19 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was occasionally noted, and spattering was visible at Fissure 6 on 16 June. Hawai‘i County Civil Defense reported that by 17 June a total of 533 homes had been destroyed due to lava flows. HVO bulletin (June 17th - 8:15 UTC) reported that the Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption in Leilani Estates continued with little change. Fountains from the Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to feed lava into the well-established channel that flows to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava and mild spattering from Fissure 15 was observed late in the day. The flow field is relatively stable with little change to its size and shape for the past few days. HVO bulletin (16th - 2:59 UTC) reported that lava fountains from Fissure 8 reached heights between 100 and 130 ft with bursts up to 180 ft while the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 170 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. The early afternoon overflight found the Fissure 8 vent, channel, and entry stable with a small amount of expansion at the southern boundary of the flow near the coast and south of Vacationland. Fissure 24 (southeast of Fissure 8) seemed to be steamier and emitting more fume. Fissure 9 (southeast of Fissure 24) appeared hotter and will be checked on the ground this afternoon. HVO bulletin (June 15th - 8:27 UTC) reported that fssure 8 lava fountains reached heights of 200 ft in the afternoon, and the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 160 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (14th of June - 8:21 UTC) reported that lava fountains reaching heights of 53 m (174 ft) were observed at Fissure 8 in the late afternoon. Lava from Fissure 8 continues to flow through the well-established channel to the ocean at Kapoho, with rare, small overflows of the channel levees. A laze plume at the ocean entry was blown onshore this afternoon, and areas of upwelling offshore were present throughout the day. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (13th of june- 2:12 UTC) reported that line of closely spaced vents at Fissure 8 are continuing to erupt producing fountains encircled by a 115-ft spatter cone. This activity continues to feed the fast moving channelized flow that is entering the ocean at Kapoho. Weak lava activity continues at Fissures 16/18 as has been noted for the last several days. Incandescence was noted at Fissures 15 and 22. Lava was entering the ocean over a broader length this morning with several minor incandescent points and small plumes and two larger entries and corresponding plumes. The upwelling areas were also more dispersed than yesterday. (updated map 13th of June) . HVO bulletin (12th - 2:09 UTC) reported that three closely spaced lava fountains at fissure 8 are erupting with fluctuating heights from below the 115 ft high spatter cone around it up to 180 feet. Lava continues to be fed into the channelized flow trending north and then east to a single ocean entry at Kapoho. Weak lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was observed last night. This morning's overflight confirms that fountaining continues at Fissure 8 and that its channel is nearly full with no spillovers. Minor steam explosions were observed at the ocean entry. HVO bulletin reported that Fissure 8 now consists of three closely-spaced lava fountains, the tallest of which reached heights of 130-180 feet, feeding a strong channel to the northeast and then east to the ocean entry. During the day, minor spillovers have dribbled over the Fissure 8 channel levees but have generally stalled before reaching ground not covered by previous lava flows. Yesterday's measurements show that gas emissions from the fissure system have nearly doubled, possibly indicating an increase in eruption rate from Fissure 8. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 continued. HVO bulletin (June 9th - 8:49 UTC) reported thatLava continues to erupt from Fissure 8, with vigorous fountains reaching heights of about 200-220 feet. Observers on the late afternoon overflight reported no significant changes in the Fissure 8 flow field, which continues to supply lava to the ocean entry at Kapoho. Two vigorous steam plumes are rising from the ocean flow front and being blown inland. Strong thermal upwelling was noted in the ocean extending up to 1000 yards out to sea from the visible lava front. Heavy gas and steam emissions were noted at fissures 9 & 10, but lava emission is occurring only at Fissure 8. Low level ash emissions continue at the summit with slowly increasing seismicity, indicating that another small explosion is likely in the next several hours. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continues in response to ongoing subsidence at the summit. The number of houses destroyed since the beginning of this eruption has reached 600 including the areas of Leilani, Kapoho and Vacationland; This isthe most destructive eruption for Hawaii, listed in modern times, according to the mayor of the County. HVO bulletin ( June 8th - 8:24 UTC) reported that lava fountaining at Fissure 8 fluctuated with heights varying between 190 and 215 feet. This activity is feeding a lava channel flowing east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. The noon overflight found that the delta is about 1.2 mi wide in the Vacationland/Waopae area and observed the flow was expanding northward through Kapoho Beachlots. A large area of upwelling offshore suggests the presence of lava flowing on the ocean floor in that area. HVO bulletin ( June 7th - 00:34 UTC) reported that on the morning, lava fountaining at Fissure 8 continued to reach heights of 150-180 feet, feeding a stable channel to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Lava is entering the ocean in the Vacationland subdivision. Vacationland has been completely covered by lava, and overnight the flow expanded north by 100 m within Kapoho Beach Lots. The lava delta that formed at Kapoho Bay extended slightly overnight. The northern lobe of the Fissure 8 flow shows no signs of activity this morning, and there is only wispy smoke at the flow front. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin (June 6th - 8:28 UTC) reported that persistent lava fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching heights of 150-180 feet. This eruptive activity continues to feed a channel transporting lava to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Minor breakouts along the channelized flow have been very small and stagnated before travelling any significant distance. HVO's late afternoon overflight showed that the Fissure 8 flow is continuing to form a lava delta with limited continuing advances into the surviving parts of the Kaphoho Beach Lots and Vacationlands neighborhoods. The northernmost lobe of the Fissure 8 flow is advancing very slowly to the northeast. No other fissure vents are active. HVO bulletin (June 5th - 5:30 UTC) reported that fountaining at Fissure 8 continued feeding a robust lava channel to northeast along Highway 132 to the ocean entry in Kapoho bay. As of late afternoon the lava entry had built a delta extending approximately 700 yards into the bay. A laze plume is blowing inland from the ocean entry but dissipating quickly. The lava flow front is about 600 yds wide. A lava breakout was also occurring upslope of the Kapoho cone cinder pit but stalled about 300 yards southeast of the intersection of Railroad Avenue and Cinder Road. Sluggish lava flows are present in the vicinity of Fissure 18; all other fissures are inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 4th - 5:07 UTC) reported that fissure 8 fountaining persisted throughout the day to heights up to 220 feet, and the channelized flow continued to deliver lava northeast along Highway 132 to the Kapoho area. Lava is advancing along a 0.5-mile-wide front towards the ocean at Kapoho Bay between Kapoho Beach Road and Kapoho Kai Drive. As of 5:45 PM HST, the lava flow was about 245 yards from the ocean at its closest approach point. Other branches of the Fissure 8 lava flow were inactive. All other fissures are inactive, although observers on the late afternoon overflight noted abundant gas emission from Fissures 9 & 10 and incandescence without fountaining at fissures 16 & 18. HVO bulletin (June 2nd - 8:29 UTC) treported that fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching 180 - 220 feet in height and continues to feed a channelized lava flow to the northeast along Highway 132 and down into the Four Corners region (at the intersection of Highways 132 and 137). Small overflows from the channel are occurring along its length, including in a few places near the intersection of Highway 132 and Pohoiki road. As of 9:50 PM HST the flow front was approximately 0.28 miles from the intersection. The more western branches of the Fissure 8 flow either stalled or advanced only short distances. Fissure 18 appears to be crusted over or inactive. The flows that had been moving toward Highway 137 are either inactive or moving very slowly. Fissure 22 appears to be inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 1st - 4:41 UTC) reported that the fissure 8 continued to produce persistent fountains that reached heights up to 260 feet. A small spatter cone is forming on the downwind side of the fountain and is approximately 100 feet high. The fountains are feeding flow activity to the northeast, and minor overflows from the Fissure 8 channel are occurring along its length. One overflow covered the remaining northern part of Makamae Street in Leilani Estates. This overflow crossed Kahukai street, filling in a low area between Makamae and Luana streets. The front of the Fissure 8 flow near Noni Farms road advanced at rates up to 100 yards/hour. At 12:30 PM HST, the flow front was 1.9 miles from the Four Corners area. High eruption rates from Fissure 8 have led to the formation of a leveed channel along the western edge of the lava flow. Failure of flow levees could result in rapid advance of flows. Flow margins are extremely hazardous and should not be approached. Fissure 18 feeds the upper part of a lava flow that extends to 1.5 mi from Highway 137; the lower portion of the fissure 18 lava flow stalled about 0.5 mi from the highway. Fissure 2 is weakly active and is pooling lava around the vent. HVO bulletin (May 31st - 5:24 UTC) reported that fissure 8 maintained high fountains through Wednesday with sustained heights exceeding 200 feet and the presence of multiple secondary fountains that reached to 60 feet. This fountaining continued to feed a lava flow that moved downslope along Highway 132. Advance rates were less than 100 yards/hour for the three lobes of the flow. The flow moved north of Highway 132 in the vicinity of Noni Farms and Halekamahina roads, from which the two easternmost lobes advanced in a more east northeasterly direction while the westernmost lobe advanced in a northeasterly direction. The Fissure 18 flow also remained active, moving downslope toward Highway 137 at rates of much less than 100 yards per hour. During the day, sporadic bursts of activity were also observed from Fissures 22, 6, and 13. HVO bulletin (May 30th - 2:51 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissure 8 remained very active today fountaining to heights of 200 feet at times and feeding a lava flow that advanced atop the Fissure 8 ʻaʻā flow that was active Sunday night/Monday morning. The first lobe of this flow crossed highway 132 just before 2 pm HST Tuesday. Lava continues to advance toward the northeast. Visual observations early Tuesday afternoon also confirmed continued weak activity at Fissures 18 and 19. Fissure 18 has produced channelized flows which have advanced 1.6 mi toward the coast. HVO bulletin (May 29th - 2:35 UTC) reported that the lava flow from Fissure 8 reached Pohoiki Rd. this morning and stalled as the Fissure's activity abruptly diminished. A few fissures reactivated briefly during the day. As of the 1 pm overflight, Fissure 8, 18, 20, 22, 6/13, and 7/21 reactivated with Fissure 7/21 having the highest fountains. The reactivated fissures have not yet erupted enough lava to reach the coast so the two ocean entry sites were relatively inactive. Only a minor ooze of residual lava was entering the ocean from the Eastern channel. (map) HVO bulletin (May 28th - 4:20 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissures 22 and 13 continue to feed lava flows extending south to the lava ocean entry. Signals recorded on stations in the LERZ indicate that the lava ocean entry remained active overnight. This morning, lava activity at both vents has diminished and the ocean entries are weaker than yesterday. Fissure 6 is no longer active. Fissure 21 has been intermittently active. Fissure 7 activity is very active, producing a large spatter rampart over 100 feet tall from fountains reaching 150-200 feet. The fountains fed two perched channels--the north channel fed a lava flow that advanced toward pad E of the PGV property and the south channel a flow that was advancing to the southeast along the west border of the fissure 22 flow.Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the Overlook crater, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the Kīlauea summit, the largest occurred around noon producing an ash column to nearly 10,000 ft. The Fissure 7 north channel fed a flow that advanced into PGV property and approached pad E before it stalled this morning; however, the flow was refreshed by lava from the vent and, about noon, started to advance again covering a portion of pad E and also producing a narrow flow to the north of pad E. These flows continue to be active as of this posting. HVO bulletin (May 26th - 2:56 UTC reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that also reaches the coast, making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a lava flow that has advanced northeastward crossing Kahukai St. at about 3:30 pm this afternoon and continuing to the northeast at a slow pace. Fissure 17 is barely active.At the summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 4:17 pm sending ash as high as 12,000 feet above sea level. HVO bulletin (May 25th - 3:12 UTC) reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fairly tall fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that reached the coast yesterday making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a pahoehoe flow that has advanced eastward covering most of the area bounded by Leilani Blvd, Mohala St., and and the fissure line. Fissure 17 continues weak spattering, Fissure 19 and 23 are no longer active. At the summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after the recent explosive eruptions, are again slowly increasing. At this time, based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. HVO bulletin (May 24th - 2:47 UTC) reported that fissure 6 through 22 continue erupting lava fountains. The fountains from Fissure 22 feed a single lava channel that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. The actual point of entry has continued shifting to the west. Fountains erupted from Fissures 5, 6, 13, and 19 continued to feed a lava flow advancing to the south along the west side of the Fissure 22 flows and may reach the ocean this afternoon or evening. Fissure 17 continue weak spattering, Fissure 8 reactivated briefly this morning to erupt two small pahoehoe flows over the initial `a`a flow. At the Kilauea summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 10:30 this morning. Additional explosions are possible at any time. HVO bulletin (May 23rd - 8:22 UTC) reported that eruption of lava and ground cracking continues in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision. Over the course of the day, the most active eruptive activity in the Lower East Rift Zone shifted to the middle portion of the system of fissures. The most active fissures were 22,19, 6, 5, and 23. Fissure 17, at the northeastern end of the fissure system is only weakly active now. Fissure 6 is feeding a flow to the south, roughly parallel to the western flow from fissure 22. Fountaining of fissures 5 and 23 fed flows in the eastern part of Leilani Estates. Small ash emissions from the Overlook crater have been occurring frequently today. Moderate trade winds were blowing to the southwest and noticeable ashfall may happen in downwind locations. HVO bulletin ( May 22nd - 2:11 UTC) reported that fissure 22 is erupting a short line of low lava fountains that feed a channelized flow that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. Spattering continues from a reactivated Fissures 6 that intermittently feeds a short lava flow. Fissures 17 and 19 continue weak spattering.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents. ( video -Photos ) . At the summit One explosive eruption of ash occurred at about 1 am this morning. Several smaller ash emissions have also taken place and produced abundant ash. HVO bulletin ( May 21st - 0:15 UTC) reported that spattering continues from Fissures 6 and 17 with significant lava flows being erupted from Fissures 20. Two of these lava flows from Fissure 20 reached the ocean along the southeast Puna coast overnight; however, a crack opened under the east lava channel early this morning diverting the lava from the channel into underground voids. This may cause changes downslope in the channel system and the ocean entry.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents.At the Kilauea summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after explosive eruptions on Saturday afternoon and Sunday noon, are again slowly increasing. Based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is still billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. . HVO buletin (May 19th - 5:53 UTC) that the eruption of lava and ground cracking in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision continues. Late on afternoon, a fast-moving pahoehoe lava flow emerged from fissure 20 and traveled southeast where it crossed Pohoiki Road. Estimates from Hawaii County Fire Department aerial video at 6:30 pm indicate advance rate of 300-400 yards per hour; this rate may change with time and USGS crews are in the area to try and monitor flow advance. Other fissures remain weakly active and volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind. Smoke from burning vegetation as lava flows advance is also contributing to poor air quality. . HVO bulletin (May 18th, 2:54 UTC) reported that after the summit explosive eruption early morning seismic levels have been gradually increasing, but as of this report no additional explosions have occurred. No earthquakes greater than magnitude 3.5 have occurred in the past day.Volcanic gas emissions at the summit remain high. At the Lower East rift zone tThis afternoon, fissure 17 is still actively spattering but the flow is nearly stalled. In addition, fissures 18, 19, and 20 have reactivated and a new fissure (21) has opened between fissures 7 and 3. An area 50-100 yards wide, parallel to and north of the line of fissures between Highway 130 and Lanipuna Gardens, has dropped slightly. This long depression is currently being filled by pahoehoe lava flows from fissures 20 and 21. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. HVO bulletin (May 17th - 2:47 UTC) reported that ash emission from the Overlook crater within Halema`uma`u has generally decreased since yesterday. Although varying in intensity, at times the plume contains enough ash to be gray in color. The cloud is rising an estimated 3 to 4,000 feet above the ground, but altitudes are varying with pulses of emission. The ash cloud is drifting slowly northward from the Kilauea summit and ashfall may occur in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Volcano Village. Communities downwind may receive ashfall and should take necessary precautions. Several magnitude 3 or stronger earthquakes occurred beneath the summit today. The earthquakes were at shallow depth and resulted in cracks in Highway 11 near the entrance to Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. Some facilities within the National Park were damaged as well. The explosive eruption of 1924 at the Kilauea summit was also marked by hundreds of felt earthquakes as magma drained from the caldera. This afternoon, eruptive activity remained concentrated at fissure 17 but the spattering was decreasing in vigor. The advance of the flow has slowed significantly since yesterday afternoon; the flow remains nearly 2.5 km (1.5 mi) in length. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. Magma continues to be supplied to the lower East Rift Zone as indicated by the continued northwest displacement of a GPS monitoring station. Elevated earthquake activity continues, but earthquake locations have not moved farther downrift in the past couple of days. HVO bultetin (15th of May 23:27 UTC) reported that as of early this morning, eruption of ash from the Overlook vent within Halemaumau crater at Kilauea Volcano's summit has generally increased in intensity. Ash has been rising nearly continuously from the vent and drifting downwind to the southwest. Ashfall and vog (volcanic air pollution) has been reported in Pahala, about 18 miles downwind. NWS radar and pilot reports indicate the top of the ash cloud is as high as 10,000 to 12,000 feet above sea level, but this may be expected to vary depending on the vigor of activity and wind conditions. Ash emission from the Kilauea summit vent will likely be variable with periods of increased and decreased intensity depending on the occurrence of rockfalls into the vent and other changes within the vent. HVO bulletin (14th of May 18:36 UTC) reported that on the morning, activity is dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter more than 100 feet into the air, and an advancing lava flow from fissure 17 at the northeast end of the fissure system. As of 630 am the fissure 17 flow had traveled just under a mile roughly east-southeast parallel to the rift zone. It is turning slightly south and at this time is about one half mile south of Highway 132. Fissure 18 that became active late yesterday is weakly active. A fissure 19 has been spotted very near fissure 15 as of about 8 am just northeast of Pohoiki Road and north of Hinalo Street at the east end of Lanipuna Gardens. It is producing a sluggish lava flow. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the vents. Yesterday with the onset of activity at fissure 17, powerful steam jets have occurred intermittently near the west end of the fissure. These jets may be responsible for some of the loud sounds reported by residents and emergency workers. HVO reported that as of late today (May13rd), activity was dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter bombs hundreds of feet into the air, and several advancing lava flow lobes moving generally northeast from fissure 17 at the downrift (northeast) end of the new fissure system. As of about 7 pm, one lobe was 2 yards thick and advancing roughly parallel to Highway 132. The flow front was just over a half mile southeast of the intersection of Highway 132 and Noni Farms Road. Based on overflight images late this afternoon, additional lava from fissure 17 was also moving slowly southeast. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated. At the Kilauea summit Deflationary tilt continues. A robust plume of steam and volcanic gas, occasionally mixed with ash, has risen from the Overlook crater within Halemaumau. HVO bulletin (May12th, 2:39 UTC) reported that Volcanic unrest in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. While no lava has been emitted from any of the 15 fissure vents since May 9, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Communities downslope of these fissures could be at risk from lava inundationHVO bulletin (May 11th 4:51 UTC) reported that High levels of unrest related to the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continue. While no lava was noted erupting today from any of the 15 fissure vents formed thus far, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Earthquake activity was high in the area today. Continuing ground deformation and located earthquakes were mostly in the area around and northeast of Fissure 15 at Pohoiki Road indicating that the intrusion is migrating further to the northeast. Steaming ground cracks in the vicinity of Highway 130 continue. HVO bulletin (May 10th, 2:55 UTC) reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Visible activity this early afternoon was again focused on the northeast portion of the fissure area. Fissure 15 broke ground across Poihiki Road, generating a pahoehoe flow about 20 m (66 ft) long. During an overflight of the area about 3 p.m. HST, geologists observed a new steaming area uprift (west) of Highway 130. During a second overflight at 4:30 p.m., the area was still steaming. Rates of motion increased late this morning on a GPS station 1.5 km (1 mile) southeast of Nanawale Estates. The direction of motion is consistent with renewed movement of magma in the downrift direction (to the northeast). Rates of seismicity changed little throughout the day; located earthquakes were mostly uprift (west) of Highway 130. Gas emissions remain elevated in the vicinity of fissures. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past week and the lava lake level continues to drop. At about 8:32 a.m. HST, a large rockfall from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake triggered an explosion that generated an ash column above the crater; the ash was blown toward the south-southwest. Rockfalls and explosions that produce ash columns are expected to continue. HVO bulletin (May 8th, 18:15 UTC ) reported that of 7:00 am, the eruption along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision has paused. Strong emission of gas continues from the fissure system that is now about 2.5 miles long. This pause is likely temporary and resumption of lava emission or additional fissure outbreaks are possible at any time. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from Friday's magnitude-6.9 earthquake continue and more are expected. Rockfalls into the Overlook vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater are producing intermittent ash emissions. Seismicity at Kīlauea's summit remains elevated. USGS/HVO continues to monitor the situation 24/7 in coordination with Hawaii County Civil Defense and other authorities. Field crews are onsite this morning examining the fissure vents, lava flow of yesterday, and searching for any signs of new or resumed activity. As of the 8th of May (3:59 UTC), HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. The location of activity today was focused on the southwest portion of the area. This morning, two new fissure segments broke ground. The first (fissure 11) opened in a forested southwest of Leilani Estates about 9:30 am and was active for only 3 hours. The second (fissure 12) opened about 12:20 between older fissures 10 and 11. By 3:15 pm, both new fissures were in active but the west end of fissure 10 was steaming heavily. Cracks on Highway 130 widened from 7 cm to 8 cm over the course of the day and additional cracks were found just west of the highway on trend with the eruptive fissures. As of the 7th of May (6:59 UTC) HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Fissure 8 erupted lava fountains until about 4 p.m. HST, and the aa' flow advanced slowly northward through the afternoon, even after the lava fountains shut down. Geologists reported this early evening that the flow crossed Ho'okopu Road, a distance from fissure 8 of about about 1.1 km (0.6 miles). They also reported new ground cracks in the vicinity of fissures 8 and 9 that were emitting thick steam and gases, but no lava spattering was observed by the time of this status report. Rates of seismicity and deformation decreased in the past day. The absence of additional deformation in the past day suggests a pause in magma acculumation in the distal part of the intrusion. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past several days. Corresponding to this deflationary trend, the summit lava lake level in Overlook crater dropped about 2 m (6.5 ft) per hour during the day. The lake level has dropped an estimated 220 m (722 ft) since the collapse of Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater on April 30. Rockfalls from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake continue to produce ashy plumes above Halema'uma'u crater. Rockfalls and ashy plumes are expected to continue as the lake level drops. Earthquake activity in the summit remains at elevated levels. In the past 24 hours, about 31 magnitude-2 earthquakes occurred at depths less than 5 km (3 miles) beneath the summit area (compared to the 24-hour period when 152 magnitude-2 and magnitude-3 earthquakes. These earthquakes are related to the ongoing subsidence of the summit area and earthquakes beneath the south flank of the volcano. HVO bulletin ( Saturday, May 5, 2018, 21:54 UTC) reported that active eruption of lava and gas continues along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision. Additional fissure vents producing spatter and small lava flows developed early this morning, and additional outbreaks in the area are likely. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from yesterday's M6.9 earthquake continue and more should be expected, with larger aftershocks potentially producing rockfalls and associated ash clouds above Puʻu ʻŌʻō and Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Residents of the Puna District should remain alert, review individual, family, and business emergency plans, and watch for further information about the status of the volcano. Video. According to latest HVO bulletin (Saturday, May 5, 2018, 02:04 UTC) eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Several additional eruptive fissures or vents - each several hundred yards long - have opened over the past day. No significant lava flows have yet formed. Spatter and lava are accumulating primarily within a few tens of yards of the vent. The sixth and most recent fissure is on the eastern edge of the subdivision. Not all fissure vents remain active and no far-traveled lava flows have formed. For maps showing the locations of these features : https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_maps.html .HVO geologists will be in the area overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity using various monitoring data streams. Seismicity and deformation are consistent with continued accumulation of magma within the rift zone. Additional outbreaks of lava are expected. According to report from HVO (Friday, May 4, 2018, 08:13 UTC) the eruption in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano that began in late afternoon temporary ended by about 6:30 p.m. HST. Lava spatter and gas bursts erupted from the fissure for about two hours, and lava spread a short distance from the fissure, less than about 10 m (33 ft). At this time, the fissure is not erupting lava and no other fissures have erupted. HVO geologists are working near the fissure overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity. Geologists reported this evening that the presence of sulfur gas is quite noticeable around the fissure, typical of active and recently active fissures. The concentration of sulfur dioxide gas is high within tens of meters (yards) of the fissure. Lava flows did not advance more than about 10 m (33 ft) from the fissure. The flows are no longer active. At this time, no other fissures have erupted from along the rift zone. Tiltmeters at Kīlauea's summit continue to record deflationary tilt and the lava lake level has dropped about 37 m (121 ft) in the past 24 hours. Seismic activity has not changed significantly during the day or since the brief fissure eruption. Previously, HVO reported that the intrusion of molten rock into the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano reached the surface in the late afternoon on May 3 in a part of Leilani Estates. A fissure about 150 m (492 ft) long erupted mostly spatter and intermittent bubble bursts for about 2 hours.Lava did not travel more than a few m (yards) from the fissure.Hawaii County Civil Defence is coordinating needed response including evacuation of a portion of the Leilani subdivision. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory deployed geologists to the eruption site overnight, and other scientists are monitoring various data streams telemetered to the observatory 24/7.As of the 30th of April, in a special report HVO reported that following weeks of inflation, the floor of the crater of Pu'u O'o collapsed on April 30, 2018, between 14h and 16h30 in two episodes visibles on a thermal camera located on the edge of the crater. Bad weather conditions prevented the observatory teams to fly over the crater and cannot observe this activity.The collapse caused the release of a large amount of reddish ash around the Pu'u O'o for several kilometers on the 61 g lava flow. Following this collapse, seismometers and tiltmeters recorded an increase in seismic activity and deformation from the summit area of ​​Kilauea to an area between 10 and 16 km east of Pu'u O'o; during the night, this activity continued to spread along the rift zone to the east and the highway 130 to 30 km ... marking an area potentially at risk of eruption.The strongest earthquake of the sequence was of magnitude 4, south of Pu'u O'o 'on April 27 at 2:39. A new ladder crack, of 1 km long, has opened to the west of Pu'u O'o, characterized by heavy outgassing. its released a small amount of lava, according to the presence of small areas of spatters; it is no longer active. The level of the upper lava lake, located in the Halema'uma'u crater, has dropped 15 meters, suggesting an intrusion from the summit area during the weekend into the Pu'u O'o magmatic system towards the East; summit deflation supports this mechanism.The volcanic alert level remains at Watch and the aviation code is orange. Residents of Puna must remain alert and monitor information on the status of the volcano.During 18-24 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, and by late on 21 April had overflowed the S crater rim. As of midday on 23 April the new flows has covered about 16 ha of the floor, or about 30%. Overflows of the crater rim continued through 24 April, flowing as far as 375 m onto the N, SW, and S parts of the crater floor. HVO noted that the overflows were the first significant ones since May 2015. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 18 April geologists observed the pit crater on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, noting that overflows had built up the crater rim to several meters above the crater floor and 7 m higher compared to late March. During 11-17 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, with spattering visible from HVO and Jaggar Museum; by 16 April the lake level was 10 m below the rim of the Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 11 April a moderate swarm of over 200 earthquakes occurred at depths of 7-9 km below the summit. The largest event was a M 2.4. Seismicity returned to background levels at 0230. Three minor ledge collapses were detected on 12 April, one at 1157 and two just after 1830. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali; on 13 April most scattered breakouts were within 2.2 km from Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and one was about 5 km away. During 4-10 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand through 6 April. A rockfall at 1028 on 6 April triggered an explosion in the lava lake, damaging the webcam power system on the crater rim. During 28 March-3 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island. The Webcam images, which are updated every five minutes, can be accessed at : http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/cams/NCcam/ . From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

USA - Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaian islands)

June 24th, 2018

On 21 June HVO reported that seismicity and deformation at Mauna Loa had been at near-background levels for at least the previous six months. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and theVolcano Alert level was lowered to Normal. During 2014 through most of 2017 seismicity was variable but elevated, and ground deformation was consistent with an influx of magma in the shallow reservoir.Previous news 2016 - On 17 March HVO reported that seismicity at Mauna Loa remained above long-term background levels and was characterized by shallow earthquakes occurring beneath the Southwest Rift Zone (SRZ) at depths of less than 5 km. GPS data showed continuing deformation related to inflation of a magma reservoir beneath the summit and upper SRZ, with inflation recently detected in the SW part of the magma storage complex. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Previous News - On 18 September 2015 HVO reported that for at least the previous year the seismic network at Mauna Loa detected elevated seismicity beneath the summit, upper Southwest Rift Zone, and W flank; the rate of these shallow earthquakes varied but overall had remained above the long-term average. The earthquakes locations were similar to those preceding recent eruptions in 1975 and 1984, although the magnitudes were comparatively low. In addition, ground deformation consistent with recharge of the volcano's shallow magma storage system was also detected during the previous year. The rate and pattern of the deformation was similar to that measured during a period of inflation 2005, unrest that did not lead to an eruption. However, since the observations indicated that Mauna Loa is no longer at background levels, HVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. Massive Mauna Loa shield volcano rises almost 9 km above the sea floor to form the world's largest active volcano. Flank eruptions are predominately from the lengthy NE and SW rift zones, and the summit is cut by the Mokuaweoweo caldera, which sits within an older and larger 6 x 8 km caldera. Two of the youngest large debris avalanches documented in Hawaii traveled nearly 100 km from Mauna Loa; the second of the Alika avalanches was emplaced about 105,000 years ago (Moore et al. 1989). Almost 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is covered by lavas less than 4000 years old (Lockwood and Lipman, 1987). During a 750-year eruptive period beginning about 1500 years ago, a series of voluminous overflows from a summit lava lake covered about one fourth of the volcano's surface. The ensuing 750-year period, from shortly after the formation of Mokuaweoweo caldera until the present, saw an additional quarter of the volcano covered with lava flows predominately from summit and NW rift zone vents. (GVN/GVP)

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U.S.A. - Bogoslof volcano island (Aleutian islands)

February 20th, 2018

End eruption report - The AVO has put online a 3D multispectral image of Bogoslof, resting since August 30, 2017, end of the eruption 2016-17. The approximately 60 explosive episodes characterizing this period have significantly modeled the Bogoslof's morphology. The island has grown by a factor of three, reaching 1.6 km², but new pyroclastic materials and surge deposits are not consolidated; erosion modifies the contours of Bogoslof permanently, and in December, the lagoon of the vent opened on the ocean on the north coast, marking a gradual return to more modest dimensions ... general problem of news or remodeled volcanic islands: construction and destruction. Previous news - On 6 December AVO decreased the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Bogoslof to Unassigned, noting that no significant activity had been observed in seismic, infrasound, satellite, or lightning data during the past three months. The last detected explosive activity occurred on 30 August 2017. On 27 September AVO reported that the last explosion at Bogoslof was detected on 30 August, and no new volcanic activity was observed in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since then. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that during 20-26 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 22-23 September, indicating ongoing unrest. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 13-19 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 13-14 and 16-17 September, indicating ongoing unrest. On 17 September discolored ocean water was visible in satellite data, possibly representing outflow from the crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 6-12 September nothing significant was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. The 8 September report noted that the crater lake had been bisected by a narrow isthmus of land. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in one satellite image during 10-11 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at 0405 on 30 August and continued intermittently until 0555; the event produced a low-level ash plume that rose to around 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. Later that day seismic and infrasound data showed quiet conditions, and a low-level plume (likely steam) drifted almost 65 km SSE. Satellite, infrasound, and seismic data showed nothing notable during 31 August-5 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Three short-duration eruptive events occurred during 27-28 August. The first, a two-minute-long explosion at 1508 on 27 August, produced a volcanic cloud that rose 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The second event started at 0323 on 28 August and lasted 25 minutes. The resulting small cloud drifted ESE and quickly dissipated. The third event was detected at 1117 on 28 August and generated a small volcanic cloud that rose 7.6-9.1 (25,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were observed in a few satellite images during 28-29 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a satellite image of Bogoslof acquired at 0628 on 24 August showed elevated surface temperatures and a small plume that was most likely steam drifting 17 km S. During 24-25 August a robust steam plume drifting 70 km SE and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data. A four-minute-long explosion that began at 1629 on 26 August generated an eruption cloud that rose 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The event was also observed in seismic and infrasound data, and one lightning stroke was detected. . AVO reported that photographs of Bogoslof taken during an overflight on 15 August showed that the vent area (which had dried out during the 7 August eruption) had refilled with water. Seismicity decreased on 16 August and remained low at least through 18 August. Weakly elevated surface temperatures consistent with a warm lake were identified in satellite data during 19-20 August. Satellite data acquired on 21 August showed an approximately 125-m-diameter lava dome within the intra-island lake, just W of the 1992 lava dome. A cold volcanic plume, likely from the lava dome, drifted about 55 km S of the island. Some minor explosions were detected in infrasound data at about 0410 on 22 August. The lava dome had grown to 160 m in diameter. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that on 9 August seismic and infrasound data suggested low-level eruptive activity at Bogoslof; weakly elevated surface temperatures and a minor steam emission were identified in satellite images. No significant activity was observed in cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data during 10-13 August. Two short pulses of tremor were detected (at 0853, lasting five minutes, and at 0913, lasting three minutes) in seismic data; seismicity returned to baseline levels afterwards. A sequence of seismic events began at 0000 on 15 August; no activity was observed in infrasound, lightning, or satellite data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and theVolcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that during 2-6 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. An explosive eruption began at 1000 on 7 August, following more than an hour of increased seismicity. A pilot reported that an ash cloud rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l., prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. The eruption lasted about three hours, and was longer lived than most of the events in the eruptive sequence that started in December 2016. At 1341 AVO noted that the ash plume had formed a continuous cloud which stayed attached to the volcano and drifted S. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 8 August. Satellite images acquired on 8 August showed a significant expansion of the island towards the N with thick tephra deposits around the vent area forming a new crater lake. AVO reported that during 26 July-1 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in partly cloudy to clear satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 19-25 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 12-18 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images; weakly elevated surface temperatures were noted on 12 and 16 July. In addition no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code Aremained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Avo reported that two new explosions occurred at the Bogoslof on 10 and 11 July. The first one consists of a series of explosions that began on July 10 at 7:47 UTC and ended on 10.07 at 10:35 UTC, the AVO has passed the alerts to RED / Warning. A small cloud of ashes associated with the first episode reached 6,000 meters, and quickly dissipated in a southeasterly direction. A rapid decline in seismicity around 11:00 UTC lowered alert levels to ORANGE / Watch. - The second period of activity began around 6 pm UTC: seismicity and infrasound were increased for 8 minutes. No significant emissions were detected by satellite.On July 11, at 01:06 UTC, the seismic network recorded an eruption that lasted about 15 minutes. No volcanic clouds, lightning or infrasound were detected. Alert levels remain unchanged until data is evaluated. AVO reported that an explosion at Bogoslof was detected at 0124 on 30 June and lasted about 20 minutes. A small cloud from the event drifted about 16 km N and by 1815 had dissipated. Seismicity declined afterwards but continued intermittently at low levels. Beginning at 1248 on 2 July a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data. The event lasted about 16 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Following the eruption seismicity declined and no signs of volcanic unrest were detected in seismic, infrasound, on satellite data on 3 July; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. The ACC and VAL were again raised to Red and Warning, respectively, following an explosive event that began at 1651 on 4 July and lasted 13 minutes. An eruption cloud rose as high as 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. An 11-minute-long eruption began at 1907 on 4 July, producing a small cloud that rose 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. AVO reported that a new significant explosive eruption occurred at 20:48 UTC July 2 (12:48 AKDT July 2). AVO is raising the Aviation Color Code to RED and Alert level to WARNING for Bogoslof volcano. Satellite data and pilot reports shows a volcanic cloud with an estimated altitude of 36,000 ft asl moving towards the east. Seismic and infrasound data suggest that the ash emissions are no longer continuing. AVO reported that slightly elevated surface temperatures at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images on 23 June, and steam emissions were occasionally observed the previous week. Beginning at 1649 on 23 June a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data that lasted about 10 minutes. It produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 400-490 km E. The event prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Four additional explosions were detected, during 1918-1924, 2013-2021, 2104-2112, and 2152-2155, though any resulting ash plumes were not detected above the cloud deck at 8.5-9.1 km (28,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. On 25 June the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. At 1645 on 26 June an eruption which lasted about 14 minutes produced an ash plume that rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic and lighting data indicated that a significant explosion began at 0317 on 27 June, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. The event lasted 14 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Following a significant explosive eruption this 24 June at 0h49 UTC / 23 June 16h49 AKDT, the Bogoslof  has changed to a red aviation code. It produced a plume rising to about 36,000 ft, and was accompanied by a strong seismicity, flashes and infra-sons. The eruption lasted 10 minutes. The satellites located the volcanic cloud at 1:30 UTC, at 36,000 ft, moving northeast.AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures and a small steam emission at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were detected on 16 June, and a 13-km-long steam plume was visible on 18 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a new lava dome at Bogoslof breached the surface of the ocean on or around 6 June, and was the first observation of lava at the surface since the start of the eruption that began in mid-December 2016. The dome was an estimated 110 m in diameter on 7 June, and then grew to 160 m in diameter by 9 June. An explosive eruption began at 0318 on 10 June with a series of short infrasound signals which then, starting at about 0416, transitioned into several minutes-long continuous seismic and infrasound tremor signals. The events generated an ash-rich cloud that rose to an estimated altitude of 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. The eruption ended at 0528. Satellite data indicated that at least part of the volcanic cloud was more ash-rich than most in the current eruption period. On 11 June AVO noted no detectable activity in seismic or infrasound data after the event the day before. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Satellite image acquired on 10 June and a photograph from an observer aboard a jet aircraft on 11 June suggested that the lava dome was no longer above the surface of the water, and was destroyed during the 10 June event. A series of explosive events, each lasting 10-30 minutes, began at 1747 on 12 June and ended around 2035. Ash plumes rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. At 0817 on 13 June a six-minute-long explosion was detected in seismic and infrasound data. A plume was not observed, likely because it was too small or below detection limits. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that a short-duration (less than 10 minute) explosion at Bogoslof began at 1842 on 31 May based on seismic and infrasound data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted WNW, and dissipated over the Bering Sea. The explosion was preceded by a several hour-long swarm of very small earthquakes. Seismicity decreased in the hours prior to the explosion and remained below the detection threshold. A sulfur dioxide plume from an explosion on 28 May was visible in satellite data drifting over the Hudson Bay region of Canada on 2 June. A short-duration explosive event at 0750 on 5 June produced a small volcanic cloud observed by a pilot. Low-amplitude tremor was detected in seismic data beginning at about 1229 on 5 June but then decreased to background levels. A vessel in the area reported vigorous steaming and a white plume rising several thousand feet above sea level. A brief explosive event was detected at 0600 on 6 June. The event likely produced a low-level (less than 3 km or 10,000 ft a.s.l.) emission; a possible plume at 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. was identified in a satellite image following the detection of the activity in seismic and infrasound data, but quickly dissipated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. On 29 May the ash cloud continued to drift NE. No detectable activity was observed in data from seismic or infrasound stations located on nearby Islands, and no new activity has been observed in satellite data. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that the eruption at Bogoslof which began at 2232 on 16 May lasted about 73 minutes. Trace amounts of ash fell in the community of Nikolski on Umnak Island. Later that day the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch; no further ash emissions were detected and seismicity was low. Satellite data showed that the event altered the N coastline of the island. The crater lake was breached with a 550-m-wide gap along the N shore, and the NE shore had been extended 300 m from new tephra deposits. AVO reported that an increase in seismic and infrasound activity from Bogoslof was detected from stations on nearby islands starting at 2232 on 16 May, suggesting the beginning of an explosive eruption. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Watch. A pilot reported an ash plume rising as high as 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l., and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network detected lightning associated with the cloud. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. The eruption lasted about 73 minutes. On 19 April AVO noted that no new volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since a short-lived increase in seismicity on 15 April; AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and theVolcano Alert LevelIncreased seismicity at Bogoslof was recorded by stations on nearby islands starting around 1501 on 15 April, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The seismic activity subsided a few hours later; there was no evidence of renewed eruptive activity from infrasound, lightning, or satellite data during 15-18 April. On 5 April AVO reported that the Aviation Color Code for Bogoslof was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory based on the absence of detected activity at the volcano for the past three weeks; the last large explosion occurred on 8 March. No significant volcanic activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data during 6-11 April. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 29 March-4 April, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 28-29 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 22-28 March, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 15-21 March, and satellite views were either obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 20-21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 2236 on 7 March, indicated in seismic, lightning, and infrasound data, and lasted about three hours. Though ash was not immediately visible in satellite data, AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Later, satellite images showed a large ash cloud rising to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E. This event was the first detected eruptive activity since 19 February, and more than 1,000 lightning strokes related to the volcanic eruption cloud were detected during this event, by far the highest number observed to date. In addition the seismic levels were among the highest detected since the beginning of the eruption. Satellite images from 8 March showed that the W part of the island had grown significantly. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 9 March. Two earthquakes swarms were detected during 9-11 March; the first began at 1750 on 9 March and ended at 1400 on 10 March, and the second was detected from 1900 on 10 March to 0500 on 11 March. Mildly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 10-11 March. A third swarm began at 0500 on 12 March. A short-duration event, from 1131 to 1143 on 13 March, produced a small ash cloud that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. AVO noted that after the event, the level of seismic activity declined and the repeating earthquakes, detected for much of the previous several days, stopped. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images from 13 March. A photograph taken by a pilot showed a low-level, billowy steam plume rising from the general area of the intra-island lake. AVO reported that a new explosive eruption began on March 8 at 7:36 UTC / 7 March at 22:36 AKST at Bogoslof, characterized by about three hours of significant ash emissions. Activity was observed via seismic, infrasonic and lightning detection networks. A large ash cloud was seen by the satellites, moving east to an altitude of 10,700 meters asl. The volcano remains at a high level of instability, and its current aviation alert level is red. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in seismic, infrasound, or mostly cloudy satellite data during 22-28 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.AVO reported that during 15-16 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0955 on 17 February seismic data indicated the beginning of an explosive event, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Individual pulses of seismicity was recorded until 1140, and then afterwards seismicity was low. Satellite images and pilot observations indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. The event was also verified by infrasound and lightning data. Another short-lived explosive event began at 1546, detected in infrasound and seismic data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion at 0450 on 18 February was detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The seismic data suggested that ash emissions lasted several minutes, and then seismicity decreased. A preliminary evaluation of satellite data indicated that a cloud rose at least as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.; the cloud drifted SW. On 19 February the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Later that day seismic and infrasound data recorded a series of short-lived explosive pulses during 1708-1745. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. A plume identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 160 km SE over Unalaska Island. AVO geologists on the island described the cloud has having a white upper portion and a slightly darker lower portion. Storms in the region impacted data communications at AVO's facility in Dutch Harbor on 20 February, limiting AVO's ability to forecast and detect eruptions at Bogoslof. AVO reported that during 8-12 and 14 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0724 on 13 February seismicity significantly increased, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Satellite images acquired through 0930 showed no ash emissions above the 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. cloud deck, and no lightning was detected. AVO concluded that, despite the intensity of seismic activity, a significant ash emission was not produced during this event; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0520 on 31 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. A burst of tremor lasting nine minutes was detected starting at 0457 on 3 February. A second burst, starting at 0533 and lasting 20 minutes, was also detected by infrasound instruments, indicating an explosion. No ash cloud was detected above the meteorological cloud deck in satellite data. An event that began at 1642 produced a small volcanic plume that drifted about 40 km N below an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic tremor significantly decreased later that evening. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images acquired on 5 February, possibly related to hot deposits from explosive activity the day before. On February 3, at 13:57 and 14:33 UTC, two episodes of tremor were detected; The second, accompanied by an infrasonic signal, indicates an explosion, without cloud of ash observed by satellite.Several short bursts of seismic activity were detected at 0520 and 0608 on 30 January. An infrasound signal accompanied the first event indicating an explosion; an eruption cloud was identified in satellite data at 0530, rising to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. later that day AVO noted that bursts of explosive activity continued and intensified; more than 10 short-duration explosions were detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. Ash plumes rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 125 km SE. Trace amounts of ashfall and a sulfur odor were reported in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor (98 km E). By the next day the explosions had subsided or ended. Satellite images acquired on 31 January showed significant changes to the island. AVO stated that freshly erupted volcanic rock and ash had formed a barrier that separated the vent from the sea, suggesting that the change had resulted in the more ash-rich emissions occurring during 30-31 January. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0453 on 24 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. An hour-long seismic increase began at 0134 on 25 January though no evidence of eruptive activity was evident. Based on lightning and seismic data an explosive event began at 0650 on 26 January, and another burst of seismicity was recorded at 0706. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. An ice-rich cloud, first identified in satellite data at 0700, likely contained ash, and rose as high as 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE at lower altitudes, and NE at altitudes above about 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Lightning and seismic data again indicated an explosive event at 0824 on 27 January, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. An ice-rich cloud that likely contained ash rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E; seismicity related to ash emissions remained elevated for 48 minutes. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 1320 on 18 January, generating an ash plume that rose at least to an altitude of 9.4 km (31,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The dark (ash-rich) plume was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot, and produced lightning strikes and infrasound signals detected by sensors in Sand Point and Dillingham. Analysis of a satellite image suggested the presence of very hot material (lava) at the surface immediately surrounding the vent, which was the first such observation since the beginning of the eruption. AVO raised theAviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert level (VAL) to Warning. A second lower-altitude cloud was visible in satellite images around 1400, likely corresponding with an increase in seismic tremor that occurred from 1340-1355. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch the next day. Another explosion was detected at 1317 on 20 January, following an approximately 30-minute-long increase in seismic activity, based on seismic data and lightning detected from the World Wide Lightning Location Network. Pilots observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. Satellite images indicated an ice-rich plume and lava present at the vent. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, but were again lowered one level to Orange and Watch, respectively, the next day. Several lightning strikes north of Bogoslof indicated that an explosive event began at 1409 on 22 January. An ash plume identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, and again lowered one level the next day. Following a period of increasing seismicity, an explosive event began at 0453 on 24 January, as indicated in seismic data and lightning detection, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. Seven minutes later an ice-rich plume which likely contained ash rose too altitudes of 7.6-10.7 km (25,000-35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO reported that photos taken by a pilot on 10 January showed Bogoslof covered with dark gray ash, and a roughly 300-m-diameter submarine explosion crater on the E side of the island. Unrest continued during 11-17 January. Two short-lived explosions (five to six minutes long) were seismically detected at 1123 and 1230 on 12 January and observed by pilots. The estimated altitudes of the first and second plumes were 5.5 and 4.4 km (18,000 and 14,500 ft) a.s.l., respectively. Seismicity again increased at 2126 on 14 January and remained elevated. Six explosive events were detected between 2216 on 14 January and 0350 on 15 January. No volcanic clouds were identified in satellite data, although one lightning strike was recorded at 2232 on 14 January. Increased seismicity on 17 January indicated minor explosive activity; steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose no higher than 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.The last eruption of this volcano took place from July 6 to 24, 1992. It had Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 3 and produced a new dome.Bogoslof is the emergent summit of a submarine volcano that lies 40 km north of the main Aleutian arc. It rises 1500 m above the Bering Sea floor. Repeated construction and destruction of lava domes at different locations during historical time has greatly modified the appearance of this "Jack-in-the-Box" volcano and has introduced a confusing nomenclature applied during frequent visits of exploring expeditions.The present triangular-shaped, 0.75 x 2 km island consists of remnants of lava domes emplaced from 1796 to 1992. Castle Rock (Old Bogoslof) is a steep-sided pinnacle that is a remnant of a spine from the 1796 eruption. Fire Island (New Bogoslof), a small island located about 600 m NW of Bogoslof Island, is a remnant of a lava dome that was formed in 1883. (USGS-AVO)

