VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on November 24th, 2020 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today : - avalanches occurred at the Merapi volcano ( Indonesia)- eruptive activity continued at the Sabancaya volcano (Peru)

 

ECUADOR - Guagua Pichincha volcano

June 16th, 2016

No new report since 2016 - The Washington VAAC reported that on 14 June 2016 a possible ash emission from Guagua Pichincha was visible in satellite images drifting NW. Seismicity was elevated. A VAAC report issued about five hours later noted that no further notices of activity had been received. Previous news 2015 - IGEPN reported that seismic activity was detected since end of March 2015. (58 earthquakes during the 31st of March) A second swarm has been reported from 14th to-15th of April probably due to rocks fracturation. As of the 17-18 and 19th of April sulfur odor was detected from the rifugio and according to visual observation the main fumarole close the 1981'crater was more active that the previous days. As of the 20th of April, two phreatic explosions occurred (at 5:06 and 5:58 local time) on the Cristal dome complex active zone. As of the 29th of April, IGEPN recorded a signal tremor type probably in relation with geothermal activity under the volcano. Last previous activity was reported on 2010 : As of the 14 th of September 2010, IG reported that no significative change between 6-12 September period. Seismic network continues to record important number of events related to fracture of rock to the interior of the volcano, nevertheless did not register any type of additional anomaly. As of the 17th of April 2010, IG reported that there no change, both the seismic activity and fumarole emission remained at a low level. Previous significative information : as of the 20th of February 2009, IG reported that the seismic stations Geophysical Institute have registered for days back a slight increase of the internal activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. In previous days 4 phreatic explosions of moderate size have been registered. These explosions happen due to an increase of the internal steam pressure, possibly related to the increase of precipitations observed in the zone of volcano. Therefore the Geophysical Institute recommends that it is not allowed to descend to the interior of the crater since the phreatic explosions could be repeated and the people could take the rock hit, other materials and/or rarefaction waves that are generated by these events. These phreatic explosions they happen generally at times of much rainfall, this is the reason why these explosions not necessarily are indicative of a substantial increase of the activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. The Geophysical Institute in its preprecautionary eagerness of the security of the people maintains a monitoring permanent of the state of this and other volcanos of the country and will inform opportunely into any change that these can present/display. The activity of the volcano shows a slight increase in its seismic activity with respect to the previous months. 40 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes have been registered, which are related to the fracturing of rocks to the interior of the complex between the 14th and the 18th of February. These earthquakes are of small magnitude, which is the reason why they have not been perceived by the population. It is possible to indicate that during the 2007, an average of 4.2 VT earthquakes per day was had. Also in this time interval 6 events of long period (LP) per day were registered when the average in the 2008 was of 0.3. LP events are related to resonances of cracks full of flowed inside the volcano. In addition it is important to mention the presence of explosions of moderate magnitude, related to the phreatic activity. The 16th of February the guardian of the refuge of the volcano perceived an increase in the scent to sulphur in the high part of the crater. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador's capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. - Information : I G Quito

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Cratère du Guagua Pichincha - Aôut 1999 -Viracucha

ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

November 16th, 2020

IGEPN reported that on November 15th from 6:40 am local, the seismic stations BULB and BILB of the Tungurahua volcano recorded a high frequency signal, perhaps associated with the appearance of mudslides and debris (lahars) which descended the drainages of the volcano. Proximity to rivers was not recommended. IGEPN can make a connection with the information of November 9 which mentionned a process of resuspension of ash in the upper part of Tungurahua, following strong winds blowing towards the north-west. (NOAA - IGEPN satellite image) Previous news dated 2016 - IG reported that during 27 September-4 October seismic activity at Tungurahua remained at moderate levels, characterized by 1-8 long-period earthquakes and up to three volcano-tectonic events per day. An hour-long period of tremor was recorded on 1 October. Minor fumarolic emissions rose above the crater rim. IG reported that Tungurahua's seismic network detected a significant increase in the number of long-period (LP) earthquakes on 12 September and small episodes of tremor beginning on 16 September. A swarm of 24 LP events were detected during 0408-0424 on 18 September. Starting at 1400 on 24 September the number of LP events again increased. Gas emissions were low, and together with the increased seismicity, possibly indicates a blocked conduit. IG noted that a possible large-scale eruption may happen within hours to days. In response, the Secretaria de Gestion de Riesgos (SGR) announced that the Alert Level was raised from Yellow to Orange (the second highest on a 4-color scale) on 26 September. Previously IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate-to-high levels during 16-17 March, moderate levels during 18-21 March, and low levels on 22 March. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano; the weather cleared for a brief period on 20 March and no activity was observed. IG reported that moderate-to-high levels of activity at Tungurahua continued during 9-15 March. Gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater on most days, often to heights less than 2 km above the crater, and drifted NW, W, WSW, and SW; cloud cover sometimes obscured views of the volcano. Explosions were recorded daily, and crater incandescence was reported almost nightly. Ash fell on 9 March in Pillate (8 km W), El Manzano (8 km SW), Cotalo (8 km NW), and Macas. On 10 March a small pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km NW down the Achupashal drainage. On 15 March residents in the Runten sector (NNE) heard an explosion and sounds resembling rolling rocks on the NE flank. Ash fell in Patate (NW) and Juive (7 km NNW). Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano. Tungurahua - Live webcam

ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

November 21st, 2020

IGEPN reported that from November 19th to 20th at 11 a.m., activity was characterized by several gas and ash emissions were observed which reached 800 and 1,200 meters above the level of the crater, the direction of these emissions was towards the southwest. The Washington VAAC recorded 5 ash emission alerts seen in satellites circling heights 700 meters above crater level in a westerly and southwest direction. FIRMS recorded 4 thermal alerts in Reventador in the last 24 hours. In the afternoon of yesterday and today, for several moments the volcano was clear allowing to observe the described emissions and at night between the clouds, an incandescence was observed in the crater, accompanied by the rolling of blocks on the sides of the volcano. The lava flow is still active (~ 450m) to the northeast and without noticeable changes. IGEPN reported that on November 8th to 9th, several gas and ash emissions were observed at the Reventador, reaching up to 1000 meters above the level of the crater, drifting towards a northern sector. A lava flow continues to be active (~ 450m) towards the northeast and without major changes.The VAAC Washington issued 3 alerts of emissions, detected by satellite, which reached 1,400 meters above the crater. As of the 27th of October IGEPN reports several gas and ash emissions, reaching up to 1000 meters above the crater level, for the day of October 26 - 27. VAAC Washington reported 2 emissions observed by satellites at altitudes up to 1000 meters above crater level and with a north-west and south direction. FIRMS records 8 thermal alerts in Reventador in the last 24 hours and two moderate thermal anomalies (15 and 25 MW) are detected by MIROVA. During the night, explosions, incandescence were observed in the crater. Boulder falls are observed up to 600 meters below the summit on the northeast flank. The lava flow is still active (~ 400 m) to the northeast. As of the 23rd of October, IGEPN reported that the lava flow on the northeast flank has increased in length, currently about 450 m long. Much of the ejected incandescent material slid down along the northeast flank as glowing rock falls. Near-constant ash emissions reached up to 15,000 ft (4,600 m) altitude and drifted W-NW. No thermal anomalies were detected in the satellite images. IGEPN reported that on October 3, 2020, the Reventador volcano emitted ash, steam and gas, heading west and north with heights of up to 600 meters above the crater level. In the IG-EPN report, in the section on seismic events, it is also detailed that from 11:00 a.m. on October 2 to 11:00 a.m. on Saturday 3, 33 explosions were recorded. Incandescence was observed in the crater, as was the rolling of incandescent blocks on the eastern flank, up to 600 meters below the level of the crater. IG-EPN adds that the lava flow is observed on the northeast flank. As of the 1st of October, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 . As of the 29th of September IGEPN reported that activity of the volcano has remained essentially unchanged characterized by effusive-explosive eruption. The lava flow on the northeast flank remains active, currently about 400 m long. Incandescence is visible from the crater and caused hot avalanches of blocks sliding down the southwest flank that reached approx. 600 m. As of the 22nd of September, IGEPN reported that effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. The lava flow on the northeast flank has increased in length, currently about 400 m long. Incandescence continues to be observed from the summit crater.IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador. In a special report, IG reviewed the activity had started in mid-June, characterized by strong explosions, the ejection of blocks that rolled down the flanks, and pyroclastic flows that descended the N, NE, and W flanks less than 1 km. Additionally, at the beginning of August, a small lava flow effused at the summit and traveled 400-500 m down the NE flank. Formation of a summit lava dome was also noted on 17 August. The number of thermal alerts was the highest in August compared to the rest of the year. The cone destroyed during a 2002 eruption had been rebuilt and was as tall or slightly taller by 11 September.As of the 9th of September IGEPN reported that explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 .IGEPN reported that during the period of August 24th to 25th, 2020 at 11 a.m., the Reventador exhibited high and unchanged superficial and internal activity with 36 explosions during this period. Several gas and ash emissions were observed about 1000 meters above the level of the crater, in a constant direction towards the southwest. The Washington VAAC reported 3 advisories of emissions observed in the satellites, the direction of these was towards the southwest, the heights remained at 1000 meters above the level of the crater. Other monitoring parameters: no change. Incandescence was observed in the crater overnight. The lava flow is still active (~ 350 m) to the northeast, although no change can be observed. IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 11-17 August. Gas, steam, and ash emissions observed sometimes multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted NW and W. Cloudy weather sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Incandescent blocks rolled 500-700 m down mainly the NE and E flanks during 12-13 and 15-16 August. A lava flow traveled 200 m down the NE flank on 13 August. The flow lengthened to 300 m by 15 August and remained active, though did not advance, through 18 August. A small pyroclastic flow descended the NE flank during 15-16 August. IGEPN reported that a new lava flow was confirmed on August 10 on thermal images from the ECU-911 camera; the lava flow descends from the summit on the northeast flank, and its length is less than 200 meters. The VAAC Washington reports a continuation of the explosive activity on August 11, and an ash plume that can reach 4,600 meters of altitude / alt. From flight 150. As of the 24th of July, IGEPN reported that during the past two weeks, a slight increase in surface eruptive activity has been observed. The activity was characterized by the generation of eruptive columns and pyroclastic density currents (or pyroclastic flows) generated from the crater of the volcano, which were preferentially directed towards its western, northern and northeastern flanks of the volcano, maintaining its deposits inside the amphitheater. This was confirmed by the presence of thermal anomalies on the eastern flank detected by the infrared camera located on the northeast flank, while thanks to satellite thermal sensors (FIRMS, MIROVA) it is possible to detect activity on the western flank. The heights of gas and ash emissions reached between 0.7 and 1.3 km above the level of the crater and extend for several kilometers to the northwest, west and southwest of the volcano. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sangay volcano

October 28th, 2020

As of the 27th of October, IGEPN recorded increasingly high plume rising from the crater that generated emissions of gas and steam plumes with moderate ash content as can be seen in the image. Ash plume reached 22,000 ft (6,700 m) altitude and drifted NW. The lava flow continues to be active on the southeastern slopes of the volcano. IGEPN reported that since the morning of October 17, 2020, the SAGA seismic station in Sangay has recorded an increase in the number of explosions; this type of activity is similar to that observed during the eruptive period that began in May 2019. These explosions could be associated with other phenomena, such as ash falls, or the remobilization of materials accumulated on the sides of the volcano.An image from the GOES-16 satellite shows an ash cloud moving westward, potentially causing light ash fall over Chimborazo province. The VAAC Washington reports 4 notices of ash emissions at a height of 570 meters above the crater, dispersing to the west. IGEPN reported that during the early morning of September 20, a significant increasing activity occurred. In particular, from 04h20 (TL) seismic records show the occurrence of explosions and ash emissions much more energy than any of those observed in the preceding months. From 04h40, several satellite images show a large ash cloud, climbing to a height probably more than 6 km up to 10 km above the volcano crater with the highest part of the cloud heading east, as the lower part heads west of the volcano. Due to weather conditions and at night, no direct observations have been made. The large explosion at 0420 on 20 September was the largest such event in the recent months. Within 10 minutes several satellite images showed a large ash cloud rising 6-10 km above the summit; high-altitude parts of the cloud drifted E while lower parts drifted W. Servicio Nacional de Gestion de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE) reported that 32 districts within the provinces of Chimborazo, Bolivar, Guayas, and Los Rayos were affected by ashfall. Authorities in the districts of Bucay and Cumande restricted driving, the opening of businesses, and outdoor activities due to ashfall. The José Joaquinn de Olmedo Airport in Guayaquil suspended its operations for seven hours to clean the runways. Ashfall was most significant in Chimborazo, particularly in the districts of Guamote, Alausa­, Chunchi, Pallatanga, and Cumande, with photos showing poor visibility and ashfall covering streets, cars, and houses. Ashfall significantly impacted agriculture fields. Authorities inspected the confluence of the Volcan River (SE flank) and Upano River, and observed significant deposits of tephra, some of which had damned the river and created an immense lagoon. Normally the Upano was about 25 m wide in that area but because of the deposits it was more than 250 m across and had almost no water in it. After the explosion, IG noted that activity returned to levels similar to previous months with ash plumes rising 1-2 km above the volcano during 20-22 September. As of the 16th of September, IGEPN reported that explosive eruption of the volcano continued at moderately high levels. According to volcano observatory IGEPN near-constant vulcanian-type explosions producing frequent small to moderate ash emissions reached up to 20,000 ft (6,100 m) altitude and drifted S. It seems that pyroclastic flows were generated that traveled over the southeastern slopes, as can be seen in the image. As of the 11th of September; explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 20000 ft (6100 m) altitude or flight level 200 . IGEPN reported that on August 27th strong activity was observed at the Sangay volcano, with ash emissions and pyroclastic flows in the southeastern quebrada. The wind carried the ash to the southwest, which could generate moderate ash fall in the province of Chimborazo. IGEPN reported that on August 24th high activity continued, characterized by ash emissions and pyroclastic flows in the south-eastern drainages. In the morning, gas emissions were observed ranging from 1000 to 2000 m. above the crater level and the direction was west-southwest. The Washington VAAC recorded 5 ash emission alerts, varying in direction from west to southwest and south, these emissions reached heights of 2,100 meters above crater level. Ash falls could affect the provinces of Chimborazo and Cañar. As of the August 11th, 2020, the VAAC Washington reported tha an ash plume reached an altitude of 5,800 meters (flight altitude 190) The IGEPN informed, on August 12th an increase in the number of explosions. They could be associated with light ash falls towards the southwest of the volcano, as the image of the GOES-16 satellite suggests. On July 22, satellite images showed a cloud of volcanic gas and ash coming from the volcano, heading west, which could potentially cause ash falls in part of the provinces of Chimborazo, Bolivar, Guayas and Cañar. Current winds favor the distribution of these volcanic products. This phenomenon was persistent during the eruptive period which began in May 2019. It is recommended to take the appropriate measures. The seismicity consists of 25 LP earthquakes, 238 explosion earthquakes, one emission tremor episode, and 21 harmonic tremor episodes. IGEPN reported that on 18th of July, several ash emissions were observed forming plumes up to 2,000 meters high. above the summit.VAAC Washington has reported in the past 24 hours 5 ash emissions recorded by satellite at 1,770 meters above the crater, drifting west. The seismicity of the last 24 hours was characterized by 80 explosions and 15 LP earthquakes. The other parameters remains unchanged; the alert level remains at yellow. As of the 2nd of July, IGEPN reported a high level of surface activity to the Sangay, as well as its internal level. The seismicity was characterized by 25 LP earthquakes and 239 explosion earthquakes between 1st and 2nd of July at 11 a.m. The volcano was cloudy, and lahars were possible during these rains. No emissions were observed, but VAAC Washington issued three ash emission notices; they reached 900 meters above the crater in a northwest direction. As of the 25th of June IG reported that a small explosion with a high ash content was observed, which has reached a maximum of 500 meters above the summit of the volcano dispersing westwards, at the same time as a small current of pyroclastic density descended across the valley eroded by the current activity of the volcano. For June 25, VAAC Washington recorded 4 ash emission alerts observed on satellites, with heights approaching 900 and 1,200 meters above the crater level, the direction of emissions varied from southwest to west. The other monitoring parameters show no change. IG reported that the levels of surface and internal activity remained high, without change. On June 21, the volcano was hidden by clouds, but the VAAC Washington reported gas and ash emissions at 570 meters above the crater, drifting west. The SAGA seismic station recorded a high frequency signal which was surely associated with the descent of mudslides and debris (lahars). In the past 24 hours (20.06 to 21.06 / 11h), the IGEPN reported 8 LP earthquakes, 72 explosions and 8 episodes of emission tremor. IG reported that the explosive activity of Sangay continued on June 13, 2020. Emissions of gas and ash were observed via the camera ECU911, dispersing towards the southwest; VAAC Washington issued two ash dispersion notices, including one at 2:11 p.m. UTC at a flight altitude of 230 / 7,000 meters, moving SW for 15-20 km. Ash falls affected the provinces of Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Tungurahua and Bolivar. During the morning, the IGEPN