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U.S.A. - Shishaldin volcano (Alaska)

February 12th, 2018

On 7 February AVO reported that seismic and infrasound activity from Shishaldin declined to background levels during the previous month, prompting the observatory to lower the Aviation Color Code to Green and the Volcano Alert Level to Normal. Previously, AVO reported that seismic and infrasound data from Shishaldin continued to indicate elevated activity during 13-19 December. Robust steaming was recorded by a webcam during 13-14 December 2017; ice and poor weather conditions prevented views during the rest of the period. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. AVO increased the Aviation Color Code for Shishaldin to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch on 6 December following several weeks of increasing seismicity and pressure waves recorded by infrasound sensors. Continuous infrasound waves were detected for more than 10 hours on instruments located in Sand Point, ~230 km E. Steam emissions visible in satellite and webcam images during 5 and 8-12 December were rising hundreds of feet above the summit crater. The steam emissions were occasionally accompanied by infrasound signals indicating episodes of short-duration energetic gas emissions and/or small explosions. The beautifully symmetrical volcano of Shishaldin is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands. The 2857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." A steady steam plume rises from its small summit crater. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, it is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the west and NE sides at 1500-1800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century. . (GVN/GVP)

USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

August 25th, 2018

Low-level unrest at Cleveland continued, though on 22 August AVO noted a pause in activity and lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. The report noted that elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images the previous day, suggestive of hot gas emissions from the summit crater vents. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 15-20 August, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Steaming from the crater was sometimes visible in clear webcam views, and elevated surface temperatures were occasionally identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 25-31 July, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Meteorological cloud cover prevented views of the crater on most days, though steaming from the crater was visible in satellite and webcam views during 25-26 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 11-17 July, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on 11 July; meteorological cloud cover prevented views of the crater on the other days.AVO reported that the low level instability remains; the low surface temperatures correspond to cooling lava, as observed by the Worlview-3 satellite on July 10th. A circular lava flow 8 meters in diameter, extruded at the end of June 2018, and minor steam emissions are observed.No significant activity is detected by seismic and infrasonic networks during the past week.Alerts remain unchanged, explosive activity is likely to occur without warning. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 4-10 July, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Meteorological cloud cover often prevented views of the crater. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 7 and 9-10 July; a small steam cloud was visible on 7 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 27 June-3 July, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 29 June-2 July; the thermal anomaly extended SW downslope in the crater consistent with a lava flow. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that instability continued. on June 25th, 2018 a circular lava flow of about 80 meters diameter on the summit crater floor was reported by satellite.On June 26, the satellite data also reported a possible steam emission at 0:48 UTC, in connection with the effusion of lava in the crater.The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

USA - Great Sitkin volcano - Andreanof Island (Alaska-Aleutian Islands )

August 14th, 2018

AVO reported that a small phreatic explosion at Great Sitkin was recorded by the seismic network at 1105 on 11 August. The event was preceded by small local earthquakes. Cloudy satellite images prevented views of the volcano during 12-14 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. AVO reported continuing low-level unrest at Great Sitkin during 20-26 June; seismic activity remained at or near background levels. A recently analyzed satellite image acquired on 11 June, one day after short-duration explosive event was recorded, showed a minor ash deposit on the snow extending 2 km from a vent in the summit crater. AVO reported that satellite images captured after the short-lived steam explosion at Great Sitkin on 10 June indicated minor changes in the summit crater, characterized by possible new fumaroles in the N part of the main crater and slightly more vigorous steaming at pre-existing fumaroles. Seismicity declined to background levels during 15-16 June. AVO changed the aviation code from green to yellow on June 10th at 13:26 AKDT.A signal, following an increase in seismic activity, could correspond this 10 June at 11:49 AKDT / 19:39 UTC to a short phreatic explosion, justifying the level of alert to Advisory.On 18 January AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had declined over the past two months to near background levels. In addition, no significant activity was observed in satellite data during this time period and no steam plumes were noted. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level to Green/Normal. AVO reported that during 28 November-5 December low-level unrest continued at Great Sitkin. Nothing noteworthy was identified in seismic data nor in partly cloudy to cloudy satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Recent observations of a robust steam plume and a period of gradually increasing seismicity over several months at Great Sitkin prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 22 November. On 19 November local observers photographed a light-colored vapor plume rising about 300 m above the vent and drifting 15-20 km S. A satellite image acquired on 21 November showed steam continuously jetting from a small fumarole on the W side of the 1974 lava flow within the summit crater, and at least one area where snow and ice had been melted. Seismicity had fluctuated but increased overall since July 2016, most notably in June 2017. The seismic activity was characterized by earthquakes less than M 1, and occurred either just below the summit or just offshore the NW cost of the island, 30 km below sea level. Possible explosion signals were recorded in seismic data on 10 January and 21 July 2017, but there were no confirmed emissions. The 1740-m-high Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The 1740-m-high summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 meters. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Great Sitkin since the late-19th century. (GVN/GVP)

U.S.A. - Veniaminof volcano (Alaska)

November 15th, 2018

AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera, continued at low levels during 7-13 November. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and lava effusion. Continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded. Steam and diffuse ash plumes periodically identified in webcam and satellite images rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and W. Recent satellite data showed that the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera, continued during 31 October-6 November. Satellite data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and flows. Low-amplitude continuous tremor was recorded. The webcam in Perryville, 35 km SE, periodically recorded diffuse ash emissions and incandescence from the cone. Based on a pilot observation and satellite data, a diffuse ash plume rose to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 5 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). As of the 30th of October, AVO reported that the eruption continues characterized by minor spattering and effusion of lava from the intracratal cone, confirmed by satellite temperature measurements.Diffuse ash emissions have been observed on the webcam during previous days; ashfalls occurs sometimes on the surrounding communities depending on the wind conditions. Based on satellite data acquired on 25 October the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent, and the area of the flow field had doubled in the past month. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that on October 18, the emissions were particularly strong, with a plume dominated by steam, with the presence of sulfur dioxide and a small amount of ash, and extending for 30 km to the northeast. The effusion of lava continues, as indicated by a relatively continuous tremor.Constant steam emissions can be seen on the Perryville webcam. AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 10-16 October, as evidenced by elevated surface temperatures in satellite data, and low-level continuous tremor. Satellite data indicated that the E part of the S-flank flow field remained active. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 3-9 October based on periodic incandescence recorded by the FAA web camera in Perryville (35 km S), elevated surface temperatures in thermal satellite data, and elevated tremor levels. Minor steam-and-ash plumes were sometimes visible during clear daytime conditions. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 26 September-2 October, as evidenced by nighttime incandescence recorded by the FAA web camera in Perryville (35 km S), elevated surface temperatures in thermal satellite data, and elevated tremor levels. A gas plume was occasionally visible during clear daytime conditions. On 26 September lava fountains, visible in webcam images, rose from a second vent located 75 m N of the vent producing lava flows. Minor ash emissions associated with lava fountaining possibly rose as high as km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and quickly dispersed. The lava flow had traveled 1 km down the S flank of the summit cone by 1 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that the eruption continues on 27th of September at the summit cone: two vents and two plumes.Recent satellite images indicates that the lava flow is 900 meters from the south vent. Fountaining is observed at a second vent, located 75 meters north of the one from which the pouring occurs.Two plumes are visible on aerial photos, the upper in relation to the active vent, containing a little ash, the lower, whiter, is due to the interaction between the lava flow and the ice. Nighttime glow is observed. Thermal anomalies were measured on 25 and 26 September, between 188 and 991 MW. Seismicity remained important, with a constant tremor. AVO reported that lava emission at the top of the volcano was still continuing, accompanied by a high seismicity and a continuous tremor; night glow was also observed.On the morning of September 25, a plume of gas containing some ashes rose above the summit, before being drifted to the northeast. Thermal anomalies are always reported by satellites.AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 12-18 September. A lava flow had traveled 800 m down the S flank of the summit cone by 14 September, remaining confined to the ice-filled summit caldera. A webcam in Perryville (35 km S) recorded nighttime incandescence, and sporadic gas emissions in the day during clear conditions. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, and seismicity remained elevated. The Aviation Color code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert level remained at Watch. AVO reported that the eruptive activity of Veniaminof remains unchanged during the previous days; an image from the Landsat 8 satellite taken on September 9, 2018 showed a lava flow, about 800 meters long on the southern flank of the intracaldeira cone, and a triangular zone of ash deposits on the snow. On 2 September seismic activity at Veniaminof increased, indicative of unrest, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. The report noted no other signs of eruptive activity. Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface. (GVN/GVP)

U.S.A. - Semisopochnoi volcano ( Alaska)

November 15th, 2018

AVO reported that three possible small explosions at Semisopochnoi were detected in infrasound data between 1951 and 2004 on 9 November. No associated ash clouds were observed in partly cloudy satellite images, and no other activity was noted during 7-11 November also in partly cloudy images. Images were cloudy during 12-13 November. The Aviation Color Code
remained at Orange and Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (both are the second highest levels on four-level scales). AVO reported that two small explosions at Semisopochnoi were detected in seismic and infrasound data on 31 October. Intermittent seismic tremor was recorded on 1 November but later that day the satellite link that transmits seismic data failed. Weather clouds obscured views of the volcano during 31 October-4 November. Nothing was observed in satellite data during 5-6 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). Small explosions were detected by the seismic network at 2110 and 2246 on 26 October and 0057 and 0603 on 27 October. No ash clouds were identified in satellite data, but the volcano was obscured by high meteorological clouds. Additional small explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data during 28-29 October; no ash clouds were observed in partly-cloudy-to-cloudy satellite images. AVO reported that an eruptive event at Semisopochnoi began at 2047 on 25 October based on seismic data; strong volcanic tremor lasted about 20 minutes and was followed by 40 minutes of weak tremor pulses. A weak infrasound signal was detected by instruments on Adak Island (260 km SE). The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). A dense meteorological cloud deck prevented observations below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.; a diffuse cloud was observed in satellite data rising briefly above the cloud deck, though it was unclear if it was related to eruptive activity. Tremor ended after the event, and seismicity returned to low levels. On 11 October AVO reported that satellite data of Semisopochnoi indicated partial erosion of a tephra cone in the crater of Cerberus's N cone. A crater lake about 90 m in diameter filled the vent. The data also suggested that the vent had not erupted since 1 October. Seismicity remained elevated and above background levels. The next day AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory, noting the recent satellite data results and lack of tremor recorded during the previous week. AVO reported that during 3-9 October seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated, with intermittent bursts of tremor. No volcanic activity was detected in infrasound or satellite data. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) remained at Yellow and Volcano Alert Level (VAL) remained at Advisory. AVO reported that during 19-25 September seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated, alternating between periods of continuous and intermittent bursts of tremor. Tremor bursts at 1319 on 21 September and at 1034 on 22 September produced airwaves detected on a regional infrasound array on Adak Island; no ash emissions were identified above the low cloud deck in satellite data, and the infrasound detections likely reflected an atmospheric change instead of volcanic activity. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) remained at Yellow and Volcano Alert Level (VAL) remained at Advisory. On 16 September AVO raised the Aviation Color Code for Semisopochnoi to Yellow and Volcano Alert Level to Advisory after increased seismicity was detected at 0831. Retrospective analysis of satellite data acquired on 10 September revealed small ash deposits on the N flank of Mount Cerberus, possibly associated with two bursts of tremor recorded on 8 September. This new information coupled with intensifying seismicity and a strong tremor signal recorded at 1249 on 17 September prompted AVO to raise the ACC to Orange and the VAL to Watch. Seismicity remained elevated on 18 September with nearly constant tremor being recorded by local sensors
.Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is 1221-m-high Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island's northern part. The three-peaked 774-m-high Mount Cerberus volcano was constructed during the Holocene within the caldera. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the northern flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the southern side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical 855-m-high Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented historical eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone within the caldera could have been active during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

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Pu'u' O'o cone ( Kilauea ) - HVO -

ITALY - Etna volcano ( Sicily)

November 6th, 2018

INGV reported that during 29 October-4 November activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), SE Crater (SEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian explosions at NSEC were interspersed with long pauses from a few minutes to a few hours. The explosions sometimes produced ash emissions that quickly dispersed; ashfall was deposited around the crater and in the Valle del Bove. Strombolian activity and gas emissions were characteristic of the N vent in the W part of Bocca Nuova's (BN-1) crater floor. Spattering from the southernmost vent was also visible, as well as gas emissions. Gas emissions
at Voragine Crater from a vent on the E rim of the crater were less intense compared to previous months. NEC activity was characterized by Strombolian explosions sometimes accompanied by minor ash emissions. .According to local news several explosions on October 30 at the end of the day at the New Crater Southeast. INGV reported that during 15-21 October activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), Southeast Crater (SEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian activity at the N vent in the W part of Bocca Nuova's (BN-1) crater floor ejected incandescent material higher that the crater rim. Spattering from the southernmost vent was also visible. Gas emissions increased at Voragine Crater from a vent that formed on 7 August 2016 on the E rim of the crater, and the crater continued to gradually widen and deepen. NEC activity was characterized by gas emissions and explosive activity of variable frequency and intensity. Fumarolic plumes rose from the rim and crater walls of NSEC and SEC. The E vent in NSEC produced Strombolian explosions and ash emissions which rapidly dispersed. INGV reported that during 24-30 September activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian activity at the N vent in Bocca Nuova (BN-1) ejected incandescent material almost as high as the W crater rim. No eruptive activity was observed at BN-2, though it produced explosions deep in the crater. A new high-temperature vent producing gas emissions was noted on 1 October in the same place a fumarole had been observed the previous week. Ash emissions from NSEC were sometimes accompanied by ejected incandescent material. Gas emissions increased at Voragine Crater from a vent that formed on 7 August 2016 on the E rim of the crater. NEC produced frequent brown-gray ash emissions, and ejected blocks and bombs, from a vent located in the W part of the crater floor. Activity at New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was characterized by modest and occasional explosions and Strombolian activity. Beginning at 1700 on 23 August Strombolian activity from the cone in the saddle between the Southeast Crater (SEC) and NSEC cone complex rapidly intensified; explosions ejected tephra 100-150 m above the vent rim. At 1730 Strombolian activity occurred at NSEC's E vent, and a lava flow from the same vent traveled a few hundred meters towards the Valle del Bove. Just after 1730 lava overflowed the vent in the saddle cone and flowed N; Strombolian activity at that vent continued through the night and then stopped no later than 0620 on 24 August. At 0622 Strombolian activity from a vent on the S flank of NSEC produced a small lava flow that traveled a few dozen meters. During 25-26 August the activity at the saddle cone gradually decreased, and ash emissions were weak and occasional. INGV reported that during 6-12 August activity at Etna was similar to the previous week, characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, Strombolian activity, and ash emissions. Strombolian explosions continued from vents in Bocca Nuova, and were particularly visible at night. Activity at Northeast Crater (NEC) consisted of frequent ash emissions and Strombolian explosions. Explosions at the E crater on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) generated gray-brown ash plumes that sometimes rose several hundred meters above Etna’s summit and quickly dissipated. Based on two field inspections and webcam data, INGV reported that during 30 July-5 August activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters and Strombolian activity. Three vents at the bottom of the Bocca Nuova crater were active, with gas emissions rising from two vents and sporadic Strombolian activity occurring at a third. Three vents were also active at the bottom of Northeast Crater (NEC); one produced ash emissions, one steam emissions, and Strombolian explosions at the third ejected incandescent material as high as the crater rim. After several months of quiet conditions, explosive activity resumed at the E crater on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). The activity began at 0608 on 1 August with a brownish-gray ash emission that rose several hundred meters above the summit. The event was followed by more ash emissions and then Strombolian activity in the evening. INGV reported that during 9-15 July gas emissions continued to rise from Etna’s summit craters. Visibility of the fairly continuous, low-energy, Strombolian activity deep within the Northeast Crater (NEC) and Bocca Nuova was sometimes hindered by gas emissions. Ejected incandescent material fell back into the crater. Strong and prolonged roars (up to several tens of seconds) from NEC were sometimes accompanied by gray-brown and reddish ash emissions. Collapses of the crater’s inner walls widened the crater. Gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) were weak and sometimes pulsating.Following the latest INGV report about four new degassing vents in the northeast crater of Mount Etna, a Strombolian activity can be heard at Bocca Nuova, whose crater is filled with swirling gas on July 12th.Thermal anomalies were reported on July 12th and 13th, respectively by 2-6 MW and 24 MW, by Mirova.That is the first manifestation of the volcano since the eruption at the new crater southeast / NSEC.
Previous news - On Etna, the "puttusiddu" vent has continued to emit small ash emissions since February 16, at an accelerated frequency of 1 to 2 episodes per hour; these emissions also include the ejection of incandescent fragments. Previously, INGV reported that activity at Etna during 22-28 January was relatively unchanged compared to the previous weeks and was mainly characterized by variable-intensity gas emissions from the summit craters. Weak and sporadic ash emissions rose from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). On 22 January ash fell in areas on the S flank and also in Catania, though the crater which produced the ash emission was unknown due to poor visibility. 2017 news - INGV reported that on December 8th 2017, a strong gas emission occurred at the Bocca Nuova and a small puff of gas and some ashes at the "puttusiddu" of the new crater southeast. INGV reported that, although weather conditions often prevented views of Etna during 27 November-3 December, gas emissions from the summit craters were visible along with ash emissions from a series of explosions from the vent in the saddle between the Southeast Crater (SEC) - New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone complex. Previously, INGV reported that around 6 pm on April 26 a new effusion of lava was resumed at the vent located on the southern slope of the southeast cone. Activity increased during the night, becoming strombolian.A lava flow on the N side of the cone began at 0220 on 27 April and traveled NE towards the Valle del Leone. Ash emissions were visible at 0320. Strombolian activity began to diminish around 1230 and eventually ceased. The lava flows advanced until around 1600; phreato-magmatic explosions occurred in areas where the NE flow interacted with snow. The activity thus concerns four events, at least, and generates two lava flows3. Previously, INGV reported that the effusive eruption from a vent in the saddle between Etna's Southeast Crater (SEC) - New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone complex ended during 8-9 April. During 10-11 April lava effused from a vent located at the S base of the SEC. The lava flow traveled SE and flowed several hundred meters down the W wall of the Valle del Bove. In the evening of 13 April short-lived explosive activity occurred at a vent at the S flank of the SEC cone at about 3,200 m elevation. That vent and another at 3,150 m elevation produced lava flows for a few hours. Lava also effused from the vent at the S base of SEC, 3,010 m elevation, during 13-14 April, traveling SE and down the W wall of the Valle del Bove on top of the flows from 10-11 April. On 21 March a new lava flow expanded SSW, but then stopped in the last days of March at an elevation of 2,300 m. A few more lava flows had followed a similar path in early April and then also stopped at the same elevation. Around 28 March a new pit crater had formed on the S part of the pyroclastic cone which had formed around the SEC-NSEC saddle vent. Strong glow form the pit crater was observed at night. According to INGV explosive activity ceased at the southeast crater on 19 March, with the exception of small puffs of ash emitted by the "puttusiddu". However, a short-lived explosion occurred around 8:12 pm at the SEC's central vent. Effusive activity continues. The tremor, which experienced a decline in the night of 19 to 30 March, has since held at a stable low level.The strombolian activity returned in the middle of the day of the 20th, and the effusion, whose flow had diminished, resumed. The incandescence at the Voragine seems to have increased, and was observed all night. On the morning, March 21, the level of the tremor remains low and the craters are degassing. As of the 18th of March INGV reported that activity was marked in Etna by a few striking episodes: The explosive activity ceased at around 11 am at the central vent of the southeast cone, while the effusion of lava continued to feed the flow towards the Valle del Bove. The trajectory of the tremor stabilized from this hour.Twice during the afternoon, between 15:40 and 16:15 local, and between 18:40 and 19:10, the interaction between lava and snow caused the formation of pyroclastic avalanches / lahars on the steep slopes of the Valle Del Bove. The phenomenon was accompanied by the development of a cloud of ash and water vapor. Catania airport was closed several hours. INGV reported that since the entrance of the lava into the Valle del Bove at the end of the night on 16 March, Etna's activity remained stable on 17 March, with a level of tremor stable. It is characterized by a strong strombolian activity at the central vent of the Southeast Cone, with fountaining, intersected by significant emissions of ash.As of the 17 th of March INGV reported that after the phreatomagmatic episode, the volcanic risk of Etna was revised: alert level: yellow; operational phase: alarm; Access: free up to 2500 meters, with a guide up to 2600 meters and absolute prohibition of access to a higher altitude. Around 11:30 on March 16, a violent explosion took place near Torre del Filosofo, on Etna. It results from the contact between the snow in thick layer and the front of incandescent lava ... the snow vaporizes, creating a pocket of steam that explodes violently, dispersing lava and hot rocks all around. Tourists, a BBC team and INGV volcanologists, including our friend Boris Behncke, was in recognition of the location of the eruption. Some people were injured Emissions of ash remained strong throughout the afternoon of March 16, and then the lava fountain returned late in the night. In the early hours of 15 March, Etna's strombolian activity gradually intensified and a small lava flow began to ooze on the southern flank of the southeast complex. After 7 h UTC (local time -1), the eruption intensified, marked by an increase of the volcanic tremor. At 9 am UTC, strombolian explosions became constant, with small ash emissions. The lava flow reached the base of the central cone SE and spread on a gentle slope to the south, covering the pouring of the previous eruption.At the late afternoon, the lava flow progressed. The intensity of activity peaked around 17:40 UTC, before gradually decreasing in the evening. Shortly before 11 pm UTC, following a rapid decrease in venting activity at the top of the cone, a new small lava flow was emitted from a vent on the south side of the cone, and progressed to the East. Previously, INGV reported that after its first eruptive phase in 2017, the Etna's tremor declined sharply, but did not regain its basal level. On 3 March, only sporadic emissions of ash accompanied by some incandescent pyroclastic material were observed. INGV reported that on 1 March, the strombolian activity was maintained at Etna, with a rapid growth of the pyroclastic cone, both in height and in width; Its base is began to fill the depression of the new southeast crater / NSEC. The lava front stabilized at 1,500 meters from the active vent, and an altitude of 2,700 meters. At the end of the evening, activity weakened, the amplitude of the tremor decreased rapidly and activity stopped around 11:30 pm local time. INGV reported that the strombolian activity of 27 February at the vent in the saddle between the two south-east craters, around which a cone developed, created an overflow fed by lava fountains and a lava flow which quickly reached the base of the cone, in the direction of Monte Frumento Supino. The NSEC crater is the site of sporadic brown ash emissions. The lava front was at 13:00 on February 28 at altitude 2,850 meters.The ash accompagning the strombolian activity dispersed in an eastern sector, and is reported on Zafferana and Linguaglossa in small quantities. The volcanic tremor stabilized at high values ​​from 19 hours, with a maximum between 22 and 24 hours yesterday. It remains high on 28 February, with slight fluctuations. The deformation of the soil does not show any significant changes associated with the intensification of eruptive activity. Previously, INGV reported the the small strombolian activity that marked the southeastern crater of Mount Etna for several weeks suddenly increased on February 27 at around 6 pm UTC. The explosions of the vent in the saddle between the old and the new southeast cone became stronger and closer; they fed a lava flow that descends the south-eastern flank of a new small cone. As of the 8th of February, INGV reported that after a few days of strombolian activity animating the saddle between the two southeastern cones, this one evolved towards emissions of ashes, frequent on the morning of February 8th. During this active period, the trajectory of the tremor did not vary significantly. Previously, during the early morning of 20 January the saddle vent was again active, with small black ash puffs and thermal anomalies identified by the surveillance camera. People on the SEC observed ejected incandescent material along with ash and blocks. Cloudy weather prevented visual observations for a few days; the evening of 23 January was cloud free and mild Strombolian activity was observed, accompanied by frequent emissions of small, black ash puffs. The activity gradually intensified through the night, with some explosions launching incandescent material as far as the base of the SEC cone. Fluctuating incandescence was also visible at the 7 August 2016 vent of the Voragine (VOR) crater. The frequency of explosions and ash emissions increased on 24 January but then slightly decreased the next morning. INGV reported that on the morning of 15 December 2016 minor emissions of brownish ash rose from the vent in the saddle between the newer cone and the old cone of Etna's Southeast Crater (SEC). That evening some of the emissions were more energetic, ejecting incandescent material out of the crater which landed on the steep S flank of the SEC cone. Analysis of samples of the ejected rock revealed no new material, only older material from the conduit walls. During the following five weeks weak ash emissions from the vent were observed, without being accompanied by incandescence. . Previously on 10 October 2016 INGV reported that during the past few weeks high-temperature degassing had continued from a vent that had opened on 7 August in the E portion of Etna's Voragine crater. In addition minor and infrequent ash emissions from old pulverized rock rose from a vent located on the upper E flank of the New Southeast Crater cone. In the early afternoon of 10 October an explosion occurred at the Bocca Nuova crater, in an area between the crater and the nearby Voragine crater. The explosion was recorded at 1526, and produced a distinct thermal anomaly and an ash puff that rose a few hundred meters. During the next few hours similar seismic events were detected although weather cloud cover prevented visual observations. Previously, INGV reported that during mid-July weak ash emissions rose from a vent located high on the E flank of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. The emissions continued periodically until early August. Pulsating glow from mild, intra-crater explosions in the Voragine (VOR) crater was recorded during 7-9 August.Previously, On 22 May a vent on the upper E flank of New Southeast Crater cone produced a series of ash emissions which rose several hundred meters above the summit and dispersed. Some of the emissions had a thermal signature, indicating the presence of hot material. That evening Strombolian activity resumed at NEC; the rate and intensity of the activity fluctuated through the night. The strongest explosions ejected incandescent bombs up to a few hundred meters above the crater rim and onto the flanks. On 23 May sporadic ash emissions continued from the vent on the upper E flank of the New Southeast Crater cone. New powerful paroxysm at Voragine Crater of Mount Etna Volcano, Sicily. In the night, lava fountains and explosions from the Voragine Crater, in a astonishing scenario, with the fresh snow fallen on 20th of May on the Volcano. The tremor is increased again during the day of 20 May, and strombolian activity has taken place. The peak of the 3 peak in 72 hours was reached in the early morning of May 21, unfortunately obscured by clouds and ash obscuring webcams. sources. thermal camera also recorded activity from a vent in the S portion of Northeast Crater (NEC). Observers noted that a fracture had formed on the SE flank of the central cone. In addition, an effusive vent in the saddle between the cone and the old cone of the Southeast Crater produced a small lava flow that traveled towards the Valle del Leone. Activity decreased around 0500 and was over at about 0600. During the afternoon of 18 May 2016, the lava fountaining activity from Etna's Voragine crater passed into a modest Strombolian activity, which continued to feed the lava overflow toward west until the late evening. A second lava flow, which was emitted from an effusive vent located near the lower of the two conelets formed during the subterminal activity of July-August 2014, at the eastern base of the Northeast Crater (NEC), expanded into the northern portion of the Valle del Bove in the direction of Monte Simone. This lava flow remained active until the early morning hours of 19 May 2016; its most advanced front seemed to be stagnating after midnight. Shortly before midnight, there was a new increase in the volcanic tremor amplitude, and the clinometer installed at Punta Lucia, about 1 km northwest of the NEC, recorded renewed inflation of the summit area of the volcano.In the morning, the volcanic tremor amplitude showed a sharp increase, and contemporaneously loud and virtually continuous bangs were heard in populated areas to the east and south of the volcano. A dense eruption cloud was blown by the strong wind toward east at an altitude of little more than 1 km above the summit of Etna. Ash and lapilli fell onto the east flank of the volcano, in an narrow sector immediately adjacent to the north to area affected by the tephra fall on the previous day. Observation of the activity was difficult due to rather poor weather conditions; instrumental data - mainly the location of the volcanic tremor source and the origin of the infrasonic signals - indicate that a new paroxysmal episode was underway at the VOR. This was confirmed a few hours later when the images transmitted by the termal monitoring camera EBT (Bronte) revealed a new lava overflow toward west, feeding a lava flow that descended on top of the lava of the previous evening. Eruptive activity was continuing at 09:00 local time, though the volcanic tremor amplitude was diminishing. At the time this update goes online, the inclement weather conditions are preventing observation of the activity going on at Etna's summit. Previously, Based on INGV webcam views, and VONA and SIGMET notices, the Toulouse VAAC reported a small eruption at Etna on 31 March which ended the next day. Previously INGV reported that during January eruptive activity at Etna was at low levels. During the last week of January and on 6 February ash emissions rose from a vent located high on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. At 0422 on 23 February an explosion at Northeast Crater (NEC) ejected incandescent tephra several tens of meters above the crater rim, and produced a dark ash plume that drifted NE. A camera recorded lightning flashes in the plume. Weak ash emission rose from the crater during the rest of the morning. INGV reported that after intense activity at Etna's Voragine Crater, Bocca Nuova, and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) during the first 10 days of December, activity shifted to the Northeast Crater (NEC). During 9-10 December Strombolian activity was detected at NEC, with a few ejected incandescence bombs falling onto the outer flank and abundant ash emissions. Activity gradually diminished over a few days. On 13 December ash emissions rose from NSEC and on 18 December the Voragine Crater produced two brief ash emissions. Ash emissions began at 1100 on 28 December from a vent located high on the E flank of the NSEC cone. The emissions ceased in the afternoon; very minor and sporadic explosions continued from the same vent during the following days. INGV reported that grayish-brown ash plumes rose from Etna's Northeast Crater on 9 December and drifted SE. Seismicity had significantly decreased. During the evening of 5 December activity at Voragine Crater progressively diminished. Between 0300 and 0400 on 6 December surveillance cameras recorded the onset of vigorous Strombolian activity from the vent on the E flank of the NSEC cone. Repeated collapses of both old and new material from the cone's flank generated hot avalanches that traveled a few hundred meters E towards the Valle del Bove. Ongoing effusive activity through the day produced two lava flows; one advanced NE for less than 1 km and the other advanced E. Strombolian activity continued through the evening. On 7 December a second vent on the E part of NSEC was also active, and the main lava flow had advanced 4 km. During the early morning hours of 8 December Strombolian activity progressively diminished and then ended. Later that afternoon weak Strombolian activity and ash emission were observed at the Northeast Crater. INGV reported that after a progressive intensification of activity during the evening of 2 December, an eruption at Etna's Voragine Crater peaked between 0330 and 0410 on 3 December. During the peak period sustained lava fountains rose over 1 km above the crater with some jets of hot material rising 3 km high. An ash plume rose several kilometers high and drifted NE, causing ashfall in Linguaglossa, Francavilla di Sicilia, Milazzo, Messina, and Reggio Calabria. Activity had almost ceased by dawn. This event was among the largest in the last 20 years, similar to large events occurring at the same crater on 22 July 1998 and 4 September 1999. At about 1000 on 4 December renewed activity at Voragine Crater was characterized by tall lava fountains and an ash plume that rose 7-8 km high. The ash plume had a mushrooming top and produced deposits of coarse-grained pyroclastic material on the upper SW flank above 2 km elevation. Ashfall was reported in Giarre-Zafferana Etnea on the E flank. The activity was accompanied by frequent ash emissions from a new pit crater that had recently opened on the upper E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. Two more events occurred at Voragine Crater during 4-5 December, between 2130 and 2215 on 4 December and 1555 and 1635 on 5 December, again producing tall lava fountains and many-kilometer-high ash plumes. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank. (webcam). . www.ct.ingv.it . Live cam Etna - Etna monitoring page - New Etna Southwest crater webcam

ITALY - Stromboli volcano (Eolian Islands)

August 19th, 2018

A new " strong explosion" was recorded on August 18 on Stromboli by the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV). Particulary, at 17:08 (local time), an intense explosion involved the vent of the south-central zone located on the crater terrace. The explosion produced a small cloud of ash, which dispersed rapidly, and the ejection of pyroclastic material, which fell mainly on the crater terrace and on top of the Sciara del Fuoco. The seismic signal associated with the event lasted a little over 4 minutes. Subsequently, the volcano returned to its normal Strombolian activity.INGV reported that activity at Stromboli during 9-15 July was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents. Explosions mainly from two vents in Area N (north crater area) and three vents in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 14-19 per hour, except four per hour were recorded on 15 July. Low-intensity explosions from the N1 vent (NCA) ejected lapilli and bombs as high as 80 m. Explosions at the N2 vent (NCA) ejected tephra 120 m high. Vent C (Area C-S) produced gas emissions and sporadic spattering. Low-intensity explosions at S2 (Area C-S) ejected tephra less than 80 m high. INGV reported typical activity at Stromboli from 7 to 13 May, with 2-4 hourly low-intensity explosions to heights of less than 80 m (300 ft) above the crater, in the North crater area. Fine ash as well as lapilli and bombs were ejected. The South Central crater area vents produced between 5-12 hourly, low-intensity explosions, also to heights of less than 80 m above the crater. Continuous degassing was also observed from these vents. On 13 May there was an increased frequency of explosions, with 16 events/hour. No significant variations were reported in seismological, deformation, or geochemical parameters. INGV reported that on the morning of April 24, an intense explosive sequence occurred on the Stromboli volcano that involved the vents of the south-central zone located on the crater terrace.A first explosion occurred at 11:05 local / 09:05 GMT, emitting abundant ash mixed with incandescent material and large blocks of lava fallen in the summit area and along the Sciara del Fuoco. The delivered products have exceeded a height of 250 m above the crater terrace, as evidenced by the video surveillance cameras Observatory Etneo INGV-OE.This explosion was followed by a second explosive event on 11.06, characterized by a modest fountain.At 11:10, the closing event of the sequence with an ejection of pyroclastic materials of lower intensity, compared to the first explosion.Overall, this explosive sequence produced a cloud of ash that quickly dispersed into the southeast quadrants of the island. The ejection of coarse pyroclastic materials was radial with fallout on the crater terrace and along the Sciara del Fuoco. This highly explosive sequence has been associated with geophysical parameters, seismicity, soil deformation and sound pressure, which can be classified as major explosions, more violent than those developed during ordinary Strombolian activity.INGV reported that a high-energy explosive sequence began at vent C at 2027 on 19 March and lasted about 40 seconds. The first explosion ejected ash and incandescent material that fell in a radial distribution around the crater. Two subsequent explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 80 m. Tephra fell along the Sciara del Fuoco, towards the NE parts of the island. At 2028 an explosion at N2 ejected lapilli 100-120 m high. INGV reported that on the evening of 18 March 2018 , a violent explosive sequence involved the eruptive vents of the crater terrace of Stromboli. A first explosion at 19:27 from the vent of the south-central zone was accompanied by the emission of ashes, incandescent materials and large lava blocks, more than 350 meters above the terrace that fell on the summit area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco.A second explosion, 40 seconds later, occurred from the vent in the northern zone, with ash and material emitting at about 100 meters high; the ashes dispersed to the east.This episode was accompanied by a strong signal of ground deformation, preceded by about 2 minutes of soil inflation. Similar violent explosions, more violent than those of a typical Strombolian activity, occurred several times in 2017: March 7th, July 26th, October 23rd, November 1st and December 1st. INGV reported that during 12-17 March activity at Stromboli was at normal levels, characterized by explosive activity and gas emissions from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N and two vents in Area C-S (C and S2). Explosions at N1 ejected lapilli, bombs, and sometimes ash less than 120 m high, and less intense explosions at N2 emitted ash no higher than 80 m. The frequency of explosions in Area N was 3-8 events/hour. Continuous gas emissions rose from C. Explosions at S2 emitted ash no higher than 80 m at a rate of 2-5 explosions/hour.Previously, INGV reported after an effusive eruption during August-November 2014, activity at Stromboli remained at modest levels. In recent months however activity was characterized by frequent explosions from different vents on the crater terrace, punctuated by four major explosions (on 26 July, 23 October, 1 November, and 1 December 2017). Activity remained high after the last explosion, prompting authorities to restrict access to the summit areas. In the late morning on 15 December one of the vents began spattering, and by 1400 lava flows from two vents had begun to fill the crater depression. At 1430 the lava spilled onto the N flank of the Sciara del Fuoco. Spattering rapidly stopped later in the afternoon and the lava flows stopped advancing. INGV reported that at 8:29:56 UTC on November 1, 2017, Stromboli experienced an explosive sequence of about 3 minutes, with characteristics similar to those of October 23 at 14:04 UTC. Analysis of the surveillance camera image showed that the sequence began with a more intense event in the south-central crater area, followed by fewer explosions in the following minutes. This event was accompanied by a strong signal of soil deformation (0.8 μrad in the Rina Grande inclinometer on OHO) preceded by about 2 minutes of inflation. The exponential expansion of the soil is identical to that recorded during all major explosions.The sequence generated falls of abundant coarse pyroclastic material on the Sciara del Fuoco and Pizzo sopra la Fossa, and a plume of dense ash quickly dispersed by the wind on the southern slope of the volcano. Previously, according to INGV a strong explosion rocked Stromboli on October 23, 2017 at 16:40 local, accompanied by the emission of bombs that fell on a large area around the craters, including the point of view of Pizzo. Fortunately no one was present there at the time of the explosion, which occurred without significant warning signsPrevious news - INGV reported that during 22-26 June explosions at the N1 vent, one of two vents that comprise Stromboli's N Area, ejected material as high as 200 m above the vent. Explosive activity at the second vent, N2, ejected tephra 150 m high that fell within the crater terrace as well as beyond the crater rim. Intense spattering at N2 was noted on 26 June. Explosions from the N Area vents occurred at a rate of 10-14 events per hour. Vent C in the CS Area discontinuously puffed, and spattering also occurred on 26 June. Explosions from the S1 vents (also part of the CS Area) ejected tephra 150 m high. Explosions from the CS Area occurred between 5 and 10 events per hour. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean."Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout historical time. The small, 926-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a horseshoe-shaped scarp formed as a result of slope failure that extends to below sea level and funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli since Roman times.www.ct.ingv.it

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Iceland - Oraefajokull volcano

July 15th, 2018

The IMO changed the status of Öraefajökull on 13 July. This volcano shows clear signs of instability, coupled with a phase of inflation for a year and a half, reflected by an increase in seismic activity and deformation, which are persistent. The probable cause of this inflation is one injection of new magma, with an estimated volume of about 10 million m³, a volume comparable to the intrusion under the Eyjafjalajökull before the eruption of 2010.Despite a drop in geothermal activity since the end of December, new resistivity measurements indicate the presence of altered rocks at superficial levels within the caldera due to high temperatures. IMO reported a seismic swarm is in progress at Öraefajökull; it began on June 26, 2018 with a magnitude 3.1 earthquake and continues with earthquakes of lesser magnitude.A magnitude 2.1 earthquake occurred outside the volcano, while appearing connected to it. Previous news 2017 - On 22 December 2017 IMO reported that activity had been fairly stable during the previous weeks, though still above background levels; the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. In December the largest earthquake detected was a M2.5, but most events were smaller than M1. Earthquakes were located close to the caldera 2 and 10 km. The Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that that on 17 November the Aviation Color Code for Oraefajokull was raised to Yellow because satellite images and photos showed that a new ice cauldron had formed within the caldera the previous week. The new cauldron was about 1 km in diameter and 15-20 m deep, and signified a recent increase in geothermal activity. Scientists conducted an overflight on 18 November; in addition, while on the ground, they took water samples, measurements of electrical conductivity, and gas levels at the Kvojokull outlet-glacier, a valley glacier on the SE flank of Oraefajokull . There was no obvious sign of flooding in the Kvoro river. A sulfur odor, which had been reported for about a week, was also noted. An increase in the seismic activity was recorded for the last few months (the largest earthquake, an M 3.4, occurred on the 3 October), but was low for the past few days. IMO noted that there were no signs of an imminent volcanic eruption, though there was considerable uncertainty about how the situation will evolve. Oraefajokull Iceland's highest peak, is a broad glacier-clad central volcano at the SE end of the Vatnajokull icecap. A 4 x 5 km subglacial caldera truncates the summit of the dominantly basaltic and rhyolitic volcano. The extensive summit icecap is drained through deep glacial valleys dissecting the SW-to-SE flanks. The largest-volume volcano in Iceland, 2119-m-high Oraefajokull was mostly constructed during Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods. Holocene activity has been dominated by explosive summit eruptions, although flank lava effusions have also occurred. A major silicic eruption in 1362 CE was Iceland's largest historical explosive eruption. It and another eruption during 1727-28 were accompanied by major jokulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) that caused
property damage and fatalities. (GVN/GVP)



ICELAND - Bardarbunga volcano

April 28th, 2015

On 26 April the Icelandic Met Office (IMO) lowered the Aviation Color Code for Bardarbunga to Green (the lowest on a four-color scale). No further signs of unrest had been noted since the end of the eruption on 27 February; seismicity within the caldera and the associated dyke intrusion continued to decline.Previously, the Icelandic Met Office reported that the eruption at Bárdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, which began on 31 August 2014, had ended on 27 February; the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow. During an overflight scientists did not see any incandescence from the vents, although gas emissions persisted. Radar measurements showed that no increase in the extent of the lava field had been detected since mid-February.During 17-19 February, Icelandic Met Office reported continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, though the overall intensity of the eruption continued to decrease. Only one active vent was present in the crater, and the lava level in that crater continued to sink. The eruption plume rose no more than 1 km above the ground and drifted NE, and the lava channel was crusted over beyond the uppermost 200-300 m. The lava tube continued to feed the N and NE parts of Holuhraun, inflating the lava field. The reduced effusion rate was no longer able to sustain active breakouts in an area 17-18 km ENE from the vent. A 24 February report noted that the rate of subsidence was less than 2 cm per day and lava flows decreased substantially. Seismic activity continued to decrease although it was still considered to be strong. During 11-17 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; the overall activity was persistent, but lower compared to recent weeks and months. Seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 85 square kilometers on 14 February; measurements from 4 and 12 February showed almost no changes in the extent of the field. During 4-10 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A 6 February statement noted that although there was a visible reduction in activity during the previous two weeks, seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS easurements showed that subsidence continued.During 27 January-3 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, with a lava-flow rate of about 100 cubic meters per second. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. On 27 January the plume rose an estimated 1.3 km. A map made on 21 January showed that the lava field was thickening and not expanding significantly; the erupted volume was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers (15% uncertainty). During 21-27 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Ba¡rdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded along the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Very high values of sulfur dioxide, about 84,000 mµg/m3, were recorded at the eruption site on 21 January; this value was the highest recorded at ground level since the eruption started. Total subsidence of the Bárdarbunga surface since mid-August was 61 m, and the volume of erupted lava was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers. The lava field covered 84.7 square kilometers on 22 January. A report issued on 27 January stated that the average rate of lava emission during the previous three weeks was just less than 100 cubic meters per second, herefore the intensity of the eruption was slowly decreasing.During 14-20 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.3 square kilometers on 15 January. During 7-13 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.1 square kilometers on 10 January. During 31 December-6 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Subsidence continued at a rate of 25 cm/day. The lava field covered 83.4 square kilometers on 6 January. Preliminary analysis of radar measurements taken during an overflight on 30 December showed that the lava is on average 10 m thick in the E part, 12 m thick at the center, and about 14 m in the W part. The maximum thickness, near the craters, was about 40 m at the E margin of the lava lake. A preliminary estimate for the volume of the lava was 1.1 cubic kilometers. Total subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga surface since mid-August was 59 m. During 24-30 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. The lava field covered 82.8 square kilometers as of 29 December.During 10-16 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A decreased rate of subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field covered just over 78.6 square kilometers on 15 December.During 3-9 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection reviewed data from the beginning of the eruption on 31 August to 3 December and found a decreased rate of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera from up to 80 cm/day to 25 cm/day, with most of the subsidence concentrated at the center of the caldera. Data also showed a decline in the intensity of the eruption at Holuhraun, although seismic activity remained strong. After 100 eruptive days the lava field covered just over 76 square kilometers on 9 December, making it the largest lava field in Iceland since the Laki eruption (1783-1784). Additionally, the gas emissions have had an impact all over Iceland for the first time in 150 years.During 26 November-2 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Based on a field report from 25 or 26 November the activity was characterized as pulsating; lava surged from the vent for 2-3 minutes, every 5-10 minutes, causing bulges in the upper parts of the lava channel. Measurements obtained during an overflight on 26 November indicated that the total amount of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera was about 50 m, with an estimated volume of 1.4 cubic kilometers. The rate of subsidence in the center of the caldera had decreased slowly compared to the first month of the eruption. Observers in Dyngjusandur, NE of the vent, photographed the plume at 1441 on 27 November and indicated that the top of the plume was 3.1 km above Dyngjusandur, and the base of the aerosol-laden lower part of the plume was about 1.4 km above the sand plain. A thermal image from 1 December showed several changes to the lava field: in just over 24 hours a new lava extrusion at the NE margin traveled 450 m; a new flow traveled N, just W of the lava lake; and a new flow was forming S of the lava lake, and then to the E of that flow. The lava field covered just over 75 square kilometers on 1 December. During 18-25 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; FLIR thermal images of the craters on 18 November showed that the most intense area of thermal convection was at the northern part of the eruption site, called Heimasjta. Lava flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. On 20 November observers characterized the eruption as pulsating explosions in the crater every 10-15 minutes, followed by a gush of lava down the main channel with splashing on either side During 12-18 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; lava from the lava lake in the main vent, Baugur Crater, flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Seismicity remained strong, although a report on 14 November noted that the number of earthquakes over M 5 seemed to be decreasing. The lava field covered 71.9 square kilometers on 14 November.During 5-11 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued, and seismicity remained strong. The lava field was 60 square kilometers on 9 November. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted.During 29 October-4 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued; by 31 October the depression was about 42 m. The lava field was 65.7 square kilometers on 31 October. As of the 28th of october, effusive activity is still continuing. Lava is still issuing and is covering about 0.79km2/day. caldera subsidence continued at a rate 50cm per day. During 15-21 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued at a rate of 30-40 cm per day, concentrated in the NE part of the caldera, and on 15 October was an estimated 0.75 cubic kilometers. On 18 October a M 5.4 earthquake was detected at 0940 in N Bardarbunga making it one of the biggest earthquakes since the start of the eruption. The lava field continued to grow and the lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 60.7 square kilometers on 19 October. From 15th to 16th of October seismic activity increased. About 130 earthquakes were recorded. Lava flows are still running to the North ans to the East. During 8-14 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field continued to grow, with lava production unchanged. Seismic activity was low in the N part of the dyke and around the eruption site.During 1-7 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued. Seismic activity at the N part of the dyke and around the vents declined, although the lava field continued to grow and lava production continued at the same output. Lava field measured more than 50 km2. On 5 October a new lava front at the S edge of the main lava flow advanced E. During 23-30 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga caldera continued and had reached 27-28 m by 24 September. On 29 September the subsidence rate slowed slightly and was about 40 cm per 24 hours. Lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 46 square kilometers on 30 September. During 17-23 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Chemical analysis and geophysical modeling indicated that the source of the magma was at a depth of more than 10 km. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera and crustal movements signified that the volume of magma in the dyke slightly increased. On 21 September the lava field measured 37 square kilometers. Field scientists estimated that about 90% of the sulfur dioxide gas from the eruption originated at the active craters and the rest rose from the lava field. Dead birds were also found around the eruption site. A report on 22 September noted that the total volume of the erupted lava was 0.4-0.6 cubic kilometers and the flow rate was 250-350 cubic meters per second. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bárdarbunga caldera; the volume of the depression was an estimated 0.6 cubic kilometers on 23 September During 10-16 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Lava flows continued to advance at a consistent rate toward the E and W, and by 13 September, the lava field measured 24.5 km2. The main flow had entered the river bed of Jokkuls Follum and continued to follow its course; steam rose from the river where the lava was in contact but no explosive activity occurred. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera; approximately 23 m of total subsidence was measured during a survey on 14 September. Seismicity persisted mainly around the caldera and the Dyngjujokull glacier. The largest earthquakes, M 5.5, M 5.3, and M 5.0, were detected on 10, 11, and 15 September respectively. IMO reported continued elevated SO2 emissions during 10-16 September and issued warnings to the public in the municipality of Fjarjarbyggen on 13 September. As of the 4th of September in the afternoon IMO reported that eruptive activity was continuing. Lava fountaining slightly increased during previous hours et lava emissions continued. (total covered surface is now about 10.8 km2. Lava tongue strench about 4km distance to the Northeast. During the past hour a graben formed below the Dynjujokull icecap. The seismicity remained at a high level. As of the 3rd of September, IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing and characterized by small lava fountaining above the central part of the fissure and lava flows emissions around. In the morning the lava rate emisssions was 150 m3/s. The surface covered from the beginning of the eruptive phase is 6,5 km2 and the total volume between 30-40 millions/m3 (about 1/10 of the estimated dyke volume). Seismic activity remained important and a strong eartquakes mag 5.5. occurred in the morning located close the caldera. During 27 August-2 September the Icelandic Met Office reported ongoing seismic activity at Bárdarbunga volcano. On 27 August an overflight showed a 4-6-km-long row of cauldrons 10-15 m in diameter S of Bárdarbunga. The Aviation Color Code remains at Orange. As of the 1st of September in the morning , IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing, characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emission along the fissure. As of the 31st of August IMO reported that a new eruptive phase (second one) started probably on Sunday early morning. At 5:49 AM webcam showed an eruptive activity at the same place of the previous activity along the fissure. Eruptive activity was characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emissions. Seismic activity remained important, mainly concentrated along a - 15 km line strenching from from Dynjujokull icecap to the area of the 29th of August eruption. As of the 30th of August, IMO reported that the first fissural eruptive phase ended. The new bulletin reported that the eruptive activity culminated between 00:40 AM - 1:00 AM, then dropped. At about 4:00 AM the short lava flows were not longer supplied. Alert level lowered from red to orange. Previously, as of the 29th of August, IMO reported that an 100 m -long eruptive fissure opened at midnight at about 10 km North Vatnajokull. Webcam images showed red glowing and small lava fountaining above the basaltic fissure. Later bulletin reported that the fissure strenched 400 m to 1 km long. The activity dropped at 2:40 AM . On the morning webcam showed only a small gas plume issued from the fissure. On 26 August the location of the seismicity was located primarily along the 10 km long tip of the dike that extended 5 km beyond the glacier margin. During 22-26 August several earthquakes in the 4.7-5.7 magnitude range had been detected at or near the volcano. On 23 August seismic tremor indicated a small lava-eruption 150-400 m beneath the Dyngjuj0kull glacier, prompting a change in the Aviation Color Code to Red. On 24 August observations from an overflight indicated there was no eruption and the Aviation Color Code was changed to Orange. However the seismic activity remains important with 700 eathquakes from Sunday 00 AM to 2:30 pm (two with more than 5 in magnitude). As of the 23rd of August, RUV reported that a possible mall sub-glacial volcanic eruption has started near Bardarbunga volcano, under the icecap of Dyngjujökull glacier in the northern part of Vatnajökull Glacier, according to the Icelandic Met Office. All air traffic is now prohibited in a large radius around the volcano. The National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police has raised the alert phase to emergency phase accordingly. Furthermore, the Met Office has raised the aviation color code from orange to red resulting in the air space above the eruption site being closed. The eruption is considered a minor event at this point. Because of a pressure from the glacier cap it is uncertain whether the eruption will stay sub-glacial or not. The Coast Guards aircraft, TF-Sif, is currently monitoring the area and there are no visible signs of a plume at this moment. Nothing indicates floods because of the eruption. At this stage measurements taken are based on a small event. The Jökulsárgljúfur canyon has been closed and evacuation of tourists in that area and around Dettifoss waterfall has started. The situation at this stage does not call for evacuation of habitants in Kelduhverfi, Öxarfjördur and Núpasveit. People in those areas are encouraged to watch news closely and have their mobiles switched on at all times.This story, by the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV), was updated on 23 August 2014, at 15.13 GMT - Previously, during 13-19 August the Icelandic Met Office reported increased seismic activity at Bardarbunga volcano. On 16 August more than 200 earthquakes were reported under the NW Vatnajokull ice cap, and GPS stations have shown an increasing signal upward and away from the volcano since early June 2014. On 16 August the Aviation Color code was increased to Yellow. On 18 August the Icelandic Met Office reported an earthquake swarm to the E and another to the N of Bardarbunga. A M4 earthquake was recorded that was the strongest in the region since 1996. By 18 August there had been 2,600 earthquakes detected at the volcano; earthquake locations from N and E swarms had been migrating NE, but in the evening activity of the N swarm had decreased significantly. That same day the Aviation Color code was raised to Orange. The large central volcano of Bárdarbunga lies beneath the NW part of the Vatnajokull icecap, NW of Grimsvotn volcano, and contains a subglacial 700-m-deep caldera. Related fissure systems include the Veidivotn and Trollagigar fissures, which extend about 100 km SW to near Torfajokull volcano and 50 km NE to near Askja volcano, respectively. Voluminous fissure eruptions, including one at Thjorsarhraun, which produced the largest known Holocene lava flow on Earth with a volume of more than 21 cu km, have occurred throughout the Holocene into historical time from the Veidivotn fissure system. The last major eruption of Veidivotn, in 1477, also produced a large tephra deposit. The subglacial Loki-Fogrufjoll volcanic system located SW of Bárdarbunga volcano is also part of the Bárdarbunga volcanic system and contains two subglacial ridges extending from the largely subglacial Hamarinn central volcano; the Loki ridge trends to the NE and the Fogrufjoll ridge to the SW. Jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods) from eruptions at Bardarbunga potentially affect drainages in all directions. ( Icelandic Met Office) - Webcam and seismic recording

ICELAND - Katla volcano

August 4th, 2017

On 29 July the Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that a glacial outburst flood (jokulhlaup) in the Malakvas river, SE of Katla, had begun, and a M 3 earthquake along with a few smaller earthquakes were located in the N part of the caldera. Nearby seismic stations detected tremor possibly linked to the flood, though a subglacial volcanic component was not ruled out. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow, the second highest level on a four-color scale. The public was advised to stay away from the river; it was dark colored and had a sulfur odor. By 31 July the jokulhlaup had subsided with conductivity measurements and tremor slowly reaching normal levels. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. Katla volcano, located near the southern end of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, is hidden beneath the Myrdalsjokull icecap. The subglacial basaltic-to-rhyolitic volcano is one of Iceland's most active and is a frequent oproducer of damaging jokulhlaups, or glacier-outburst floods. A large 10 x 14 km subglacial caldera with a long axis in a NW-SE direction is up to 750 m deep. Its high point reaches 1380 m, and three major outlet glaciers have breached its rim. Although most historical eruptions have taken place from fissures inside the caldera, the Eldgja fissure system, which extends about 60 km to the NE from the current ice margin towards Grimsvotnn volcano, has been the source of major Holocene eruptions. An eruption from the Eldja fissure system about 934 CE produced a voluminous lava flow of about 18 cu km, one of the world's largest known Holocene lava flows. Katla has been the source of frequent subglacial basaltic explosive eruptions that have been among the largest tephra-producers in Iceland during historical time and has also produced numerous dacitic explosive eruptions during the Holocene. (GVN/GVP) - Icelandic volcanoes data base


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CAPE VERDE - Brava volcano island

August 11th, 2016

According to the Universidade de Cabo Verde in a report posted on 4 August, Instituto Nacional da Meteorologia e Geofisica (INMG) recorded increased seismicity at Brava beginning at dawn on 2 August. In response authorities evacuated 300 people, based on a news report. Earthquakes were felt by residents during 3-4 August. Scientists and technicians from the
Universidade de Cabo Verde (UniCV), Instituto Vulcanologico das Canarias (INVOLCAN), and Serviso Nacional da Protecion Civil (SNPC) began monitoring carbon dioxide emissions though found nothing unusual during 4-7 August. . Brava Island, 20 km west of Fogo, is the westernmost of the southern Cape Verde islands. The 10-km-wide island contains 15
morphologically youthful craters located along two or three lineaments intersecting along the crest of the island. The youthfulness of the craters and numerous minor earthquakes in recent years indicate that a significant volcanic hazard still exists (Wolff and Turbeville, 1985). Most of the younger eruptions originated from the interaction of phonolitic magmas with a large groundwater reservoir contained within an older volcanic series characterized by thick welded ignimbrites and block-and-ash flow deposits. Carbonatitic lavas are also found on Brava.

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FRANCE - Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion island)

November 9th, 2018

The cone of the last eruption, from September 15 to November 1, was named after the writer and storyteller Creole Daniel Honoré, who died on October 18, 2018 at the age of 79 years.As of the 1st of November, OVPF reported that on midnight UT, which is 4:00 local time, on 01 November 2018, no more signs of activity was recorded at Piton de La Fournaise.
The eruption started on September 15, 2018 at 4:25 am local time seems stopped on November 01, 2018, at 04:00 local time. As of the 30th of october OVPF reported that eruptive activity is still slowly continuing. The volcanic tremor dropped since 24h ago. As of the 25 of October OVPF reported that the eruption started on September 15 continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor is stable since 24h ago. As of the 19th of October, OVPF reported that the effusive eruption is still continuing. The volcanic tremor dropped slowly since several days ago. Previous observations carried out on 8th of October from Bert Piton and from the air by OVPF teams located the lava front. Since September 30, the northern front has progressed of 1.8 km and was, on October 8 at 08:00 AM local time, 500m of the great slopes, the southern and central fronts did not move. On the morning the north lava front was less than 120 m from the southern wall of Enclos Fouqué.OVPF bulletin (4th of October) reported that the eruption is still continuing. The volcanic tremor increased since yesterday 10 pm ( local time) and then doubled. The surface activity remained weak. As of the 3rd of October (2 am - local time) OVPF reported that eruptive activity was still continuing. - Estimated lava flux on the surface from stallite data, via HOTVOLC (OPGC – Université Clermont Auvergne) was between1 m3/s et 3 m3/s during the past 24h. OVPF bulletin ( 2nd of October) reported that the the eruptive activity is still continuing. The intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained stable during th"e past 24h. OVPF reported that the eruption continues.An overflight of the eruptive site by a team of the OVPF, reported a falling surface activity with rare lava projections at the level of the eruptive vent, and resurgences of lava from the main lava tunnel of small extensions (<600 m). Apart from a slight increase in early afternoon on September 30, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity at the surface) has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) were less than 2 m3 / s over the last 24 hours. OVPF reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing on 28th of September. The tremor remained stable during past 24hthAs of the 27th of September, OVPF reported that the eruption continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours. Estimation of the lava effusion rate on the surface from satellite data , via HOTVOLC (OPGC – Université Clermont Auvergne) are still between 1 m3/s et 3 m3/sduring the past 24h.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded during the day of 25 September or during the current day.No significant deformation is noticeable.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne) are maintained and are always between 1m3 / s and 2m3 / s over the last 24 hours.
The cone continue to growth; The lava flows are running by a tunnel and emerge by resurgences located about 150m downstream of the cone. As of the 26th of September, OVPF reported that the eruption started on September 15th is still continuing. Following a slight increase at the beginning of the day, the intensity of the volcanic tremor has returned to a relatively stable level with some minor fluctuations. The surface flows were estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne),between 0.5 and 5.3 m3 / s on September 24th..The cone continues to growth and main lava flow is still running toward the south then heading south-east. As of the 24th of September, OVPF reported the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity on the surface) has slightly increased since 8:00 am local time (04:00 UTC time) and thus doubled in intensity during the day.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded during the current day. No significant deformation are noticeable since the onset of the eruption. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) are maintained and are always between 1 m3 / s and 3 m3 / s over the last 24 hours.The decrease in SO2 flux by a factor of about 6 compared to the beginning of the eruption is maintained and is confirmed by the notable decrease in SO2 pollution at the summit of Piton de la Fournaise; the plume is now smaller and almost confined in the Enclos Fouqué and drifted to the south and west. The cone is still growing and a lava flow is still issuing to the south from an opening, then heading to the south-east. The eruption began September 15 at 4:25 local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues. The volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity on the surface) has undergone many fluctuations in the last 24 hours.A deep volcano-tectonic earthquake (about 2.6 km below sea level) was recorded under the east flank of the volcano during the day of 21 September. No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded during the current day.No significant deformation are noticeable since the onset of the eruption.Surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) are between 1 m3 / s and 3 m3 / s over the last 24 hours.OVPF reported that after several hours of increased seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise a seismic crisis began at 0145 on 15 September, accompanied by rapid deformation. Tremor began at 0425, contemporaneous with the opening of fissures on the S flank near Rivals Crater. Around 1000 an estimate of the lava flow rate, based on satellite data, was 30 cubic meters per second. During an overflight about an hour later observers noted five fissures. The central fissure was the most active, producing lava fountains 30 m high; two lava flows that merged downstream had already flowed more than 2 km towards the wall of the Enclos Fouqué. By the afternoon of 16 September the estimated flow rate was between 2.5 and 7 cubic meters per second. Only three vents were active and a cone had started to form. lava flows continued to advance during 16-18 September.Previous eruption : OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption on July 13 at 22:00, strong seismic activity is still recorded at Piton de La Fournaise. Since the end of the eruption and until 15:30 July 14th, 51 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (<2 km below the surface) have been recorded, an average of about 3 events per hour. The majority of these earthquakes are located under the northern edge of the crater Dolomieu. This shows that the feeding system of the deep volcano remains under pressure. No significant deformities were observed this day. The OVPF survey this morning made it possible to map all the lava flows emitted during the July 13 eruption (Figure 1) and to estimate its volume at around 0.3 million m3. These flows covered approximately 400 m of markers on the hiking trail leading to the summit. OVPF reported that the eruption started on July 13, 2018 between 03:30 (beginning of the tremor recorded on the OVPF seismic stations) and 04:30 (first light visible on the OVPF webcams) local time was decreasing on July 13 around 18 h , with only three zones of explosions and not very active flows; it stopped this July 13 at 22:00 local time, after a phase of continuous dercreasing of the tremor and about 3 hours of gas pistons. No more glow was visible on the OVPF webcams at the level of eruptive cracks, only a few glows remained perceptible at the level of uncooled lava front.Previously, OVPF reported that following the seismic crisis that began shortly before midnight on July 12, the volcanic tremor appeared very gradually on the seismic recordings at about 03:30. local time on July 13th. According to the OVPF recordings, the source of this tremor is located on the northern flank of the volcano.The first glowing of the eruptive activity appeared on the OVPF webcams at 4:30 local time. Four fissures opened over 1 km long in the Rosemont Chapel area. On the first photos they can see a fissures sections already surrounded by spatter walls, and the lava flows running on the ground.The Prefecture has the alert 2-2 "eruption ongoing in the enclosure". Access to Enclos Fouqué and the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose trail are prohibited. Previous eruption - Latest OVPF bulletin (June 1st - 15h local time) reported that the eruption started on April 27, 2018 at 23:50 local time, stopped today at 14:30, after more than 18:30 of piston gas phase. OVPF bulletin ( May 31st - 14h30 ) reported that the eruption is still continuing. The main cone reached about 22-25 m high. a strong degassing still occurs from the vent of the main cone. Measured temprature showed about 800-900°C. The lava flows are almost exclusively in tubes.OVPF bulletin (May 30th - 15h30 local time) reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing but the volcanic tremor continued to decrease slowly. previously, OVPF reported that field observations made of May 25th, confirmed a weak activity. The lava flows are almost exclusively in tubes and at nightfall, a single incandescent zone in the lava field near the vent could be observed. A strong, almost continuous degassing continues. The tremor has stabilized at a relatively low value, the inflation of the volcano has stopped and the surface flows estimated yesterday are very low, less than 0.03 m³ / s. OVPF bulletin (May 24th - 15h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing. Only the main cone emits a few surface lava ejection. No active flow could be observed on the surface, most of the activity taking place in lava tubes.Surface discharges could not be estimated from satellite data in the past 24 hours due to cloud cover on the volcano. OVPF bulletin ( May 21st - 16h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing but the volcanic tremor decreased slowly since 72 h ago. The effusive activity is still occurring mainly in lava tubes. OVPF bulletin (18th of May - 15h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing. the intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours.The effusive activity is still predominantly in the lava tunnel. The flow activity is still predominantly in lava tubes but the resurgences are more numerous these past two days, especially at the foot of the secondary cone. During the last two days, the morphology of the main cone (the most active) has evolved with the building of a small outgrowth at its summit and a narrowing at the vent. The lava projections have become rare. The SO2 flux (recorded on the OVPF NOVAC stations) continues to decrease, consistent with a decrease in surface lava flow. Nevertheless, CO2 concentrations in the top air and CO2 concentrations in soil in the Plains region remain high. OVPF bulletin (May 11th, 15h local time) reported that the eruption was still continuing without change. As of the 10th of May ( 18:30 h local time) OVPF reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing. The volcanic tremor remained at the same level during the past 24 h. Main activity is still occurs from the central cone and charactérized by lava ejection at about 10 - 20 m m high above the cone and a lava flow emission in the lava tube. According to aerial photo (stereophotogrammetry process) the main cone reach about 21 m high with a diameter at the base of 100 meters. As of the 7th of May (3:30 pm local time) HVO reported that the intensity of tremor continue to slighly decrease. Fieldwork carried out the day before, showed that the main eruptive activity was concentrated on the central cone vent characterized by ejection of lava at about 10 m high and emission of lava flow from a main lava tube.As of the 6th of May, OVPLF reported that the intensity of the volcanic tremor has decreased very slightly since 24 hours. An overflight of the eruptive site carried out on the morning indicated at 10:30 (local time) activity mainly in lava tubes. Only two lava arms were visible from the main tunnel of the central vent, which is now the only one to show regularly projection of lava.The lava front has not progressed in recent days.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded today were between 1 and 2.5 m3 / s. As of the 5th of May, OVPF reported that the tremor remained relatively stable. The field reconnaissance carried out yesterday showed an activity mainly focused on the central vent with a cone now completely closed from which lava projections escape. The activity in the lava tunnel is now well developed and frequent breakthroughs in the roof of these tunnels let escape many little flows. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin), recorded today were between 1 and 3.5 m3/ s. It should be noted that these measures are only partial as a result of the bad weather conditions on the Fournaise massif during the last 24 hours. A very slight deflation of the volcano is still recorded on the OVPF deformation sensors. As of the 4th of May, OVPLF reported that the eruptive activity was continuing. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity at the surface) is still relatively stable.As of the 2d of may, the surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded this day were in the order of 1 to 3 m3 / s. A very slight deflation of the volcano begins to be recorded on the OVPF deformation sensors. This parameter will be followed in the next few days.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded in the last 24 hours under the Piton de la Fournaise volcano. IRT- OVPF HD Webcam direct - During 29-30 April tremor levels were relatively stable, with a few fluctuations related to morphological changes at the eruptive site such as cone building. During an overflight around 1020 on 30 April scientists observed three active vents (S of Rival Crater). The third vent, in a 5-m-high cone, was mostly closed over, though it continued to produced lava flows. The middle and most active cone was about 30-40 m long and 10-15 m high, and had a vent with a lava lake. Large bubbles of lava rose from the lake and exploded into lava fountains. Lava fountains from the northernmost vent rose no more than 15 m high. Lava flows had traveled 150 m and 1.2 km; the longer lava flow had reached the S rampart and traveled an additional 400 m E along it. . Satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded today were between 2 and 6 m3 / s.On the morning, three eruptive vents were still active with lava flows emission toward the Southwest. The lava front has reached the base of the rampart.No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. Previously, as of the 27th of April OVPLF reported that following the seismic crisis started at 20:15 local time on Friday, April 27, 2018, the Piton de la Fournaise erupted at 11:50 pm According to the first observations of the Volcanological Observatory, the eruption started on the south flank of the volcano, in the Rivals crater area, and was characterized by a very active eruptive fissures with lava fontaining and lava flows emission .Three other eruptive fissures also opened with emission of lava flows. These differents arms joined and a large lava flow was running south towards the rampart which extends to about 200- 300 meters. Previously, as of the 4th of April the morning bulletin of the OVPLF reported that following a decreasing of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) at 1 o'clock (local time, 21h UTC), surface eruptive activity started on April 3, 2018 at 10:40 am local time stopped. day, April 4, 2018 at 4:00 am (local time, 00h GMT), after a gas piston phase. As of the 3rd of April a new afternoon bulletin of the OVPLF reported that following a reconnaissance made by a team of the OVPF at the ramparts of the Enclos, the eruptive activity has been located on the north flank of the volcano against the top of the broken slopes. A helicopter overflight of the eruptive site by a second team of the OVPF in the middle of the afternoon allowed to locate more precisely the eruption. A long crack about 1km long opened in 7 distinct segments, two with emissions of lava fountains. The last active segment is just at the foot of the rampart close the bottom of the Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose. At 16:00 local time, many landslides were recorded by the OVPF network in the rampart at the Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose area, and many fumaroles were observed on site at this level. This situation presents a real and imminent danger of collapse. As a result, the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose trail is currently closed to pedestrian traffic from Piton Partage. Previous news - OVPLF recorded since 5:50, Tuesday, April 3, 2018, an increase in the number of earthquakes of increasing intensity and persistent deformations at the top of the volcano. Just before 11:00, the monitoring system of the volcanological observatory recorded an eruptive tremor towards the rampart at the level of the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose. A strong seismic signal indicating that the lava was close to the surface recorded by the observatory or already at the surface. Previous news 2017 - OVPLF reported that since mid-October 2017 , a change is observed on the recordings of the volcanological observatory with: a renewed of inflation of the volcano: The GPS of the summit zone and in far field record an inflation, probably in relation with reactivation of the pressure of a superficial and a deep source. - low concentrations of SO2 (coupled with CO2) and H2S (coupled with H2O vapor) observed in the summit emissions of Piton de la Fournaise. - a slight seismicity under the summit craters. On 24th of October, 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VT) were recorded under the summit cone, including a magnitude of 0.27 with a duration of 3.72 sec. All these parameters will be followed and confirmed in the next days.Previously, The OVPF confirmed the end of the eruptive phase at Piton de La Fournaise on August 28, 2017 at 3:00 pm / 11 pm UTC on 27.08., following the disappearance of the tremor signal. However, since the end of this eruptive phase, a recovery of the activity, observed usually outside the eruptive phase, could be observed. No hypothesis are made about the future situation, taking into account the following observations: - Five volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded under the southeastern area of ​​the Enclos since the end of the eruptive phase. - No distortion is no longer noticeable. - CO2 concentrations in the soil at the site remain high.Despite the end of activity from the geo-physical data and the stopping of the feed (end of the tremor, vibration associated with the passage of magma and gas containing ), no hypothesis is excluded, a new eruptive activity could be occurs in the days and hours ahead. During the 45 days of the eruption, from July 14 to August 28, 2017, less than 10 million m³ of lava were released on the surface. After high lava flows (22-30 m³ / s) recorded on the first day of the eruption, the average flows estimated by satellite thermal imaging via the MIROVA (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) platforms, decreased gradually throughout the eruption, from 5 to <1 m³ / s. This gradual decline in lava flows was accompanied by a decrease in SO2 flows into the air. Previously mainly based on seismicity, OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 14 July continued during 16-22 August; weather clouds prevented visual and satellite observations most of the week. Volcanic tremor rapidly increased in the early evening on 15 August, concurrent with the presence of ephemeral lava fountains, at the cone and another area, visible in webcam images. The signal fluctuated at high levels until the evening of 19 August, when it began to stabilize at low levels. Satellite data from 19 August indicated a decreased lava-flow rateAs of the 18th of August OVPLF reported that the eruption continues, with variations in the tremor and surface activity. The slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano since the beginning of August (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption) seemed stopped . On the morning of August 18th, weather conditions are better and we can see, on the webcam of Piton de Bert, a degassing at the eruptive site and at various points of the lava flow. As of the 16th of August, OVPLF reported that the eruption that began on 14 July continues. The volcanic tremor increased rapidly in early night on August 15th. Then, since the beginning of the day (the 16.08 / 00h local), characterized by variation with a periodicity of approximately 4 minutes. The slight inflation of the terminal cone of the volcano observed so far (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption) appeared to be decreasing. Despite unfavorable weather conditions, the camera in place at Piton de Bert allowed to associate these changes in the level of the volcanic tremor with changes in surface activity: fountains of lava, ephemeral, could be observed both at the level of the eruptive cone than from the eastern end of the lava flow essentially at the beginning of the night. As of the 13th of August, OVPLF reported that after a month of eruption, the tremor was stabilized since 48 hours, following a phase of slight increasing. No volcano-tectonic earthquake was recorded under the summit craters during the day of 13 August. The slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano was always observed (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption). Despite the bad weather conditions of the weekend, some observations were carried out on the site on 13.08 afternoon by OVPF team. No more projections were observed even if gas puffs were heard and were visible in the form of flares. Further downstream, about 2 km from the eruptive mouth, about 400 m from the Crater Gros Bénard and 500 m from the lava pond, pahoehoe flows were observed. The presence of clouds, this WE and today, unfortunately did not make it possible to carry out the estimates on the flow by the use of satellites. As of the 11th of August, OVPLF reported that the tremor remained at a low level of intensity, and a slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano is observed, less than 1 cm from the beginning of the eruption, and far field, witness of the pressurization of a source in surface and in depth. OVPF reported that the eruption continued through 8 August, though tremor levels and surficial activity slowly declined. Satellite data indicated a minimum flow rate of 1-2 cubic meters per second. Some active lava flows were visible at a distance of 520 m from the cone, though most of the flow activity was confined to lava tubes. There were some breakouts from the lava tube; a substantial breakout on 5 August fed a lava flow that traveled hundreds of meters over several hours. During 7-8 August small amounts of material was ejected from a small vent on the N flank of the eruptive vent. As of the 3rd of August OVPLF reported that the eruption continued, but the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) continued to decline very gradually. The decline in the eruptive tremor is reflected on the ground by a decline in activity. During an overflight carried out on 2 August by the OVPF, no projection was visible at the level of the eruptive cone. The main vent, active these days, is now completely blocked. The second vent, of smaller size, showed an extremely low level of magma with strong degassing. At 10.30 am (local time), only a few lava arms were visible on the surface, the nearest being 520 meters from the eruptive cone, with the rest of the activity occurring in the lava tube.As of the 31st of July OVPLF reported that , the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) remains at a level equivalent to 50% of the value observed at the beginning of the eruption. No earthquakes have been recorded in the past 48 hours.The ground reconnaissance carried out on July 30, with the assistance of the Air Force Section and the PGHM, enabled the OVPF members to carry out various surveys on site. The eruptive cone continues its edification, it is now completely closed and presents a main vent characterired by intermittent projections. A second, smaller vent on the northern edge of the cone is significantly less active, only a few projections are rarely observed. Most of the activity occurs now in lava tunnels. Fractures within these tunnels allow escape arms of lava flows with a small lateral extension. This activity remains confined in the near part of the effusive cone. The flow front has not changed since the last survey and is still 2.8 km from the eruptive vent. Estimates carried out by satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) show a minimum flow rate of 1-2 m3 / s. The trend observed on deformation sensors, in particular GPS, seems to stabilize or reverse (to deflation). Previously, as of the 29th of July, OVPLF reported that the intensity of the tremor has increased in the last 48 hours. The intensity reached sixty percent of the value observed at the beginning of the eruption. A slight inflation continued, and the flows carried out by satellite methods are of minimum 2 m³ / s. OVPLF reported that the intensity of the tremor has risen slightly since the 25th at the beginning of the day, although it is necessary to take account of noise caused by bad weather conditions. A team observed yesterday in the field the continued growth of the cone; At 17:30 local, two mouths were visible, a main breached on south-east side, and a secondary one on the north wall of the cone. A main channel is clearly visible downstream of the cone and has overflows; The lava also flows through tunnels, with vertical growth of the lava field. A slight recovery in inflation is recorded both at the level of the summit zone and the far field, reflecting the pressurization respectively of a superficial and deep source. A volcano-tectonic earthquake is reported under the summit cratersBy 21 July several lava tubes had formed, and fractures within the tubes produced small lava flows. During an overflight on 22 July scientists noted that the lava flow was over 2.8 km long with a maximum width of 0.6 km; the front of the flow had not advanced in the past seven days. Three main vents were active within the main cone and a fourth was just sporadically active. As of the 21st of July, OVPLF reported that observations carried out on 21 July by the OVPF teams showed that the eruptive cone downstream of the eruptive fissure continued its edification Three main eruptive vents were visible on the inside. On the morning only the central eruptive vent remained active towards the east. No earthquakes were recorded this day. A slight deflation was always observed at the top of the terminal cone. Estimates carried out by satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) show flow rates between 1 and 3 m3 / s. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) has been increasing for 24 hours. This is to be related in particular to the closure of the cone which increases the pressure on its walls. Numerous lava tunnels have been formed downstream of the cone. Fractures within these tunnels allow many lateral extension arms to escape. As of the 19th of July, OVPLF reported that At after a sharp drop in its intensity during the night of 17 to 18 July, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of surface eruptive intensity) is relatively constant on July 18th, intensity equivalent to that observed on the second day of the eruption. This decrease of the volcanic tremor is to be related to a morphological change of the eruptive cone that is being formed. Compared to the observations of the previous day, a collapse has breached the cone to the east, leaving an easier opening and flowing of lava on the surface. Currently the activity focuses on 6 vents inside the cone.A slight deflation was observed at the top of the terminal cone. Since July 16, SO2 fluxes at the eruptive vent are decreasing and CO2 concentrations in the soil measured at the Volcano gîte at low level. Deflation of the summit zone as well as low CO2 concentrations in the soil mean that there is currently little or no deep feeding. HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin) estimations carried out by satellite methods indicate flow rates between 1 and 4 m3 / s. OVPLF reported that the eruption begun on July 14 at 00:50 local time continues. After an increase in intensity during the night from July 15th to 16th, the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) has been held on July 16 at a constant level since 8h local time (4h UTC). On July 17th, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) decreased between 7h and 13h local time (3h-9h UTC) before experiencing again phases of major fluctuations. These variations in the intensity of the tremor are conventionally recorded during the first days of eruption of the Piton de la Fournaise and correspond to the formation of the eruptive cone at a single point. This eruptive cone undergoes phases of construction and wall collapses which modify its morphology and the pressure at its center, explaining these variations of the tremor. An earthquake was recorded on yesterday's day near Piton Crac on the eastern flank of the volcano. A slight deflation (deflation) is observed at the top of the terminal cone. Estimations carried out using satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) report minimum flows similar to those of the previous day in the order of 1 to 3 m3 / s. OVPLF reported that seven lava fountains were visible at the beginning of the eruption, but only 3-4 remained active o 14th of July in the evening, located at the low point of the eruptive fissure. According to the MIROVA site, the thermal anomaly, which decreased in intensity (871 MW on 14.07 at 19:20 against 5,897 MW on 14.07 at 7:10 am), is reported about 4 km from the summit which suggests a lava flow length of about 3,000 meters. OVPLF reported that on July 13, at 10:10 pm, the seismicity increased markedly, and about 10:30 PM, a seismic crisis accompanied by a rapid deformation were recorded and the magma roses towards the surface. At 0:50 local on July 14, one (or some) eruptive fissures opened on the southern flank of Piton de La Fournaise. .At 0930, the eruptive fissure extended over 450 meters. Seven lava fountains with a maximum height of 30 meters were active. The fountain the most downstream began to build a cone from which escaped two arms of lava flow. The front of the flows could not be located because of the cloud cover on the east of the volcano. The prefecture raised the alert to level 2-2. Few later the eruptive fissure emitted two distinct lava flows. Since July 10, 2017, the seismic activity, on the verge of the summit area of ​​Piton de la Fournaise, has resumed significantly. Thus 155 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (<2 km deep) were recorded under the summit zone during the last 7 days. The majority of these earthquakes are located below the southern edge of the Dolomieu crater between 500 and 1000 m above sea level..The previous last activity bulletin of the OVPF dated on 24 May indicates that the volcano has resumed its inflatory process. Over the past 36 hours, three superficial volcanic tectonic earthquakes, less than 2 km deep, have been recorded below the summit. The recent measurements carried out by the observatory teams highlight two new areas of fumaroles, located along the path of the magmatic intrusion. It spread to the edge of the Enclosure and its degassing via dry fractures, generated the tremor recorded on May 17th. The alert level 1 / eruption probable or imminent, remains in effectDuring a field visit on 22 May scientists mapped the deformation associated with the 17 May event and measured displacements that did not exceed 35 cm. On 23 May OVPF reported that the 17-18 May activity resulted in two new zones of fumaroles that followed the trends seen in seismic and deformation data. According to the OVPLF the situation of the Piton de La Fournaise remains unpredictable, which can evolve towards an end of the intrusion as towards the propagation and opening of fissures more or less distant. The Observatory reports a high seismicity, with, since 18 May at 01h local time, 51 superficial VT earthquakes (0-2 km deep) and 26 deep VT earthquakes (> 2 km deep), located under the summit zone and the sector NE of the Enclos, notably at the foot of the Piton de Crac. Deformations slowed down, and carbon dioxide concentrations stopped rising at high levels. On 18 May, the appearance of H2S, SO2 and CO2 in the fumaroles of the summit zone testifies to the continuation of an injection from the summit zone.   Previously, after a lull since early March, inflation has picked up at Piton de La Fournaise, at a relatively low rate compared to 2015, 2016 and early 2017; The OVPF indicates an elongation between the top stations of 0.1-0.2 mm for 0.5-1 mm previously. The resumption of inflation is accompanied by a slight seismicity: 22 superficial volcanic-tectonic earthquakes were recorded from 1 to 17 April, between 0 and 2 km below the summit craters, 10 of them on the one day of 14.04. Two deep earthquakes were recorded under the eastern flank of the volcano at 2-3 km below sea level. In parallel, CO2 concentrations in the soil measured on the western flank of the volcano (at the volcano house and at the level of the Plaine des Caffres) show an upward trend.Previously, OVPLF reported that the inflation of the terminal cone, that was maintained during the eruption, continues.One week after the end of the eruption of 31 January - 27 February 2017, the Piton de la Fournaise volcanological observatory recorded two superficial volcanic tectonic earthquakes (0 to 2 km deep) in one week under the summit craters.OVPLF reported that the volcanic tremor stopped around 10:10 local time on February 27, 2017. At midday, the projections stopped to leave place to an active plume of light color. After nine hours of persistent residual degassing, the eruption stopped at 19:30. However, the terminal cone inflation continues at both the top and bottom levels (recharge of the superficial magma chamber), and carbon dioxide concentrations in the soil at the heel remain high.During this eruption, less than 10 million m3 of lava flows were emitted on the surface (between 3 and 8 Mm3 according to the estimation methods). The outlines and the volumes of the surface runoffs have changed little during the last two weeks of eruption due to extremely low surface flows in the second half of the eruption (<1 m3 / sec). The deformations associated with magma migration to the eruptive site (January 31st) focused on the southern and eastern part of the volcano and did not exceed 30 centimeters. During the eruption and since its eruption on 27 February, inflation (swelling) of the terminal cone continues continuously (about 1 cm of elongation of the summit in one month). At the same time, CO2 concentrations in the soil at the level of the volcano deposit remain high and the deep seismicity (ca -20 km below sea level) under the western flank of the volcano (Plaine des Palmistes) began to increase Since about 17 February. These parameters demonstrate depth pressurization and upwelling of fluid from the deep to the more superficial storage areas below the summit craters (ca. 2 km below the surface). Previously, as of the 26th of February, OVPLF reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing but the Tremor dropped since several days. No seismicity was recorded during the day. Since the night of last Friday, the volcanic tremor is slightly increasing; The inflation of the volcano in its summit area continues. A slight inflation at the base of the cone (bottom of the enclosure) is now perceptible. On the other hand, outside the enclosure, no deformation is currently observable. Visual observations from Piton de Bert during the night from Saturday to Sunday show a few projections at the active vent, a lava flow mainly in lava tube, and rare outlets for lava at level of the flow. Some skylights (opening in the roof of a lava tunnel) were also observable. As of the 20th of February, OVPLF reported that the downward trend of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of surface eruptive intensity) observed over the last few days is confirmed, as well as a resumption of inflation of the volcano in its summit zone. Given the weather, no observations could be made on the ground during the day by the observatory teams. OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise fluctuated during 14-20 February. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, and a few branches at end of tube were active. As of the 16th of February OVPLF reported following the decline that occurred the day before, the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) is constant again, at a level equivalent to that at the beginning of the eruption. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the summit of Piton de la Fournaise. No significant distortions have been observed over the last few days. Observations made on the ground this morning by the observatory teams indicate that the activity is continuing mainly in "lava tubes". Only a few flows of small extensions were visible a hundred meters downstream of the eruptive cone.OVPF reported that during 10-14 February volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise was high, with levels reaching those observed at the onset of the eruption on 31 January. The eruptive vent was perched on top of a cone that was 30-35 m high and 190 m wide (at the base). The lava level inside of the cone was low, or about half of cone's height, and incandescent material was ejected from the vent. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, though a few branches at end of tube were active. As of the 10th of February, the eruption continued at Piton de La Fournaise. The volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) remains at a high level of intensity. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the summit of Piton de la Fournaise. The inflation of the building continues, reflecting the pressurization of the surface reservoir and the maintenance of a rise of fluids. SO2 fluxes are relatively low. A well designed cone of 30-35 m. high and 190 m. wide, has been erected, capped by a single active mouth, from which escape projections contribute to its growth. He was unofficially named Piton Carlos by the local media. The level of the lava is approximately half the height of the cone (February 10, 8:50 am) and the thickness of the lava accumulation at the outlet of the vent is about 14 m. Most of the activity is done by lava tube, and surface flows are therefore low (estimates between <1 and 2.4 m3 / s according to the satellite data of the HOTVOLC platforms (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin). Only a few small arms are visible at the exit of some tubes. These observations are consistent with the low flux of SO2. Outlet temperatures at the vent are between 1200 and 1250 ° C. Larger shots identified the main channels and highlighted tubes areas.The flow front at the top of the "Grandes Pentes" is frozen and no longer progresses. As of the 8th of February, according to the OVPLF, the volcanic tremor (surface eruptive intensity indicator) remains at a high level of intensity comparable to that seen at the beginning of the eruption (note that the higher values ​​recorded over the last 24 hours may be Influenced by wind and rain which disrupt the signals). No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise. Concerning the long-term deformations, the tendency to a slight recovery of the inflation of the building seems to be clarified. This parameter will be followed and confirmed in the next few days.The storm prevented field observations, but the processing of the COSMO-SkyMed radar satellite images (carried out by the OI2 platform - OPGC Clermont Ferrand) made it possible to carry out a mapping of the lava flow as it was at 07 February . This technology and the applied treatment make it possible to identify the surfaces newly covered by the flows and to get rid of the presence of clouds. On the other hand, the resolution of the rendered contours is less than that of the treatments applied in aerial photographs. The length of the lava flows reached an extension of the order of 2,800 meters in eight days ... or at a relatively slow speed of about 15 meters per hour, and is located in the heights of the "Grandes Pentes". As of the 6th of February the eruption at Piton de La Fournaise was still continuing without a drop in activity. The volcanic tremor continues to increase gradually reaching a level higher than that observed at the beginning of the eruption. No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise. The distal stations of La Plaine des Cafres (site of the observatory and Piton Bleu) of measures of concentration of CO2 in the soil register a decrease since the beginning of the eruption. The bad weather conditions and the pre-alert cyclone did not allow any recognition by the members of the observatory. OVPLF reported that the eruption of the Piton de La Fournaise, begun on January 31, 2017 at 7:40 pm local time, continued as mentioned with the bulletin of the OVPF of 3 February at 16h local: The volcanic tremor (surface eruptive intensity indicator) was maintained at an average level of about 24 hours (about half that observed at the beginning of the eruption) before experiencing fluctuations again around 11 am local time ( 07h UTC) today. No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise building. Analysis of the previous day's data indicates the construction of an eruptive vent of 128 m in its longest length and about 35 m high in its highest part (02/02/2017). It should be noted that this morphology is subject to rapid variations; In fact the growth of a cone at the beginning of the eruption is always rapid and then subjected to sets of stabilization / destabilization.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data over the last 24h, via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin) platforms range from 5 m3 / s to 10.1 ± 2.5 m3 / s. As of the 2nd of February, according to OVPDLF the volcanic tremor remains at an average level (about half that observed at the beginning of the eruption), with less fluctuations in the last 8 hours compared to the first 24 hours - No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. - No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise building. - The CO2 concentrations in the soil at the Volcano Gîte remain at high values.The observations and observations made this morning 3rd of February by the observatory allowed: - Shooting of thermal images. Outlet temperatures at the vent are between 1200 and 1250 ° C . - Monitoring the edification of the eruptive cone. The eruptive cone continues its edification. A main fountain is at the origin of the construction of a southern wall more prominent than the north wall. A second lava fountain is always visible. Surface flows estimated from satellite data via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (Turin University) platforms range from 3 m3 / s to 7 m3 / s. First eruption 2017 of Piton de La Fournaise: Following signs of seismicity at the end of January, a seismic crisis was triggered on the 31st of January from 15:22, justifying the passage on alert 1 / probable or imminent eruption. The volcanic tremor, and the arrival on the surface of the magma, is recorded since 19:40. The Orsec-volcano plan goes on alert 2-2 / eruption in progress. Access to the Enclos Fouqué and the installation of a helicopter in the area of ​​the volcano are prohibited. The first images of the webcam of Piton de Bert suggest two active vents and the glow of a lava flow. In the morning, the images show an active zone downstream on the crack, characterized by several 20-30 meter lava fountains, located at 1,100 meters at the SSE of Château-Fort. The height of the eruptive vent is estimated at about ten meters. It lets escape a flow a'a which separates in several arms; At 7:40 local, the lava flow covered a distance of 600 to 750 m. with respect to the vent. Cracks open at the beginning of the eruption are no longer active, but remain marked by fumaroles. Previous last year activity : -as of the 18th of September, OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise stabilized during 14-17 September. Field observations on 15 September revealed that the two volcanic cones that had formed on the lower part of the fissures had begun to coalesce. Lava from the northernmost cone flowed N and NE, and by 0900, was active midway between Piton Partage and Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose. The height of the lava fountains grew in the afternoon, rising as high as 60 m, likely from activity ceasing at the southernmost cone and focusing at one main cone. On 16 September the main cone continued to build around a 50-m-high lava fountain; lava flows from this vent traveled NE. Tremor rose during the night on 17 September, and then fell sharply at 0418 on 18 September, indicating the end of surficial activity. During 11-18 September the erupted volume was an estimated 7 million m3. . As of the 11th of September a bulletin of the OVPLF reported that seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise was low in August, following an elevated number of volcano-tectonic events the second half of July. Gas emissions were low and dominated by water vapor; CO2 emissions had been elevated during 21-27 July. Inflation had stopped in early August and slight deflation was detected through 2 September. Seismicity increased on 10 September, and elevated levels of SO2 at fumaroles were detected. A seismic crisis began at 0735 on 11 September, characterized by several earthquakes per minute. Deformation suggested magma migrating to the surface. Volcanic tremor began at 0841, synonymous with the beginning of the eruption. Several fissures opened in the N part of the l'Enclos Fouqué caldera, between Puy Mi-côte and the July 2015 eruption site, and produced a dozen 15-30-m-high lava fountains distributed over several hundred meters. Tremor levels decreased by a factor of four, and by 2100 were stable. The eruption continued on 12 September. . - (OVPLF ) The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Reunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. (OVPF information) - Journal de l'île de la Réunion - ). Live webcam - IPGP