observed the descent of incandescent materials on the SE flank. The observatory notes a significant accumulation of pyroclastic materials on the flanks of the volcano, likely to be remobilized in the event of rain, with mudslide and / or lahars.The alert level remains Amarillo, with recommendation from, do not access the rios of the sector. As of the 12th of June, IG reported that in the past 15 hours, an increase in volcanic activity has been observed.This activity is characterized by a higher gas and ash emission height, reaching between 1.5 and 2.8 km above the crater level, an increase in the range of the ash cloud to the west, reaching more than 600 km from the volcano, and an increase in the number of thermal alerts on the southeast flank of the volcano associated with an increase in lava emissions. Due to these circumstances, Sangay's activity is classified as HIGH with an upward trend.This June 12, on GOES-16 satellite images, a continuous emission of ash from the Sangay volcano is observed, directed to the southwest and northwest. This activity could cause light to moderate ash falls in the provinces of Chimborazo, Tungurahua, Cotopaxi, Bolivar, Azuay, Cañar and Guayas.IG reported that following a change of wind direction towards the coast and towards Guayaquil on 8th and 9th of June several localities covered with ashes from the volcano. Guyayaquil Airport has stopped flights to clean the runways, and authorities are removing ashes from public spaces to prevent respiratory problems they may cause. Roads have been closed in the provinces of Los Rios and Chimborazo. An eruptive episode occurred on the night of June 8th, with the lava front collapsing on the southern flank of the Sangay, associated with pyroclastic flows towards the rio Volcán on the south-eastern flank; the ashes are deflected west under strong winds. An emission of ash and gas is reported this June 9th in the morning, at a height of 1,500 meters above the crater in a western direction. The VAAC Washington reports on several episodes of ash and gas emissions, at a maximum height of 1,770 meters, and a drift to the west and southwest. IG reported that a night clearing on June 2 at 10:04 p.m. revealed these events on the ECU-911 webcam. In its report of June 3, the IGEPN reported gas and ash emissions at more than 1,000 meters above the crater, with a plume towards the southwest, this afternoon June 2 and early June 3. The lava flow, the incandescent materials and the remobilization of the deposit on the southeast flank were observed. At the seismicity level, there are between 2 and 3 June at 11 a.m., 15 LP earthquakes and 222 explosion earthquakes (number increasing). The level of surface activity and internal activity remain "high", with an unchanged trend. IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 6-12 May. Weather clouds often prevented visual observations of the volcano; according to Washington VAAC notices ash plumes rose 870-1,470 m above the summit and drifted W and SW during 6 and 10-12 May. Incandescent blocks were seen descending the SE flank during breaks in cloud cover on 6, 8, and 11 May. Signals indicating lahars were recorded by the seismic network on 7 and 9 May. IGEPN reported that the surface and internal activity of Sangay remained unchanged, and qualified as "High". On May 5, 7 explosions occurred, and ash emissions could be observed towards the southwest. VAAC alerts were recorded with heights of 870 meters above the level of the crater and in a southwest direction. On the southeast flank, the lava flows remain active, and thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova of VRP 90 MW on May 4 at 6:55 p.m., and of VRP 13 MW on May 5 at 4:20 a.m.A lahar signal was recorded in the volcanic station on the afternoon of May 4, with a duration of 3 hours. IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 3-10 March. Ash plumes rose 870-1,130 m above the summit and drifted NW and W based on Washington VAAC notices. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SW flank during 3-4 March. A seismic station recorded a lahar on 8 March. IG reported that a permanent monitoring station located near the base of Sangay was repaired during 26 January-1 February and had begun to again transmit data in real time. The technician reported constant ash emissions during the expedition. A high level of activity persisted at Sangay during 12-18 February, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. Ash, steam, and gas plumes rose 570-870 m above the summit and drifted W and SW according to Washington VAAC advisories. A webcam recorded lava blocks descending the SE flank on 17 February. IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 27 January-4 February, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. Ash, steam, and gas plumes rose 880-1,200 m above the summit and drifted W and SW during 27-29 January. Minor ashfall was reported in Púngala and in several Chimborazo province communities during 27-28 February. A pyroclastic flow descended the SE flank on 28 January, reaching the Volcán River and causing secondary lahars in the river. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SE flank on 29 January. Minor ashfall was reported in the province of Chimborazo (W), particularly in the towns of Cebadas (35 km WNW) and Palmira (46 km W). On 30 January residents in the town of Alao (20 km NW) reported that vegetation was covered with fine white ash. An ash emission rose 570 m above the summit and drifted W on 31 January. Ashfall was reported in Macas (42 km SE) the next day. Gas-and-steam plumes rose up to 200 m and drifted W on 2 February. Incandescent blocks rolled down the SE flank on 3 February. Based on information from the Guayaquil MWO, satellite and webcam images, and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 1-11 January ash plumes from Sangay rose to 5.2-6.7 km (17,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was identified in satellite images during 9-10 January. As of the 10th of January, IGEPN reported that avtivity remained without surface and internal changes, always in amarillo alert level. Seismicity is characterized by LP earthquakes, explosions (between 28 and 43 per day) and the emission tremor; the ash plumes reach 1,500 meters above the summit. On January 9, pyroclastic flows were observed by webcam on the southeast flank of the volcano; this activity is similar to that of previous weeks. Previous news 2019 - Based on information from the Guayaquil MWO, satellite images, and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 10-17 December ash plumes from Sangay rose to 5.8-7.3 km (19,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A thermal anomaly was visible on 17 December. IGEPN reported that on 11th of December the volcano maintained a semi-continuous activity from two eruptive centers: the central crater and the Ñuñurco vent southeast).The central crater showed an explosive activity which generates small clouds of gas and ash. During the past month, emissions have reached 2 km high above the crater and have often gone northeast with great variability causing small ash falls in the provinces of Chimborazo, Morona Santiago and Azuay. On the other hand, the Ñuñurco vent presented an effusive activity which results in an almost continuous emission of lava flows which settle along the south-eastern flank of the Sangay. At the margins of the lava flows were small rock falls (pyroclastic flows) which reached the basin and the upper channel of the Volcan river. These deposits cause small temporary dams in the Volcán river, which are remobilized by the rains forming mudslides and debris (lahars). The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Cuicocha - Cotachi