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TANZANIE - Lengai volcano

October 30th, 2012

News and recent photos taken in September 2012 at the summit crater. Previously, as of the 22nd of February 2010 GNN/GVP reported that periodic eruptions from a small fissure and steam emissions from an area of the crater rim next to a part that had collapsed were observed on 11 February, and three fresh black hornitos were noted on the W part of the crater floor, a cone-shaped grey hornito in the middle of the floor and a new black lava flow to the S were seen during 14-15 February. Previous Informations : June-August 2009: a few reports received during the summer, including ones documenting visits in August by Thomas Holden , in July by David Gregson , and in June by Tobias Fischer , indicate that Lengai continues to produce small effusive eruptions within the pit crater. Thomas Holden reported that on his climb in late August (exact date unknown) he saw active lava flows. Tobias Fischer witnessed flows and a small lava lake ~5m in diameter in June.  David Gregson did not see significant activity but heard sounds of activity at depth. Although the activity appears to have returned to the typical eruptions of fluid natrocarbonatite lava for which Lengai is so well known, no samples of the new flows have been obtained for analysis due to their inaccessability deep inside the pit crater.  It is not known how similar the new lava is in composition to the lavas produced prior to the 2007-2008 eruption. (From Fred Belton website) Previous information : qccording to Frederick Belton team which climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on 18 June 2009reported that the new active cone covered the former crater floor entirely except for an area N of the summit. The new cone's W, N, and E sides stood about 30 m above the rim of the former crater and enclosed a deep crater. The visitors saw a few small vents on the crater's floor. Frequent emissions of ash-poor plumes originated from the SW part of the crater's floor, producing light ashfall. They heard continuous loud rumbling noises, occasional gas-jetting sounds, and rockfalls. As of the 21st of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania erupted on 19th of February, according to an aviation report. Ash was observed to 38,000 ft. Pilots have been advised to avoid flying near the volcano. The activity at Lengai seems to be increasing. In the past two weeks, explosions have ejected ash plumes rising several kilometers. On 15 Feb., Dutch pilots observed and photographed an eruption plume rising to estimated 12 km (36,000 ft). The Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 15 February and rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 24th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a visitor to Ol Doinyo Lengai informed that it erupted on 14 January. According to this visitor "shower of stones" fell at their location about 50 m from the summit and a lava flow went another direction. Typical ash eruption from the new ash cone in the N crater. A small group from Volcano Discovery , local mountain guides and partners stayed near and on Lengai volcano during 17-21 January. During this period, Lengai continued to erupt ash to several 100 metres above the new ash cone during phases lasting several hours alternating with periods of quiet when only a weak plume of very fine gray ash and gas was issuing out of the new ash cone. Photos from an eruptive phase of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano consisting in near continuous ash emissions from its new crater and taken from the summit during a recent expedition in January 2008 have been posted at the Discovery: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcano-tours/photos/lengai/0108.html . These photos also document the impressive recent changes on the volcano and help to illustrate the significant hazards present when climbing Lengai or staying at its top. The Toulouse VAAC reported previously that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by visiting scientists on 20 December and rose to an unreported altitude. As of the 20th of October, John Seach has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes. As of the 7th of September, according to Matthieu Kervyn De Meerendre, University of Gent (Belgium) has reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai has re-erupted again. A large eruption (?) seems to be taking place at Lengai volcano, this time for real On 4 September 2007, reports started coming in that a large (natrocarbonatite) lava flow is descending the West flank. A considerable ash plume was visible on satellite data. Over 30 thermal anomalies have been detected by the MODIS team since August 23 - more than during the large eruption in March 2006. On 4 and 5 Sep, the thermal anomaly at the summit was extremely strong. From this and satellite imaginery, it seems that there was a short overflow to the East and a major overflow to the West starting on September 1st (it could be a bush fire on the volcano flank ignited by lava). New overflows on 5 Sep seem to be taking place on the W and NW flanks. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep craters walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

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CONGO - Nyamulagira volcano

July 23rd, 2018

As of the 22th of July 2018 the new eruptive phase occurred at the the volcano where  a small lava lake has formed, the magma is a few meters from the surface and seems to fill the whole surface of the crater; this activity is spectacular but without danger ". Previous news 2014 - On 29 June 2014 NASA reported that Nyamuragira vented steam and other volcanic gases and there was a glow from the lava lake. NOAA reported that an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite detected high SO2 concentrations above Nyamuragira. The University of Hawaii reported that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite data detected thermal anomalies and issued six MODVOLC alerts for the volcano's N side. Previously, according to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January 2014 showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyamuragira. Previous 2012 news about last eruption - As of the 28th of January, MODVOLC is still recording thermal anomaly on the volcano and probably the eruptive activity is still going on. (photos from M.Rietze).The initial scoria cone appeared inactive and second cone formed to the N of the first cone. Both cones were about 300 m high. The second cone was extremely active during the duration of the observations (about 15 hours) with fire fountains over twice the height of the cone; lava flowed N. The observers, about 1.5 km away, felt the heat from the eruption as well as lapilli fall. The VolcanoDiscovery Team observed the fissure eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November 2011 during 22-25 January 2012 from the newly formed cinder cones located about 10 km E of the summit crater. They reported three coalescent cones with the largest cone containing a small lava lake. The lake ejected spatter every few seconds as high as 200 m above the summit; individual bombs reached the base of the cone. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout about 2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow about 20 m wide. Burning forests were reported to the NNE. Satellite imagery acquired on 3 January from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed an active lava flow to the NE of the central vent over the fissure located 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater. A sulfur dioxide-rich plume was also detected.According to OMI data, SO2 plume is still rose above of the volcano suggesting tha the eruption is continued. As of the 8th of December, the eruptive activity is still continuing. Thermal anomaly and gas plume are still visible from satellite image. On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. An observer aboard an overflight a few days before noted that the lava did not appear to have moved any further N. A photo taken from the Rumangabo headquarters (7.5 km NE of the eruption site) on 16 November showed a tall cinder cone with lava fountains rising above the rim. The eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November, after two days of intense seismic activity, was located along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of the main crater, close to one of the 1989 eruption sites. Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. After a 3-hour hike, the team viewed the eruption from the S and noted roaring and lava fountains, as well as thunder and lightning. The observers also noted that the ground was covered by black pumice. On 11 November about 100 people, including staff, rangers, carpenters, porters, and volcanologists, traveled to a similar but safer location to set up a camp for visitors. The eruption site was described as a flat area with a 500-1,000-m-long fissure, oriented perpendicular to the Albertine (Western) rift. Lava fountains rose as high as 300 m above a cinder cone. Slow-moving lava traveled N. GORISK noted that radar images acquired on 11 November showed the largest deformation ever detected by the method (InSAR) since the early 1990's over Nyamuragira. A very preliminary analysis of the observed deformation suggested an affected area of more than 250 square kilometers. The ground rose more than 50 cm at the eruptive site where the spatter cone was developing. Another 15 cm of deformation was detected within the Nyamuragira caldera accompanied by deflation on the flanks. Satellite images acquired on 12 November showed that the lava flow had traveled approximately 11.5 km during the six days of the eruption. As of the 15th of November, The eruptive activity was still continuing characterized by lava fountain about 300 m high and lava which overflowed on the North flank of the volcano.(video) .As of the 7th of November, Rangers from the Virunga National Park reported that an eruption began last night on Nyamuragira in the Democratic Republic of Congo in central Africa. The eruption was observed from the park headquarters and it was reported that it appears to be a flank eruption. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira (Also spelled Nyamulagira) is a massive basaltic shield volcano N of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 sq km of the East African Rift. The 3058-m-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. About 40 historical eruptions have occurred since the mid-19th century within the summit caldera and from numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

CONGO - Nyiragongo

October 5th, 2017

Recent News 2017 - After the lateral eruption in 2002, the lava lake had re-formed and was contained in the pit crater, with rose and drop elevation.The lava lake was surrounded by spatters formed during its projections and overflows in 2010. At the end of February 2016, a new vent opened. Its activity quickly formed a spatter cone, leaning against the wall of the crater, and surrounded by lava flows. In 2017, the bottom of the Nyiragongo crater rose of 45 meters after the eruption of the little volcano in 2016, leaving the lava lake 85 meters below the second terrace.Previous news - On 12 April 2016 the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma reported that activity at Nyiragongo had declined since 6 April, and that the level of the lava lake had dropped. A report dated 17 April stated that some volcanic earthquakes had been located within 5 km E and 10-15 km N of the crater; continuous volcanic tremor was recorded during 0200-0400 on 17 April. In a photo dated 19 April an incandescent vent atop a spatter cone appears to be in the same location as a lava lake that had been first noted on 1 March. Since Monday, February 29, 2016 around 4 AM, we were alerted by the Virunga National park, the operators of the stations and the surrounding population Nyiragongo volcano rumbles heard every minute from the volcano. On urgent request from the provincial committee of security in North Kivu, the team of scientists from the Goma Volcano Observatory sits on the summit of Nyiragongo crater since  March 1st, 2016 until now for direct observations of the activity of the lake lava of the volcano. Preliminary results of these observations are: Appearance of a secondary lava lake on the East side of the crater of Nyiragongo. Weakening of the eastern part; collapses source platforms to the origin of the often heard by the surrounding population rumblings that volcano.   The manifestations of this new secondary active lava lake are in the extension of the fracture that connects the Nyiragongo to its Baruta adventive cone toward to the direction of   Kibumba  zone.   Nyiragongo volcano is in a phase of intense activity and require a particular  attention. This activity is concentrated within the central crater towards the East (towards the Kibumba area) where a new secondary  lava lake is observed. From : PRELIMINARY REPORT OF CURRENT ACTIVITY OF  Nyiragongo VOLCANO FROM  29 FEBRUARY TO 2 MARCH 2016. KASEREKA MAHINDA, SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR OF GVO. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. (From GVO) - Nyiragongo Photos gallery - January 2011 (German group)
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ETHIOPIA - Erta Ale volcano

May 12th,, 2018

As of the 12th of May 2018 information reported that the thermal anomaly, discribed in recent days by Mirova and the Sentinel 2 satellite SWIR, remained high and comes mainly from the distal lava field and the intracaldeira pit crater.A weak manifestation of breakout between the position of the "new" lava lake, which no longer radiates on these images, and the distal field. Previous news 2017 - The last Sentinel2 image dated December 12 illustrated a strong outgassing of the caldera pit crater and thermal activity at the lava zone on the flank and in the northeast lava field. According to recent news in December there are three active lava lakes more or less connected. A previous clear image of the Erta Ale massif in Ethiopia, taken on October 16 by Sentinel 2, showed the changes in the current lava flows.The northeastern lava field, which had enlarged at the beginning of October in the distal part, shows a front divided into several arms; two of them have reached the sedimentary plain, a rare phenomenon. If there is no significant difference in elevation, the lava field will probably slow down in the days to come. Skylights are visible between this lava field and the source, located on the rift zone. The southwest lava field is no longer visible, due to a weakening of supply for weeks. The lava lake, present in the pit crater of the caldera, is still active. According to recent information following the flooding of the lava lake in February - March 2017, a collapse occurred in April and the eruptive activity of the volcano shaped a new volcanic landscape. A second lava lake formed south of the caldera fed lava flows and lava fields to the northeast and southwest. In September 2017, the southwest lava field does not grow, but continues to thicken. In the northeast, the lava flow continued to feed the lava field, whose front is more than 16 km from the point of emission. Previous news - A photo taken on 17th of August by the satellite Sentinel showed a developping lava flow. The flow has increased by nearly 2,000 meters on the northeast side, the lava flows being essentially through tubes, with only some surface effusions. On the south-west side, the flows have not really progressed, but have widened. The lava originates from the new lava lake located off caldera. The new flank eruption continued to be active throughout the first half of 2017 and greatly intensified in early June when overflowing of the ca 200 m diameter lava lake created new pahoehoe lava flows both in northeasterly and southwesterly direction. Satellite images confirm that there has been a continuous outpour of lava from the new fissure eruption which seems to be building a new shield with different active vents from where pahoehoe lava flows, but not much fountaining or degassing occurs.ESA/Copernicus Sentinel 2 satellite images of the Erta Ale volcanic rangeshow that between 8 and 18 June 2017 the SE fissure lava field drastically increased, with the most active lava flow growing from a ca 950 m to about 3200 m length in the timespan of 10 days. Previously, Satellite images acquired and processed by Planet Labs showed the new lava flows and gas-and-steam emissions from several vents (about 1.5 km SE from the overflow area at the SE caldera rim) on 23 January, and more new lava flows on 27 January. Both images showed lava flows advancing WSW, about 2.5 km S, and about 3 km NE. According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 26 January showed two distinct infrared hotspots representing the SE lava flows. On 27 January Simon Carn stated that the eruption produced the largest SO2 emissions from Erta Ale ever measured from space. On the morning of the 18th, all the vicinity of the south pit crater was covered with lava. In the afternoon of the 18th and the 19th, the outbreaks were more sporadic, the level of the lake fluctuating and fountains of lava Have reached more than 50m high. During the evening of 20 January explosions of very large gas bubbles ejected spatter 30 m high. Crater rim collapses affected the N crater where a new oval-shaped pit crater (150 x 30 m and 20 m depth) formed during a 24-hour period. A large collapse also occurred in the S part of the crater. The activity was accompanied by ash emissions that rose as high as 800 m. The report noted that on 21 January new fissures opened SSE from the summit caldera, producing large amounts of lava. The thermal anomaly observed by Mirova shows a maximum recorded on January 21, with 13,434 MW, passing on January 22nd between 7368 MW and 5882 MW, then decreasing the 23.01 from 5.2013 MW to 1.900 MW. As of the 16th of January 2016, according to Volcano Discovery correspondents from Ethiopia, the lava lake of Erta Ale has overflown. The first lava over-spilled the rim of the containing crater at midnight of 15-16 Jan 2016.On January 16th, from 3pm on January 17th, the lava has overflowed 70% of the edge of the lake, feeding flows that quickly covered up to 1 km ² of the caldera. It seems that the situation is similar to the spectacular events in November-December 2015 when the lava lake last overflowed. More details will be posted as soon as possible. During Volcano Discovery expedition November-December , the level of the lake had already been occasionally as close as only 1 meter beneath the rim. for three continuous days (19-21 November 2015). Upon team arrival on the morning of the 19th, the lava lake was only about 2-3 m below us. Local guide explained that the lava lake had been very active in the past few weeks and risen so highly for the first time since its overflow in late 2010. Previous News 2012 - According to a member of Activ website, and following a recently 2012 fieldtrip a lava lake lies within the South pit-crater of the Erta Ale caldera. This lake was about 15 m depth with 50-60 m diameter. Important degassing occured from incandescent hornitos within the North pit-crater. News 2010 - As of the 5th of March 2010, according to Rafael Werndli reports an unusually hight lava level in the pit crater on Erta Ale in mid February 2010. The lake surface was approximately 20m below the pit's edge. The lava lake had a diameter of 100 to 110m. Occesional floodings of the uppermost terrace were observed. In addition a hornito was active in the north crater, ejecting scoriae and small lava flows. PREVIOUS INFORMATION AND REPORTS : As of the 20th of February 2008, the Stromboli-On-Line website has reported that upon their return to volcano Erta Ale, they found it to be in eruption on the 8th of February and have confirmed this information. Volcanologique de Geneve (SVG) trip on 8-9 February 2008 noted extensions of ropy lava in the N crater. The lake was little changed from the group's last visit in 2005. The group visited the N Crater, and, given its constant degassing, was able to take gas samples. They also measured the lake's surface temperature (700°C). The descent into this crater, seemingly easy, was made difficult by a mantle of very unstable lava scoria. An elevated level of the lava lake halted a subsequent descent.Previous information reported that on 7th of October 2005, according to Ethiopian newspaper an earthquake measuring 4.2 on the Richter scale, jolted northern Ethiopia (Teru area in Afar) on Tuesday triggering eruption of the Erta Ale. According to M; Manahlo Belachew, an expert in the seismology department of Addis Ababa University, the quake which strick the remote region afar is the 11th tremblor to rumble across the region since last month. As of 5th of October a hot spot was visible on the Erta Ale from the MODIS images which could confirmed an eruptive activty this day. Previous new report about recent activity of the Erta Ale : group of scientists assessed the visible changes at Erta Ale on 26 September after activity began around 24 September. In comparison to observations made in November 2004, they found that the southern main crater/pit had widened significantly, with portions of the previous crater walls having collapsed into the lava lake. A new cone-shaped construct had grown within the southern main crater where there had been a platform. A lava lake occupied the entire width of the inner crater/pit. In the northern crater/pit, there was a solidified lava bulge and abundant “smoking” along the crater walls. No incandescent lava was visible in the pit. Based on descriptions by local residents of seeing “red and glowing light shooting and rising into the air above the volcano,” the scientists believe that a Strombolian eruption probably occurred, emitting a significant volume of fresh magma within, and possibly out of, the pit. As of 4th of 0ctober, Personal source reported from Addis Ababa University that the recent earthquake that occured in Afar state has caused landslide and big fissure in Teru locality kebele 02 of the state near the active volcano Mount Erta Ale, a team of geologists who have just returned from the site disclosed. The earthquake observed from September 10 -24, 2005 is the culmination of volcanic activities in the area since millions of years ago, geologists Dr. Derge Ayalew and Dr. Gezahegn Yirgu told WIC. The geologists said the landslide and fissure are indicators that there would be a possible volcanic eruption in the future. The Physical Observatory of the Addis Ababa University recorded on Sunday earthquake that measured 5.5 on Richter scale following earthquake. In Erta Ale the volume of material inside the Crater is actually increasing i.e. rising up to the Crator rim. Due to all this recent geological activity the government is starting to evacuate the people residing around these areas. Previous Erta Ale visit : an international team led by SVE carried out a new visit at the Erta Ale from 22nd of January to 23rd of January 2005. During these two full days at the summit the eruptive activity showed no significant change since our previous observation carried out in November- Décembre 2004. Degassing activity was still occuring from 3 of the 4 coalescents hornitos located in the SW part of the South crater, but decreased slightly in comparison with our December observations. There were about 10 m high and represented the only portion of the lava crust covering the crater floor where gas emissions were in evidence. One of the hornitos contained glowing molten lava visible from a window located in the upper part. During the clear day of Sunday 23rd of January, members of the team abseiled down within the crater to collect recent lava poured out from the hornitos during partial collapse. Degassing activity (mainly SO2) from the North crater has also slightly decreased in comparison with early December 2004. From a small terrace located in the NW part of the crater it was possible to observe the degassing activity from several hornitos ( some of them were several meters high in the central part of the " lava bulge ") - Near the NW wall of the crater two small red glowing areas were visible at the summit of two other hornitos. Seismic activity of the volcano, together with infrasound signals were recorded by a portable system of the University of Hamburg. Preliminary results of this deployment will be reported soon at this place. Informations : Henry Gaudru, SVE Geneva ; Alexander Gerst , University of Hamburg, Germany ; Georges Kourounis, Derek Tessier, Brian Fletcher (Toronto - Canada) , Motomaro Shirao (Tokyo- Japan) . A previous visit of the SVE-SVG group (4th of December 2004) have permits to observe an important change in the activity of the volcano. The lava lake activity stopped within the South pit crater and a solidified lava crust has filled the whole part of the crater floor (about 15 m below the crater rim). Three (4) coalescent hornitos (about ten meters high) have built on the solidified lava crust in the SE part of the South crater. During the night between 4th of 5th of December, some incandescent degassing lava was visible at the summit of two hornitos. Moreover, we have also noted that a new activity has recently occured within the North crater. A solidified lava bulge uplifted and filled more than 4/5 of the crater floor (about 20-25 below the crater rim). Strong and noisy degassing activity was occcuring in the central part of the lava bulge from several small hornitos. From the smell and bluish color, these gases contained a high quantity of SO2. During the night , ten small incandescent vents were visible at the periphery of the lava bulge. In the morning, two plumes rose above the volcano. Information : Henry Gaudru (SVE) and Co (SVG) - Erta Ale report in case of problem with this link look directly at "articles page" Recent Erta Ale photos 2011

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INDIA - Barren Island volcano - Andaman islands

October 26th, 2018

The effusive eruption continues on Barren island. An image of the Sentinel 2 satellite of 23 October shows the active lava flow to the north-west of the cone and significant degassing at the upper vent and lesser at the peripheral level, where the flow is likely to reach the ocean.Thermal anomalies are detected by Mirova, between 204 and 10 MW for 22, 23 and 24 October. According to the Mirova sites and the Sentinel 2 images, a new eruption started on September 25, 2018. A lava flow is visible on the north flank, associated with a strong thermal signal, on the satellite photo of September 28, taken by Sentinel 2; she probably reached the north-west coast. Previously, The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), part of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), reported that a new eruption at Barren Island began on 23 January 2017. Scientists aboard a research vessel were collecting sea floor samples when they observed a sudden ash emission. The team moved closer, about 1.6 km from the volcano, and noted small eruptive episodes lasting 5-10 minutes. Ash emissions were visible in the daytime, and lava fountains feeding lava flows on the flanks were visible at night. The team revisited the volcano on 26 January and observed similar activity during the four hours they stayed. They sampled sediments and water in the vicinity of the eruption and recovered volcanic ejecta. The eruptive' phase ended on May 2017. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the center of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.

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Piton de la Fournaise - Eruptive fissure - 16th November 2002 - Photo Laï-Yu (JIR)

PHILLIPINES - Mayon volcano

November 15th, 2018

PHIVOLCS reported that at 1243 on 8 November and at 0739 on 12 November small, short-lived brownish ash plumes from Mayon, associated with a degassing events, drifted WSW and SW, respectively. There was no accompanying seismic or infrasound record from these events. On 11 November a volcanic earthquake was associated with a short-lived lava fountaining
event at 0840. The event lasted for 36 seconds based on the seismic record and produced a brownish-gray ash plume that drifted SW. Crater incandescence was visible most nights during 7-13 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. As of the 6th of November 2018, Phivolcs reported, on the basis of the Mayon seismic survey, three volcanic earthquakes, a current of pyroclastic density and two avalanches of rocks occurred during the last 24 hours.
Sulfur dioxide emissions are measured at an average of 800 tonnes per day at the end of October, as well as inflation in the southeast sector of the volcano, following a possible aseismic magmatic intrusion.Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that at 0653 on 27 August 2018 a short-lived degassing event at Mayon produced a light-brown ash plume that rose 200 m above the summit rim and drifted NE. During 28 August-3 September white steam plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. Eruption 2018 reports - PHIVOLCS reported that at 1509 on 13 July a minor rockfall descended the Mi-isi drainage on Mayon’s S flank, generating a brownish ash cloud. The event was preceded by heavy rainfall on the upper flanks. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 2,398 tonnes/day. Precise leveling data obtained during 2-14 April indicated inflation relative to data collected in late March; electronic tilt data showed pronounced inflation on the mid-flank beginning on 25 June possibly due to a deep aseismic magma intrusion. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.PHIVOLCS reported that white steam plumes from Mayon rose 750 m above the crater rim on 30 June and drifted NE, N, NW, and SW. On 1 July white plumes drifted down the flanks. A short-lived event at 1234 produced a gray gas plume. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that a low emission of a moderate plume of gas and vapor occurred during the day of June 30th at Mayon and then driftet towards a large northern sector. Nighttime glow is also reported. The alert level remains at 2. Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that during 23-29 May white steam plumes from Mayon drifted WNW, WSW, and SW, sometimes rising 250-300 m above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was visible each night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 18-24 April white steam plumes from Mayon drifted NW, W, SW, and NE. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide flux was 796 tonnes/day on 17 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 11-17 April white steam plumes from Mayon drifted NW, WNW, WSW, and SW. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide flux was 2,800, 1,918, 1,621, and 1,617 tonnes/day on 11, 12, 13, and 16 April, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 4-10 April white steam plumes from Mayon drifted WNW, WSW, and SW. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide flux was 899 tonnes/day on 5 April. Tiltmeter data recorded deflation since 20 February despite short-term episodes of inflation at the lower and middle flanks. Precise leveling data showed deflation during 22-29 March relative to surveys conducted during 10-19 March. Overall ground deformation data suggested inflation compared to baseline levels. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. During 30 March-3 April a few rockfalls were recorded, there was faint crater incandescence, and steam plumes drifted SW, WNW, and NW. PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger ZoneOn 29 March PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Mayon to 2 (on a 0-5 scale) noting a deflationary trend since 20 February, decreased seismicity, a lower sulfur dioxide flux, and decreased surficial activity. During the previous two weeks the number of rockfalls from collapse of unstable lava-flow deposits fell from a peak of 82 to less than 10 per day. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from 500 to 2,000 tonnes/day during the previous two weeks, lower than 700-4,500 tonnes/day during 13 January-8 March. Lava last effused from the crater on 18 March, and crater incandescence from hot gas emissions had become faint. Fewer rockfalls and pyroclastic flows were noted as the lava flows stabilized; at 0934 on 27 March one pyroclastic flow traveled down the Bonga-Buyuan drainage and produced a dirty-white ash cloud that drifted SW. PHIVOLCS reported that during 21-27 March activity at Mayon included periods of gravity-driven lava advancement, gas-and-steam emissions, rockfalls, and quiescence. Lava flows were about 3.3 km, 4.5 km, and 1.9 km long in the Mi-isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages, respectively. Steam-and-gas emissions drifted mainly SW. At 1039 and 2133 on 23 March pyroclastic flows traveled 4-5 km down the Mi-isi drainage, producing light brown ash clouds that drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that a new small activity at Mayon occurred with two pyroclastic flows from lava flow collapse in Miisi drainage on March 22 at 10:39 AM and 9:33 PM ; they moved 4-5 km and generated clouds of brown ash. A total of 35 rockfall episodes were recorded by the seismometers; the flow of carbon dioxide is 1,532 tons / day on March 22, and a slight inflation of the volcano's lower slopes, which began on March 11, was still recorded. PHIVOLCS reported that during 13-20 March activity at Mayon was mostly characterized by periods of gravity-driven lava advancement, gas-and-steam emissions, rockfalls, and quiescence. Lava flows extended 3.3 km, 4.5 km, and 1.9 km long in the Mi-isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages, respectively. Sulfur dioxide emissions were between 969 and 2,077 tonnes/day. Steam-and-gas emissions drifted SW. An episode of lava fountaining was recorded during 0831-0832 on 14 March and produced a light-gray ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater and drifted SW. At 1347 on 16 March a pyroclastic flow traveled 4-5 km down the Mi-isi and Basud drainages. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 6-13 March activity at Mayon was characterized by periods of gravity-driven lava advancement, gas-and-steam emissions, lava fountains, and quiescence. Episodes of weak lava fountaining during 6-10 March were accompanied by ash plumes that rose 100-300 m above the crater and drifted mainly SW. Rumbling sounds were audible at least within a 10-km radius. Active lava flows extended 3.3 km, 4.5 km, and 1.9 km long in the Mi-isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages, respectively. Steam plumes rose 2.4 km and drifted SW on 10 March. The next day white-and-gray plumes rose 2.5 km and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that During 27 February-5 March pyroclastic flows generated by collapses of lava at the fronts and margins of flows traveled 4-5 km down the flanks. On 6 March PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level to 3 (on a 0-5 scale) noting a decline in the intensity and frequency of events during the previous week. Data from precise leveling surveys and real-time electronic tilt continued to record deflation of the lower flanks that began on 20 February. The report reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 21-27 February activity at Mayon continued to be characterized by daily lava ffusion from the summit crater, lava fountains on most days, steam-and-ash emissions, advancing lava flows on the flanks, and pyroclastic flows. Weak and sporadic lava fountaining events each lasted between 2 and 77 minutes, and were sometimes accompanied by rumbling sounds audible within a 10-km radius. Each day there were 1-21 pyroclastic flows generated by lava-collapse events traveling as far as 5 km down the Mi-isi, Bonga-Buyuan, and Basud drainages. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a 0-5 scale) and the public was warned to remain outside of the Danger Zone defined as an area within an 8-km radius.As of the 22nd of February Phivolcs reported that during the past 24 hours, the volcano has been marked by low and sporadic fountaining, lava flows and outgassing. Seven episodes of pyroclastic flows following the collapse of the flows were detected on 21 February in the Miisi, Bonga and Basud drainages.PHIVOLCS reported that during 14-20 February daily activity at Mayon continued to be characterized by lava effusion from the summit crater, rockfalls, lava fountains, steam emissions, advancing lava flows on the flanks, and pyroclastic flows. Weak and sporadic lava fountaining events each lasted between 5 and 239 minutes, and were sometimes accompanied by rumbling sounds audible with a 10-km radius. Heavy rainfall on 14 February caused lahars in the Anoling drainage, and sediment-laden streams in most channels where pyroclastic flow deposits were emplaced. During 16-17 February lava fountains were 200-500 m tall and generated steam plumes that drifted SW, WSW, and NW. A lava-fountaining event that began at 0103 on 17 February lasted for 12 hours and 18 minutes. Lava flows 3.3 km, 4.5 km, and 900 m long in the Mi-isi (S), Bonga (SE), and Basud (E) drainages, respectively, continued to be active. Pyroclastic flows traveled 4.2-4.6 km in the Mi-isi, Bonga, and Basud drainages. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a 0-5 scale) and the public was warned to remain outside of the Danger Zone, defined as an area within an 8-km radius. As of the 12th of February, the activity of the last 24 hours is characterized by a low and sporadic fountaining, lava flows and degassing at the summit crater. The lava fountains reached 150 meters high, and generated plumes rising to more than 400 meters.During the night, lava flows and consequent falls of incandescent rocks were observed in the Miisi and Bonga-Buyuan drainages; pyroclastic flows have respectively covered the Miisi, Bonga and Basud drainages over 4,600 m, 4,500 m and 4,200 m.Seismicity is marked by 92 volcanic earthquakes, most often related to fountaining; inflation is holding steady. As of the 9th of February, PHIVOLCS reported that the activity of the Mayon has been characterized in the last 24 hours by almost continuous fountaining: 69 successive episodes of lava fountains have been recorded by the seismic network since 12:35 on February 7; their duration varied between 3 and 233 minutes, and their height reached 100 meters, producing steam plumes of more than 800 meters above the summit. They were accompanied by sounds audible 10 km away.Lava flows and falling rocks were observed in the Miisi and Bonga-Buyuan drainages. Their progress in the Miisi, Bonga and Basud drainages is respectively 3,300, 4,500 and 900 meters from the summit crater. Pyroclastic flows have borrowed the same drainages, and left deposits up to 4.6 km, 4.5 km and 4.2 km, respectively in the drainages Miisi, Bonga and Basud. As of the 6th of February, PHIVOLCS reported that activity over the past 24 hours has been characterized by sporadic to near continuous lava fountains, lava flows, and outgassing from the summit crater. A lava fountain repeated from 5:57 am to 1:46 pm and almost continuous fountaining from 15:59 to today have been recorded by the volcanic seismic network. These were associated with the generation of ash plumes loaded with steam up to 400 meters in height. The episodes of lava fountains were accompanied by audible rumblings within 10 kilometers of the summit crater. Throughout the night, lava flows and incandescent landslides were observed in the Miisi and Bonga-Buyuan ravines. Large volumes of incandescent lava flows increased to 3.2, 4.5 and about 3.0 km along the Miisi, Bonga-Buyuan and Basud ravines, respectively, from the summit crater.PHIVOLCS reported that on February 4, there will be two episodes of fountaining, at 10:38 and 13:52, accompanied by ash plumes at 500 and 550 meters; the first episode produced audible sounds within a radius of 10 km. During the night, a quiet effusion of lava flowed into the Miisi and Bonga drainages, which rose 3.2 and 4.5 km from the summit; this effusion was interspersed by two episodes of fountaining at 2:54 and 5:22.The sulfur dioxide flux was measured on 2 February at 1.583 tonnes / day. As of the 2nd of February, PHIVOLCS reported that the eruptive activity was characterized by a low and sporadic fountaining, and degassing; this activity produced small white to slightly gray plumes, with the exception of an episode at 9:18, during which the gray ash plume reached a height of 1,000 meters.During the night, the effusion fed the lava flows into the Miisi, Bonga-Buyuan and nearby drainages; the flows now reach 3,200 and 4,300 meters in length from the crater.Seismicity is characterized by 17 volcanic earthquakes, and 10 tremor episodes. Sulfur dioxide emissions have averaged 1.583 tonnes per day, and inflation is continuous. As of the 31st of January, PHIVOLCS reported that sporadic lava fountains and low outgassing characterized the activity. Apart from five plumes of gray ash rising to 1,000 meters, the activity produced only white to slightly gray plumes. Four pyroclastic flows of collapses marked the drainages Miisi, Basud and Bonga.During the night, the effusion fed lava flows and falling rocks.PHIVOLCS reported that two collapses caused pyroclastic flows on January 30: the first at 11:51, in the Miisi drainage, was accompanied by a cloud of ash rising to 1,250 meters drifting southwest; two other flows followed in the Basud darinages and lasted until 12:09, with a cloud of ash drifting to the southwest.Whitish to light gray plumes were then continuously emitted; Sporadic ash emissions began at 17:11, followed by a slow lava effusion and continued in the evening and early morning, feeding the lava flows in the Miisi and Bonga drainages.Lava fountains, intermittent and of short duration, were observed during the night.A cycle of energetic lava effusion with sporadic lava fountaining, and pyroclastic flows from lava-collapse events, occurred late on 29 January. The events were mostly visually obscured, and indicated by seismic data. The period began with a large-volume lava collapse at 1950 at the summit crater that generated pyroclastic flows in the Mi-isi and Bonga drainages. Lava fountaining was detected at 2016 and lasted eight minutes. This was followed by large-volume lava effusion that lasted 96 minutes, and was interspersed with sporadic lava fountaining and/or pyroclastic flows. Sporadic lava fountaining was visually and seismically detected until 2306, with lava fountains rising as high as 200 m. Ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater. Significant ashfall was reported in Camalig and Guinobatan, Albay before 2100, possibly resulting from the lava fountaining and pyroclastic flows. As of the 28th of January, Phivolcs reported that two episodes of fountaining occurred between 4:22 pm yesterday and 1:40 am on January 28, 2018, a duration of respectively 23 and 55 minutes. They fed the lava flows in the Miisi and Bonga drainages, as well as the rock falls, and sprayed the areas near the vent with spatters.The flow of SO2 was measured at 1,916 tonnes / day on 25.01.18. Heavy rains in the Province of Albay increase the risk of syn-eruptive lahars in the many Mayon drainages.The volume of deposits of pyroclastic flows is about 9 million m³, and the total volume of ash falls on the western sector of 1.5 million m³ ... all these materials can be remobilized by the rains and generate lahars, by incorporating existing eroded materials into the borrowed drainages. As of the 26th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that between 6:11 am and 2:31 am on January 26, the Mayon produced sporadic and intense fountaining, lasting between 26 and 57 minutes, which reached between 150 and 500 meters high and generated ash plumes from a height 500 m. to 3,000 m. above the crater. These lava fountains fed the lava flows in the Miisi and Bonga drainages. Spatters and incandescent rocks watered the summit area. Pyroclastic flows are also observed in the Miisi, Lidong / Basud and Buyuan drainages. As of the 25th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that between 6:01 am and 3:00 am on January 25, six sporadic episodes of intense fountaining, lasting between 9 and 58 minutes, were observed. The lava fountains reached 400-500 meters high, accompanied by ash plumes rising between 3,000 and 5,000 meters above the crater. Lava flows remain fed in the Miisi and Bonga drainages, and spatters and incandescent rocks flood the summit area.Pyroclastic flows are also observed in the Miisi, Lidong / Basud and Buyuan drainages; in this last drainage, the pyroclastic flow has traveled more than 5,000 meters.As of the 24th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that between 8:54 on 23.01 and 03:55 on 24.01, the Mayon presented five episodes of fountaining, sporadic and intense, of varying duration, between 7 minutes and 1h24 minutes. The fountains reached a height of 500-600 meters, and generated ash plumes between 3,000 and 5,000 meters above the crater.They fed lava flows in the Miisi and Buyuan drainages, which advanced respectively up to 3 and 1 km., sprayed with spatters around the vent and caused falls of incandescent rocks. The pyroclastic flows related to this activity were observed in the Miisi, Lidong / Basud and Buyuan drainages, in the latter of a length of more than 5,000 meters.Ash falls are reported on the west of the volcano, and concern the municipalities of Guinobatan, Camalig, Oas, Polangui and Iriga City. The flow of sulfur dioxide is greater with 2,466 tons / day on January 23 (against 992 t / d before the phreatomagmatic episode). Inflation is still observed. As of the 23rd of January, PHIVOLCS reported that the activity of the Mayon continued, with on January 22 at 12:43 a brief phreatomagmatic eruption, lasting 8 minutes, which was accompanied by a plume amounting to 5,000 meters, and pyroclastic flows in drainage Miisi, Bonga, Buyuan, Basud, San Andres, Buang, Anoling and others within a radius of 4 km around the summit. Ash falls have been observed on Guinobatan, Camalig, Oas, Polangui and Iriga City. A minor degassing at 17:51 was accompanied by an ash plume at 500 meters. Between 9:37 pm and 5:25 am on January 23, five episodes of sporadic but intense fountaining lasted between 3 and 30 minutes; the lava fountains reached a height of 500 to 700 meters in height, and generated ash plumes up to 3,000 meters above the crater; these fountains fed lava flows in the Miisi and Bonga drainages, while the spatters covered the areas near the vent, causing incandescent rock falls. Legazpi airport activities were suspended at 2:21 pm until new announcement, due to the massive presence of ash.The seismology of January 22 consists of 2 explosion earthquakes, corresponding to the vertical plumes emitted, 18 tremor episodes, some related to the fountaining episodes, 35 episodes related to rock falls, and 2 related to the collapse pyroclastic flows . Lava flows in the Miisi and Buyuan drainages increased by three kilometers and 200 meters respectively from the top.The sulfur dioxide flux was 992 tonnes / day before the phreatomagmatic episode. Inflation remains high, and the level of alert remains at 4/5.On January 23, a plume of eruptive ash at 9:02 was reported, accompanied by pyroclastic flows.As of the 18th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that the effusion continued quietly, with a lava flow in the Miisi drainage, which reaches a length of about three kilometers, and rock falls in the Matanag and Buyuan darinages. Two pyroclastic flows were observed in the last 24 hours. The summit dome spreads into the breach in the edge of the crater. At the seismicity level, there was a volcanic earthquake and 48 rockfall events.Sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased slightly, with 1,159 tonnes / day on 17 January.The alert level remains at 3. As of the January 16th, PHIVOLC reported that activity remained characterized by the effusion of lava from the new dome and 143 collapses of blocks from the front and the edges of the flow, which generate pyroclastic flows in Miisi, Matanag and Buyuan drainages , all in the Permanent Danger Zone / PDZ. Co-pyroclastic clouds result, which disperse to the southwest.Sulfur dioxide emissions reached 3,293 tonnes / day.The alert level remains at 3.PHIVOLCS reported that during the night from 15th to 16th of January , the effusion of lava produced a main lava flow on the south flank, reaching about 2,000 meters in length; avalanches of blocks, originating from the top of the volcano, have traveled two gullies on the south-east flank. The number of evacuees varies according to the sources, between 12,000 and 15,000. Several flights were delayed because of the ashes emitted by the Mayon. Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that a pyroclastic flow was spotted at the Mayon Volcano in Albay on Monday morning, January 15. Aareas around the volcano remain on high alert for a possible major eruption.The pyroclastic flow was observed at around 9:41 am and 10:05pm on Monday.The two episodes of pyroclastic flows lasted respectively 5 and 7 minutes according to the seismic recordings; they seem to come from the front of the lava, and produced at mid-slope during the collapse of lava blocks. The 11h07 degassing episode lasted 8 minutes and produced a gray to dirty white plume about 1,000 meters above the summit before drifting southwest. Ash falls have been reported on Brgys. Travesia, Muladbucad Grande, Maninila, Masarawag, Poblacion, Iraya, Ilawod, Calzada, Inamnan Grande, Inamnan Pequeno, Maguiron, Quitago and Mauraro in the municipality of Guinobatan; Brgys. Cabangan, Anoling, Sua, Tumpa, Quirangay, Gapo, Sumlang, Brgys. 1 to 7, in the municipality of Camalig. Phivolcs posted photos showing the pyroclastic flow, taken from the Lignon Hill Observatory in Legazpi City. This comes after Phivolcs late Sunday, January 14, raised the alert level for the volcano from Level 2 to Level 3, meaning a "hazardous eruption is possible within weeks or even days."The raising of the alert level was due to 3 recorded phreatic, or steam-driven, eruptions and 158 rockfall events from Saturday afternoon, January 13, to early Sunday evening, considered as signs of "relatively high unrest." People are prohibited from entering the 6-kilometer permanent danger zone around the volcano "due to the danger of rockfalls, landslides, and sudden explosions or dome collapse that may generate hazardous volcanic flows." At least 1,547 families or 5,857 persons have already evacuated from the municipalities of Camalig, Guinobatan, and Malilipot in Albay. Their barangays are included in the danger zone. PHIVOLCS reported that a phreatic eruption occurred in Mayon, beginning January 13 at 17:06 local; it wasstill in progress at 18h local. Sulfur odors are perceived in the vicinity of the volcano. Ash falls are observed in Camalig and Guinobatan, following the emission of a greyish plume, 2,500-3,000 meters high, drifting to the southwest.The alert level remains at 1, and residents of Albay are required to take precautions against ashes.Previous News in 2016 - Beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2462 m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. Historical eruptions at this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from strombolian to basaltic plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1200 people and devastated several towns.

PHILIPPINES - Bulusan Volcano

June 6th, 2017

PHIVOLCS reported that the volcano generated a small phreatic eruption on 5 June at 22:29 local; The episode lasted 12 minutes after the seismographic recordings, and follows three volcano-tectonic earthquakes in the last 24 hours. Traces of ash, smell of sulfur and rumblings were reported to Brgys, Monbon and Cognon on Irosin. Then, moderate emissions in the form of a steam plume surmounted the active vents of 50 meters. The level of alert remains at 1 / abnormal, and a prohibited area of ​​4 km radius is reminded to the public, given the dangerousness and the suddenness of the phreatic eruptions. Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that a weak phreatic eruption at Bulusan occurred at 1357 on 2 March. The event was recorded by the seismic network as an explosion-type earthquake followed by short-duration tremor that lasted approximately 26 minutes. Visual observations were obscured by weather clouds, although a small steam plume rising from the SE vent was recorded by a webcam. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS reported that a phreatic explosion occurred at 1440 on 29 December from a vent on Bulusan's upper SE flank. The seismic network recorded the event as an explosion-type earthquake that lasted about 16 minutes. A grayish ash plume rose 2 km above the vent and drifted WSW, causing minor amounts of ash to fall in areas downwind including the barangays of Cogon, Tinampo, Bolos, Umagom, Gulang-gulang, and Monbon of Irosin, and Caladgao and Guruyan of Juban. Residents of Guruyan, Juban, Monbon, and Tinampo of Irosin noted a sulfur odor. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). As of the 28 December 2016, PHIVOLCS reported that. Mt. Bulusan in Sorsogon, Bicol had a phreatic eruption Thursday, launching a plume of ash about two kilometers high. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology noted the explosion was "recorded as an explosion-type earthquake" that lasted 16 minutes from 2:40 p.m. The 2,000-meter, white-to-grayish ash plume drifted west- northwest, Phivolcs added. Before this, Bulusan generated a seismic earthquake in the last 24 hours and showed increased seismic activity between December 22 and 29. Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that a phreatic explosion occurred at 0458 on 19 October from the vents on Bulusan's upper SE flank. The seismic network recorded the event as an explosion-type earthquake that lasted nine minutes. Dense weather clouds obscured views although limited observations indicated that the plume rose 1 km. A 20-minute-long phreatic explosion occurred from the summit crater at 1234 on 21 October. A thin layer of ash was reported in Casiguran and Gubat, and trace amounts of ash fell in barangays in Barcelona, Casiguran, and Gubat. At 1531 on 23 October a 15-minute-long phreatic explosion from the summit vent produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted WSW. Small pyroclastic flows traveled about 2 km down the flank. Trace ashfall was reported in multiple barangays in Irosin Town, ashfall 0.5 mm thick was reported in the municipality of Juban, and the most ash, 1 mm thick deposits, were found in barangay Puting Sapa, Juban. A second and much smaller explosion was recorded at 1539 from the SE vent and generated an ash plume that rose 500 m. Rumbling and a sulfur odor was noted in several nearby areas. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).. Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 36,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century. Information : PHIVOLCS -

PHILIPPINES - Taal volcano

January 4th, 2016

No recent news since the crisis in 2011 - NEWS 2011 - Taal Volcano's seismic network detected seven (7) volcanic earthquakes in september 2011 Field measurements on 20 September 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly increased water temperature of 33.6 ° C from 33.5 ° C, water level at a steady 1.74 meters and more acidic pH of 2.72 from 2.79 as compared to previous readings. Field measurements on 06 September 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly increased water temperature of 33.5 ° C from 33.4 ° C and water level increase of 1.74 meters from 1.65 meters as compared to previous readings. Ground deformation survey (precise leveling) on the Volcano Island last 21-28 July 2011 indicated that the volcano edifice is slightly deflated compared with 01-10 June 2011, but is nonetheless still inflated compared with baseline data. Baselines calculated from continuous GPS (Global Positioning System) data for the period February to July 2011 also recorded a very slight but steady inflation of the northeast flank of the Volcano Island. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission recorded on 27 June 2011 at the Main Crater Lake was 1,821 tonnes/day, which is above background levels. Field measurements on 30 August 2011 at the western sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly decreased water temperature of 32.9 ° C from 33.6 ° C and water level increase of 1.29 meters from 1.20 meters as compared to previous readings.  Field measurements conducted last 26 July 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature remained unchanged at 33.4 ° C, the water level increased from 0.86 meter to 0.91 meter and the pH value showed insignificant change from 2.85 to 2.86 as compared with the previous readings on 12 July 2011.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. Measurements conducted last 19 July 2011 at the western sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature changed slightly from 33.4 ° C to 33.0°C. The water level decreased from 0.85 meter to 0.81 meter and the pH value became less acidic from 2.80 to 2.91. Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake.  Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 01 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey.  Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate last 27 June 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 1,821 tonnes per day which is above the background level. As of the 18th of July, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. One (1) of these events was felt at Intensity II at Calauit, a barangay located at the eastern sector of the volcano. Field measurements conducted last 12 July 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature changed slightly from 33.4 ° C to 33.6°C. The water level increased from 0.74 meter to 0.86 meter and the pH value became less acidic from 2.74 to 2.85.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 01 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey.  Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate last 27 June 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 1,821 tonnes per day which is above the background level. Taal Volcano's status remains at Alert Level 1. As of the 5th of July. PHIVOLCS reported that Eleven (11) weeks after Taal Volcano's alert status was raised from Level 1 to Level 2 on 09 April 2011, the following monitoring parameters have been observed: 1.  The number of volcanic earthquakes recorded daily gradually declined to low levels beginning 1 st week of June 2011. From June 2 to 5, four (4) to eight (8) volcanic earthquakes were detected per day. Since June 6 to present, the number of recorded volcanic earthquakes further decreased to a daily count of zero (0) to six (6) small events. No perceptible volcanic earthquake has occurred since 02 June. 2.   Hydrothermal and steaming activities in the northern and northeast sides of the Main Crater and Daang Kastila area have abated.  Since 01 June 2011, the Main Crater Lake temperature remained at 32.5 ° C to 33.4 ° C, and despite becoming more acidic, measured pH of 2.78 – 2.59 vary around the baseline level of pH above 2.5.  All other geochemical parameters are returning to background levels. Bubbling activity at the northeastern sector of Main Crater Lake weakened and the activity has ceased in some of the bubbling sites. 3.   Ground temperature and total magnetic field measurements at Daang Kastila and in the Main Crater showed no significant changes in both parameters. 4.  Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) gas measurements at the Main Crater Lake since March 2011 showed a decreasing trend. From an elevated value of 4,670 tonnes per day (t/d) in March, CO 2 decreased to 2,057 t/d in May and then to 1,821 t/d in June. 5.  Precise leveling in June 2011 along the flanks of Volcano Island and Global Positioning System (GPS) data from November 2010 to June showed that the volcano is slightly inflated.  Ground deformation data, nonetheless, are not suggestive of large pressure build-up within the volcano edifice. The above observations suggest that Taal Volcano's activity has declined. In view thereof, PHIVOLCS is now lowering the status of the volcano from Alert Level 2 to Alert Level 1. As of the 24th of June, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded one (1) volcanic earthquake during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 21 June 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.9 ° C to 33.1°C, the water level increased from 0.33 meter to 0.60 meter and the water became more acidic (pH value from 2.88 to 2.62) as compared with the previous readings on 31 May 2011.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake.  Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 1 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to the 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey. Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas emission rates last 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d) which is above the background level. As of the 17th of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded four (4) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 14 June 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature decreased to 32.9°C from 33.8 ° C, the water level increased to 0.59 meter from 0.31 meter and the pH value showed an insignificant change to 2.67 from 2.69 as compared with the previous readings on 7 June 2011.  Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 3rd of June, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded four (4) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 31 May 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.9°C, and the pH value became more acidic decreasing from 2.72 to 2.60.  Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 2nd of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded thirteen (13) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Two of these events were felt at   Intensity II by residents of Calauit located at the eastern sector of the volcano. The events were reportedly accompanied with rumbling sounds. As of the 1st of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded twenty two (22) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Two of these events were felt at   Intensity II by residents of Calauit, Tuoran and Bignay located at the eastern sector of the volcano. The events were reportedly accompanied with rumbling sounds. Field measurements conducted on 31 May 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.9°C, and the pH value became more acidic decreasing from 2.72 to 2.60. Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 30th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that a remarkable increase in the seismic activity occured on Taal Volcano. For the past 24 hours, Taal‘s seismic network detected a total of one hundred fifteen (115) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Twelve of these events were felt at Intensity I – IV by residents of Pira-piraso, Alas-as and Calauit located at northeast, southwest and southeast sectors of Volcano Island, respectively. One of these events (8:32 PM, 29 May) was felt at Intensity I, nine (9)  events (1:02:19 AM, 1:02:26 AM, 2:32 AM, 2:53 AM, 2:12 AM, 3:08:19 AM, 3:08:52 AM, 3:17 AM, 3:19 AM, 3:26 AM 30 May) were felt at Intensity II, one event (1:26 AM 30 May) was felt at Intensity III and another one (1:05 AM 30 May) was  felt at Intensity IV. All of these felt events were reportedly accompanied by rumbling sounds. As of the 26th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded three (3) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Field measurements conducted on 24 May 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature slightly increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.8°C, the pH value became more slightly acidic decreasing from 2.83 to 2.67 and the water level increased from 0.21 meter to 0.25 meter. Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 26 April - 03 May 2011 showed that the volcano edifice inflated slightly relative to the 05-11 April 2011 survey. Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas emission rates last 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater yielded a lower value of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d) compared with that measured last March 2011 which had a value of 4,750 t/d. However, the obtained value is still higher than the emission rates of 1,875 t/d measured last February 2011. Previously, as of the 18th of may, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  As of the 13th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Field measurements conducted May 13, 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature slightly increased from 32.0°C (May 5, 2011) to 32.5°C. The water is still acidic with the pH value remained at 2.94 and the water level slightly increased from 0.19 meter to 0.21 meter as compared with the reading on May 5, 2011. Results of the ground deformation measurement (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 26 April -03 May 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is still inflated as compared with the 05-11 April 2011 survey. Results of gas measurements conducted between 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater yielded a carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d). This emission value is down from 4,750 t/d last March 2011, but still higher than the emission rates of 1,875 t/d measured last February 2011. As of the 6th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded six (6) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted on 05 May 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 31.5 ° C to 32.0 ° C, the water became more acidic with pH value decreasing from 3.09 to 2.94 and the water level further receded to 0.19 meters from the 0.23 meters as compared to the last reading on 19 April 2011. As of the 25th of April, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded fourteen (14 ) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.Field observation and measurements conducted at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 30.5 ° C to 31.5 ° C. Result of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 05-11 April 2011 showed that volcano edifice is slightly inflated as compared with the 02-09 February 2011 survey. As of the 23rd of April, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded nineteen (19) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. One of these events, which occurred at 12:23 midnight, was felt at Intensity II at Brgy. Calauit on the southeastern part of the Volcano Island. Another event which occurred at 4:31 AM today was felt at Intensity III in Brgy. Pira-piraso at the northeastern part of Volcano Island accompanied by rumbling sounds.  Field observation and measurements conducted at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the temperature at the Main Crater Lake increased from 30.5 ° C to 31.5 ° C. As of the 19th of April, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded six (6) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Alert Level 2 is hoisted over Taal Volcano with the interpretation that magma has been intruding towards the surface, as manifested by CO 2 being released in the Main Crater Lake and increase in seismic activity.  Hence, PHIVOLCS advises the public that the Main Crater, Daang Kastila Trail and Mt. Tabaro (1965 -1977 Eruption Site) are strictly off-limits because sudden hazardous steam-driven explosions may occur and high concentrations of toxic gases may accumulate.  Breathing air with high concentration of gases can be lethal to human, animals and even cause damage to vegetation.  In addition, it is reminded that entire Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ), and permanent settlement in the island is strictly not recommended. Taal volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. In contrast to Mayon volcano, Taal is not topographically prominent, but its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the topography of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 sq km surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is a complex volcano composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that has grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions of Taal have caused many fatalities (gvn).

PHILIPPINES - Kanlaon volcano

April 25th, 2018

PHIVOLCS reported that during 17-19 April dirty-white steam plumes from Kanlaon rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW, NW, and NE. White steam plumes rose 300-600 m and drifted SW and NW during 20-24 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that there were three or fewer volcanic earthquakes detected at Kanlaon each day during 27 December 2017-2 January 2018. Dense weather clouds prevented visual observations, though on 30 December a steam plume was seen rising 500 m above the crater rim and drifting SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that during 19-20 December there were 412 volcanic earthquakes detected at Kanlaon. A low-energy, explosion-type earthquake was detected at 0233 on 21 December associated with gas emissions from the summit area. Later in the day steam plumes rose 400 m and drifted NE. The number of daily volcanic earthquakes increased to 957 the next day and then decreased to less than 20 per day during 22-23 December; the daily count increased to 382 and 776 events on 24 and 25 December, respectively, and then decreased to 82 on 26 December. White plumes rose 300 m and drifted NE, NW, and SW on 21 December, and 700 m on 26 December; weather clouds prevented views on the other days. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported between 1 and 7 volcanic earthquakes at Kanlaon were recorded each day during 2-8 December, prior to the phreatic eruption on 9 December. Only three events were detected on 10 December, and then the number increased to 155 the next day. The number of daily volcanic earthquakes increased to 578 on 13 December, rising to 1,007 the next day, and peaking at 1,217 on the 15th. The earthquake count dropped to 149 on 16 December before returning to six or less through 19 December. White steam plumes rose 800 and 300 m above the crater on 13 and 14 December, respectively. White plumes were diffuse on 15 December; weather clouds prevented views of the summit area during 16-18 December. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 603-687 tons per day during 13-14 December. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that an approximately 10-minute-long, low-energy phreatic eruption at Kanlaon began at 0947 on 9 December. A plume of voluminous steam and dark ash rose 3-4 km above the summit vent. The event was heard as far away as La Castellana, Negros Occidental. Minor amounts of ash fell in Sitio Guintubdan, and barangays Ara-al, Sag-ang, and Ilihan. The eruption was preceded by the resumption of degassing at the summit crater at 0634, detectable as continuous low-energy tremor during periods when the summit was not visible; degassing was last observed September 2016. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). The sound of the eruption was heard in Brgy, Manghanoy and La Castellana, and fine ashes reported on Sitio Guintubdan, Brgy. Araal, and Carlota City. The alert is level 2, with a zone of permanent danger, prohibited entry of 4 km radius. Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that between 24 June and 18 August the seismic network at Kanlaon detected 244 volcanic earthquakes. The report stated that the increased seismic activity could be followed by phreatic explosions at the summit crater, despite the absence of visible degassing or steaming from the active vent during 2017. The Alert Level was raised to 1 (on a scale of 0-5), and the public was warned to not enter the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that on 5 May PHIVOLCS reported that since the last phreatic eruption at Kanlaon, which occurred on 15 June 2016, there has been a general decline in activity: seismicity was at baseline levels, no significant deformation had been detected since August 2016, sulfur dioxide emissions were low, and no steaming had been observed since 29 September 2016. The Alert Level was lowered to 0 (on a scale of 0-5), though the public was warned to not enter the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). Kanlaon volcano (also spelled Canlaon), the most active of the central Philippines, forms the highest point on the island of Negros. The massive 2435-m-high andesitic stratovolcano is dotted with fissure-controlled pyroclastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by lakes. The largest debris avalanche known in the Philippines traveled 33 km to the SW from Kanlaon. The summit of Kanlaon contains a 2-km-wide, elongated northern caldera with a crater lake and a smaller, but higher, historically active vent, Lugud crater, to the south. Historical eruptions from Kanlaon, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.

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Mayon volcano - Philippines

INDONESIA Volcanoes activity VSI - CVGHM reports : Past events 2016-2017 and recent news 2018

Merapi (Java) - PVMBG reported that the new lava dome of Merapi continues to grow; it reached a volume of 290,000 cubic meters on November 15, 2018 , with a growth rate, that has been falling since November 7, of 2,400 cubic meters per day. The dome is in a stable position, despite the extension of a lateral lobe.The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km radius.For the day of November 16th, 30 collapse earthquakes and 11 emission earthquakes are counted. A white plume is observed rising up to 50 meters above the summit, and dispersing towards the NSN. PVMBG reported that the dome of the volcano continues to grow; the latest measurements taken by the BPPTKG on 7 November 2018 give a volume of 273,000 m³, and an average growth rate of 3,500 m³ / day. PVMBG reported that during 26 October-1 November 2018 the lava dome in Merapi's summit crater grew slowly at a rate of 2,900 cubic meters per day, slower than the previous week. By 31 October the volume of the dome, based on photos from the SE sector, was an estimated 248,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 50 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. - PVMBG reported that during 19-25 October 2018 the lava dome in Merapi's summit crater grew slowly at a rate of 6,100 cubic meters per day, similar to the previous week. By 21 October the volume of the dome, based on photos from the SE sector, was an estimated 219,000 cubic meters. White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 50 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that the phase of effusive activity continues: the dome reaches 18 October 2018 a volume of 201,000 m³, with a daily rate of growth rising to 6,200m³. The small lobe of the dome on the north side seems to progress.The dome is considered stable for the moment, and the level of activity remains at 2 / Waspada, with a forbidden zone of 3 km radius around the summit. previously, on 11 October, the volume of the dome was 158,000 m³, with a daily growth rate of about 3,100 m³, a little higher than at the end of September.The dome is stable, although there is a slight outpouring on the north side.It is marked by a thin, white fumarole 70 meters above the summit.The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km. PVMBG reported that during 28 September-4 October 2018 the lava dome in Merapi's summit crater continued to slowly grow. By 4 October the volume of the lava dome was an estimated 135,000 cubic meters, and the growth rate was 1,000 cubic meters per day (similar to the previous week). White emissions of variable density rose a maximum of 75 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and resident were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that the construction of the summit dome continued, reaching on September 27, 2018 a volume of 129,000 m³, with a steady growth ratio in recent days to 1,000 m³ / day.On 28 September, the PVMBG recorded 13 eruptive earthquakes, 14 blast events, one hybrid earthquake and five low frequency earthquakes.The alert level remains at level 2 / Waspada, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km radius around the summit.PVMBG reported that during 17-23 September the new lava dome in Merapi's summit crater continued to slowly grow. By 22 September 2018 the volume of the lava dome was an estimated 113,000 cubic meters, and the growth rate was 3,000 cubic meters per day. White emissions of variable density rose 100 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and resident were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that during 10-16 September 2018 the new lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater continued to slowly grow. By 16 September the volume of the lava dome was an estimated 112,000 cubic meters, and the growth rate was 1,600 cubic meters per day. White emissions of variable density rose 20 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and resident were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.PVMBG reported that the growth of the lava dome at the top of Merapi is still continuing; On September 9th, 2018 the volume is estmated to about 90,000 m³, against 86,000 m³ the day before. PVBMG reported that the growth of the dome continues; on 3 September it reached a volume of 72,000 m³, with a growth rate of 4,800 m³ per day. At the seismic level, on September 3rd, 34 earthquakes of eruption, 18 earthquakes of degassing, 9 hybrid earthquakes were recorded. PVMBG reported that lava extrusion continues at the summit; the dome reached 1 September 2018 an estimated volume of 62,500 m³.Dome growth in height increases the risk of instability and collapse, which could cause pyroclastic flows PVMBG reported that the new lava dome within the fracture of Merapi's 2010 dome grew at a rate of 4,300 cubic meters per day during 18-28 August 2018, and by 28 August the volume of the lava dome was an estimated 44,000 cubic meters. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and resident were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone. PVMBG confirmed the transition from the magmatic eruption phase to a more effusive phase.Measurements carried out between 18 and 21 August give a volume of the lava dome of 14,000 m³, with an average daily growth of 1,500 m³.PVMBG reported that two phases of increased seismicity are noticed on July 18 and 29, 2018.On August 11 at 5am, a major earthquake occurs, with rumblings heard by the inhabitants of Deles.On August 12 on photos obtained by drone, we see new materials in the middle of the fracture intersecting the lava dome of 2010.On August 18, a direct observation of the summit confirms the existence of a new lava dome, which was probably established from August 11, marked by a major earthquake. It measures 55 meters by 25 meters and exceeds the surface of the pre-existing dome by 5 meters. A hot spot is measured at a temperature of 165.6 ° C.The level of activity remains at II / Waspada, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km radius around the summit.The Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately N of the major city of Yogyakarta. The steep-sided modern Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated and inhabited lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory (MVO).

Dieng volcano complex (Java) - PVMBG reported that new phreatic eruption occurred at Sileri crater / Dieng Plateau on April 8 at 8:18 PM at 11:21 AM WIB; it was accompanied by a thick white vapor discharge rising 50 meters above the crater and projections of mud at a distance of 20 meters to the east. Previous news - PVMBG reported that a phreatic eruption occurred on April 1, 2018 at 13:42 WIB at the Sileri crater of the volcanic complex of the Dieng Plateau / Central Java.The eruption was accompanied by a projection of mud at 150 meters height and in a zone of 50 m. over 200 m. No toxic gas emanations were observed.The eruption was preceded by a black smoke emission, 90 meters high and followed by emission of white vapors, rising to 150 meters. The eruption is similar in type to that of July 2, 2017. - Previously in 2017 PVMBG reported that since 20 September 2017 tremor and water temperature at Sileri Crater lake (Dieng Volcanic Complex) both declined. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 2 October 2017. PVMBG warned the public to stay at least 100 m away from the crater rim. PVMBG reported that during 8 July-14 September 2017 measurements indicated an increase in water temperature at Sileri Crater lake (Dieng Volcanic Complex) from 90.7 to 93.5 degrees Celsius. Soil temperatures also increased, from 58.6 to 69.4 degrees Celsius. At Timbang Crater temperatures in the lake increased from 57.3 to 62.7, and in the soil they decreased from 18.6 to 17.2. The report noted that conditions at Timbang Crater were normal. Temperature increases at Sileri, along with tremor detected during 13-14 September, prompted PVMBG to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG warned the public to stay at least 1 km away from the crater rim, and for residents living within that radius to evacuate. The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century CE. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic gas emissions are a hazard at several craters and have caused fatalities. The abundant thermal features and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect. (GVN/GVP)

Agung volcano (Bali) - As of the 22nd of August, according to the Darwin VAAC, a webcam recorded a diffuse ash emission from Agung rising to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that white plumes rose 100-300 m above Agung's crater rim during 1 and 2-7 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius. According to PVMBG a ground-based observer reported that at 0041 on 25 July an event at Agung produced a dense ash-and-gas plume that rose 700 m and drifted E and SE. Seismic data recorded the event for two minutes and 15 seconds. At 1406 on 27 July an event lasting one minute and 32 seconds produced a dense ash-and-gas plume that rose 2 km and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that an explosion occurred on July 24 at 12:52 WITA; it lasted 2 minutes and 13 seconds, and was accompanied by a plume of ash rising to 1,500 meters above the crater, before drifting to the southeast.Seismicity is characterized by low frequency earthquakes.The alert level remains at III / Siaga, with an orange VONA. PVBMG reported that two explosion occurred on 15th of July; the first eruptive episode occurred this 15.07.2018 at 04:52 WITA and lasted 2 min.20 sec. The plume could not be observed.- the second lasted 1min.45 sec., and was accompanied by a plume of ash rising to 1,500 meters. The BNPB reports ash falls in various villages: Bhuana Giri, Pidpid, Nawa Kerti, Datah Ababi, Abang Kertha Mandala and Amlapura.Bali Airport operates normally. The VONA is orange.The seismicity of July 15th, between 0h and 18h, ​​is characterized by 1 eruption earthquake, 3 blast earthquakes, 4 superficial volcanic earthquakes, and 1 deep, and 1 distant tectonic earthquake.The PVMBG reports a new strombolian eruption on July 8 at 4:22 am WIB.It was followed at 10 am local time by an ash emission, following an eruption of a duration of 150 sec., with a record of an amplitude of 24 mm on the seismogram.New ash emission at 16:00 local time.They noted that 4,415 evacuees were housed in 54 evacuation centers. An ash plume rose from the crater at 1120 on 9 July and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVBMG reported that on July 6 in the early evening, around 19:21, incandescence coud be observed at the top, accompanied with small black plume. An event at 0413 on 3 July generated an ash plume that rose around 2 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone was stable at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that during night Monday 2nd of July around 9 pm a new explosive activity occurred characterized by ejection of the hot rocks. The event was heard ad felt around East Bali, leading evacuations of 28 villages around the volcano. An ash column rose to 2000 m high above the summit crater and quickly disperded. PVMBG reported that eruptive activity on the evening of June 30 was characterized by incandescence indicating the presence of fresh lava in the crater. On 1st of July around 1:51 WITA, a white degassing rose above the crater of 1,500 meters, before drifting to the west.The alert level remains at 3, with an orange VONA. All airports operate normally. Lava continued to effuse, and by 1 July the estimated volume of new lava was 4-5 million cubic meters making the total volume erupted since 21 November 2017 around 27-28 million cubic meters (50% of the total crater volume). The height difference between the lowest part of the crater rim (SW side) and the highest part of the lava surface (in the center of the crater) was 85-90 m. PVMBG reported that on June 27 at 22h21 local an ash emission formed a thick plume observed at about 2,000 meters above the summit (5,142 meters asl), before drifting westward.Seismicity is dominated by volcanic earthquakes and harmonic tremors.On June 28, there is still a small gray-white plume rising 500 meters above the summit.The alert level remains unchanged, with a prohibited area of ​​4 km radius.PVMBG reported that at 1105 on 13 June an event at Agung produced a dense ash plume that rose around 2 km above the crater rim and drifted SW and W. Based on analysis of the seismic data, the event lasted two minutes and 12 seconds. Another event was detected at 2115 on 15 June, though foggy conditions prevented estimations of the ash plume height; ash fell in areas W, including in Puregai (7 km W). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the 4-km-radius exclusion zone was unchanged. PVMBG reported that an explosion accompanied by an ash plume was recorded on 10 June at 22:14 local.The plume, which dissipated to the west, could not be observed due to fog.In general, tiltmeter and GPS showed long-term deflation since December 2017, though inflation began to be detected the second week of May; deformation analysis indicated that magma continued to accumulate about 3-4 km below the crater. Low- and high-frequency earthquakes also suggested rising magma. Sulfur dioxide flux was 190-203 ons/day, and thermal anomalies in the crater were identified in satellite data. The erupted volume of lava was estimated to be 23 million cubic meters, equivalent to about a third of the total crater volume. The maximum amplitude on the seismogram is 22 mm and the duration of the episode of 1 minute 58 sec.PVMBG reported that although there were some periods of foggy conditions during 23-29 May, white plumes were occasionally observed rising as high as 400 m above Agung's crater rim. At 0539 on 29 May an event generated an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that at 1719 on 19 May an event at Agung generated an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. An explosive event occurred on 30th of April 2018 at 22:45 local. A plume of ash and gas rose 1,500 meters above the summit. PVMBG reported that although there were often foggy conditions during 18-24 April, white plumes were observed rising as high as 300 m above Agung's crater rim and drifting E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. Based on webcam views, satellite data, and ground-based observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 April an event at Agung generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. PVMBG reported that an event at Agung at 1737 on 5 April generated an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted W. Seismicity was dominated by high- and low-frequency earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that at 1009 on 26 March 2018 an event at Agung generated an ash plume that rose at least to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,650 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that although there were sometimes foggy conditions during 7-13 March , white plumes were observed rising as high as 600 m above Agung's crater rim and drifting E. An event at 2332 on 11 March generated an ash plume that rose about 950 m and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius. PVMBG reported that on 28 February gray-white plumes rose as high as 300 m above Agung's crater rim. During 1-5 March white plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4) with an exclusion zone set at a 6-km radius. As of the 13th of February, PVMBG reported that during the past month, the frequency of eruptive incidents has decreased according to the observations, the last eruption is reported by the observatory on January 24, 2018.The volume of the lava dome has not changed significantly, and is still estimated at 20 million cubic meters, or 1/3 of the empty volume of the crater.Inflation is still observed, but characterized by a lower ratio, indicating that pressurization following magmatic movements is less significant. On February 12, the seismicity was characterized by 7 emission earthquakes, an episode of harmonic tremor, 5 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, 7 deep volcanic earthquakes VA and a tectonic earthquake.On February 13 at 11:49 local, a plume of ash and gas was observed at 1,500 meters above the summit. On Saturday, February 10 at 9 am WITA, the authorities announced at the Rendang Observation Station that the status of the Agung was downgraded from level IV to level III.The radius of the risk zone has been reduced from 6 to 4 km; all refugees can return home, repatriation measures being taken. PVMBG reported that white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 1 km above Agung's crater rim during 24-25 January. Foggy conditions prevented visual observations of the crater during 26-30 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 6-km radius. PVMBG reported that at 1920 on 19 January a Strombolian event produced an ash plume that rose as high as 2.5 km and drifted E, and ejected incandescent material as far as 1 km from the crater. Incandescence emanated from the crater for about two hours after the event. White-to-gray plumes rose 500 m during 22-23 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 6-km radius. . PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred this January 15 at 7:23 WITA; it was accompanied by a plume of gray ash rising to about 2,000 meters. A fine shower of ashes fell on Kesimpar.The alert status remains at maximum level and Ngurah Rai airport is operating normally. PVMBG reported that following the high ash emission of January 11 at 17:54 WITA and a plume at 2,500 meters, those of January 12 was less intense and was maintained at a height around 500 meters. The night glow was not perceived. PVMBG reported that during 3-9 January gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that during 27 December 2017-2 January 2018 gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2 km above Agung's crater rim and drifted W, SW, and E. Incandescence from the crater was often observed at night. Ash fell in several local villages including Badeg, Yeha, Temukus, Besakih (11 km WSW), and Muncan (12 km SW) on 1 January, and Rendang post on 2 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions. PVMBG reported that during 20-26 December gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2 km above Agung's crater rim and drifted W and E; weather clouds and fog sometimes prevented visual observations. Incandescence from the crater was sometimes observed at night. BNPB reported that during 22-23 December events generated dense gray ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NE. Ash fell on the flanks and in Tulamben, Kubu. As of 25 December there were 71,045 evacuees spread out in 239 shelters. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions. PVMBG reported that during 13-19 December gray-and-white plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above Agung's crater rim and drifted W, N, and E; weather clouds and fog sometimes prevented visual observations. Incandescence from the crater was sometimes observed at night. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions.PVMBG posted two map-view images of Agung, one from 20 October showing pre-eruptive conditions and one from 16 December showing the lava that had erupted onto the crater floor, noting that about 1/3 of the crater had been filled with an estimated 20 million cubic meters of lava. The number of evacuees on 10 December was 70,079 (spread out in 237 shelters). Ash plumes rose as high as 2 km. Lahars were observed in a drainage originating on the flanks of Agung. An explosion at 0549 on 11 December generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted W and NW. Multiple ash-plume events were observed during 11-12 December, with plumes rising 1.5 km above the crater rim. Video taken at the summit crater. on 13th of December. An overflight by drone, carried out on December 14 showed the "lava cake"in the summit crater.The PVMBG states that the ratio of magma emitted has decreased since the end of November, and only 1/3 of the crater is filled with lava. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones continued at a general 8-km radius and 10 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions. BNPB reported that on December 9, plumes of ashes were observed at 5:05 and 5:49 local; strong winds tilted the plume north. A local 7h30 eruption ejected ash and gas to 2,000 meters above the crater. ashfall was reported on the village of Temakung / Karangasem. As of the 8th of December, some ash emissions reaching a height between 500 and 2,100 meters above the summit; glowing was observed during the night. BNPB reported that a gray-white plume rose to 500-1,000 meters above the crater, then drifted eastward on December 4 at 23:15 WITA. during nighttime glowing was observed above the crater. The seismicity was characterized by 4 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 14 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, 29 low frequency earthquakes and 2 harmonic tremor episode. The level of the tremor is of 1-2mm of amplitude, with a dominant at 1 mm. According to BNPB, the volcano seems calm on the morning of December 3, emitting only a plume of steam and gas at 500-1,000 meters above the crater. However,, the internal activity remained important. Yesterday, a continuous tremor of 22 minutes between 14:34 and 14:56 local were recorded indicates, according to the PVMBG, a supplied of magma still occurs, and predicts a lapse of time of ten days for the filling of the crater, a total volume estimated at 60,000,000 m³.Seismicity remains low overall, and the level of alert identical. In the day of November 29, a gray plume was seen at a height of 1,500-2,000 meters above the crater; the 17:25 WITA eruption and plume height could not be observed because of the fog covering the summit.The thermal anomaly observed at Agung in recent days has been several times: 27.11 with 51 MW, 28.11 at 22:20 WITA with 97 MW, 29.11 with 5 MW, attesting to magmatic activity, and risks of ejection of incandescent ballistic projectiles and ashes, at first, production of lava flows and pyroclastic flows, or more in case of plinian eruption.As for the inconvenience due to ashes on the air traffic, the airport of Bali is opened, this November 30, while that of Lombok was closed again. The seismicity is relatively low, with 9 VA deep volcanic earthquakes, 23 VB superficial volcanic earthquakes, a local tectonic earthquake, an eruption earthquake, and a continuous tremor of amplitude varying between 1 and 24 mm (with a dominant at 2 mm) ; On November 30, the tremor level decreased with a dominant at 1 mm.As of the 28th of November, BNPB reported that magmatic eruption continued. The ash plume oscillates between 2,500 and 4,000 meters above the summit, before drifting to the southwest. On November 27, the MIROVA site detected for the first time a thermal anomaly of 51 MW, indicating the presence of lava on the surface. Tremor, of amplitude 1 to 2 mm (dominant 1 mm) is recorded continuously, and reported increasing 28.11.Heavy rains increase the risk of lahars and landslides. The mudslides and lahars in progress have so far been no casualties. 22 villages are present in zone of danger (8-10 km around the volcano), and the number of people living there is estimated between 90,000 and 100,000. This particular situation has a direct impact on air traffic: the authorities extended the closure of Ngurah Rai International Airport until 29 November at 7am. As of the 27th of November, BNPB reported that based on the analysis of the instrumental and visual data, and the consideration of potential dangers, the alert level of the Agung has reached the maximum: level IV / Awas.The exclusion zone has been extended to a radius of 8 km, and to 10 km at NNE and SSO of the crater. These areas are permantly evaluated; they include the villages of Ban, Dukuh, Baturinggit, Sukadana, Kubu, Tulamben, Datah, Nawakerti, Pidpid, Buanagiri, Bebandem, Jungutan, North Duda, Amerta Buana, Sebudi, Besakih and Pempatan.The airport Ngurah Rai was closed initially until 28.11 in the morning, because of the ashes.Following the rains, a first lahar was observed south of Agung in Sidemen district. It is advisable not to have activity around the river. The ashes fell in many places, covering the roofs and plants with thick ash layer; they are reported from the villages of North Duda, Duda Timur, Pempetan, Besakih, Sideman, Tirta Abang, Sebudi, Amerta Bhuana in the Klungkung District, and some villages in Gianyar.According latest news, the activity of the Agung has changed during the night, and on November 26 in the morning, a large ash plume rose from a height of 2,000 meters above the summit at 5:05 WITA to 3,000 meters at 5:45 am. Gome-2 satellite detected the sulfur dioxide emitted by the eruption; this morning at 9:30 local, the flow of SO2 was estimated at 1,000-2,000 tons, a value qualified with certainty of magmatic. The BNPB also reported that the eruptions have a magmatic character since last night. The VONA for Agung is now Red, while the volcanic alert level remains at III, for now. Seismicity is characterized by low frequency earthquakes.The ash cloud is heading towards ENE and Lombok Island, where small ash falls are reported.As of the 25th of November according to local news an eruption has begun on Agung, this time it's larger than the initial phreatic eruption from the other day. Mount Agung eruption occurred at 17:30 WITA. The gray columns were observed in medium-grayish-blackish-gray as high as 1500 meters above the summit of Mount Agung. Communities remain calm and follow PVMBG's recommendation on Level III (Siaga) status not to engage in any activity within a 6 km radius plus a sectoral extension of 7.5 km to the North-Northeast, Southeast and South-Southwest. VONA color code: ORANGE. Previously, The PVMBG reported that an ash eruption / emission started on 21.11.2017 at 09.05 UTC / 17.05 local time, accompanied by a scattered ash plume rising about 700 meters from the summit crater. The eruption and the emission of ashes, towards the East - Southeast, continued. Seismicity is characterized by volcano-tectonic earthquakes. A VONA / Volcano Observattory Notice for Aviation has been issued: the code changes from Yellow to Orange. The alert level remains at 3, with a exclusion zone of 6-7.5 km radius.A drone flyover shortly after the explosive eruption shows a very white plume, suggesting a preponderance of steam, with no significant component of ash.The ashes will have to undergo an examination by the volcanologists to make sure of the exact nature of this episode, which seems phreatic. PVMBG reported that white plumes from Agung rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim during 8-14 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the exclusion zones remained intact (at 6 km, and an additional expansion to 7.5 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions). As of the 9th of November, BNPB reported that the seismicity was characterized by an episode of harmonic tremor, 78 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 34 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 14 local tectonic earthquakes, of which 2 felt. The earthquake of M5.0 SR of November 9 at 4:54 WIB, and a depth of 10 km, located at 11.35 km from the Agung, is associated,  function of the position of its epicenter and its depth,  with an active fault. The vapor and gas plume was observed at a height of 50-200 meters above the crater.On 7th of November, BNPB reported that seismicity and visible activity remained at low level; the steam plume rose between 400 meters on November 5th and about 100-200 meters on the 6th of November. According to the same source 116,766 inhabitants are still displaced, despite the lowering of the alert level.t On 29 October PVMBG lowered the Alert level for Agung to 3 (on a scale of 1-4), noting a decline in activity, especially since 20 October. The thermal anomaly in the crater identified in satellite data was less intense in October than in September. Beginning on 20 October GPS data showed a slower deformation rate. Seismic signals decreased in number and amplitude, though low-frequency events continued to indicate magma movement. White fumarolic plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim during 20-29 October; a comparison of video taken by drones on 20 and 29 October showed a relative decrease in the intensity of fumarolic emissions. BNPB stated that, despite the decreased Alert Level, the exclusion zones remained intact (at 6 km, and an additional expansion to 7.5 km in the NNE, SE, S, and SW directions). The number of evacuees was 133,457 (spread out in 385 shelters). PVMBG reported that on October 26, the status remained unchanged. A plume of steam is observed between 100 and 300 meters above the summit. On 25 October, a non-harmonic tremor episode, 119 VA deep volcanic earthquakes, 87 VB superficial volcanic earthquakes, and two local tectonic earthquakes were recorded.The inflation marking the volcano is more than 6 cm, and the level of magma, raised to 4 km, is estimated at 18.5 million cubic meters. PVBMG reported that during past days visibility has allow to see steam and gas plumes between 200 and 500 meters above the summit.The seismicity has decreased, while remaining important:- on October 22nd, the PVMBG reports 122 VA deep volcanic earthquakes, 62 VB superficial volcanic earthquakes, and 9 local tectonic earthquakes.- On October 23, there were 4 episodes of non-harmonic tremor, 154 VA earthquakes, 53 VB earthquakes and 11 local tectonic earthquakes.The seismic activity of the Agung remains high and fluctuates after the upgrade of the activity to level IV (Awas). On 17 and 18 October, the summit is visible, and surmounted by a plume of steam and gas rising this 18.10 between 300 and 500 meters above the summit. PVMBG reported that although foggy conditions at Agung sometimes prevented visual observations, during 11-17 October dense white plumes were seen rising 200 m above the crater rim. On 14 October BNPB stated that seismicity remained high; PVMBG noted that seismicity was dominated by shallow volcanic events, and the number of volcanic earthquakes remained steady. The governor of Bali extended the state of emergency to 26 October, noting that the Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4). The number of evacuees was 139,199 (spread out in 389 shelters). Oon 15th of October, PVMBG reported that the summit is dominated this day with a plume of steam up to 200 meters, possibly potentiated by rains on the summits the day before. In comparison with October 14, seismicity shows a decrease in episodes on October 15:- 14 October: 764 deep VA volcanic earthquakes, 283 VB volcanic earthquakes, 89 local tectonic earthquakes, and 6 nonharmonic tremor episodes.- 15 October: 474 deep VA volcanic earthquakes, 270 VB volcanic earthquakes, 44 local tectonic earthquakes.-On 5 October 2017 PVMBG reported that the rate of volcanic earthquakes at Agung had not increased during the previous 12 days, but continued to fluctuate at a high level. The seismic network detected 1-3 earthquakes per minute on average, with a total more than 600 events per day. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes increased to 200 per day during 24 September-5 October, possibly indicating that magmatic activity at shallow depths was still high. The number of earthquakes felt by staff at the Mt. Agung Volcano Observatory in Rendang village, 12.5 km SSW, peaked on 27 September and then decreased afterwards. Gas plumes rose 50-200 m above the crater rim. Satellite data indicated an area of water expulsion near the solfatara field on the crater floor thought to reflect a disturbance to the hydrologic system in response to intruded magma at depth. On 5 October BNPB reported that the number of evacuees reached 146,797 (spread out in 427 shelters), though about 28 villages (70,000 people) were located within the evacuation zone. About 10,000 farm animals had also been evacuated. On 7 October a white plume likely composed mostly of water vapor rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and slowly drifted E. During 8-10 October fumarolic plumes rose 50-200 m above the rim. The Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone at 9 km, and an additional expansion to 12 km in the SE, S, and SW directions. No major changes to the Agung, where the seismicity remains high and slightly up, accompanied by emissions at 200 meters above the summit on the morning of October 7th. On 29 September PVMBG reported that earthquakes at Agung were becoming stronger with more felt by local residents, and larger ones felt in areas 45-55 km SW including Denpasar and Kuta. Fumarolic emissions were identified in satellite data, as well as hot areas on the crater floor that had enlarged over the previous week. A new fracture on the crater floor emitted steam. After a M 4.2 earthquake was detected at 1627 on 26 September emissions intensified and rose 500 m above the crater rim. On 4 October BNPB reported that seismicity continued to fluctuate at high levels, and weak emissions rose above the crater rim. The number of evacuees reached 141,213 (spread out in 416 shelters) from 78 villages, though about 2,600 in locations outside of the evacuation zone were returning home; there were 28 villages (about 70,000 people) within the evacuation zone. The Alert Level remained at 4 (the highest level on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone at 9 km, and an additional expansion to 12 km in the SE, S, and SW directions. PVMBG reported that seismicity remained high with, on 28 September, 444 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 214 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 23 local tectonic earthquakes. On September 29, between 0h and 6h local, seismic network recorded 125 VA earthquakes, 40 VB earthquakes and 5 local tectonic earthquakes. Since two days, gas and steam emissions have become permanent. The PVMBG reported a visible fracture in the crater, from which emit these emissions, based on satellite images ... according to local scientist the existence of this fracture shows that movements of the magma continue towards the surface. the last data of the PVMBG report for the 27 of September, at 19h, 444 deep volcanic earthquakes VA, 329 superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 56 local tectonic earthquakes, earthquakes with a force and in greater number than the day before. The BNPB figures the number of people evacuated to nearly 100,000, possibly increasing. On 24 September BNPB reported that the number of refugees continued to grow, as residents were leaving the expanded evacuation zones; there were 34,931 people in 238 shelters. The report noted that some evacuees were returning home in the daytime to feed their livestock. On 27 September the number of evacuees reached 96,086 (spread out in 430 shelters), seismic activity continued to escalate, and diffuse white plumes rose 50 m above the crater rim. Seismicity remained high on the Agung, where the observatory reports, on 22 September, noted 586 volcanic earthquakes VA, 119 Superficial volcanic earthquakes VB, and 119 local tectonic earthquakes. On September 23rd, between 0h and 6h local, there are already 72 volcanic earthquakes VA, 16 volcanic earthquakes VB and 6 local tectonic earthquakes.PVMBG reported an Increased seismicity at Agung, as well as the severity of past eruptions, prompted PVMBG to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The report noted that volcanic earthquakes (VA) began to be recorded on 10 August 2017 and shallow volcanic earthquakes (VB) began to be recorded on 24 August. Local tectonic earthquakes were also recorded and began to increase consistently on 26 August. PVMBG warned the public to stay at least 3 km away from the crater. On 13 September a climber observed a sulfatara plume rising from the bottom of the crater as high as 50 m above the crater rim. During 14-18 September 2017 four earthquakes centered around Agung were felt. On 18 September PVMBG reported that the number of VA and VB events continued to increase; the Alert Level was increased to 3. The exclusion zone was increased to 6 km, with an additional expansion to 7.5 km in the N, SE, and SSW directions. Elevations above 950 m were also restricted. A VEI 5 eruption during 1963-64 produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and resulted in more than 1,100 deaths. Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali's highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means "Paramount," rises above the SE caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks of Agung extend to the coast. The 3142-m-high summit contains a steep-walled, 500-m-wide, 200-m-deep crater. The flank cone Pawon is located low on the SE side. Only a few eruptions dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded in historical time. The 1963-64 eruption, one of the world's largest of the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall along with devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities (GVN/GVP). Webcam 1 - Webcam 2 -


Papandayan volcano (Java) - PVMBG reported that during 1 August-17 October 2016 seismicity at Papandayan fluctuated but decreased overall. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post where observers noted white plumes rising at most 35 m above the crater. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 October; residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 500-m radius. PVMBG reported that during 1 September-16 November seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of deep volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and hybrid events. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post where observers noted white plumes rising at most 35 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 1 June-13 July seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of deep volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and hybrid events. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; where observers noted white plumes rising at most 30 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 1-11 June shallow volcanic earthquakes at Papandayan occurred at an average rate of 26 events/day. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; observers noted white plumes rising at most 50 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 22 April-25 May seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, tremor, and local and remote tectonic earthquakes. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; observers noted white plumes rising at most 30 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 1 March-21 April seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, and local and remote tectonic earthquakes. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; observers noted white plumes rising at most 100 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius..Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which was breached to the NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields. The broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and Gunung Puntang to the N gives the volcano a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of collapse have given the volcano an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have impacted lowland areas beyond the volcano. Since its first historical eruption in 1772, in which a catastrophic debris avalanche destroyed 40 villages, only two small phreatic eruptions have occurred from vents in the NE-flank fumarole field, Kawah Mas. (GVN/GVP)

Mount Semeru ( Java) -Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 September 2018 a possible ash-and-steam plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. Based on analysis of satellite images and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 September 2018 a discrete eruption at Semeru generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on analysis of satellite images and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 August 2018 ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, NW, and SE. Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 July an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on April 2018 a short-lived, discreet eruption at Semeru generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. News 2017 - Based on analysis of satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 January 2017 ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that a short-duration eruption from Semeru generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 25 km SW. Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 25 and 27 May ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-40 km SW. Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 April an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NE. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 February ash plumes from Semeru rose to altitudes of 6.7-7.9 km (22,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. According to a news article, a lava-dome collapse on 13 February generated pyroclastic flows that traveled 4-5 km down the S and SE flanks; the nearest village in that direction is 9 km away. .Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The volcano, rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967. (GVN/GVP)

Lokon Empung (Sulawesi) -PVMBG reported that on 25 March 2017 six climbers between the ages of 15 and 20 climbed to Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, into the restricted area, where one of the climbers fell into the crater and died. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. Although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, PVMBG reported that during 1-14 September 2016 observers at the post in Kakaskasen Tomohon (North Sulawesi, 4 km from the crater) saw white plumes rising as high as 250 m above the crater. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes was the highest on 1 September (20 recorded), and then fluctuated between 1 and 4 per day during 2-14 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.Although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, PVMBG reported that during 5 February-8 March observers at the post in Kakaskasen Tomohon (North Sulawesi, 4 km from the crater) saw white plumes rising as high as 200 m above the crater. Seismicity increased; shallow volcanic earthquakes notably increased on 6 March. Deformation data indicated inflation. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 March due to significant increases in deformation and seismic data. Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 2.5 km. Although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, PVMBG reported that during 1 December 2015-4 February 2016 observers at the post in Kakaskasen Tomohon (North Sulawesi, 4 km from the crater) saw white plumes rising as high as 400 m above the crater. Seismicity fluctuated but decreased overall. No deformation was detected. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 February. Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks (whose summits are only 2.2 km apart), has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred.(GVN/GVP)

Rinjani volcano (Lombok) -PVMBG and BNPB reported that a M 6.4 earthquake was recorded at 0547 on 29 July, shaking the islands of Lombok, Bali, and Sumbawa, and causing significant damage to buildings (including collapses) and roads, ground cracks, multiple injuries, and the death of 17 people in Lombok. The hypocenter was 24 km deep, and 47 km NE of Mataram City. Aftershocks were numerous and as large as M 5.7. The earthquakes caused remobilization of ash deposits on Rinjani as well as landslides. There were 1,226 visitors to
the Mount Rinjani National Park Area at the time, and, according to news articles, about 690 climbers were on the volcano and had to be rescued. One person in the national park died from rockfalls. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); the public was warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius.
Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra's Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak (Samalas) caldera. The caldera formed during one of the largest Holocene eruptions globally in 1257 CE, which truncated Samalas stratovolcano. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera. Historical eruptions dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lake.