October 6th, 2018

IG reported that, after an earthquake swarm consisting of 62 volcano-tectonic events during 2-3 October, seismicity at Cuicocha returned to background levels on 4 October. Carbon dioxide levels were normal, and deformation data did not show any anomalies. IGEPN reported an increase of the seismic activity of the Cuicocha-Cotacachi volcanic complex in Ecuador. During the days of October 2nd and 3rd, 60 VT earthquakes associated with rock fracturing were recorded; almost all earthquakes are located near the Cuicocha volcano. Ten earthquakes, the strongest of magnitude 2.5 occurred on October 2 at 10:58 local time, were reported as significant by Quiroga population. The scenic lake-filled Cuicocha caldera is located at the southern foot of the sharp-peaked Pleistocene Cotacachi stratovolcano about 100 km N of Quito. Both Cotacachi and Cuicocha were constructed along the Otavalo-Umpalá fracture zone. Eruptive activity began about 4500 years ago and continued until about 1300 years ago. The 3-km-wide, steep-walled caldera was created during a major explosive eruption about 3100 years ago that produced nearly 5 km3 of pyroclastic-flow and fall deposits. Four intra-caldera lava domes form two steep-sided forested islands in the 148-m-deep lake. A pre-caldera lava dome is situated on the outer E side of the caldera. Pyroclastic-flow deposits cover wide areas around the low-rimmed caldera, primarily to the east. Gas emission continues from several locations in the caldera lake.The last historical eruption dates back to the year 650. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sierra Negra volcano (Galapagos)