Iya volcano (Flores Islands) - PVMBG reported that after an increase on 29 September 2016 seismicity at Iya decreased significantly, with the number of deep volcanic earthquakes
slowing from a rate of five per day or less, to none on 22 October. On 31 October the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4). Gunung Iya is the southernmost of a group of three
volcanoes comprising a small peninsula south of the city of Ende on central Flores Island. The cones to the north, Rooja and Pui, appear to be slightly older than Iya and have not shown historical activity, although Pui has a youthful profile (a reported 1671 eruption of Pui was considered to have originated from Iya volcano). Iya, whose truncated southern side drops
steeply to the sea, has had numerous moderate explosive eruptions during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

Egon volcano ( Flores ) - PVMBG reported that during 1 July-31 October 2016 gas plumes from Egon rose no higher than 100 m above the crater. Seismicity decreased and was dominated by signals indicating emissions. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 November. Gunung Egon volcano sits astride the narrow waist of eastern Flores Island. The barren, sparsely vegetated summit region has a 350-m-wide, 200-m-deep crater that sometimes contains a lake. Other small crater lakes occur on the flanks of the 1703-m-high volcano, which is also known as Namang. A lava dome forms the southern 1671-m-high summit. Solfataric activity occurs on the crater wall and rim and on the upper southern flank. Reports of historical eruptive activity prior to explosive eruptions beginning in 2004 were inconclusive. A column of "smoke" was often observed above the summit during 1888-1891 and in 1892. Strong "smoke" emission in 1907 reported by Sapper (1917) was considered by the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Padang, 1951) to be an historical eruption, but Kemmerling (1929) noted that this was likely confused with an eruption on the same date and time from Lewotobi Lakilaki volcano. (GVN/GVP)

Gamalama (Ternate) - On 10 October 2018 PVMBG reported only gas emissions (mostly water vapor) from Gamalama; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. Based on satellite data and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 October 2018 ash plumes rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. According to news from PVMBG an eruption occured on October 4, 2018 at 11:52 WIT; a column of ash was observed at about 250 meters above the summit (ie at 1,965 m altitude), probably in connection with a hydrothermal activity. Previous news 2016 - Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-4 August 2016 ash plumes from Gamalama rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, E, and NE. On 5 August PVMBG noted that seismicity continued to be elevated although inclement weather prevented visual observations. PVMBG reported that at 0628 on 3 August a weak explosion at Gamalama generated an ash plume that rose 500-600 m above the crater and drifted SE and S. Ash emissions declined at 0655. Ashfall was reported in areas on the SSE flank including Ake Huda. The report also noted a brief airport closing. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. PVMBG reported that During 1 January-6 March seismicity at Gamalama fluctuated but decreased overall; shallow volcanic earthquakes and signals indicating emissions appeared on 3 March and a series of deep volcanic earthquakes were detected on 6 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 1 August-4 November seismicity at Gamalama fluctuated, and was dominated by hybrid earthquakes and signals indicating emissions. Three periods of increased seismicity were recorded during 3-5 and 11-19 August, and 8-22 October, though seismicity declined overall. A sudden, small eruption from a fissure on the NW flank occurred at 1953 on 8 September with no precursory seismicity, and produced a plume that rose 1 km. Gray plumes rose from 300-600 m the vent during 9-24 September. White plumes rose from Main Crater and fissures on the E and NW flanks as high as 200 m during 1 October-3 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. Gamalama (Peak of Ternate) is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island of Ternate was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of Gamalama's historical activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit of Gamalama, which reaches 1715 m. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano. Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63. (GVN/GVP)

Dempo volcano (Sumatra) According to PVMBG a three-minute-long phreatic eruption at Dempo began at 1651 on 9 November 2017, and generated a dense ash plume that rose 4.2 km
(13,800 ft) a.s.l., about 1 km above the crater rim, and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Previously, Observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during January and February no plumes rose from Dempo's crater, and during 1 March-4 April diffuse white plumes rose no higher than 50 m above the crater. Seismicity increased from 21 March to 4 April. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale from 1-4) on 5 April. Visitors and residents were advised not to approach the craters within 3 km. Previously, observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during 1 June-9 September 2016 no plumes rose from Dempo's crater and seismicity was low. On 10 September the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale from 1-4). Visitors and residents were advised not to approach the craters. Previously, observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during 0730-0900 on 27 April 2015 diffuse gray-white plumes rose 50 m above Dempo crater. Seismicity had increased during April as compared to the previous month. On 29 April the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale from 1-4). Visitors and residents were advised not to go within a 1-km radius of the summit. Dempo is a prominent 3173-m-high stratovolcano that rises above the Pasumah Plain of SE Sumatra. The andesitic Dempo volcanic complex has two main peaks, Gunung Dempo and Gunung Marapi, constructed near the SE rim of a 3 x 5 km caldera breached to the north. The one called Dempo is slightly lower, with an elevation of 3049 m and lies at the SE end of the summit complex. The taller Marapi cone, with a summit elevation 3173 m, was constructed within a crater cutting the older Gunung Dempo edifice. Remnants of 7 craters are found at or near the summit of the complex, with volcanism migrating to the WNW with time. The large, 800 x 1100 m wide historically active summit crater cuts the NW side of Gunung Marapi (not to be confused with Marapi volcano 500 km to the NW in Sumatra) and contains a 400-m-wide lake located at the far NW end of the crater complex. Historical eruptions have been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive activity that produced ashfall near the volcano. (GVN/GVP)

Kawah Ijen volcano ( Java island) - As of the 27th of March 2018, PVMBG reported that based on information from residents of Sempol (8 km W), PVMBG reported that 27 people in Watu Capil village (7 km NW) required medical treatment after exposure to sulfur dioxide gas from Ijen at 2100 on 21 March. The path from Paltuding (SW base) to the top of the crater was closed as a result. During 21-22 March white plumes rose 100-200 m above the summit area; there were no visible changes in the emissions after the incident. PVMBG noted that there had been three occurrences of anomalous gas concentrations during January-March. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim or crater floor. The Ijen volcano complex at the eastern end of Java consists of a group of small stratovolcanoes constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng) caldera. The north caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung Merapi, which forms the high point of the complex. Immediately west of the Gunung Merapi stratovolcano is the historically active Kawah Ijen crater, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide, turquoise-colored, acid lake. Picturesque Kawah Ijen is the world's largest highly acidic lake and is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation in which sulfur-laden baskets are hand-carried from the crater floor. Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of cones forms an E-W zone across the southern side of the caldera. Coffee plantations cover much of the caldera floor, and tourists are drawn to its waterfalls, hot springs, and volcanic scenery. (GVP/GVN)

Bromo volcano (Tengger caldera) - Java Island - Based on analyses of satellite and webcam images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-12 November 2017 ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, E, and SE. -PVMBG reported that during 1-20 October brownish, reddish, and grayish gray plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose as high as 900 m above the crater and drifted E, NW, W, and SW. Seismic activity was dominated by constant tremor although the amplitude decreased. On 20 October the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1 km. Based on analyses of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 October ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km SW and W. On 7 October PVMBG reported that activity at Bromo cone remained high. Grayish-white and blackish-brown plumes rose 100-300 m above the crater rim and drifted NW. Based on analyses of satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 September and 1 October ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. PVMBG reported that during 1 June-25 September brownish gray plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater. A sulfur odor was noted at the Bromo observation post, thunderous noises sometimes vibrated the post doors, and occasionally crater incandescence was observed. Seismic activity was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes and tremor. The deformation network measured inflation. Based on analyses of satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 September ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. (720 m above the crater) and drifted almost 40 km SW. On 26 September the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 2.5 km. Previously, based on analyses of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 August minor gas-and-steam emissions from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone remained localized within the caldera. Based on analyses of satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-31 July and 1 August ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km NW, W, and SW. Based on analyses of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 July ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NW and W. Based on satellite images, wind data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-16 and 19 July ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.3 km (7,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NW, SW, and SE. BNPB reported that the Abdul Rachman Saleh Airport in Malang (26 km W) closed again due to ash, from 2307 on 15 July to 0900 on 16 July; six flights were diverted and two were cancelled. Minor amounts of ash fell in the communities of Probolinggo (35 km NE) and Lumajang (36 km SW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1 km. The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)


Kerinci volcano (Sumatra) - Based on satellite images, ground observers, and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-22 October ash plumes from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, W, WSW, and SW. Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-30 September and 2 October 2018 ash plumes from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W. Previously, Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 June an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 June 2018 a minor ash emission from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-19 and 21 November ash plumes from Kerinci rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km (14,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, ENE, SE, and S. Plumes drifted almost 30 km on 17 November. Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 November an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 30 km NE. Based on satellite data and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-9 June ash plumes from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N. Based on satellite data and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-6 June ash plumes from Kerinci rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km (14,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N. Based on reports from PVMBG and satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 May 2016 an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l.and drifted WSW Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 April an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l.Based on reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 April an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l., and drifted NE and E. The 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. Kerinci is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. The volcano contains a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit of Kerinci. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. The frequently active Gunung Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838. Latest activity occurred in June 2013.

Sinabung volcano (Sumatra) - volcano of the year 2015 - 2016 - 2017 - 2018 Special Summary from the beginning of the eruption - Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-22 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.PVMBG reported that at 0700 on 15 June an event at Sinabung produced an ash plume that rose at least 500 m above the crater rim and drifted ESE. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG reported that during 16-21 May gray-to-white plumes from Sinabung rose as high as 700 m above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. At 0900 on 20 May an event produced an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted NW. An ash plume from an event later that day at 2122 rose 2.5 km and drifted W and NW. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG reported that during 18-22 April gray-to-white plumes from Sinabung rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim and drifted in multiple directions. At 1604 on 20 April an event produced an ash plume that rose 3 km and pyroclastic flows that traveled 1 km down the E, SE, W, and NW flanks. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG reported that at 0640 on 12 April an event at Sinabung generated an ash plume that rose 200 m and drifted WNW. At 1655 pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that drifted WSW. At 0827 on 15 April an event generated an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted WNW. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG and BNPB reported that an eruption at Sinabung at 1607 on 6 April generated a dark gray ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater, and a pyroclastic flow that descended the SE and SW flanks 3.5 km. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. According to news articles, ashfall affected hundreds of hectares of agricultural land in the district of Karo, North Sumatra, and the Alas Leuser airport was closed on 7 April due to ash. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-26 February ash lumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-3.7 km (11,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and W.PVMBG reported that following two-week of increasing in sulfur dioxide emissions, based on the Aura OMI satellite detections, a sign of a rise in fresh magma, and seismicity since February 17, the Sinabung presented this February 19 at 8:53 am WIB a strong eruption; It was accompanied by a plume of ash and gas rising to 5,000 meters in height, and several pyroclastic flows traveling 4,900 meters to the SSE and 3,500 meters to the ESA, lasting between 195 and 792 seconds. ; They have only impacted exclusion zone. PVMBG reported that ash plumes at Sinabung rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater during 24-30 January and drifted E, S, SW, and W. Avalanches of incandescent material traveled as far as 1.5 km down the ESE flank. A pyroclastic flow traveled 2.5 km down the ESE flank on 27 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG and BNPB reported that ash plumes at Sinabung were seen rising as high as 3.5 km above the crater during 18-23 January and drifting E, SE, and W, although sometimes foggy conditions prevented visual observations. Avalanches of incandescent material traveled as far as 1.5 km down the ESE flank during 21-23 January. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. PVMBG reported that 5 eruptions occurred on 12 January, accompanied by ash plumes rising to 1,000-1,800 meters above the summit and 3 pyroclastic flows towards the East and SSE.PVMBG reported that on January 10, three eruptions, accompanied by ash plumes at 700-1,500 meters above the summit and 60 episodes of collapse of blocks transiting up to 1,500 meters south, southeast and east, were enumerated.The volume of the summit dome is always close to 2 million cubic meters.PVMBG reported that dome growth continues, as well as explosions, reported by the PVMBG five in number on December 6, accompanied by ash plumes rising between 300 and 2,500 meters above the summit. Many earthquakes related to collapse are recorded.PVMBG reported that during 27 December 2017-2 January 2018 events at Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.2 km above the crater rim, and avalanches of material that traveled as far as 1.5 km E, SE, and S. Pyroclastic flows descended the E, SSE, and S flanks during 27-29 December, traveling 4.6 km SSE and 3.5 km E and S. As of the 28th of December, PVMBG reported that Sinabung was the site of a strong eruption on December 27 at 15:36 WIB. The height of the eruptive column could not be observed due to atmospheric conditions (see video); Following the eruption, two pyroclastic flows were reported by the Sinabung observation post, one traveling over 3,500 meters to the ESE, the other over 4,500 meters to the SSE. They did not cause any casualties, remaining confined within the forbidden zone.The ash falls have affected thousands of people, without causing panic. They have fallen on a large eastern sector, including Sukanalu, Tonggal Town, Kuta Central, Gamber, Berastepu, Jeraya, Iron Door.The aviation alert level is orange. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-19 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4-5.5 km (13,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE, ESE, SE, and S. PVMBG noted that avalanches of hot material traveled as far as 3.5 km S, SE, ESE, and E. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-9 and 11-12 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4.3-4.9 km (14,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE, E, SE, and SW. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 November and 1-2 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-4.9 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and E. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-25 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-6.7 km (11,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, WSW, ESE, and E. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-19 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4.3-4.9 km (14,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9 and 11-12 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4.6-4.9 km (15,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and ESE. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2 and 5-7 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-4.9 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and SSE. Based on observations by PVMBG, satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 and 21-23 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose 2.4-4.6 km (8,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directionsBNPB stated that at 1051 on 11 October 2017 an event at Sinabung generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted ESE, causing ashfall in several local villages. At 0245 on 12 October an event produced an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater, and was followed by pyroclastic flows traveling 1.5 and 2 km down the S and ESE flanks, respectively. The report noted that activity remained high. Based on observations by PVMBG and information from the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-15 October ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sectorBased on observations by PVMBG and BMKG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 and 7-9 October 2017 ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.8 km (10,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directionsBased on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-29 September and 1-2 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.7-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 September 2017 ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-4 km (11,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted E and SE. On 25 September ash plumes rose 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE. Based on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-16 and 18 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-7.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted ESE, SE, SW. Strombolian activity marked the Sinabung on 17 September, characterized by plumes of different colors, above a nearby dome. The seismographs recorded three eruptions, and the observatory observed an ashcolumn high of about 1100 - 2000 meters, and some ashfalls on the Sinabung station. Based on observations by PVMBG, webcam and satellite images, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-8 and 12 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, and E. Based on observations by PVMBG and the Jakarta MWO, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 August-1 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-4 km (11,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW, NW, and ENE.Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4-4.9 km (13,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and ESE. PVMBG reported that the lava dome in Sinabung's crater that had been growing since April was destroyed during the 2-3 August events. The dome had grown to an estimated volume of 2.3 million cubic meters. Measurements on 6 August indicated that a new dome had a volume of 23,700 cubic meters. Based on PVMBG ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 August an ash plume from Sinabung rose to 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE. Based on PVMBG ground observations, the Jakarta MWO satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 and 13 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-5.2 km (11,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and ESE. PVMBG reported intense activity at Sinabung on 2 August; between 0800 and 1200, pyroclastic flows were generated 17 times and traveled as far as 4.5 km ESE. Ash plumes rose up to 4.2 km above the crater and drifted S, causing ashfall in local areas including Perbaji (4 km SW), Sukatendel, Temberun, Perteguhen (7 km ESE), Kuta Rakyat (5 km NE), Simpang Empat (7 km SE), Tiga Pancur (6 km SSE), Selandi (5 km SSW), Payung (5 km SSW), and Kuta Gugung (5 km N). Significant ashfall was noted in Ndokum Siroga (9 km ESE), Gajah (8 km E), and Naman Teran (5 km NE). BNPB noted that there were 2,038 families (7,214 people) displaced to eight shelters, and an additional 2,863 people living in refugee camps. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-7 August multiple ash plumes rose as high as 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-29 and 31 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-4.6 km (11,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, ENE, and ESE. Based on PVMBG and pilot observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-25 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose 2.7-6.1 km (9,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. -Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAACreported that during 14-15 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-4.9 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, SE, and W.Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6 and 8-11 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-5.5 km (11,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, SE, and NW. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 June-3 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-4.9 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-27 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.2 km (10,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-17 and 19 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-6.4 km (10,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-14 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-5.5 km (11,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and S. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 May-5 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.4-5.5 km (11,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. -Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-29 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.7-5.8 km (12,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-20 and 24 May 2017 ash plumes from Sinabung rose 4.3-8.8 km (14,000-29,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. BNPB reported a high-intensity eruption at the volcano on 20 May. An ash plume rose 4 km and drifted SE. There were 2,038 families (7,214 people) displaced to eight shelters, and an additional 2,863 people living in refugee camps. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.9 km (10,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam and satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-9 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-30 April and 2 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.6 km (11,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-22 and 24 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.3 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and E. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-15 and 17 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.6 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and E. Based on PVMBG observations and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7 and 9-11 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-8.2 km (11,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and WNW. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22, 24-25, and 27 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.3 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and E. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-18 and 21 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, N, W, and WSW. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-14 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.2 km (10,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, SW, and S. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite data, webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2, 5, and 7 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22 and 24-26 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-5.2 km (11,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW, W, and SW. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-18 and 20-21 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and S. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-13 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-6.7 km (11,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and SE. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite and webcam images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-7 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes as high as 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and SW. BNPB reported that each day during 2-7 February there were 8-12 ash-producing events with plumes rising as high as 2 km above the crater and drifting E. Pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 2 km S, SE, and E. BNPB noted that more areas had been designated disaster prone, therefore the number of people needed to be relocated also increased. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. Based on PVMBG observations, Indonesian Met Office observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-30 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-4.6 km (11,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and SSE. Based on PVMBG observations, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-20, 22, and 24 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.9-4.9 km (13,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, SW, and SE. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam views, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-17 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4-7.3 km (13,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NNE, E, SE, and S. Based on PVMBG observations and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-3 and 8-10 January 2017 ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.6-6.4 km (12,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NE, and E. Plumes drifted as far as 55 km E ln 8 January. A thermal anomaly was detected on 9 January. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam views, satellite images, and wind data the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28 December 2016-1 January 2017 ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.6 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted SW. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 30 December. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam views, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21-22 and 26-27 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3.3-6.2 km (11,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and NW. Based on PVMBG observations, webcam views, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15, 17, and 19 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.8 km (10,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and S. Based on satellite images, wind data, and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.2 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The report noted that the eruption had ceased and that the ash plume was expected to dissipate in the next hours. Based on satellite images, wind data, ground reports from PVMBG, and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-3.9 km (11,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite images, wind data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11 and 13-14 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-5.8 km (12,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on ground observers and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.9 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite images, wind data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 and 29 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.2 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. During 31 October-1 November ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Based on ground observations from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 October an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. On 12 October an ash plume drifted E at an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-29 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-3.9 km (12,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.Based on satellite images, the Jakarta MWO, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-25 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.2 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, ESE, and SE. Based on ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 September an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-3 September 2016 ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4.3-5.5 km (14,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WSW. BNPB reported increased activity at Sinabung on 24 August. Observers at the PVMBG Sinabung observation post noted a marked increase in seismicity, and counted 19 pyroclastic flows and 137 avalanches from the early morning until the late afternoon. Foggy conditions obscured visual observations of the activity through most of the day, although incandescent lava as far as 500 m SSE and 1 km ESE was noted in the morning, and a pyroclastic flow was seen traveling 3.5 km ESE at 1546. The lava dome had grown to a volume of 2.6 million cubic meters. There continued to be 2,592 families (9,319 people) displaced to nine shelters. Activity remained very high on 25 August; pyroclastic flows continuously descended the flanks, traveling as far as 2.5 km E and SE, and 84 avalanches occurred during the first part of the day. Based on satellite images and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NNE. On 29 August ash plumes reported by ground-based observers rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.Based on satellite images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17 and 21-22 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Based on satellite images, model data, ground reports from PVMBG, and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite images, model data, ground reports from PVMBG, and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-5 and 7 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, NE, and NNW. Based on satellite and webcam images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 July and 1 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4-4.3 km (13,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SSE.Based on satellite and webcam images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 and 24-25 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NE, and SE. Based on satellite images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-16 and 19 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW.Based on satellite images, model data, notices from the Jarkarta MWO, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6, 8-9, and 11 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, NE, and W.Based on PVMBG ground-based observations, satellite images, and webcam views, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 June-5 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-5.5 km (11,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. On 3 July BNPB reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued at a very high level. Lava was incandescent as far as 1 km down the SE and E flanks, and multiple avalanches were detected. An explosion at 1829 generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted E and SE, causing ashfall in Medan (55 km NE). The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. There were 2,592 families (9,319 people) displaced to nine shelters, and an additional 1,683 families in temporary shelters waiting for relocation. Based on PVMBG ground-based observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-27 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite and webcam images, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-20 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km (14,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-11 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-5.9 km (11000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, WSW, and W. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-7 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-3.9 km (11000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-29 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.9 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18, 21-22, and 24 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and E. BNPB reported that pyroclastic flow descended the flanks at 1648 on 21 May, killing six people and critically injuring three more. The victims were gardening in the village of Gamber, 4 km SE from the summit crater, in the restricted zone. The report noted that activity at Sinabung remained high; four pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 21 May, and ash plumes rose as high as 3 km. BNPB reported that a lahar passed through Kutambaru village, 20 km NW of Sinabung and near the Lau Barus River, at 1545 on 9 May, killing one person and injuring four more. One person was missing. A news article noted that three houses were also damaged. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 and 16 May ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-4.5 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, WNW, and NW.Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 and 9-10 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.8 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-30 April and 4 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.2 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WSW. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-21, 23-24, and 26 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.5 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15-50 km SW, W, and NW.Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-16 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.5 km (13,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNW, NW, and W. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6, 8-10, and 12 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.8 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and WNW. On 10 April BNPB reported that the eruption at Sinabung has not shown any signs of ceasing since the onset of activity in September 2013. Activity remained high, characterized by almost daily lava extrusion and pyroclastic flows, and high levels of seismicity. Four events on 10 April generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km. BNPB noted that although there were no new evacuees that day, 9,322 people (2,592 families) remained in 10 evacuation centers. Many families awaited relocation; 1,212 people had already been permanently relocated to new homes. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4); the public was reminded to stay outside of a 3-km radius. People within 7 km of the volcano in the SSE sector, within 6 km in the ESE sector, and within 4 km in the NNE sector should remain evacuated. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30 March-2 April and 4 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.2 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 and 28-29 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.9-5.5 km (13,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km NW, W, and SW. A low-level ash plume was identified by PVMBG on 27 March. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-19 and 21-22 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 2.7-4.9 km (9,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 65 km WSW, W, WNW, and NW. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 and 13-15 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.9 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km NW, W, and SW. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2 and 5-6 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km SE, SW, and W. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24 February-1 March 2016 ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km in multiple directions. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18 and 20-23 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km S, SW, W, and NW.Based on satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-5.2 km (11,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and almost 30 km NE. Based on satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW. Based on information from the Jakarta MWO, the DarwinVAAC reported that on 30 January and during 1-2 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Based on information from PVMBG and satellite images, the DarwinVAAC reported that during 20-22 and 25 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, and N. PVMBG reported that during 4-14 January 2016 inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. As many as 192 hot avalanches and 12 pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-3 km ESE. Ash plumes from a total of 40 events rose as high as 3 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche and pyroclastic-flow signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week, and indicated lava-dome growth. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano in the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-15 and 17-19 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. Based on information from PVMBG, ground reports, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-12 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15-40 km SW, W, NW, and NE.PVMBG reported that during 21-28 December inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. As many as 21 hot avalanches and pyroclastic flows traveled 0.7-1.5 km ESE, producing ash plumes that rose 1 km. Ash plumes from explosions rose as high as 3 km and drifted E and SW. Seismicity consisted of avalanche and pyroclastic-flow signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week, and indicated lava-dome growth. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG, satellite images, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 and 27-28 December ash plume from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-4 km (11,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted 10 km SW on 27 December.Based on information from PVMBG, satellite images, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-22 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, SE, and E. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 15 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km W. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SE. On 7 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 1 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-16 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and E. -Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. A pyroclastic flow was visible on 8 November; an ash plume was generated but the altitude was unable to be determined due to a weather cloud in the area. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30-31 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-7.6 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted over 35 km W on 31 October. Based on information from PVMBG, and analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 October an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 6.1 (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 October an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km SW. On 20 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km N. PVMBG reported that during 28 September-7 October inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km E to SE. As many as three pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 3 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. .PVMBG reported that during 21-28 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 3 km E to SE. As many as five pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 4 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. -PVMBG reported that during 14-24 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km E to SE. As many as eight pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 4 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 September ash plumes rose 1-2.5 km. PVMBG reported that during 8-14 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km ESE. As many as six pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 3.5 km ESE and SE. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated, although it had declined compared to the previous week. Deformation measurements showed deflation. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 September an ash plume from a pyroclastic flow rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. On 21 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Later that day a pilot observed an ash plume drifting 45 km SW at an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. PVMBG reported that during 2-9 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km ESE to SSE. The daily number of pyroclastic flows usually ranged from one to seven, although 11 were observed on 4 September; none were detected on 8 September. The pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3.5 km E to SE and generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. BNPB reported that on 15 September pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 4 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 3 km and drifted E, causing thick ashfall deposits in Berastagi, Kabanjahe, and surrounding areas. The number of displaced people totaled 2,572.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 September an ash plume from Sinabung rose 2 km above the summit. On 3 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km W. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km W. Based on weather models and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29-30 August an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. PVMBG reported that during 31 July-10 August foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km S to SE. The occurrence of pyroclastic flows per day ranged from one to seven, although none were noted on 8 August. The pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 4 km E to SE and generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 August a pyroclastic flow generated an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate.Based on weather models and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 35 km ESE. On 10 August an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. On 4 August BNPB reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued at a very high level. Lava was incandescent as far as 1.5 km SE and E down the flanks, and multiple avalanches were detected. Pyroclastic flows traveled at most 3 km ESE and SE, and ash plumes rose 2 km. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SE sector, and 6 km in the E sector. There were 3,152 families (11,114 people) displaced in 10 shelters, and an additional 2,053 families (6,179 people) in temporary shelters.Based on satellite images, webcam views, weather models, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 July an explosion at Sinabung generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km W. An explosion on 26 July generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. PVMBG reported that foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 22-29 June. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 3 km S and SE. Multiple pyroclastic flows per day during 22-26 and 28 June traveled 2.5-4 km down the flanks from the SSE to the SE. One pyroclastic flow was observed on 27 June. Ash plumes rose generally 3.5 km on most days, drifting E, SE, and S, although an ash plume rose as high as 5 km on 25 June. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. Deformation data showed a trend of inflation. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate.BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high. On 17 June there were 120 avalanches, four pyroclastic flows that traveled 2-3 km ESE and S, and lava was incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. On 18 June a pyroclastic flow traveled 2.5 km SE and incandescent lava as far as 1.5 km SE was observed. Based on ground observations, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE during 18-22 June. On 23 June BNPB noted that 10,184 people (3,030 families) were displaced, housed in 10 different shelters. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high. On 13 June six eruptions generated ash plumes that rose 1-2 km high and pyroclastic flows that traveled as far as 3 km SE. At 2140 about 200 people from Sukanalu village were ordered to evacuate. The report noted that 2,053 families (6,179 people) had been living in temporary shelters since June 2014. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). On 5 June BNPB reported that the Alert-Level increase for Sinabung on 2 June prompted 2,727 people (677 families) from the S and SE flanks to evacuate. PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations during 5-10 June, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose at most 1 km above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. Pyroclastic flows traveled 0.7-1.3 km daily down the S and SE flanks. Ash plumes from pyroclastic flows rose as high as 1 km during 5-6 and 10 June. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 25 May-2 June, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose 200-700 m above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2-3 km down the S and SE flanks during 26-28 May. An ash plume from a pyroclastic flow on 28 May rose into the fog. Two pyroclastic flows occurred on 2 June but fog prevented visual observations. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. Deformation data showed a trend of inflation. The Alert Level was raised to 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the S to E flanks should evacuate. On 3 June BNPB reported that the lava dome volume had increased to more than 3 million cubic meters and was unstable.PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 19-25 May, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose as high as 800 m during 19-20 and 22-24 May. Lava from the lava dome was active as far as 1.5 km S during 21-23 May. On 24 May a pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the S flank and produced an ash plume that rose 500 m. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions. PVMBG reported that foggy weather prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 4-12 May, except for a few clearer periods on some days. On 4 May dense white-to-gray plumes rose 700 m above the summit. During 7-11 May white plumes rose as high as 700 m. Lava from the dome traveled 1 km S on 10 May. A pyroclastic flow originating from the lava dome traveled 3 km S on 12 May, and produced ash plumes mainly obscured by fog. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; levels declined overall. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.PVMBG reported that during 6-12 April white plumes rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung; misty conditions prevented observations on 13 April. Lava was incandescent as far from the lava dome as 1.5 km S and SE. The main lava flow remained 2.9 km long. After pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 2 April, a new lava flow from the growing lava dome formed near the crater and traveled 170 m SSE. Recorded seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Overall seismicity decreased compared to 30 March-6 April. Tilt and EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) data fluctuated but showed overall deflation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions. According to social media sources, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and a pyroclastic flow descended the flank. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite observations.PVMBG reported that during 6-12 April white plumes rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung; misty conditions prevented observations on 13 April. Lava was incandescent as far from the lava dome as 1.5 km S and SE. The main lava flow remained 2.9 km long. After pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 2 April, a new lava flow from the growing dome formed near the crater and traveled 170 m SSE. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, local and far tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Overall seismicity decreased compared to 30 March-6 April. Tilt and EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) data fluctuated but showed overall deflation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE, and 3 km in other directions Based on PVMBG notices, BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung increased on 1 April. Seismicity increased. Pyroclastic flows traveled 3.5 km S and produced ash plumes that rose 2 km and drifted SW. Avalanches were detected and incandescent lava was observed at night. On 2 April 2015 pyroclastic flows traveled 4 km S and 1 km SE. Avalanches continued. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.Based on report from PVMBG, new pyroclastic flows episode started at Sinabung on 2nd of April. Several Pyroclatic flows travelled more than 3 4km on the flank of the volcano and generated plume above the volcano Based on reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 March an eruption at Sinabung generated a plume that rose 3 km above the summit. Satellite images detected an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100-230 km WNW and NW. Later that day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SW. Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 February an eruption from Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted almost 540 km NW, and became detached. A lower-level eruption later that day produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 30 km SE. Based on satellite images, weather models, and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10-30 km W.Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 January an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NW. On 18 January BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; low-frequency earthquakes and constant tremor were detected. A pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km S and ash plumes rose 700 m. The number of people that remained displaced was 2,443 (795 families). The Alert Level was at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).Based on satellite images, weather models, and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported an eruption from Sinabung on 10 January with an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas at night on 11 January. During 12-13 January ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. BNPB reported that an eruption at Sinabung occurred during 0833-0919 on 3 January; this event was larger than the events that had been occurring almost daily. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2-4 km down the flanks and ash plumes rose as high as 3 km. Ashfall was reported in Payung (5 km SSW), Tiganderket (7 km W), Selandi (5 km SSW), Juhar (20 km SW), and Laubaleng (35 km WSW). Since the September 2013 onset of activity, 2,443 people (795 families) still remained displaced.Based on satellite images, webcam views, and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Sinabung drifted almost 30 km SW on 24 December. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The notice stated that the eruption was more significant and higher than the intermittent pyroclastic flows observed during the previous week. Eruptions during 11-16 December produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.3-6.1 km (14,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted at most 30 km N, NW, and W. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Eruptions during 5-7 December produced ash plumes that drifted 2-20 km in multiple directions. On 4 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that duirng 19-20 November eruptions from Sinabung produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Continuous dense white plumes and intermittent pyroclastic flows were also visible. During 22-23 November intermittent pyroclastic flows recorded by the webcam reached the base of the volcano. On 23 November an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. On 14 November BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained elevated; avalanches occurred 79 times, and pyroclastic flows generated by three of the avalanches traveled 4 km S. Ash plumes rose 1 km and the lava flow was active 500 m down from the crater on the S and W flanks. The report stated that 2,986 people from 956 households remained displaced. The Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes drifting W, SW, and S were recorded by a webcam during 12-18 November. Dense white plumes and intermittent pyroclastic flows were visible on 19 November.The Darwin VAAC reported that eruptions from Sinabung were recorded by a webcam during 4-7 and 10-11 November. Based on a report from PVMBG, the VAAC reported that an eruption on 9 November produced an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NW. Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported localized ash from Sinabung on 2 November, but a meteorological cloud in the area prevented further observations. A pyroclastic flow and an ash plume were recorded by the webcam on 3 November. The ash plume rose to an estimated altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE; the altitude of the ash plume was again uncertain due to meteorological cloud. On 4 November an ash plume observed with the webcam rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Based on webcam views, wind data models, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 October ash plumes rose from Sinabung. During 23-24 October ash plumes drifted 15-40 km N and SW. A small eruption observed on the webcam on 25 October produced a minor amount of ash that drifted SW; a later ash plume drifted almost 30 km WNW. The next day another eruption generated an ash plume that drifted E. Ash emissions on 27 October were recorded by the webcam. The VAAC noted that PVMBG reported an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and then dissipated. On 27 October BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; on 26 October pyroclastic flows traveled 3.5 km S and avalanches occurred multiple times. Hot ash clouds rose 2 km. The report stated that 3,284 people from 1,018 families remained in evacuation shelters. Based on webcam views and wind data models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-20 October daily small eruptions from Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted 55 km NW during 15-17 October and ESE on 19 October.The Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption from Sinabung, observed in the webcam at 1248 on 8 October, generated a pyroclastic flow. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. (based on webcam views and wind models) and drifted E. Eruptions recorded at 0636 and 1107 on 9 October generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, based on webcam views and wind models. On 10 October satellite images and the webcam detected an ash plume drifting 55 km NE. An ash plume drifting SW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. was recorded by the webcam on 11 October. On 14 October an ash plume was again recorded by the webcam and rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported four eruptions from Sinabung on 5 October. The first one occurred at 0146, and produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled 4.5 km S and an ash plume that rose 2 km. The next three events, at 0638, 0736, and 0753, all generated pyroclastic flows that traveled 2.5-4.5 km S. The fourth event also produced an ash plume that rose 3 km. A news article stated that pyroclastic flows from a fifth event at 0900 were smaller, but again traveled 4.5 km after a sixth event at 1200. According to the Darwin VAAC a low-level eruption recorded by the PVMBG webcam generated a pyroclastic flow on 6 October; some of the ash rose higher and drifted E. The Jakarta MWO noted that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 7 October. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations. A news article posted on 8 October noted that eruptions in the previous four days caused some evacuations. According to news articles a pyroclastic flow at Sinabung traveled 2 km SE down the flanks at 1343 on 24 September 2014. The height of a corresponding ash plume could not be determined because it rose into the cloud cover. About 4,700 people remained in evacuation shelters. On 30 September at 1720 an ash plume rose 2 km and a pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km. PVMBG reported that RSAM values from Sinabung were low and stable during 12-20 September. Earthquake signals indicating lava-dome instability were recorded and had increased from 96 to 110 events/day since the 5-11 September period. Seismicity also continued to signify growth of the main lava flow on the flanks; incandescent lava was visible at the top, middle, and front of the lava flow. The length of the lava flow was 2.9 km on 6 September. White and sometimes bluish plumes rose as high as 1 km above the lava dome. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2.5 km SE on 15 September and 2 km S on 18 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Eruptive activity is still continuing. As of the 10th of July, a short pyroclastic flow occurred (about 1000 m long) went down toward the Soutwest flank of the volcano. previously, after more than a month of dome growth and lava flows, PVMBG reported that Sinabung erupted explosively again on 29 June 2014. The eruption plume rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and pyroclastic flows extended 4.5 km SE. Visual observations were impeded by inclement weather. About 14,000 persons remain evacuated since September 2013. The Alert Level remains at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported visual monitoring of Sinabung during 1-17 June 2014 from the Ndokum Siroga village (~8.5 km of the summit). Dome growth continued and was accompanied by a lava flow that was frequently visibly incandescent. The observatory noted that the lava flow (particularly avalanches from the flow front) presented a threat to areas S and SE within a 5 km radius from the summit. During this reporting period, seismicity was dominated by tremor associated with avalanches, and there was minor deformation. Alert Level 3 was maintained (on a scale of 1-4). Based on webcam images, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km W.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 23 March-8 April 2014 based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose at most 1.2 km above the lava dome. Lava had traveled 2.5 km down the flanks as of 6 April and was incandescent at various locations. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 2 km S and 500 m SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied but were relatively insignificant. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.Based on webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite views. Gas emissions were noted on 30 March. PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 15-22 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose 500 m above the lava dome daily, and as high as 1 km on 21 March. Lava had traveled 2.4 km down the flanks as of 20 March and was incandescent at various areas. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 1.5 km S and 200 m SE. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3 km S on 17 March. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased slightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day, indicating no new magma. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 8-15 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose from the lava dome daily, as high as 1 km on most days; plumes rose 2 km on 12 March. Incandescent material originating from various parts of the lava dome traveled up to 2 km S and SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome increased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day. Observations on 13 March showed that lava from the dome had flowed 2.4 km downslope. The report also noted that three people burned during a pyroclastic flow on 1 February later died in the hospital bringing the total number of casualties from that day to 17. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.Based on wind data, satellite images, and webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-7 and 9-11 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4 km (12,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Ash plumes drifted 35-165 km SW and W during 6 and 9-11 March.Based on wind data, webcam images, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 February-1 March and 3-4 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4 km (10,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km E, NE, N, NW, W, and SW. On 19 February 2014 BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung continued to return to their homes. Based on wind data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19 and 21-22 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-35 km NE and SW. Ash plumes were visible in webcam images during 23-25 February; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 25 February and drifted 45 km E. On 24 February BNPB noted that 16,361 people remained in 34 evacuation shelters. Dense white plumes rose 100-300 m above the dome and incandescent material as far as 2 km SE from the dome was observed. previously,b ased on webcam images, Indonesian Met office notices, wind data, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 and 15-18 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-95 km N, NE, and E. On 16 February BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung slowly return to their homes.Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported on 8 and 9 February 2014 that seismicity at Sinabung continued to be dominated by hybrid earthquakes, indicating pressure below the crater and a growing lava dome. Earthquakes associated with avalanches increased. The 9 February report noted that the number of displaced people reached 32,351 (9,991 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Refugees from 17 villages outside the 5-km radius were allowed to return to their homes, starting with four villages during the first phase.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 24-31 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. On 24 January dense white plumes rose as high as 1 km. During 25-26 and 28-31 January dense grayish-white plumes rose 0.1-1.5 km; on 27 January plumes rose 4 km. Each day pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km SE and S. Incandescent material was observed 0.2-1.5 km SE of the vent. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to decrease. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that between 1200 and 1800 on 23 January pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5 km down Sinabung's S flank. The number of displaced people reached 28,715 (9,045 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Based on webcam views, satellite images, ground reports, and altitude and drift directions derived from wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 and 25-27 January ash plumes rose to an altitude 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-185 km N, NE, and E. PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 10-17 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day brownish white or gray and white ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed on the S and SE flanks as far as 3 km. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to drop, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 3-10 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed as far as 2 km SE and E. Roaring was periodically heard and burned trees on the S flank were noted on 4 January. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes dropped dramatically, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 7 km on the SE flank and 5 km elsewhere. Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of hybrid earthquakes decreased on 11 January and volcanic earthquakes increased. Ash plumes rose 1-5 km and drifted W, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1-4.5 km SE and 1 km E. Several villages in the Namanteran district reported ashfall. The 11 January report noted that the number of displaced people reached 25,516 (7,898 families) in 38 evacuation centers.Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that during 30-31 December 2013 Sinabung continued to be very active. Ash plumes rose as high as 7 km above the lava dome, pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3.5 km SE, and incandescent avalanches traveled 1.5 km SE. On 3 January 2014 the lava dome continued to grow and collapse. Pyroclastic flows occurred 172 times and traveled 2-4 km SE, and ash plumes rose 2-6 km. Two villages located 6.5 km SE, Jerawa and Desa Pintu Besi, were evacuated. On 4 January pyroclastic flows were larger and more frequent. They continued to travel up to 5 km SE as well as 3.5 km SSE. Ash plumes rose 2-4 km. On 5 January the number of hybrid earthquakes increased, indicating a growing lava dome, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5-4.5 km SE. During 4-5 January pyroclastic flows were recorded 426 times. On 7 January ash plumes rose 1-6 km and drifted SW, and pyroclastic flows continued to travel 1.5-4.5 km SE. The number of refugees reached 22,145. PVMBG reported that seismicity at Sinabung increased during 21-26 December and indicated rising magma and lava-dome growth. Observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted dense white plumes rising 70-1,200 m above the crater. Roaring was also periodically heard. A lava dome in the North Crater, visible on 24 December, was 56 m high and 210 m wide. During 25-26 December plumes were white and gray, and rose 300-400 m above the crater. On 26 December the lava-dome volume was estimated to be over 1 million cubic meters, with a growth rate of 3.5 cubic meters per second. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km. On 30 December Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of displaced people reached 19,126 (5, 979 families). They also noted that activity at Sinabung had increased. Collapsing parts of the lava dome generated block-and-ash flows as well as pyroclastic flows which traveled as far as 3.5 km down the SE flank. Explosions and pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that rose at least 6 km above the crater.PVMBG reported that observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted gray plumes rising 1 km above Sinabung on 6 December 2013. Grayish-white plumes rose as high as 400 m on 7 December, and dense white plumes also rose as high as 400 m the next day. Dense grayish-to-white plumes rose 70-200 m on 9 December. White plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater during 10-13 December. Tremor during 6-13 December was recorded continuously, with varying amplitude. The number of low-frequency earthquakes significantly increased on 7 December, and the number of hybrid earthquakes increased the next day. RSAM values had steadily increased since 28 November. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on webcam data, wind data, satellite image analysis, and PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 December 2013 an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Later that day and during 5-6 December ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 10 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. A few hours later an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km NW. Based on webcam data and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-31 November and 2 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted 150 km W during 30-31 November and 55 km Won 2 December. On 3 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. According to a news report on 2 December, landslides killed nine people in the Gundaling village, 12 km E. As of the 25th of November 2013, CVGHM reported that explosive activity increasing again during the past days. Eight explosions occurred between Saturday and Sunday and many ashfalls occurred on villages around the volcano (0,5 -1 cm) and until the town of Medan (50 km North). CVGHM raised the Alert level to 4(AWAS) and exclusion zone radius to 3.5 km. About 19 villages with 15.000 people should be evacuated. VAAC raised the alert level for Airlines to Red because the ashplume rose to 7000 m high in the area. On 25 November Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that 17,713 people, out of the 20,270 residents living within 5 km, had been evacuated to 31 helters. Previous news :an explosion observed with the webcam on 18 November 2013 produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. About 30 minutes later an ash plume also visible in satellite images rose to an altitude of 11.3 km (37,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W. Four hours later satellite images showed ash plumes at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. to the W of Sinabung and at an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. On 19 November the webcam recorded an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. A news article stated that later that night that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. Based on webcam data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 150 km NW and W. According to a news article, a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.2 km down the SE flank on 14 November, prompting more evacuations from villages near the base of the volcano. The article noted that more than 7,000 people had been evacuated from 10 villages. Based on information from the Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, webcam data, wind data, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The next day an ash plume rose to the same altitude but was not observed in satellite images due to meteorological cloud cover. According to webcam views an eruption on 8 November produced a low-level ash plume. The Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, the webcam, and satellite data detecting sulfur dioxide indicated two explosions on 10 November. The first one, at 0720, generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. The altitude of the second plume, from an explosion at 1600, was unknown. An ash plume on 11 November rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km SW. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW.According to a news article posted on 12 November, more than 5,000 people from seven villages had evacuated their homes in recent days. The article noted that the government had called for an evacuation of people living within a 3-km radius of Sinabung, but people outside of that zone had also been evacuating. The 6th of November 2013 PVMBG(CVGHM) the new eruption occurred at 1423 on 5 November. This event lasted for 20 minutes and generated an ash plume up to 3,000 m above the crater that drifted SW. Rumbling sounds were also noted by staff at the observation post. Pyroclastic flows were observed at 1431; the flows extended 1 km down the SE flank. No casualties were reported due to the event. The evacuated residents remained displaced on 5 november.Previously, PVMBG reported that elevated seismicity, including events of continuous tremor, was ongoing since 29 October. Relatively small ash explosions were also reported prior to the larger events on 3 November. During 29 October-2 November plumes rose to 200-2,000 m above the summit. Gas measurements conducted during 31 October and 1-2 November showed an SO2 flux of 226-426 tons per day; this was a general decrease in emissions. During 31 October ashfall was noted on the SE flank up to 1 km from the summit. An eruption began at 0126 on 3 November that generated ash plumes up to 7 km a.s.l. (~23,000 ft) and triggered evacuations from communities within 3 km of the volcano (approximately 1,681 residents); the ash plume drifted W. Rumbling sounds that lasted up to 10 minutes long were noted by staff at the Sinabung Observation Post (~8.5 km from the volcano). News agencies reported that this was the second largest eruption since the 24 October event that displaced more than 3,300 people. The Alert Level was increased from Level II (Watch) to Level III (Alert) at 0300. A second eruption occurred in the afternoon. PVMBG reported that Sinabung had been erupting more frequently and with increasing energy.PVMBG reported that after 29 September, the day the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), seismicity at Sinabung declined but continued to fluctuate through 22 October. White plumes were seen rising 100-300 m from the crater. On 22 October plumes were also grayish and rose 250 m. Vents appeared on the N flank and produced dense white plumes that rose 70 m. On 23 October landslides at two locations were observed, and explosions occurred at 1619 and 1651. Plumes rose from the summit crater and from a fracture formed on 15 October near Lau Kawar. Fog prevented observations for a period after the explosions; once the fog cleared dense gray plumes were observed. A third explosion occurred at 2100. On 24 October an explosion at 0550 generated an ash plume that rose 3 km and caused ashfall in areas S. Another explosion was detected at 0612. According to a news article about 3,300 people that evacuated their homes were mostly from two villages within 3 km of Sinabung, in the Karo district. CVGHM reported that seismicity at Sinabung fluctuated in 2012-2013, including during July-September 2013. During 1-14 September dense white plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater, and at 0255 on 14 September incandescence from the crater was observed. According to news articles an eruption at 0245 on 15 September produced an ash plume and ashfall in Sukameriah (50 km NE), Kutarayat, Kutagugung (16 km SW), and Berastagi (14 km E). About 3,000 people evacuated from areas within a 3-km radius of the volcano, and several flights at Medan's airport (55 km NW) were canceled. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). An eruption at 1203 on 17 September ejected tephra and a dense ash plume that rose higher than the plume from 15 September. According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SE. On 18 September a low-level ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical, 2460-m-high andesitic-to-dacitic volcano is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks of Sinabung in 1912, although no confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to 2010.