September 2nd, 2018

As of the 1st of September IG reported that due to the continuous decrease in seismic energy levels, reaching even earlier values ​​at the beginning of the eruptive period from June to August 2018 at the Sierra Negra volcano, and the decrease in the number of thermal alerts and SO2 emission , the IGEPN reported the possible end of the eruptive activity or the entry into a period of calm after 58 days of eruption. By 25 August the lava flows in total covered an area of 30.6 square kilometers. Activity continued to decline the last week of August with decreased
seismicity, gas emission, and no surficial activity visible. . IG reported that during 20-21 August both steam-and-gas emissions and incandescence from lava flows were visible on the Sierra Negra webcam. No activity was noted when the weather was clear during 22-28 August. On 15 August satellite images showed lava from Fissure 4 continuing to enter the ocean. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 7-14 August. Incandescence from active NNW lava flows was visible almost nightly. A steam-and-gas plume rose 1.8 km a.s.l. and drifted W on 7 August. IG reported that on August 9, at 17:45 GMT, the tremor increased in amplitude, in relation with a new surge of activity on the northern flank.
Seismicity is further characterized by 52 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, and 6 LP earthquakes.The largest earthquake occurred at 10:55 am M3,1 TG and a depth of 2 km. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 1-7 August. Incandescence from active lava flows was visible daily. An increase of tremor began at 2220 on 3 August and lasted two hours, signifying a new pulse of activity on the N flank. Small gas emissions were visible on 4 August, and steam-and-gas emissions were noted on 6 August. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 25-31 July. Sulfur dioxide flux was as high as about 1,400 tons per day (on 28 July), and daily counts of volcano-tectonic and long-period events were 24-65 and 3-32, respectively. Nightly incandescence from advancing lava flows was visible. Gas plumes rose more than 1.8 km above the vents and drifted N, NW, and W. As of the 20th of July, IGEPN reported that the activity remains unchanged, at a superficial and high internal level.During the last measurement period, 18 to 19 July at 11am, the number of VT earthquakes decreased, with 39 events; the number of LP earthquakes is 11.The gas emissions are at least 1,800 meters above sea level, and go to the WNW.Nighttime glow is observed at the emission points, and on the lava flows.As of the 10th of July, IGEPN reported that Sierra Negra's surface and internal activity levels remain high. The eruptive process continues, as evidenced by numerous volcano-tectonic earthquakes and emission tremor; thermal anomalies are noted as well as the emission of a plume of vapor, gas and ash rising to 2,400 meters in height, then moving towards the southwest sparing the populated areas for the moment. Lava flows come from a source located in the lower part of the northwestern flank of the volcano; the emission of lava would have increased significantly since July 7 at 17h local. From July 2nd to 3rd at 11am local time, the IG reports 241 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 37 LP earthquakes and 2 VLP earthquakes. During the last 24 hours, about fifty volcanic earthquakes have been located at a depth of less than 5 km; the strongest was on the east flank of the volcano, at a depth of 2 km, with a magnitude of 3.4.The satellite images show gas and vapor emissions, and the presence of lava flows. IGEPN reported that after a small earthquake on July 1, 2018 at 15:52 GMT, tremor appeared. At 18 o'clock, the National Park staff reports incandescence and the presence of lava flows on the northwest flank of the volcano. The IGEPN informs, for the period from 01 to 11 am to 02 July at 11 am, 286 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 43 LP earthquakes, 3 VLP earthquakes and emission tremor. An ash emission was mounted 1,000 meters above the crater, then headed west. IGEPN reported that the activity of the past 12 hours was characterized by a gradual decrease in seismic and acoustic tremor, but these signals nevertheless indicate the continuation of the eruption with a lower intensity.One hundred and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded; the largest, with a magnitude of 3.3, is located south of the caldera at a depth of 4.3 km. The others are located at a shallower depth, and in the western part of the caldera. Previously, IGEPN and PNG reported that following a rise in seismicity for some months, and some more recent major earthquakes, including one of M 4.2 on June 22 at 6:24 GMT and another of M 5.3 on June 26 at 3:15 GMT under the Sierra Negra volcano / Isabela Island to the Galapagos, the seismicity was marked by replicas and tremor. On June 26, from 11:17 am TG, a new seismic swarm began in Sierra Negra; earthquakes are characterized by a depth of between 3 and 5 km and a magnitude of 4.6 maximum. Since the earthquake of M 4,2 at 13:38 TG, the amplitude of seismicity and infrasonic signals has greatly increased. Galapagos National Park staff reported rumbles from the volcano. all these signs suggest the beginning of the eruptive process. Images from the GOES-16 Satellite show a strong thermal anomaly in the northern area of ​​the caldera. The Park staff then reported lava flows inside the caldera and on the northern flank of the volcano towards Bahia Elizabeth. As Isabela Island is populated, the authorities have ordered the evacuation of 50 residents, who will be cared for by host families; tourist access to the Sierra Negra volcano area and the El Cura area is restricted. On 8 June IG reported a continuing high level of seismicity at Sierra Negra, characterized by a larger number and magnitude of earthquakes, indicating magma movement. The number of events per day had been significantly increasing since mid-2016. In the previous 10 days there was an average of 42 local events/day; on 25 May there were 104 events, the largest number of earthquakes per day recorded since 2015. In addition, in a 24-hour period during 7-8 June there were a total of 48 volcano-tectonic events, two long-period events, and three hybrid earthquakes; a M 4.8 long-period earthquake was recorded at 0715 on 8 June. The earthquake epicenters were mainly located on the edges of the crater, in two NE-SW trending lineaments; the first covered the N and W edges of the crater and the second went from the NE part around to the S edge. Data showed very large deformation at the caldera's center, compared with lower levels of deformation outside of the caldera. The broad shield volcano of Sierra Negra at the southern end of Isabela Island contains a shallow 7 x 10.5 km caldera that is the largest in the Galápagos Islands. Flank vents abound, including cinder cones and spatter cones concentrated along an ENE-trending rift system and tuff cones along the coast and forming offshore islands. The 1124-m-high volcano is elongated in a NE direction. Although it is the largest of the five major Isabela volcanoes, it has the flattest slopes, averaging less than 5 degrees and diminishing to 2 degrees near the coast. A sinuous 14-km-long, N-S-trending ridge occupies the west part of the caldera floor, which lies only about 100 m below its rim. Volcan de Azufre, the largest fumarolic area in the Galapagos Islands, lies within a graben between this ridge and the west caldera wall. Lava flows from a major eruption in 1979 extend all the way to the north coast from circumferential fissure vents on the upper northern flank. Sierra Negra, along with Cerro Azul and Volcan Wolf, is one of the most active of Isabela Island volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Fernandina volcano (Galapagos)

January 25th, 2020

IGEPN reported that the seismic activity which following the January 12, 2020 eruption has not returned to basic levels (pre-eruption); on the contrary, seismicity increased, presenting sporadic earthquakes of magnitude greater than M 3.0 and small seismic swarms which have evolved over time. The strongest earthquake was recorded on January 21, 2020 with a magnitude of 4.2. In addition, a ground deformation of about 35 cm was detected in the emission zone of the lava flows. The preliminary estimate of the lava flows emitted on January 12, 2020, located east of the volcano, indicates that they cover an area of ​​approximately 3.8 km², a value lower than the estimates of the previous circumferential eruptions (2017 and 2005) .IGEPN reported that the eruption hich started shortly before 6.10 p.m. on January 12, 2020, from a circumferential crack located under the eastern edge of the caldera to an altitude of about 1300-1400 m above sea level, caused the emission of lava flows on the eastern flank. A cloud of volcanic gas was also observed at a height of approximately 1500-2000 m above the level of the crack (~ 3-3.5 km above sea level) and moving towards the west -North West. The eruption was observed by the park guards of the Galapagos National Park from the Bolivar Canal station. In the past few hours, the level of seismic activity, the emission of volcanic gas and thermal anomalies have decreased significantly, indicating a rapid decrease in eruptive activity, similar to what happened in 2017 and 2018. It is important to indicate that on other occasions (Fernandina 2009, Wolf 2015, Sierra Negra 2018), an initial drop in initial activity was followed by a second eruptive phase. IGEPN reported that following a seismic crisis, an eruption occurred on January 12, 2020, around 10 local Galapagos time. After the 4.7M magnitude seismic event occurred at 4:42 p.m., 29 localized events were recorded, the magnitude of which remained below 3.1. Eruptive activity is located east of Fernandina Island along a circumferential fissure.Fernandina, the most active of Galápagos volcanoes and the one closest to the Galápagos mantle plume, is a basaltic shield volcano with a deep 5 x 6.5 km summit caldera. The volcano displays the classic "overturned soup bowl" profile of Galápagos shield volcanoes. Its caldera is elongated in a NW-SE direction and formed during several episodes of collapse. Circumferential fissures surround the caldera and were instrumental in growth of the volcano. Reporting has been poor in this uninhabited western end of the archipelago, and even a 1981 eruption was not witnessed at the time. In 1968 the caldera floor dropped 350 m following a major explosive eruption. Subsequent eruptions, mostly from vents located on or near the caldera boundary faults, have produced lava flows inside the caldera as well as those in 1995 that reached the coast from a SW-flank vent. Collapse of a nearly 1 km3 section of the east caldera wall during an eruption in 1988 produced a debris-avalanche deposit that covered much of the caldera floor and absorbed the caldera lake. (GVN/GVP)