Sangeang Api volcano ( lesser Sunda Islands) - Based on a VONA from PVMBG an ash emission from Sangeang Api was generated at 1338 on 15 October 2018 ; it rose 250 m above the summit and drifted SW, W, and NW. The VONA noted that the ash emission possibly rose higher than what a ground observer had estimated. Seismic data was dominated by signals
indicating emissions as well as local tectonic earthquakes. The Aviation Color Code was changed from Yellow to Orange. Based on a VONA from PVMBG, on 9 May 2018 a gas emission was observed at 1807 from Sangeang Api that rose to 4,150 m (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted west. On 9 May the Aviation Color Code was changed from unassigned to Yellow. Previously, Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the DarwinVAAC reported that on 12 August 2017 an ash plume from Sangeang Api rose to 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-8 August minor emissions from Sangeang Api rose 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, pilot observations, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29-30 July ash plumes from Sangeang Api rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. PVMBG reported that a small eruption at Sangeang Api at 1154 on 15 July 2017 characterized by Strombolian activity, and an ash plume that rose 100-200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Prior to the event, thermal anomalies had increased beginning in March, and seismicity had increased starting in April. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, PVMBG observations, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 July an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l., or 200 m above the crater rim, and drifted NW. Sangeang Api volcano, one of the most active in the Lesser Sunda Islands, forms a small 13-km-wide island off the NE coast of Sumbawa Island. Two large trachybasaltic-to-tranchyandesitic volcanic cones, 1949-m-high Doro Api and 1795-m-high Doro Mantoi, were constructed in the center and on the eastern rim, respectively, of an older, largely obscured caldera. Flank vents occur on the south side of Doro Mantoi and near the northern coast. Intermittent historical eruptions have been recorded since 1512, most of them during in the 20th century.
(GVN/GVP)

Lewotolo volcano (Lomblen) - In October 2017, PVMBG reported that white plumes rose as high as 50 m above Lewotolo's summit crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The number of shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes at Lewotolo recently increased, prompting PVMBG to raise the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 7 October 2017. The report noted that the public should not enter the 2-km-radius exclusion zone around the crater. Solfatara emissions rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim on 9 October; emissions during 1 August-6 October rose 50-600 m. BNPB reported that five earthquakes recorded by Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika (BMKG) on 10 October ranged in magnitude between 3.9 and 4.9, and were located 10-30 km below Lewotolo. The events were felt by local populations, causing an evacuation of 723 people. Preliminary data suggested that five homes were damaged from rock avalanches, triggered by the earthquakes. Anchoring the eastern end of an elongated peninsula that is connected to Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island by a narrow isthmus and extends northward into the Flores Sea, Lewotolo rises to 1423 m. Lewotolo is a symmetrical stratovolcano as viewed from the north and east. A small cone with a 130-m-wide crater constructed at the SE side of a larger crater forms the volcano's high point. Many lava flows have reached the coastline. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1660, have consisted of explosive activity from the summit crater. (GVN/GVP)

Gamkonora (Halmahera) -PVMBG reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 1 January-6 March 2016 diffuse white plumes rose up to 150 m above the crater rim, although weather conditions often obscured views. RSAM values fluctuated; higher values during mid-January through February were due to increased tremor and tornillo-type earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. PVMBG reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 1-15 November diffuse white
plumes rose up to 100 m above the crater rim. RSAM values fluctuated; tremor continued to be elevated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. PVMBG reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 1 August-3 November diffuse white plumes rose up to 70 m above the crater rim. RSAM values fluctuated; an increase was detected in October coincident with a period of increased tremor. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 July. Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. The shifting of eruption centers on Gamkonora, at 1635 m the highest peak of Halmahera, has produced an elongated series of summit craters along a N-S trending rift. Youthful-looking lava flows originate near the cones of Gunung Alon and Popolojo, south of Gamkonora. Since its first recorded eruption in the 16th century, Gamkonora has typically produced small-to-moderate explosive eruptions. Its largest historical eruption, in 1673, was accompanied by tsunamis that inundated villages.

Ibu volcano (Halmahera ) -PVMBG reported that at 1223 on 19 October 2018 an event at Ibu generated an ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted E. Another event at 1809 on 22 October generated an ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted N. On both days seismic signals indicated explosions and rock avalanches. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side. Based on satellite images and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 October 2018 an ash plume from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. Based on satellite images and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 and 30 September ash plumes from Ibu rose to 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and N. PVMBG reported that at 0838 on 24 August 2018 an event at Ibu generated an ash plume that rose 800 m above the crater rim and drifted S. Seismicity was characterized by explosions and rock avalanches. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.PVMBG reported that at 1742 on 20 August 2018 an event at Ibu generated an ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.PVMBG reported that at 0259 on 13 August 2018 an event at Ibu generated an ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.PVMBG reported that at 1852 on 28 July an event at Ibu generated an ash plume that rose 5.5 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. An event at 1612 on 29 July produced an ash plume that rose 4.8 km and drifted N. Ash plumes later drifted SE. Seismic signals for both events were characterized by explosions and avalanches. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side. The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. Only a few eruptions have been recorded in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Dukono (Halmahera) -PVMBG reported that an event at Dukono, recorded by the seismic network at 0824 on 8 November, generated an ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 November 2018 ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30-31 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and N. Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-28 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-23 October 2018 ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NE. Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-12 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-9 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26 September-2 October ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, NE, and E. Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-25 September 2018 ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-18 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 August-4 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E. Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 and 25-28 August 2018 ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. . Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

G. Karangetang (Siau Island)-Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 July a diffuse ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on a VONA issued on 2 February 2018, PVMBG reported an eruption at Karangetang, characterized by crater incandescence and an ash plume that rose 600 m. The Aviation Color Code was raised from Unassigned to Yellow. Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. It is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows. (GVN/GVP)

Anak Krakatau ( Sunda Strait) - PVMBG reported that past week, the Strombolian explosive activity of Krakatau was accompanied by nocturnal incandescence, and lava flow on the southern flank that reached the sea. Ash emissions were high on November 17, with a plume of about 50 km westerly and to the south coast of Sumatra.On November 18, incandescence was visible from the coast at 40 km, showing a flow on the southeast flank, and Strombolian activity.PVMBG reported an eruptive episode of Anak Krakatau on November 16, 2018 at 5:24 am WIB, accompanied by a thick plume of black ash about 600 meters above the summit, leaning to the northeast. This eruption was recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude of 58 mm and a duration of ± 3 minutes 32 seconds.PVMBG notified that An event at 0939 on 10 November 2018 generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted N. There were 10 events recorded during 1029-1656 on 12 November, each lasting 38-117 seconds, and producing ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted N. Four events were recorded during 0546-0840 on 13 November, each lasting 44-175 seconds, and producing ash plumes that rose as high as 800 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater. PVMBG notified an orange VONA since November 9 at 17:15 WIB following the eruptive plume emitted at about 638 m asl. / 300 m above the summit.The seismicity of November 9 is marked by 201 eruption earthquakes, 39 emission earthquakes, 43 shallow volcanic earthquakes and 3 deep volcanic earthquakes; the tremor at a dominant amplitude of 5 mm and max. 32 mm.The PVMBG reported an eruption on November 10th at 9:39 am WIB, which was accompanied by a thick, black ash plume 500 meters above the summit, then northward drifting. The eruption lasted 47 seconds and left a seismogrammic imprint with an amplitude of 58 mm.The alert remains at level 2 / waspada, with a 2km forbidden zone.PVMBG reported that a 37-second-long event at Anak Krakatau at 0223 on 6 November 2018 generated an ash plume that, based on a ground observation, rose 500 m and drifted N. At 1000 a dense ash plume rose 600 m above the summit and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-28 October 2018 ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to altitudes of 0.9-2.1 km (3,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, NW, and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach within 2 km of the crater. Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-19 October 2018 ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater. PVMBG reported that during 1 September-3 October the Strombolian eruption at Anak Krakatau continued, though foggy conditions often prevented visual observations. Ash plumes mainly rose 200-500 m above the crater rim and drifted NW to SW. On 22 September ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km; ejected incandescent material mostly landed on the flanks (less than 1 km from the crater), and a small amount fell into the sea. Lava flows on the SSE flank also reached the sea. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater. Based on satellite data, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 September-2 October 2018 ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.1 km (4,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, WSW, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater. As of the 26th of September, PVMBG reported that the activity remained important, with 440 eruptive earthquakes recorded on 25 September, and a continuous tremor with a dominant amplitude at 40 mm. Ash emissions to the Southwest have clouded Verlaten Island, on Sentinel 2 imagery.The level of activity remains at 2 / Waspada, with a 2 km forbidden zone and an orange VONA. Based on satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 and 17-18 September ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to altitudes of 1.5-1.8 km (5,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater.PVMBG reported that on September 2, 85 earthquakes of explosion and 199 earthquakes related to degassing. The alert remained at 2 / WaspadaPVMBG reported that an explosive activity occurred at Anak Krakatau on August 23, 2018 at 18:07 WIB. It is characterized by a black ash plume 700 meters high above the crater (1.005 m asl.), a duration of 31 seconds and a maximum amplitude of 27 mm on the seismogram. The alert level remains at 2, with a forbidden area of ​​2 km radius around the crater.PVMBG reported that during 8-13 August 2018 incandescence emanated from Anak Krakatau at night. According to the Darwin VAAC, satellite data showed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W on 11 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater. PVMBG reported that on 2 August multiple events at Anak Krakatau generated ash plumes that rose as high as 300 m above the summit and drifted N. A dense, black ash plume from an event at 1757 rose 200 m and drifted N. During 5-7 August dense gray ash plumes rose 200-600 m above the summit, and summit incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-26 July minor ash plumes from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and NW. PVMBG noted that inclement weather conditions prevented views of the volcano during 27-30 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater. PVMBG reported that an event at Anak Krakatau was recorded at 1722 on 15 July that generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted N. An ash plume from a 44-second-long event recorded at 1651 on 16 July rose 500 m and drifted N; thumping and vibrations were noted at the PGA observation post. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater. PVMBG reported that the activity of Anak Krakatau has been increasing for two days: On July 11, 56 earthquakes were recorded, and they exceeded 100 on July 12th. The tremor is continuous, with an amplitude of 2-50 mm, dominant of 40 mm on July 12th. During the night, incandescence and projections were observed above the crater; a lava flow reached the sea. On July 13 at 0:16 that the eruption continued, with strong explosions and vibrations felt at the observatory.The PVMBG has defined a prohibited zone with a radius of 1 km around the crater. The VONA remains oranget since July 7 at 17:59. PVMBG reported that during 4-5 July there were four ash-producing events at Anak Krakatau, each lasting between 30 and 41 seconds. Inclement weather conditions prevented an estimation of the ash-plume height from the event at 0522 on 4 July; ash plumes from events at 1409, 1425, and 1651 on 5 July rose 300-500 m above the crater rim and drifted N and NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater. PVMBG reported that white plumes were seen rising as high as 100 m above Anak Krakatau during infrequent periods of clear weather from 27 June to 3 July. Incandescence from the summit was observed at night during 1-2 July. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater. A new eruption occurred on June 25, 2018 at 7:14 am WIB; it produced a black plume of ash about 1,000 meters above the summit, or 1,305 meters asl.The recording of the episode has an amplitude of 30 mm max. and a duration of +/- 45 seconds.The VONA is orange, and the alert level is 2, with a danger zone of one kilometer radius.A new phase of activity started  at Anak-Krakatau on June 19th, 2018. The Mirova data and the last Sentinel 2 image correspond to a thermal anomaly at a point south of the summit. ash plumes linked to gas emissions rose above the crater. Local observer reported the beginning of Strombolian activity on 21 June 2018. The renowned Krakatau volcano lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, resulted in a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this volcano formed Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. The post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau), constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan, has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. Live Webcam

Soputan volcano (Sulawesi) - On 16 October 2018 PVMBG issued a VONA noting only white emissions at Soputan; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Based on satellite images, information from PVMBG, and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 October ash plumes from Soputan rose to 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, with an additional expansion to 6.5 km in WSW direction due to increased risk from a breach in the crater rim. PVMBG reported that the eruption continued, characterized by a thick ash plume that rose between 4,000 and 6,000 meters, drifting toward the northwest.Lava flows, 2,500-meter block falls, and pyroclastic flows went down the west-southwest flank. The 4 km exclusion zone was extended on this flank at 6.5 km. An ash cloud has been detected, towards the west by the satellites.The tremor is continuous with a maximum amplitude of 1 - 42 mm and a dominant at 42mm. The status of the volcano is still 3 / Siaga, with an orange VONA. PVMBG reported that an eruption began on October 3 at 8:47 Wita accompanied by an ash plume with an estimated height of about 4000 meters (5.800 m asl). The maximum seismic amplitude was 39 mm and a duration of about 6 minutes.Three other eruptions occurred at 10.44, 11.12 and 11.52 respectively, accompanied by respective plumes of 2,000 m, 2,500 m, and finally 5,000 m. above the summit. The Vona was increased in stages from yellow on October 2, to orange on October 3 at 9:09, and red at 12:18.Seismicity has been rising since September 2018 and has increased from 2 to 101 earthquakes per day on 2 October. "Breath Activity" / Hembusan went from 2-6 events to 851 events per day on October 2nd. The real-time seismic amplitude / RSAM is increasing.The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924. Last previous eruption occured in 2008. VSI website

Awu volcano (Sangihe Islands) - PVMBG reported that seismicity at Awu fluctuated but declined during 1-30 October 2016 ; the maximum number of shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes were eight and three, respectively, which were in the normal range. Solfatara plumes rose as high as 25 m above the vent. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 31 October.
PVMBG reported that the number of earthquakes at Awu had risen significantly on 11 May and remained elevated through 14 May; a downward trend in seismicity became evident on 21 May. Earthquake hypocenters were located at depths between 1 and 2 km. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 14 June; residents and tourists were advised to stay 4 km away from the crater. PVMBG reported that seismicity at Awu fluctuated during April and the first part of May. On 11 May 2016 the number of earthquakes rose significantly; the number of local tectonic and deep volcanic earthquakes was the highest recorded in the last year, and the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes was the second highest recorded (the highest number was recorded on 24 November 2015, prompting an increase in the Alert Level). Earthquake hypocenters were located at depths between 0.5 and 4 km. On 12 May the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised to stay 4 km away from the crater. The massive Gunung Awu stratovolcano occupies the northern end of Great Sangihe Island, the largest of the Sangihe arc. Deep valleys that form passageways for lahars dissect the flanks of the 1320-m-high volcano, which was constructed within a 4.5-km-wide caldera. Awu is one of Indonesia's deadliest volcanoes; powerful explosive eruptions in 1711, 1812, 1856, 1892, and 1966 produced devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused more than 8000 cumulative fatalities. Awu contained a summit crater lake that was 1 km wide and 172 m deep in 1922, but was largely ejected during the 1966 eruption.

Batu Tara volcano (Flores) - Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-26 October 2016 ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-65 km SW and W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-19 October ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-130 km WSW and W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-8 and 13 October ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-100 km NW and W. Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 September an ash plume from Batu Tara drifted 185 km NW at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 September ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 185 km NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 80 km W. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-19 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km W and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-9 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-85 km W and WNW.According to the Darwin VAAC a pilot observed an ash plume in the vicinity of Batu Tara on 7 April 2015 . The plume drifted NW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow. The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is ORANGE

Banda Api volcano (Mollucas) -PVMBG increased the alert level of Banda Api in the Moluccas archipelago at Waspada on April 5, 2017, following an increase in seismicity, with a 1 km red zone around the crater. On April 4, a marked increase in earthquakes due to rock fracturation due to magma movements was recorded ... the sequence recalls the early stages of the May 1988 eruption.The Indonesian authorities are preparing to evacuate nearly 1,000 people living in this dangerous area, due to a possible eruption and toxic gas emanations.Banda Api Volcano-Island is the northerly volcano of the Sunda-Banda volcanic arc. This basaltic to rhyodacitic volcano is located in the southwest corner of a large caldera of 7 km wide, largely submerged. Historical eruptions have been recorded since 1586, mostly strombolian and located at the top crater, but larger eruptions have also occurred with lava flows reaching the coast.
The last eruption, of VEI 3, dates back to May 1988 (from 9 to 17.05.1988). It concerned the summit and the north and south flanks, and caused three deaths and the evacuation of 700 inhabitants.

Ebulobo volcano (Flores) - Based on PVMBG observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 March 2017an ash plume from Ebulobo rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. (800 m above the summit) and drifted W. Ebulobo, also referred to as Amburombu or Keo Peak, is a symmetrical stratovolcano in central Flores Island. The summit of 2124-m-high Gunung Ebulobo cosists of a flat-topped lava dome. The 250-m-wide summit crater of the steep-sided volcano is breached on three sides. The Watu Keli lava flow traveled from the northern breach to 4 km from the summit in 1830, the first of only four recorded historical eruptions of the volcano.

Marapi volcano (Sumatra) - Another eruption occurred on May 2, 2018 at 7:03 am WIB; it was accompanied by a gray and thick plume, rising straight under strong pressure at 4,000 meters above the summit. The seismic recording lasted until 8 am. WIB.This eruption follows that of April 27, when the ashes rose less high, 300 meters. Previously, The Gunung Marapi entered several eruptions on June 4, 2017. According to the PVMBG, the first eruption occurred at 10:10 am, accompanied by a plume 300-400 meters high. The second, more powerful, took place at 10:22; the ash plume rose to 600-700 m. A third followed at 10:46, and its plume is reported to be over 400 m. height.The BNPB Chief Information Officer, Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, describes these eruptions as typical for Marapi (probably phreatic), which are rarely accompanied by pyroclastic flows, but include ballistic projections around the crater and the emission of ash plume.
Gunung Marapi, not to be confused with the better known Merapi volcano on Java, is Sumatra's most active volcano. Marapi is a massive complex stratovolcano that rises 2,000 m above the Bukittinggi plain in Sumatra's Padang Highlands. A broad summit contains multiple partially overlapping summit craters constructed within the small 1.4-km-wide Bancah caldera. The summit craters are located along an ENE-WSW line, along which volcanism has migrated to the W. More than 50 eruptions, typically consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been recorded since the end of the 18th century; no historical lava flows outside the summit craters have been reported. (GVN/GVP)

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RUSSIA - Bezymianny volcano (Kamchatka)

October 28th, 2018

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 20 and 22-25 October. Gas-and-steam emissions continued to rise from the crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Previously, KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 22-29 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 29-30 March and 2-3 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. Previously, on 29 December 2017 KVERT reported that activity at Bezymianny was characterized by moderate gas-and-steam emissions; a lava flow likely continued to effuse onto the N flank of the lava dome. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. KVERT reported that following avalanches and associated pyroclastic flows, accompanied with strong outgassing, an eruptive activity occurred on December 20, 2017 at 3:55 UTC.At first, the ash plume rose to 8 km, then was reported at a height of 15 km asl. before drifting northeast of the volcano for 85 km.The plume collapsed in part on itself, generating pyroclastic flows that enveloped the volcano.The aviation code has changed to Red. On 18 December hot avalanches on the SE flank of Bezymianny's lava dome were recorded by a webcam, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). A strong explosion that started at 3.55 PM on 20 December generated ash plumes that rose 10-15 km (32,800-49,200 ft) a.s.l., prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red. Ash plumes were identified in satellite data drifting 85 km NE. Later that day satellite images indicted decreased activity; the Alert level was lowered back to Orange. Previously, On 6 October Prior to its 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3,000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1,000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. That eruption, similar to the 1980 event at Mount St. Helens, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater. KVERT

RUSSIA - Sheveluch volcano ( Kamchatka)

November 10th, 2018

KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data on 2 and 6 November. Explosions at 1510 on 9 November generated ash plumes that rose to 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 5 km NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 31 October-2 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data on 20, 22, and 25 October; weather clouds prevented views on the other days during 19-26 October. Moderate levels of gas-and-steam emissions rose from the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 14-15 October; weather clouds prevented views on the other days during 12-19 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 8-10 October; weather clouds prevented views on the other days during 5-12 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 27-28 and 30 September; weather clouds prevented views on the other days during 29 September-5 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 20, 23, and 27 September; weather clouds prevented views on the other days during 21-28 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 14, 16-17, and 19-20 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 7-8 and 12-13 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite data during 25 and 28-30 August; cloudy weather prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 24-31 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch on 17, 19, and 23 August; cloudy weather prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 17-24 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch during 12-13 August; cloudy weather prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 10-17 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch during 6-7 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch during 27-29 July and 1-2 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera. (GVN/GVP) . Live cam link

RUSSIA -Maly Semyachik volcano (Kamchatka)

April 24th, 2018

KVERT reported that activity at Maly Semyachik increased during the second half of March; the ice covering the crater lake melted within a 5-6-day period, and a weak thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 22 March. A weak thermal anomaly continued to be detected through 20 April, though no further activity prompted KVERT to lower the Aviation Color Code to Green. Maly Semyachik is a compound stratovolcano located in a 10-km-wide caldera within the 15 x 20 km mid-Pleistocene Stena-Soboliny caldera. Following construction during the late Pleistocene of the Paleo-Semiachik volcano beginning about 20,000 years before present (BP), activity migrated to the SW, forming Meso-Semiachik (about 11,000-9000 BP) and Ceno-Semiachik (about 8000 BP to the present). An initial stage lasting about 3500 years was dominantly explosive, constructing the present cone. A second stage beginning about 4400 years ago was marked by alternating constructive and destructive processes during which the volcano was destroyed by major explosions and then reconstructed. A crater lake fills the historically active Troitsky Crater, which formed during a large explosive eruption about 400 years ago. (GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Karymsky volcano (Kamchatka)

October 28th, 2018

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was last identified in satellite images on 28 September, and an ash plume was last visible on 30 September. The volcano was either quiet or obscured by weather clouds during 1-25 October. On 26 October the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 28 September, and a narrow ash plume was visible drifting 135 km E on 30 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 22-24 September, and ash plumes were visible drifting 365 km E during 22-23 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 19 September; the volcano was obscured by weather clouds the rest of the days during 14-21 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 7 September. Dense and continuous ash emissions from the crater were visible on 10 September. Explosions during 10-11 September generated ash plumes identified in satellite images rising 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifting about 860 km NE. The Aviaztion Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).KVERT reported that an explosion occurred on September 10th at 23:25; its produced a plume of ash amounting to 4,000-5,000 meters asl. before drifting north-east over 290 km.Previously, KVERT reported that an ash plume from Karymsky was identified in satellite images drifting about 40 km S on 25 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 10 August; cloud cover prevented views during 11-17 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images on 4 August, and an ash cloud drifted 50 km SE on 7 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 27-29 and 31 July, as well as ash plumes drifting 200 km SE, E, and NE during 28-31 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

RUSSIA - Kliuchevskoy volcano (Kamchatka)

September 15th, 2018

On 12 September KVERT T reported that activity at Klyuchevskoy had continued to decrease, with the last ash plume visible on 14 July. A weak thermal anomaly was occasionally visible though the temperature of the anomaly had steadily decreased. Gas-and-steam emissions continued. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).On 29 June KVERT reported that activity at Klyuchevskoy had decreased, with the last ash plume visible on 15 June. Gas-and-steam emissions continued. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 19 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy and a diffuse ash plume drifting 12 km W were identified in satellite images on 6 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images on 25 and 28 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 19-20 and 24 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Klyuchevskoy was identified in satellite images during 13-14 May. Strong explosions began at 0315 on 15 May, and generated ash plumes that rose as high as 10.5 km (34,400 ft) a.s.l. The ash clouds lingered around Klyuchevskoy and surrounding volcanoes for about eight hours before gradually dissipating. Nighttime summit incandescence and a hot avalanche were noted. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Based on webcam and satellite observations KVERT reported that at 1150 on 8 May an ash plume from Klyuchevskoy rose to altitudes of 5-5.5 km (16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 105 km SSE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP) and satellite images, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 February an ash plume from Klyuchevskoy rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Based on satellite observations Kliuchevskoi flanks Kamen volcano to the SW and Ushkovsky volcano to the NW. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years . Live cam link

RUSSIA - Zheltovsky volcano

April 21st, 2018

KVERT reported that a strong explosive eruption began at Zheltovsky on 19.04.2018 at 21:45 UTC; the satellites detected an ash plume up to 13.8 km before drifting southeast over 50 km. The aviation code went from green to red at 22:30 UTC then was lowered to 23 h the same day to orange. According to KVERT yhe explosive activity is over and the ashes are no longer issued, despite a thermal anomaly observed by the satellites.The aviation code returned to normal / green on April 20 at 3:15 UTC. Only moderate degassing remained.Zheltovsky volcano was constructed during the last 8000 years within a 4 x 5 km caldera truncating an earlier Pleistocene edifice. A late-Holocene explosive eruption formed a 1.6-km-wide summit crater that was subsequently largely filled by four lava domes, the latest of which forms the present 1926-m-high summit. Several of the lava domes were emplaced along the buried SE rim of the summit crater. More than ten cinder cones and lava domes were constructed on the flanks, particularly on the NW side. Only a few eruptions are known in historical time. The largest, in 1923, produced explosive activity and a lava flow down the SE flank that also partly flowed into the summit crater. (GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Khangar volcano

April 21st, 2018

According to a KVERT information, an explosive event probably occurred at Khangar volcano on April 19 at 22:15 UTC, accompanied by a plume of ash rising to 7.6 km asl., Before drifting to the NW over 30 km. It was followed by ash emission. The aviation code went from green to red at 22:31 UTC, to be lowered to orange at 23:00 UTC, and finally to green 20,04,2018 at 1:59 UTC. Khangar volcano, also spelled Hangar, is the southernmost volcano of the N-S-trending Sredinny Range, which stretches across western Kamchaktka. It is the dominant feature within a larger volcano-tectonic depression composed of two parts: a stratovolcano with a 2-km-wide Holocene caldera, and a large lava dome on its eastern flank. The steep-walled caldera, now filled by a lake, was formed during a major explosive eruption about 7000 years ago. An arcuate zone of pre-caldera flank lava domes nearly surrounds the volcano, and post-caldera domes form islands in the caldera lake. Late-stage olivine basalts were erupted along a NE-trending line in the southern part of the depression. The latest dated eruption took place about 500 years ago and marks the youngest known eruption from the Sredinny Range volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Ketoi volcano - Kurile islands

September 27th, 2018

Based on a report from SVERT the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 21 September an ash plume from Ketoi drifted NE. The circular, 10-km-wide Ketoi island, which rises across the 19-km-wide Diana Strait from Simushir Island, hosts of one of the most complex volcanic structures of the Kuril Islands. The rim of a 5-km-wide Pleistocene caldera is exposed only on the NE side. A younger 1172-m-high stratovolcano forming the NW part of the island is cut by a horst-and-graben structure containing two solfatara fields. A 1.5-km-wide freshwater lake fills an explosion crater in the center of the island. Pallas Peak, a large andesitic cone in the NE part of the caldera, is truncated by a 550-m-wide crater containing a brilliantly colored turquoise crater lake. Lava flows from Pallas Peak overtop the caldera rim and descend nearly 5 km to the SE coast. The first historical eruption of Pallas Peak, during 1843-46, was its largest. (GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Ebeko volcano- Kurile islands

November 10th, 2018

KVERT reported that a moderate explosive activity continues in Ebeko, with this November 10 a plume of ashes to more than 4,500 meters asl., then drifting to the southeast on 10 km.Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 26 October-2 November that sent ash plumes to 3.7 km (12,400 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted in multiple directions and caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk during 29-31 October. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 24 and 29 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 19-26 October that sent ash plumes to 4.7 km (15,400 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted eastward, and caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk during 19-20 and 23-24 October; ash plumes drifted about 80 km E on 20 October. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images on 24 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that a moderate explosive activity continues in Ebeko, in the Kuril archipelago. An explosion was accompanied on October 23 by a plume of ash to more than 4,500 meters, extending east of the volcano for about ten kilometersVolcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 5-12 October that sent ash plumes to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed ash plumes drifting about 125 km SE on 5 and 8 October, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 8 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 28 September-5 October that sent ash plumes to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 27 and 28 September, and ash plumes drifting about 80 km SW, SE, and E during 27-30 September and 1 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 21-28 September that sent ash plumes to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 23 and 27 September, and ash plumes drifting as far as 68 km SE during 23-24 and 26-27 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). The KVERT reported an explosion on September 23, accompanied by a plume of ash to more than 3,500 meters asl. dispersing to the southeast. At the end of the day, a cloud of ash drifted east 13 km from the volcano. It is still reported in the early hours of September 24th. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 14-21 September that sent ash plumes to 4.2 km (13,800 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was occasionally visible in satellite data, and an ash plume was identified drifting about 80 km E on 14 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters . article about Kurils Islands

RUSSIA - Sarychev Peak (Kurile islands)

October 20th, 2018

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sarychev Peak was visible in satellite images on 15 October. Weather clouds obscured views on the other days during 12-19 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Based on Tokyo VAAC data and satellite images, KVERT reported that at 1330 on 10 October an ash plume from Sarychev Peak rose to 1.7-2 km (5,600-6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 95 km E. SVERT reported that on 15 October an ash plume rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-70 km E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sarychev Peak was visible in satellite images on 22 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported a continuing eruption at Sarychev Peak (the NW part of Mantua Island) through 21 September. Island observers reported explosions at 1010 on 18 September that sent ash plumes to 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes identified in satellite images during 17-18 September drifted 265 km E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. SVERT reported increased activity and ash emissions at Sarychev Peak in mid-September. A thermal anomaly had been periodically visible since 7 May 2018, though more recently anomalies were detected during 8 and 11-12 September. Explosions sometimes occurred during 11 and 13-15 September, and ash emissions rose 3-4 km (10,000-13,100 ft) a.s.l. On 14 September ash plumes drifted as far as 120 km. On 14 September KVERT stated that the Aviation color code was raised to Orange, though on 17 September SVERT noted that the Aviation Color Code was at Yellow. KVERT reported that explosions at 0910 on 17 September generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 21 km NE. Previously SVERT reported that weak steam-and-gas emissions from Sarychev Peak were observed on 13 November. Weather clouds prevented observations during 14-20 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Green. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sarychev Peak was identified in satellite images during 6-7 November. Weak steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 8 November. Weather clouds prevented observations during 9-13 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Green. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sarychev Peak was identified in satellite images on 29 October. Weather clouds prevented observations on the other days during 24-30 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Green.NOAA/NESDIS scientist noted that a thermal anomaly at Sarychev Peak was identified in satellite images on 12 October. Robust thermal anomalies were identified on 14 October, and were accompanied by a plume of unknown composition. Thermal anomalies were also recorded by the MODVOLC and MIROVA thermal detection systems. Sarychev Peak, one of the most active volcanoes of the Kuril Islands, occupies the NW end of Matua Island in the central Kuriles. The andesitic central cone was constructed within a 3-3.5-km-wide caldera, whose rim is exposed only on the SW side. A dramatic 250-m-wide, very steep-walled crater with a jagged rim caps the volcano. The substantially higher SE rim forms the 1496 m high point of the island. Fresh-looking lava flows, prior to activity in 2009, had descended in all directions, often forming capes along the coast. Much of the lower-angle outer flanks of the volcano are overlain by pyroclastic-flow deposits. Eruptions have been recorded since the 1760s and include both quiet lava effusion and violent explosions. Large eruptions in 1946 and 2009 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the sea. (GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Alaid volcano (Kurile lslands)

August 23rd, 2018

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 20 August an ash plume from Alaid identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The highest and northernmost volcano of the Kuril Islands, 2285-m-high Alaid is a symmetrical stratovolcano when viewed from the north, but has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater that is breached widely to the south. Alaid is the northernmost of a chain of volcanoes constructed west of the main Kuril archipelago. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the lower flanks of this basaltic to basaltic-andesite volcano, particularly on the NW and SE sides, including an offshore cone formed during the 1933-34 eruption. Strong explosive eruptions have occurred from the summit crater beginning in the 18th century. Reports of eruptions in 1770, 1789, 1821, 1829, 1843, 1848, and 1858 were considered incorrect by Gorshkov (1970). Explosive eruptions in 1790 and 1981 were among the largest in the Kuril Islands during historical time. (GVN/GVP).

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NEW ZEALAND - Rotorua volcanic centre

December 2nd, 2016

GEONET reported a small hydrothermal eruption in Lake Rotorua on 28 November, and noted that the occurrence was not unusual. In a news article residents described a geyser that rose 20-30 m above the lake surface. A GNS scientists noted that the last significant steam eruptions in Rotorua occurred about 15 years ago. The 22-km-wide Rotorua caldera is the NW-most caldera of the Taupo volcanic zone. It is the only single-event caldera in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and was formed about 220,000 years ago following eruption of the >340 cu km rhyolitic Mamaku Ignimbrite. Although caldera collapse occurred in a single event, the process was complex and involved multiple collapse blocks. The major city of Rotorua lies at the south end of the lake that fills much of the caldera. Post-collapse eruptive activity, which ceased during the Pleistocene, was restricted to lava dome extrusion without major explosive activity. The youngest activity consisted of the eruption of three lava domes less than 25,000 years ago. The major thermal areas of Takeke, Tikitere, Lake Rotokawa, and Rotorua-Whakarewarewa are
located within the caldera or outside its rim, and the city of Rotorua lies within and adjacent to active geothermal fields.
(GVN/GVP)

NEW ZEALAND - White island volcano

June 30th, 2018

Geonet reported that since April-hand powerful sounds from the crater have been heard by visitors; they ceased as the geothermal system adjusted to the new lake. This lake is filling at a rate of 2,000 m³ per day ... same rate as in 2003-2004, 2007-2008 and 2013.Previous lakes have drowned active gas mouths and other fumaroles, leading to localized activity of geysering and small geothermal eruptions, with occasional formation of small cones of tuff-debris around the vents.If current lake filling continues at this rate, dome drowning is expected in 3-4 months. However, observations during a recent surveillance visit to the island confirmed that volcanic activity remains at a stable and low level, with no sign of increasing volcanic disturbances. Therefore, current observations are consistent with minor volcanic agitation behavior and for this reason we remain at Volcanic Alert Level 1 and aviation color code remains green. GEONET reported that over the past weekend of March 17-18th , a seismic swarm marked White Island, with no apparent changes in subsequent activity. During a quarterly observation visit, the only significant change observed is the reappearance of the crater lake on the floor of the active zone, following heavy rains discharged during recent cyclones. Its temperature is relatively cold, 27 ° C. The temperature of the dome vent is 128 ° C, compared with 157 ° C in December 2017. The temperature of the fumaroles also decreased, with 138 ° C instead of 144 ° C. The ground deformation shows a subsidence. The uninhabited 2 x 2.4 km White Island, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is the emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The 321-m-high island consists of two overlapping stratovolcanoes; the summit crater appears to be breached to the SE because the shoreline corresponds to the level of several notches in the SE crater wall. Throughout the short historical period beginning in 1826 the volcano has had long periods of continuous hydrothermal activity and steam release, punctuated by small-to-medium eruptions. Its activity also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The most recent eruptive episode, which began on 7 March 2000, included the largest eruption at White Island in the past 20 years on 27 July. Live cam link - other webcam

NEW ZEALAND - Ruapehu volcano

June 10th, 2018

On 5 June GeoNet reported that a new heating cycle at Ruapehu's summit Crater Lake began, as indicated by a recent rise in the water temperature. The increasing lake temperature began 29 May, at a rate of about 1°C per day. Volcanic tremor also increased, representing a greater flow of hydrothermal fluids into the lake. Many heating and cooling cycles have occurred in the past; the current cycle does not indicate an unusual sign of unrest. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (minor volcanic unrest) and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys. Ruapehu Live cam

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PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Manam volcano

October 15th, 2018

RVO reported that during 2-12 October brown, gray-brown, and dark gray ash emissions rose as high as 1 km above Manam's Southern Crater rim and drifted NW. Main Crater produced occasional white emissions, though on 2 October plumes were gray-brown and contained ash. Bluish vapor was noted during 3-4 October. RVO reported that on 1 October field observations after an eruption at Manam confirmed lava flows in the NE valley. There were two lava flow lobes, both stopping before inhabited areas; the smaller lobe flowed on the N side of the valley towards Koland Village and the larger flowed on the S side towards Boakure Village. Effects from ash and scoria fallout on the NW and NW sides of the island were minor. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 October an ash plume rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. A thermal anomaly was also visible. Based on seismic data an eruption at Main Crater began during 0100-0130 on 1 October, peaked around 0200, and ended at 1200 (though a sharp decline was recorded at 1215). Ash plumes rose at least several hundred meters above the crater rim, though darkness obscured visual observations. Islanders described loud roaring and rumbling noises, as well as loud banging noises. Residents of Tabele on the SW side of the island observed bright summit incandescence, which was also visible from the Bogia Government Station on the mainland (22 km SSW). Scoria and minor amounts of ash fell in Jogari and villages to the N. New explosion occurred on 30 September. On 2nd of September a bifurcated lava flow can be seen in the direction of the northeasterly radial avalanche valleys was imaged by the Sentinel 2 satellite. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that at 2050 on 23 September a short-lived eruption at Manam produced an ash plume that rose 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. According to the thermal anomalies, the activity must have started towards the beginning of August.The paroxysm began on August 25, 2018 at 6 am local (20h GMT Friday), accompanied by a plume of ash and pyroclasts that tose to 15,000 meters asl.The villages most affected by ash falls are located between Baliau and Kuluguma, northwest of this small island, barely 10 km wide.The plume drifted W and NW, causing ash and scoria to fall in areas from Dangale in the NNE to Jogari in the SW part of the island. The most affected areas were Baliau and Kuluguma; residents reported fallen tree branches from the deposits, and conditions so dark that flashlights were needed to move around. Lava flows traveled down the NE valley and pyroclastic-flow deposits were evident in the NE valley all the way to the sea. The pyroclastic flows buried six houses in Boakure village though the occupants escaped to the nearby Abaria village. According to the PNG National Disaster Center, two thousand people have evacuated or tried to do it, on the 9,000 inhabitants of Manam.The eruption ceased around 1030 with dense white emissions visible afterwards. During brief periods of good visibility after the eruption, and through 26 August, observers noted dense white vapor emissions and occasional light gray ash plumes. Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 June an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. The ash plume was not identifiable in satellite images.Previously, based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 September 2017 an ash plume from Manam rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 August an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 August an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 and 8 August minor ash emissions from Manam rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. Previously, RVO reported that although weather clouds often obscured views of Manam during 1-7 June white emissions were periodically seen rising from Southern Crater and Main Crater. Seismicity was very low. The Alert Level remained at Stage 1. RVO reported that Strombolian activity at Manam's Southern Crater during 13-14 and 18 May generated lava flows that descended the SW valley. Lava flows traveled to 180-220 m elevation during 13-14 May but were significantly small on 18 May. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded at Manam since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas. (GVN/GVP)

PAPUA-NEW GUINEA - Ulawun volcano

October 16th, 2018

RVO reported that during 1-12 October white and sometimes light gray emissions rose from Ulawun's summit crater. Seismicity was low. According to the Darwin VACC, a steam-and-ash emission from Ulawun was identified in satellite images and reported by ground observers on 5 October, rising to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting WSW.As of the 27th of September, according to the Darwin VACC, a pilot observed an ash plume from Ulawun rising to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W. Ash was not confirmed in satellite images, though weather clouds obscured views. Previously, according to the Darwin VAAC, a NOTAM (Notice to Airmen) stated that on 8 June an ash plume from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Previously, past year. the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 November an ash plumes from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE, though a RVO report noted only vapor emissions. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 October ash plumes from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km S and SE. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 25 September a minor ash plume from Ulawun rose 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. Ulawun volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the north coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1000 m of the 2334-m-high Ulawun volcano is unvegetated. A prominent E-W-trending escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and eastern flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side of Ulawun volcano, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater. (GVN/GVP)

PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Bagana volcano (Bougainville island)

August 2nd, 2018

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29-30 July ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. A thermal anomaly was visible on 29 July. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 May at 0900 an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The plume dispersed within six hours. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 May a possible ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-15 April ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 110 km SW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 March an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 February ash lumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-8 February ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Bagana is a massive symmetrical lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides. (GVN/GVP)

Papua-New Guinea - Langila volcano (New britain)

November 1st, 2018

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind-model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 October an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 September an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Previously, Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-21 June ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 June an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 June a minor ash emission from Langila rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l., slowly drifted SW, and detached form the summit. On 10 June a discrete event produced an ash plume that rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23 and 26-28 May ash plumes from Langila rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW, W, and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 and 21-22 May ash plumes from Langila rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW, W, and WNW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 May at 0709 an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. An image acquired around six hours later indicated that the ash from the event had dissipated. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 April an ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. An image acquired around six hours later indicated that the ash from the event had dissipated. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 April a discrete, low-level ash plume from Langila rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m. (GVN/GVP)

Papua - New Guinea - Kadovar volcano

November 12th, 2018

According to the Darwin VAAC an ash plume from Kadovar was identified in satellite data on 9 November drifting WNW at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. The Darwin VAAC reported that during 29-30 October intermittent ash plumes from Kadovar rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, and SE. According to the Darwin VAAC, ash plumes from Kadovar were visible in satellite images on 21 October drifting NE at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite data and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-12 October ash plumes from Kadovar rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. An ash plume from Kadovar was visible in satellite images on 28 September drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. On 1 October an ash plume rose to 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. According to Rabaul Volcano Observatory, volcanic activity has been declining despite continuous eruptions.A clear photo of Sentinel 2, June 14, shows two weak plumes and a hot spot at the coastal vent. According to the Darwin VAAC a pilot observed an ash plume from Kadovar rising to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. on 10 June. The ash plume was not identified in satellite data. RVO reported that the lava dome at Kadovar's SE Coastal Vent continued to grow, though slowly, with only a 1-m change detected during 10-20 March. Weak incandescence from the Main Crater was visible on 13 March. Bright incandescence from both the Main Crater and the SE Coastal vent was visible on 14 March, coincident with the start of dark gray ash emissions from both vents, lasting until 19 March. RVO reported that emissions from Kadovar's Main Crater were white from 1 March, until an explosion on 1800 on 5 March was followed by gray emissions through 8 March. The gray plumes rose less than 360 m above the vent and drifted SE. Noises were described as roaring and rumbling during 1-2 and 6-8 March, and booming on 5 March. The lava dome at the SE Coastal Vent continued to grow and rose to 7-8 m above sea level on 1 March, 10-11 m on 2 March, and 10-17 m on 8 March. Dark gray ash plumes rose from the dome. Nighttime incandescence was noted from both Main Crater and the SE vent. According to the Darwin VAAC a pilot observed an ash plume from Kadovar on 2 March drifting SE at an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. RVO reported that lava continued to flow from the SE Coastal Vent resulting in the connection of a reemerged lava island to the coast of Kadovar within a few days of the 1 February collapse. During 14-22 February continuous plumes of white vapor rose from both Main Crater and SE Coastal Vent, punctuated by dense ash emissions from both areas during 16 and 20-22 February and occasional booming noises. Ash plumes rose 370 m above the island and drifted SE, though on 22 February the winds blew the plumes N and NW. Incandescence from both areas was visible on 22 February. A sulfur odor was noticed by residents on Blup Blup (15 km N) on 16 and 22 February. In a 12 February report RVO noted that activity from Main Crater consisted of white plumes rising 20 m and drifting a few kilometers SE and weak nighttime crater incandescence. RVO also confirmed that on 9 February the lava dome at Kadovar's SE Coastal Vent collapsed, causing 5-6 minor tsunamis, less than 1 m high, observed by residents on Blup Blup's E and W coasts. The waves were reported at 1050, before the main collapse of the dome. The Rabaul Volcano Observatory, reported that activity continued on February 8 with night glow, and moderate steam emissions at the main crater and SE costal vent.At 8:45 am on February 9, major explosions started at the SE costal vent; they continued until 10:50 am, when a collapse seems to have made the lava dome disappear. The dome is no longer visible from Blupblup (Rup rup). A not confirmed small tsunami, would be occurred at this village without damage. As of the 6th of February, The Rabaul Volcano Observatory reported a decrease in Kadovar activity, despite continuous eruptions.Steam emissions are low to moderate at the south crater without eruptions, and on Friday, February 2, sulfur dioxide emissions are sharply down, indicating that there is no new lava flow. As of the 2nd of February, RVO reported thatthe eruption continued, with thick vapor emissions to the main crater, rising to a hundred meters above the summit, and a continuous steam plume at the coastal lava dome , rising a hundred meters above the island, drifted to the southeast.The lava flow continued to grow; a distinct lobe has traveled 20-30 m. from the nose of the flow towards the open sea. At 18:30 LT, on February 1, a collapse of the side of the flow, facing the island of Blup Blup, generated a plume of gray ash; the vigorous degassing then continued, shining brightly enough during the night.The main lava the flow swelled upwards, with a distinct valley now visible between the bulge and the flank of the island.The lava dome continued to grow on the southeast coast. About the seismicity level, high frequency episodes are recorded, mixed with the signals of strong winds and waves. RVO reported that the eruption at Kadovar continued during 23-24 January at levels similar to the previous few days. Main Crater produced light-gray to brown ash plumes that rose at most 100 m and drifted a few tens of kilometers W. Weak incandescence from Main Crater was visible at night. The lava dome at the SE Coastal Vent continued to grow and was an estimated 50 m a.s.l. (the water depth in that area was unknown) and extends out from the coast 150-200 m. The dome glowed red at night. Seismicity was low to moderate, with one high-frequency event, and 12 significant numerous small low-frequency events. Strong sulfur dioxide emissions were detected. RVO reported that the eruption at Kadovar continued during 18-19 and 21-22 January. Main Crater produced ash plumes that rose as high as 800 m above the summit and drifted tens of kilometers E, SE, S, and SW. Vulcanian activity was continuous, though no discrete explosions were detected. Steam plumes from the SE Coastal Vent rose 800 m above the island, and a lava dome which strongly and continuously glowed at night slowly extruded from the vent. Strong sulfur dioxide emissions were detected. As of the 18th of January RVO reported that eruptive activity is still continuing. Video - Prevailing winds today drive some of this cloud towards the main island. As of the 17th of January RVO reported that the main crater produces a weak plume of gray ash 300 meters above it, intermittently accompanied with explosions and plumes rising 500 to 800 meters above the summit, toward the Sepik river. The south and west vents also produce low emissions, often obscured by the ashes of the main crater. A moderate plume of white vapor rises 800 meters above the southeasterly coastal vent, while it is marked by continuous but fluctuating nighttime glow. The seismometer, now operational on Kadovar, recorded high frequency earthquakes at intervals of 2 seconds and a depth of 14-15 km., in relation to rock ruptures. As of the 14th of January, RVO reported that the eruption continued. In its lasted Sunday bulletin, the RVO noted the presence of a lava dome at sea at the base of thick clouds of steam rising some 600 meters above sea level. A discoloration of the waters is also visible, generated either by an ongoing underwater eruption or by eruptive materials dispersed in the ocean.As of the 12th of January January report the Rabaul Volcano Observatory / RVO reported that the fracture from the summit dome towards the coast has widened and was the seat of vigorous steam emissions. Significant emissions of sulfur dioxide were observed. The gas contaminated the western part of nearby Ruprup Island, where the residents of Kadovar have found temporary shelter. The RVO also reported that the evacuees will be transsferred to the main island, where the government is negotiating acquisition of 30 hectares, due to both risks and logistical problems of supply. Moreover Ruprup does not seem to remain a safe place, because the temperature of the hot springs is constantly rising. According to RVO scientists the evolution of the eruption could become catastrophic, explosive, phreatic to phreatomagmatic, and generate tsunamis. As there was no systematic monitoring, the RVO will install a seismograph in the coming days. As of the 8th of January, the Rabaul Volcanological Observatory reports, through Looppng, that the eruption continued, with ash and steam emitting; the satellites did not observe a thermal anomaly or significant sulfur dioxide emissions. As of the 7th of January, local information reported that the ash plume has become darker and bulky. The ash covers 50 to 60% of the island and ash falls over 10 km, on December 7 in a sector west / north-west, are confirmed by VAAC Darwin forecasts and satellite images. Ashfall was reported on Kairiru and Mushu islands (115 km WNW), Mt. Uru in Yangoru (130 km W), and Woginara (140 km W), along with locations along the W coast of the Wewak DistrictThe aviation code is orange. According news from Loop-PNG as of the 5th of January, an eruption began on the island-volcano Kadovar; Kadovar started erupting around 12:00 local time Friday, January 5, 2018 (02:00 UTC), prompting authorities to send out boats to evacuate more than 500 people living on Kadovar Island. The boats were sent from Kopar, the nearest island, some 30-minutes boat ride from Kadovar.A control flight carried out by a Samaritan Aviation seaplane on January 6th during the afternoon showed that the activity of the Kadovar volcano has increased since yesterday. The statement was made after an overflight confirmed lava coming out of the once dormant volcano. According to latest local reports all the inhabitants of the island were evacuated without loss of life. According to Darwin VAAC, the volcanic emission was clearly visible on Himawari — 8 imagery acquired 02:30 UTC today. The volcanic ash cloud was reaching an altitude of 2.1 km (7 000 feet) above sea level. The Aviation Color Code is at Orange. The 2-km-wide island of Kadovar is the emergent summit of a Bismarck Sea stratovolcano of Holocene age. Kadovar is part of the Schouten Islands, and lies off the coast of New Guinea, about 25 km N of the mouth of the Sepik River. The village of Gewai is perched on the crater rim. A 365-m-high lava dome forming the high point of the andesitic volcano fills an arcuate landslide scarp that is open to the south, and submarine debris-avalanche deposits occur in that direction. Thick lava flows with columnar jointing forms low cliffs along the coast. The youthful island lacks fringing or offshore reefs. No certain historical eruptions are known; the latest activity was a period of heightened thermal phenomena in 1976. (GVN/GVP)

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Tonga islands - Monowaï volcano

November 24th, 2016

GeoNet reported that on 16 November airplane passengers observed pumice floating in an area W of Minerva Reef, about 600 km SE of Fiji and 500 km SW of Tonga, where there are no known active submarine volcanoes. The nearest active submarine volcano is Monowai (400 km SE) which was active during 10-11 November, though it usually does not produce pumice rafts. Floating pumice was visible in satellite images during 15-16 November, extending more than 100 km. Analysts were not yet able to track the pumice to its source in older images. A larger pumice raft in October 2012 originated from Havre Seamount. Monowai, also known as Orion seamount, rises to within 100 m of the sea surface about halfway between the Kermadec and Tonga island groups. The volcano lies at the southern end of the Tonga Ridge and is slightly offset from the Kermadec volcanoes. Small parasitic cones occur on the N and W flanks of the basaltic submarine volcano, which rises from a depth of about 1500 m and was named for one of the New Zealand Navy bathymetric survey ships that documented its morphology. A large 8.5 x 11 km wide submarine caldera with a depth of more than 1500 m lies to the NNE. Numerous eruptions from Monowai have been detected from submarine acoustic signals since it was first recognized as a volcano in 1977. A shoal that had been reported in 1944 may have been a pumice raft or water disturbance due to degassing. Surface observations have included water discoloration, vigorous gas bubbling, and areas of upwelling water, sometimes accompanied by rumbling noises. (GVN/GVP)

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Tonga - Unnamed submarine volcano

February 2nd, 2017

Based on analysis of satellite images, GeoNet reported that a submarine eruption at an Unnamed volcano (GVP volcano number 243030) about 46 km NW of Tonga's capital Nukualofa began on 23 January. Activity was also identified in images from 26, 28, 29, and 31 January, characterized by discolored water, and a volcanic plume on 31 January. An unnamed submarine volcano is located 35 km NW of the Niu Aunofo lighthouse on Tongatapu Island. Tongatapu is a coral island at the southern end of an island chain paralleling the Tofua volcanic arc to the E. The volcano was constructed at the S end of a submarine ridge segment of the Tofua volcanic arc extending NNE to Falcon Island. The first documented eruptions took place in 1911 and 1923; an ephemeral island was formed in 1999.

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Mariannes islands - Pagan volcano

February 2nd, 2016

Satellite data and ground-based observations from a field crew and local residents near Pagan indicated that steam-and-gas emissions have significantly decreased since March 2015. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Unassigned on 30 January 2016. Previously news 2014 - Low-level unrest continued at Pagan during the week of 20 June; seismicity remained above background levels. A steam-and-gas plume was visible in web camera and clear satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Previously, information rported that low-level unrest continued at Pagan during 27 December 2013-2 January 2014; seismicity remained above background levels. A robust steam-and-gas plume was occasionally visible in web camera images during the reporting period. A small explosion was detected at about 0145 on 28 December. It may have produced a diffuse ash emission, but the webcam was not in operation at the time to verify. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Previously, the seismic network at Pagan recorded tremor and small discrete earthquakes during 9-16 August, indicating low-level unrest. A steam-and-gas plume was visible in satellite images during periods of clear weather and from web-camera images. A small explosion with a relatively high amplitude seismic component and small infrasound component occurred at 0010 on 12 August. The data suggested that degassing increased about 30 sec after the event. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.The 570-m-high Mount Pagan at the NE end of the island rises above the flat floor of the northern caldera, which probably formed during the early Holocene. South Pagan is a 548-m-high stratovolcano with an elongated summit containing four distinct craters. Almost all of the historical eruptions of Pagan, which date back to the 17th century, have originated from North Pagan volcano. The largest eruption of Pagan during historical time took place in 1981 and prompted the evacuation of the sparsely populated island. Last know eruption occured in 2006.

Mariannes islands - Ahyi volcano

May 25th, 2014

On 23 May the USGS reported that during the previous week one explosion signal from the source at or near Ahyi seamount was detected. Seismic activity had been low since 8 May continuing to indicate that the eruption had possibly paused or ended. On 16 May the USGS reported that during the previous week seismic signals from the source at or near Ahyi seamount had greatly diminished, indicating that the eruption had possibly paused or ended. Scientists aboard the research ship Hi'ialakai conducted water column tests in the vicinity of Ahyi on 15 May and reported no sign of activity, suggesting that the eruption occurred from a nearby volcanic vent and not the summit. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory A helicorder plot from a station on Pagan showed that seismic signals from a source at or near the Ahyi seamount stopped at 1610 on 8 May. An additional isolated event was reported at 1810.Seismic stations on Pagan, Sarigan, Anatahan, and Saipan started recording signals on 24 April that continued at least through 2 May. The source had not been confirmed, but is thought to be at or near the Ahyi seamount. During 4-5 May a helicorder plot from a station on Pagan showed explosive signals at a rate of 20 per hour.Seismic stations on Pagan, Sarigan, Anatahan, and Saipan began recording signals starting at 0635 on 24 April believed to be from an undersea volcanic source. Hydroacoustic sensors on Wake Island suggested that the source is at or near Ahyi seamount, although it was possible that the vent is located at one of the other volcanic seamounts in the area. While conducting coral reef research at Farallon de Pajaros, NOAA divers reported hearing loud explosions and feeling the shock waves. One of the more powerful explosions was felt by the crew as it reverberated through the hull of the ship. On 27 April the Color Code was raised from Unassigned to Yellow. A report issued at 0536 on 30 April noted that seismic activity remained high. Ahyi seamount is a large conical submarine volcano that rises to within 137 m of the sea surface about 18 km SE of the island of Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) in the northern Marianas. Water discoloration has been observed over the submarine volcano, and in 1979 the crew of a fishing boat felt shocks over the summit area of the seamount followed by upwelling of sulfur-bearing water. On April 24-25, 2001 an explosive submarine eruption was detected seismically from a seismic station on Rangiroa Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago. The event was well constrained (+/- 15 km) at a location near the southern base of Ahyi; the summit of the seamount lies within the location uncertainty. (GVN/GVP)

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INDIAN OCEAN SOUTH - Heard island volcano

February 2nd, 2016

Scientists and crew aboard CSIRO’s (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) Marine National Facility research vessel Investigator circled Heard Island and observed a plume rising from Mawson Peak’s crater and lava flows traveling down the NW flanks during 30-31 January 2016 . Visual observations of Heard are very rare due to its remote location. A MODVOLC thermal alert had been issued for 28 January. - Previous news dated 2013 According to NASA Earth Observatory (EO) an image acquired on 7 April 2013 from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed that Mawson's Peak crater on Heard Island had filled and a lava flow had traveled down the SW flank. The lava flow was visible in an image acquired on 20 April and had slightly widened just below the summit. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon volcano lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben volcano because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's 2745-m high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported in historical time at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.(Smithsonian Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin).

KERGUELEN PLATEAU - McDonald island

February 2nd, 2016

Scientists and crew aboard CSIRO’s (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) Marine National Facility research vessel Investigator observed a plume rising from McDonald Island (the largest island) during the last week of January 2016. Visual observations of the McDonald Islands are very rare due to its remote location. Historical eruptions have greatly modified the morphology of the McDonald Islands, located on the Kerguelen Plateau about 75 km west of Heard Island. The largest island, McDonald, is composed of a layered phonolitic tuff plateau cut by phonolitic dikes and lava domes. A possible nearby active submarine center was inferred from phonolitic pumice that washed up on Heard Island in 1992. Volcanic plumes were observed in December 1996 and January 1997 from McDonald Island. During March of 1997 the crew of a vessel that sailed near the island noted vigorous steaming from a vent at the northern side of the island along with possible pyroclastic deposits and lava flows. A satellite image taken in November 2001 showed the island to have more than doubled in area since previous reported observations in November 2000. The high point of the island group had shifted to the northern end of McDonald Island, which had merged with Flat Island.

SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS - Bristol island (Sourabaya volcano)

JuLy 20th, 2016

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 19 July a diffuse ash plume from Bristol Island's Mt. Sourabaya was visible in satellite images drifting 30 km NE. A persistent thermal anomaly was also identified in satellite data. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 16 June a diffuse ash plume from Bristol Island's Mt. Sourabaya was visible in satellite images rising to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. The report noted low confidence in the plume altitude due to weather clouds in the area. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that weather clouds mostly prevented satellite observations of Bristol Island's Mt. Sourabaya during 1-6 June, though a thermal anomaly was detected during 1-2 and 5-6 June. According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite image of Bristol Island acquired on 28 May showed an ash plume from Mt. Sourabaya drifting NE. Based on satellite image analysis, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 29-31 May gas plumes with possible minor ash content drifted as far as 185 km N, NNE, and SE at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. The Based on analysis of satellite images, an eruption at Bristol Island likely began on 24 April, the first eruption since 1956. Landsat images detected a plume and a thermal anomaly in the main crater at the top of Mt. Sourabaya. By 1 May the anomaly was elongated to the W, suggesting that lava had breached the crater rim. The 9 x 10 km Bristol Island near the southern end of the South Sandwich arc lies across Fortser's Passage from the Southern Thule Islands and forms one of the largest islands of the chain. Largely glacier-covered, it contains a horseshoe-shaped ridge at the interior extending northward from the highest peak, 1100-m-high Mount Darnley. A steep-sided flank cone or lava dome, Havfruen Peak, is located on the east side, and a young crater and fissure are on the west flank. Three large sea stacks lying off Turmoil Point at the western tip of the island may be remnants of an older now-eroded volcanic center. Both summit and flank vents have been active during historical time. The latest eruption, during 1956, originated from the west-flank crater, and deposited cinder over the icecap. The extensive icecap and the difficulty of landing make it the least explored of the South Sandwich Islands.

SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS - Saunders volcano island

July 12th, 2018

On Satellite data acquired during 1 January-9 July periodically (a few times a month) showed volcanic plumes originating from Michael on Saunders Island. A thermal anomaly was last detected on 3 April 2018. Saunders Island is a volcanic structure consisting of a large central edifice intersected by two seamount chains, as shown by bathymetric mapping (Leat et al., 2013). The young constructional Mount Michael stratovolcano dominates the glacier-covered island, while two submarine plateaus, Harpers Bank and Saunders Bank, extend north. The
symmetrical Michael has a 500-m-wide summit crater and a remnant of a somma rim to the SE. Tephra layers visible in ice cliffs surrounding the island are evidence of recent eruptions. Ash clouds were reported from the summit crater in 1819, and an effusive eruption was inferred to have occurred from a N-flank fissure around the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. A low ice-free lava platform, Blackstone Plain, is located on the north coast, surrounding a group of former sea stacks. A cluster of parasitic cones on the SE flank, the Ashen Hills, appear to have been modified since 1820 (LeMasurier and Thomson, 1990). Vapor emission is frequently reported from the summit crater. Recent AVHRR and MODIS satellite imagery has revealed evidence for lava lake activity in the summit crater. (GVN/GVP)


ANTARCTICA - Erebus Volcano

March 1st, 2014

As of the 1st of March 2014, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reported that Antarctica's Mt. Erebus continues with a molten lava lake and vapour emissions. It may be covered with glaciers, but they do little to cool the volcano's molten core. Previous special news : as of the 1st of August 2007, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) was reported that Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activityAccording to the Mt. Erebus activity log, several "small- to medium-sized" eruptions occurred during 12-18 October 2005, with a "very large" eruption occurring on 14 October. The eruption sizes were based on comparisons of seismic data for known Erebus eruptions. Mt. Erebus, the southern most volcano in the world, still continues to be the most active volcano in Antarctica. Mt. Erebus (3794 meters above sea level) is classified as a polygenetic stratovolcano. The composition of the current eruptive activity on Mt. Erebus is anorthoclase-phyric tephriphonolite and phonolite, which constitute the bulk of exposed lava flow on the volcano. The oldest eruptive products from Mt. Erebus consist of relatively undifferentiated and non-viscous basanitic lavas that form the low, broad platform shield of the Erebus edifice. Slightly younger basanites and phonotephrite lavas crop out on Fang Ridge, an eroded remnant of an early Erebus volcano and at other isolated locations on the flanks of the Mt. Erebus edifice. Lava flows of more viscous phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and trachyte are erupted after the basanites. The upper slopes of Mt. Erebus are dominated by steeply dipping (~30°) tephriphonolite lava flows with large scale flow levees. A conspicuous break in slope at approximately 3200 meters is a summit plateau representing a caldera. The summit caldera itself is filled with small volume tephriphonolite and phonolite lava flows. In the center of the of the summit caldera is a small, steep-sided cone composed primarily of decomposed lava bombs and a lag deposit of anorthoclase crystals. It is within this summit cone that the active lava lake continuously degasses and periodically erupts. Mt. Erebus located on Ross Island, Antarctica is the world’s southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970’s had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment. Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Information from : MEVO - Live cam link

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Santa Cruz Island - Tinakula volcano

October 30th, 2017

Based on satellite data and information from ground-based observers, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 25 October and the early part of 26 October a low-level eruption at Tinakula was ongoing. Ash emission rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SE. A news article from 1 November noted that significant ashfall had covered crops, and the water supplies for an estimated 11,500 people had been contaminated. Based on satellite data, the Wellington VAAC erported that ash emissions continued through at least 24 October, rising to altitudes of 3-3.7 (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E and W on 22 October, 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting S and SE on 23 October, and 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. with a SW drift on 24 October. A news article from 24 October stated that water supplies in the Reef Islands had been contaminated with ashfall, and that ashfall was also reported in Fenualoa, and likely in Nupani. The eruption of Tinakula remains poorly documented. On a Landsat 8 satellite image dated 21.10.2017, we can see the thermal signature of a lava flow towards the avalanche caldera breaching the western slope of the volcano.Two images, provided by Planetlabs on 9 September and 22 October respectively, show that volcanic ash covers the island and that a new pyroclastic delta has formed on the north-west coast. According to local news an eruption started at the Tinakula voclano on 21st of October at about 2 A.M. Important ashfalls occurred on several villages located on near islands around. Mirova site recorded a thermal anomaly on 21October and satellites data recorded strong SO2 emission estimated at about 40 Kilotons. Aviation Color Code has been raised for Santa Cruz island areas.The small 3.5-km-wide island of Tinakula is the exposed summit of a massive stratovolcano that rises 3-4 km from the sea floor at the NW end of the Santa Cruz islands. Tinakula resembles Stromboli volcano in containing a breached summit crater that extends from the 851-m-high summit to below sea level. Landslides enlarged this scarp in 1965, creating an embayment on the NW coast. The satellitic cone of Mendana is located on the SE side. The dominantly andesitic Tinakula volcano has frequently been observed in eruption since the era of Spanish exploration began in 1595. In about 1840, an explosive eruption apparently produced pyroclastic flows that swept all sides of the island, killing its inhabitants. Frequent historical eruptions have originated from a cone constructed within the large breached crater. These have left the upper flanks of the volcano and the steep apron of lava flows and volcaniclastic debris within the breach unvegetated. (GVN/GVP)

VANUATU - Lopevi volcano

December 21st, 2017

The Wellington VAAC noted that on 20 December a low-level eruption plume from Lopevi was visible in satellite and webcam images drifting NW at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.
On 7 December Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory noted that unrest continued at Lopevi, and the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). Photos and satellite images acquired at the end of November confirmed ongoing activity from the vents in the summit crater characterized by gas-and-steam emissions. Previously, As of the 25th of September Increased activity at Lopevi prompted the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory to increase the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 0-4). The report noted that all visitors should not approach the crater area. previously, based on a pilot observation and webcam views, the Wellington VAAC reported that an eruption at Lopevi began at 0500 on 13 January, and produced a plume that rose no higher that 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. That same day the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 0-5), indicating that a minor eruption was in progress. Geohazards. The small 7-km-wide conical island of Lopevi, known locally as Vanei Vollohulu, is one of Vanuatu's most active volcanoes. A small summit crater containing a cinder cone is breached to the NW and tops an older cone that is rimmed by the remnant of a larger crater. The basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has been active during historical time at both summit and flank vents, primarily along a NW-SE-trending fissure that cuts across the island, producing moderate explosive eruptions and lava flows that reached the coast. Historical eruptions at the 1413-m-high volcano date back to the mid-19th century. The island was evacuated following major eruptions in 1939 and 1960. The latter eruption, from a NW-flank fissure vent, produced a pyroclastic flow that swept to the sea and a lava flow that formed a new peninsula on the western coast. (GVN/GVP)


VANUATU - Aoba (Ambae) volcano

October 31st, 2018

VGMD and VAAC Wellington reported that explosions occurred on October 30, 2018 at 18:32; a plume of ash rising to more than 4,000-5,000 meters caused fallout on the south and south-east of Ambae, including southern Maewo and northern Pentecost. This activity is consistent with alert level 2. On 21 September the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department reported that during September activity at Ambae's Lake Voui was characterized only by steam emissions; the eruption had ceased. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 0-5). As of the 2nd of September, VMGD reported that a new explosions occurred on Ambae on1st September at 20:15 local, accompanied by a plume of ash between 4 and 11 km high. Ash falls have been reported on south and central Maewo, and on northern Pentecost.The alert level remains at 3 / minor eruption, with a low possibility of increasing. According to news reports all 10,000 residents of Ambae had been evacuated to Espiritu Santo (W) and Maewo (NE) islands by 14 August. Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department (VMGD) reported that during overflights on 13 and 20 July, observers took photos of explosions at Ambae's Lake Voui ejecting hot tephra from vents and producing ash plumes. Increased activity prompted VMGD to raise the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 0-5) on 21 July, and warn residents to stay at least 3 km away from the active crater. The report noted that current activity was similar to that in March, but with more sustained ash emissions. At about 2100 on 26 July explosions generated an ash cloud that rose as high as 12 km above the vent and spread NE, E, and SE. According to news articles, the event caused darkness in the daytime and prompted an order for an island-wide evacuation of the 10,000 residents. Another explosive event occurred early on 27 July. The Wellington VAAC reported sulfur dioxide emissions, and ash plumes rising to 2.4-4.6 km (8,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE and NW. Pilots reported heavy ashfall over eastern Fiji. Smaller events producing ash-and-gas emissions continued throughout the day. On 1 August VMGD stated that the ashfall has had a significant impact on the island's food and water supplies, and the health of the island residents. Based on satellite data, webcam and pilot observations, and wind model data, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 16-17 July ash plumes from the vent Ambae’s Lake Voui rose to altitudes of 2.3-9.1 km (8,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l.and drifted NE. The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department reported that an ash plume from a cone in Ambae's Lake Voui was visible on 1 July. The report warned residents that ashfall was expected in areas to the NW and W and also on the NE part of Santo Island. The alert level remains at 2 / transition state between instability and eruption, with a danger zone of 2 km radius around the Voui Lake vents. A new map of the areas affected by the ashes, and possible lahars in case of rain, was established on July 10, 2018. The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department reported that activity at Amba's Lake Voui decreased in May, and by 7 June had ceased; the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and a 2-km-radius exclusion zone was emplaced. Steam and volcanic gas emissions continued, and were reportedly smelled by local residents near the volcano. On 18 May a news article noted that the eruption from a cone in Ambae's Lake Voui continued with minor activity at the vent. The article noted that widespread ashfall had significantly impacted food and water supplies, shelter, and the health of island residents. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5), and the report reminded residents to stay at least 3 km away from the active crater. Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that during April the eruption from a cone in Ambae's Lake Voui continued through 23 April, with ash emissions and some lava fountaining. Ash, scoria, and acid rain fell on the island. Observations on 21 April confirmed that the cone had grown, and that the crater in the center of the cone was larger; a small lake was present in the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5), and the report reminded residents to stay at least 3 km away from the active crater. Based on observations from satellites, webcams, pilots, and the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (local community reports), the Wellington VAAC reported that during 11-14 April ash plumes from the vent at Ambae's Lake Voui rose to altitudes of 1.8-4.9 km (6,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NW, W, and SE. On 12 April news articles noted that ashfall had affected the N part of Ambae, with photos showing thick ashfall deposits on houses and agricultural land, and reports of contaminated water supplies. On 15 April a VAAC office reported that the eruption has ceased. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5). Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported sustained ash and/or gas emissions from Ambae's Lake Voui during March through 4 April. Satellite data showed a significant sulfur dioxide gas emission (~0.15 Tg SO2) beginning in the very early hours of 6 April, indicating that the SO2 emission was the largest since Calbuco in April 2015. No significant high-altitude ash plume accompanied the emission, though the eruption generated lightning detected by the WWLLN (World Wide Lightning Location Network). Pictures of local areas posted on social media showed the continuing and significant ashfall on the island. Within a few days, by 8 April, the sulfur dioxide plume had spread across an area from the E coast of Australia to Tahiti, a distance of about 6,000 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5). Based on satellite data, webcam observations, and wind model data, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 21-27 March ash plumes from the vent at Ambae's Lake Voui rose to altitudes of 3-4.6 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly S and SW, but towards the end of the week to the N and W. News articles noted that ashfall had significantly impacted the S and W parts of the island, damaging crops, contaminating water, and collapsing homes, leading to the evacuation of three villages. On 25 March a flight was cancelled. Residents of Santo reportedly witnessed incandescent material being ejected as high as 1 km around 1800 and 2200; residents also noted four more events during the next morning that were also heard in Pentecost and Maewo. On 18 March the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that eruptive activity at Ambae's Lake Voui during February-March was similar to activity observed at the end of October 2017, but with more sustained ash emissions from explosions at the vent. The ongoing ash-and-gas emissions were impacting local villages, prompting VGO to raise the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 0-5) and to warn residents and tourists to stay outside of the Danger Zone defined as a 3-km radius around the active vent in Lake Voui. A news article noted that ashfall was reported in the NW, W, SW, and S parts of the island. Based on satellite and webcam observations, and model data, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 12-13 March ash plumes from Ambae rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Based on satellite and webcam observations, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 4-6 March ash plumes from Ambae rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and N. Based on satellite and webcam observations, the Wellington VAAC reported that on 24 February an ash plume from Ambae rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.Based on satellite and webcam observations, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 17-19 February ash plumes from Ambae rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Based on satellite, pilot, and webcam observations, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 8-9 February ash plumes from Aoba rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km (9,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and E. Geohazards reported that a new phase of activity is observed on the webcam on January 27 around 11 pm, as well as a thermal anomaly.The Vanuatu Geohazard Observatory reports a change of style of activity characterized by audible explosions in the vicinity and vapor plumes, containing little ashes. Nighttime glow is observed. Based on information from VGO, the Wellington VAAC reported that on 8 January ash from Aoba fell on the N and NE parts of the island; weather clouds prevented webcam and satellite observations. The next day a local observer saw an ash plume rising to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NW. As of the 6th of January, VGMD reported that during the night of 4 to 5 January, an eruptive activity probably occurred on Ambae, Lake Voui; the activity was identified by the infra-red camera and a thermal anomaly reported by the site MIROVA, 374 MW January 4 at 14:20. On January 6 in the early hours, only a small plume of gas was visible on webcam images. Aoba, also known as Ambae, is a massive 2500 cu km basaltic shield volcano that is the most voluminous volcano of the New Hebrides archipelago. A pronounced NE-SW-trending rift zone dotted with scoria cones gives the 16 x 38 km island an elongated form. A broad pyroclastic cone containing three crater lakes is located at the summit of the Hawaiian-style shield volcano within the youngest of at least two nested calderas, the largest of which is 6 km in diameter. Post-caldera explosive eruptions formed the summit craters of Lake Voui (also spelled Vui) and Lake Manaro Ngoru about 360 years ago. A tuff cone was constructed within Lake Voui about 60 years later. The latest known flank eruption, about 300 years ago, destroyed the population of the Nduindui area near the western coast. GVN/GVP

VANUATU - Ambrym volcano

August 25th, 2018

On 22 August the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department reported that the lava lakes in Ambrym's Benbow and Marum craters continued to be active, and produced sustained and substantial gas-and-steam emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5); the report reminded the public to stay outside of the Permanent Danger Zone defined as a 1-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 2.7-km radius from Marum Crater. On 7 June the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that the lava lakes in Ambrym's Benbow and Marum craters continued to be active, and produced sustained and substantial gas-and-steam emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5); the report reminded the public to stay outside of the Permanent Danger Zone defined as a 1-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 2.7-km radius from Marum Crater. On 25 April the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that the lava lakes in Ambrym's Benbow and Marum craters continued to be active, and produced gas-and-steam emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5); the report reminded the public to stay outside of the Permanent Danger Zone defined as a 1-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 2.7-km radius from Marum Crater. On 19 March the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that, based on photos taken during February-March, the lava lakes in Ambrym's Benbow and Marum craters continued to be active and produced gas-and-steam emissions. Visitors occasionally reported smelling volcanic gases and hearing explosions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5); the report reminded the public to stay outside of the Permanent Danger Zone defined as a 1-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 2.7-km radius from Marum Crater. Previously, On 7 December Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) lowered the Alert Level for Ambrym to 2 (on a scale of 0-5), noting that activity had stabilized by the end of November and was characterized by gas-and-steam emissions. Seismicity had also declined. The report reminded the public to stay outside of the Permanent Danger Zone defined as a 1-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 2.7-km radius from Marum Crater. The Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that aerial observations of Ambrym on 24 and 30 September, and 1 and 6 October, and the analysis of seismic data, confirmed that minor eruptive activity within the caldera was characterized by hot volcanic gas and steam emissions. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were within a 2-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 3-km radius from Marum Crater. On 28 September the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that minor eruptive activity continued at Ambrym. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were within a 2-km radius from Benbow Crater and a 3-km radius from Marum Crater. On 30 August the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that “drastic changes” at Ambrym prompted an increase in the Alert Level from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. According to a news article, a representative of VGO indicated that the Alert Level change was based on increased seismicity detected since the beginning of August but which became more notable on 25 August. Since monitoring of the volcano started around 20 years ago, the Alert Level had never been elevated past 2.Previously, The Wellington VAAC reported that a low-level ash emission from Ambrym was identified in satellite images on 3 April 2017. Previous news 2016 - On 27 May the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory issued a statement reminding residents and visitors that Ambrym remained active; the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major Plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations.

Bezymianny volcano - H. Gaudru 1992

VANUATU - Yasur volcano ( Tanna island)

August 29th, 2018

The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department reported that ongoing explosions at Yasur were sometimes strong during August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VMGD reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. The Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department reported some stronger explosions at Yasur during 27-28 June. Based on webcam images the Wellington VAAC reported that on 29 June intermittent, low-level ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. Based on webcam images and local visual observations the Wellington VAAC reported that during 20-21 June intermittent, low-level ash plumes from Yasur rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Based on webcam images, satellite data, and local visual observations the Wellington VAAC reported that during 14-15 and 17-18 June intermittent, low-level ash plumes from Yasur rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.2 km (3,000-4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and N. Based on webcam images and model data, the Wellington VAAC reported that during 5-6 June intermittent, low-level ash plumes from Yasur rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery. On 25 April the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department (VMGD) reported that ongoing explosive activity at Yasur was confined to the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. Observations carried out by the Department of Meteorology and Geological Hazards of Vanuatu / VMGD on 21 April 2018 during an overflight confirmed that the April eruptive activity modified the volcanic cone of Lake Voui. The cone is now bigger and a big crater has formed. A small lake is present in the active crater. During the month of April, eruptions typically consisted of volcanic ash emissions and lava fountains that produced important ashfalls on Ambae island. The eruptions also produce volcanic gas and acid rain.The presence of ash on Ambae has modified the behavior of streams A landslide can occur in some areas in case of heavy rains.These observations and the analysis of the seismic data confirmed that the minor level of volcanic activity is still continuing. The activity of the volcano consists of a permanent emission of steam and gas, with ejection of volcanic ash during explosions.The alert level remains at 3, with a prohibited area of ​​3 km radius around the vents. Based on visual observations and satellite data, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported on 19 March that explosions at Yasur remained strong. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. Previously, On 7 December the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that, based on seismic data and visual observations, explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 31 October 2017 the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that, based on seismic data, explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. Previously, on 11 November 2016 the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 395-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 15 October the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur was raised to 3 (on a scale of 0-4), noting that explosions could become more intense. The Alert Level was lowered back to 2 on 18 October. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 10 October the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 9 September the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 2 August the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 28 June the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 27 May the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 31 March, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions were intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. Previously, On 14 January, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions had become more intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 15 December, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions had become more intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 13 November 2015, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that activity at Yasur had increased with more intense explosions. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 27 April 2015, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that Yasur continued in a state of unrest; the Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were in proximity to and around the volcanic crater, and in volcanic ash and gas prone areas exposed to trade winds. Previous News 2013 -On 19 November 2013, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that a new phase of ash emissions from Yasur began on 3 November. The intensity of the explosive activity remained low; therefore the Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). Previously, on 28 May, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity at Yasur continued to increase slightly, and bombs fell around the summit area, the tourist walk, and the parking area. Ash venting and dense white plumes from the crater were observed. Photos included in the report showed ash emissions and ashfall on 5 and 8 May, and dense white plumes on 23 and 24 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). According to observations by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards department, started from 02nd April 2013, the explosive activity level of Yasur volcano has slightly increased. Explosions have become slightly stronger and more frequent. The fresh volcanic bombs from active vents have been falling around the summit area, the tourist walk and the parking area. Yasur volcano exhibited ash venting beginning on 02nd April 2013 and believed to continue. With this situation, villages and communities located far away and close to the volcano, especially those in the prevailing trade winds direction will expect ash falls (See Fig.2a/b). The Volcanic Alert Level of Yasur volcano increase at Level 2, the risk remains near the volcano crater for volcanic projections, and in part of the Red Zone for volcanic ash falls. This level of alert could evolve in the coming days. Moderate ash venting occurred at Yasur volcano at 15:15 pm (02 April), at 09:30 am (4 April) and at 07:00am (5 April). Satellite image (OMI) on 01st April 2013 shows the light degassing from Yasur volcano Previously, past year, following an assessment during 7-12 July 2012, the Geohazards Observatory team concluded that explosive activity at Yasur had slightly increased, becoming stronger and more frequent, and shifting from Strombolian to sub-Plinian. Bombs ejected from the vents fell in the crater, around the summit area, and on the tourist walk and parking area. The explosions were heard, felt, and observed from nearby villages and schools. Activity at all three volcanic vents was characterized by degassing, ash emissions, and ejection of bombs. On 13 July the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 0-4). Previously, On 13 June 2011, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity from Yasur decreased during the previous week after a brief period of high activity with significant explosions and ashfall. Even though Strombolian activity occasionally ejected bombs that fell around the crater, explosions had become slightly weaker and less frequent. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 0-4).Following the assessment done by the Geohazards team on the 31 th May and 01 st   June, Yasur volcano has maintained its high activity with the strong explosions and ashes/bombs emissions from all the three active vents. The increasing activity of the Yasur volcano since May 2011 led us to upgrade the hazard rating of this volcano at Alert Level 3 starting from June 01, 2011.On 12 May 2011, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that, based on information collected by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department, satellite imagery showed strong degassing from Yasur during the previous week. Residents living close to the volcano reported persistent strong explosions that were heard and felt on 12 May. The Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). Update past year : 10th of June 2010 - Observations and assessments on the Yasur volcano during the past week week have indicated that Yasur's volcanic activity has decreased after a brief period of high activity with significant explosions and ash falls at the end of May 2010. Explosions have become less frequent yet constant strombolian activity with occasional ejections of lava bombs still occur around the volcano. Therefore with these indications the Alert Level of Yasur volcano is now decreased to Level 2 on the Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) . Visitors to the volcano are still advised to observe the volcano from safe distance away from the vent. It is advisable that visitors and tourist agencies must carefully consider this information given, to avoid the risks and dangers of the volcano. As of the 27th of May, Geohazard Vanuatu reported the increasing activity of the Yasur volcano since January 2010 led us to upgrade the hazard rating of this volcano at Alert Level 3 starting from May 27, 2010 .  Therefore the access to the volcano is now closed and its 500 m surrounding zone is strictly prohibited. Yasur volcano is currently undergoing moderate to large eruption with strong explosions ejecting volcanic bombs reaching the view points for visitors and the parking area with the significant ash fall in the villages nearby. High risk of volcanic projections remains in the red color Zone and threats of ash fall in parts of the yellow color zone that are exposed to trade winds that Following the assessment done by the Geohazards team on the 26th and 27th April, Yasur volcano has maintained its high activity with the strong degassing and ash emissions from all the three active vents and falling on most parts of the island from the east to the west. Fresh volcanic bombs have fallen around the crater rim; few of them have even reached the ash plain and the parking area. Explosions could be heard and viewed from the villages. Around 5 volcanic bombs have already fallen on the observation point B since beginning of April. Tour operators and local population have confirmed that the activity remains very important since the beginning of April. OMI pictures and the seismic data collected from the monitoring station confirmed this important activity with the strong degassing and very explosive activity to date Following the observations of the Geo-hazards team on in March 8th 2010 and the analysis of the volcano-seismic data recorded by the monitoring network of this volcano, it is confirmed that the activity of this volcano is increasing since January 2010, as indicated in the satellite images. This is also proven by the activity of all the three active vents and the recent volcanic bombs that fell on visitors' observation path. Under these circumstances, the Alert Level for Yasur volcano is raised to LEVEL 2 according to the Vanuatu Volcanoes Alert Levels (VVAL) . This means that eruptions are moderate and danger close to the volcano, within parts of Red Zone of the Hazard map. Thus approaching the volcano could be dangerous; it would be safer to view the yasur volcano from the parking area to avoid the volcano impact. Visitors and tourism agencies are advised to consider this information until the next alert is released. Previously, as of the 12th of August 2009, John Seach reported that eruptive activity continues at Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. During a visit to the volcano from 1-3 August, John Seach observed Strombolian explosions ejecting lava to a height of 300 m above the vent. Ash emissions were lower than normal, which allowed good views into the crater. One vent was active in the northern crater, and two vents active in the southern crater. As of the 1st of March 2009, Yasur volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has done so for at least 800 years. Previously, as of the 1st of October, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur is still currently erupting. Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. As of the 9th of April 2008, mainly from reports of John Seach , reported that a major earthquake (magnitude 7.6) hit southern Vanuatu today at 2346hrs local time. The earthquake was located east of the South New Hebrides Trench and 97 km SW of Yasur volcano. The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre said there was no tsunami threat. The main earthquake was preceded by a large and two medium sized earthquakes; magnitude 6.5, 5.9, and 4.9. Yasur is the closest active volcano to the earthquake epicentre and is currently erupting. As of the 1st of April, activity has been almost continuous at the Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. As of the 26th of March, the Darvin Volcanic Ash Advisory (DVAAC) has reported that Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. On 7-8th March, ash emissions increased at Yasur producing ashfall over villages within 4 km of the crater. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. Previous information from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occurred from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxide measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tonnes per day (500 tonnes per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu) Yasur is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Previous informations from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occured from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxyde measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tons per day (500 tons per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu)Previous significative information (September 2002) reported an increasing level of activity at Yasur since October 2001 and the volcanic quake of August 29, 2002 (about 3:00 pm local time), led local volcanologist to upgrade the hazard rating to Alarm Level 3. Access to the volcano was closed.The August 29 quake, magnitude 6 was strongly felt by the inhabitants of the whole district around the volcano (White Sands, Port Resolution, …). This was the first time since the seismic station was installed in October 1992 that a shock of such magnitude was recorded (see graphs below). Elders of the Yasur district confirm that such a quake had not been experienced within living memory.Two new seismological monitoring stations are about to be installed, to complement the existing alarm system installed 2 km from Yasur and the Isangel station. At this time, evacuation of the roughly 6000 inhabitants of the district has not been considered. Information bulletins will be broadcast by Radio Vanuatu to keep the population concerned informed of new developments. Yasur's activity follows a long volcanic history in the southeastern part of the island , whose main phases, over approximately the last 10,000 years, have produced: 1/ lava flows; 2/ extensive glowing ash flows that covered the entire region from Kwamera to Waisisi, and 3/ the construction of another small volcanic cone, the Ombus. Yasur volcano lies over a large and shallow (less than 10 km from the surface) magmatic chamber whose center is located between Port-Resolution and Sulfur Bay; thus, the possibility of a major eruption within a century or a millennium cannot be ignored. Such an eruption, however, would be preceded by numerous earthquakes. Should this happen, evacuation of the local population toward the west coast, the central districts and the north of the island would have to be carried out rapidly. Informations from :M.Lardy (IRD Noumea)

Yasur volcano (31December 2002) S.Wallez- DGMWR

 

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