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Tungurahua from Pelileo - H;Gaudru 1997

MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

October 22nd, 2020

On the evening of October 19th, 2020, the cloudless Soufriere Hills lava dome was photographed from the Montserrat / MVO and Jack Boy Hill Observatory. A series of digital photographs and thermal images were taken at both locations to capture the fumaroles and hot spots on the lava dome. Digital photographs captured an incandescence of three prominent fumaroles in the cliff that forms the back wall of the 2010 collapsed scar.Comparing these images to the previous ones, there are no changes in the number and distribution of glowing features and hot spots. Previous news - MVO reported that the activity for the period from June 26 to July 3, 2020 remains low. The seismic network recorded 6 volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week.The alert level remains at 1, with prohibition of public access to zone V; maritime zones E and W can be used by maritime traffic, without stopping. MVO recent weekly report. Latest MVO report about period 1st of April - 30th of September 2018 - The pause in lava extrusion that started on 11 February 2010 continues and is now more than 103 months long as of 30 September 2018. This prolonged period of persistent low-level unrest, (i.e., continued inflation, sporadic seismicity and persistent de-gassing) clearly demonstrates that the magmatic system has not shut down. Thus, the potential for a restart remains. Consequently, MVO continues to hold the view that little has changed in regards to the Hazard and Risk posed by the Soufriere Hills volcano at this time. Overall, activity during the reporting period has been low. Seismic activity has consisted of sporadic volcanotectonic (VT) earthquakes, sometimes in strings or brief swarms. Low-frequency seismicity has been completely absent, while rockfall activity has continued at a very low level - Read complete report - No recent news since 2016 - latest MVO Weekly Report for the Period 26 August to 2 September 2016 - Activity at the Soufriere Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded eight rockfalls, seven volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week. Four of the volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred in a very brief swarm on 28th August. The rockfalls were probably a continuation of the increased activity following the heavy rainfall on 24 August. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were not possible during the reporting period. No recent activity reported since September 2015 - Based on satellite image analyses and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 September 2015 possible re-suspended ash from Soufriere Hills drifted WNW at an altitude of 1 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. - latest previous report about eruptive activity dated for the period from 8th of March 2013 to 5th of July 2013 - Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 28th of June to 5h of July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 271 tonnes/day with a maximum of 427 and a minimum of 161 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 21st to 28th of June. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 353 tonnes/day with a maximum of 459 and a minimum of 221 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded four rockfalls and nine volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes the week from 14th to 21st.of June. Six of the VT earthquakes occurred in a brief swarm on 16 July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were only possible on three days this week and gave an average flux of 289 tonnes/day with a maximum of 332 and a minimum of 247 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 7th to 14 th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 281 tonnes/day with a maximum of 428 and a minimum of 185 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded nine rockfalls, five volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event the previous week frm 31st of may to 7th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 485 tonnes/day with a maximum of 543 and a minimum of 430 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event this week from 24th to 31st of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 395 tonnes/day with a maximum of 588 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. . The seismic network recorded three rockfalls the week from 17th to 24th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 380 tonnes/day with a maximum of 536 and a minimum of 281 tonnes/day. Many residents of Montserrat felt an earthquake at 7:51 pm on 18 May 2013. This earthquake had a magnitude of 4.9 and was located south-west of Barbuda; about 100 km north of Montserrat. It was not associated with the Soufrière Hills Volcano. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic this week from 10th to 17th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 373 tonnes/day with a maximum of 553 and a minimum of 137 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week from 3rd to 10th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 313 tonnes/day with a maximum of 435 and a minimum of 160 tonnes/day. Measurements were only possible on three days this week because of adverse wind conditions. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 26th of April to 3rd of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 379 tonnes/day with a maximum of 466 and a minimum of 254 tonnes/day. The wind has been mainly towards the north and north-east since the night of 1/2 May. This has blown the volcanic plume over inhabited areas and the smell of volcanic gases has been noticeable at times. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 19th to 26th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 366 tonnes/day with a maximum of 535 and a minimum of 181 tonnes/day. There have been no good views of the dome for over a month now. Reports from helicopter pilots suggest that most of the large slab on the eastern side of the dome is now gone; removed by the pyroclastic flow on 28 March 2013. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week from 12th to 19th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 556 tonnes/day with a maximum of 1155 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. Past week 5th to 12th of April, the seismic network recorded no seismic events related to the volcano this week. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 325 tonnes/day with a maximum of 585 and a minimum of 186 tonnes/day. MVO reported that during 22-29 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the Tar River Valley (E) at about 0500 on 28 March. The flow was not observed directly, but the deposits indicated that it traveled halfway down the valley, 1-1.5 km from the dome. There were no reports of ashfall; any ash was probably blown over Plymouth and out to sea. The source of the flow was not known due to cloud cover, but was likely from the failure a large slab that had been slowing moving away from the dome. Heavy rainfall during the evening of 28 March generated large lahars in several valleys around the volcano, including in the Belham Valley (NW). These started at about 1900 and lasted for several hours. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded one rockfall and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 15th to 22nd of March.Sulphur-dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 359 tonnes/day with a maximum of 540 and a minimum of 258 tonnes/day. There appear to have been no changes in the large slab recently observed to be peeling away from the dome above the Tar River Valley. The slab is now estimated to have dimensions of 80 by 60 by 4-6 metres. If this slab falls as a single block it will produce a large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas. previously , the seismic network recorded one rockfall this week from 8th to 15th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 251 tonnes/day with a maximum of 264 and a minimum of 227 tonnes/day. During a helicopter inspection on 8 March 2013, we observed a large fissure in the cliff on the eastern side of the dome, part of which has existed since 2007. This fissure is the result of slow cooling and erosion of the dome. It is parallel to the cliff face and is estimated to be two metres wide, suggesting that a large slab is slowing peeling away from the dome. If this slab falls as a single block it will probably produce a moderate-to-large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas The seismic network recorded one rockfall, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one hybrid event this week from 1st to 8th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements for the week gave an average flux of 368 tonnes/day with a maximum of 552 and a minimum of 213 tonnes/day. Variable winds blew the volcanic plume over inhabited areas for much of the week, particularly the first half, and the smell of volcanic gases was very noticeable at times. There has been no visible emission of ash from the volcano this week. Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)
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Grenade - Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano

June 17th, 2020

Following an increase in the seismic activity of the underwater volcano Kick 'em Jenny, in the volcanic arc of the Lesser Antilles, observed over a period of seven days in June - a swarm of more than 1,400 volcanic earthquakes of M <1 , 8 -, the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) issued a vigilance notice on June 14, 2020. Although the alert level remained at Yellow / 2, with a 1.5 km marine exclusion zone around the submerged summit of the volcano, the corner is to be avoided, even between eruptions: the release of large quantities of gas bubbles from the volcano, without signs of this surface activity, can decrease the density of seawater above the vent, and decrease the lift of the water.Any navigator is therefore reminded that the 1.5 km exclusion zone must continue to be observed. The volcano is under surveillance by the University of the West Indies Seismic Research Center of the Trinidad and Tobago campus (UWI SRC) and the NaDMA. Kick 'em Jenny, a historically active submarine volcano 8 km off the north shore of Grenada, rises 1300 m from the sea floor. Recent bathymetric surveys have shown evidence for a major arcuate collapse structure that was the source of a submarine debris avalanche that traveled more than 15 km to the west. Bathymetry also revealed another submarine cone to the SE, Kick 'em Jack, and submarine lava domes to its south. These and subaerial tuff rings and lava flows at Ile de Caille and other nearby islands may represent a single large volcanic complex. Numerous historical eruptions, mostly documented by acoustic signals, have occurred at Kick 'em Jenny since 1939, when an eruption cloud rose 275 m above the sea surface. Prior to the 1939 eruption, which was witnessed by a large number of people in northern Grenada, there had been no written mention of Kick 'em Jenny. Eruptions have involved both explosive activity and the quiet extrusion of lava flows and lava domes in the summit crater; deep rumbling noises have sometimes been heard onshore. Historical eruptions have modified the morphology of the summit crater.

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Soufriere Hills dome on December 6, 2000 (Courtesy Caraibean Helicopter)

 

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

November 14th, 2020

CENAPRED reported that each day during 4-10 November there were 364-504 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted NW, SW, and SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 23rd of Ocotober, CENAPRED reported that explosive activity continues from the active crater with near-constant ash emissions producing vulcanian-type explosions. Plume of ash rose to an altitude of 20,000 ft (6,100 m) and drifted SW. CENAPRED recorded 267 emissions of steam, gases and small amounts of ash. Seismic instruments detected 221 minutes of tremor. On October 16, with the support of the National Guard, expert staff from the Institute of Geophysics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the National Center for Disaster Reduction (CENAPRED), an overview of the Popocatépetl volcano been carried out to verify its terms and conditions. It has been visualized that the inner crater maintains a diameter of 360 to 390 meters and the approximate depth is 120 to 170 meters; the interior of the crater is covered with tephra.CENAPRED reported that each day during 6-13 October there were 84-143 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, most of which contained minor amounts of ash. Gas-and-ash plumes drifted NE, WNW, W, and SSW. Minor ashfall was reported during 6-7 October in areas downwind including the municipality of Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW) in the State of Morelos, and the municipalities of Amecameca (20 km NW), Atlautla (17 km W), Ayapango (22 km NSW), and Ecatzingo (15 km SW) in the State of Mexico. Incandescence from the crater was observed during 11-12 October and occasionally intensified with some emissions. Ashfall was reported in Amecameca on 13 October. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 4th of October, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 105 exhalations accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash have been identified. In addition, 500 minutes of tremor were recorded. During the night and today in the morning, emissions of water vapor, gas and ash were observed towards the north-west. CENAPRED reported that each day during 16-21 September there were 52-121 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, most of which contained minor amounts of ash. Weather clouds often obscured views of the volcano. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 5th of September, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 177 exhalations have been identified at Popocatépetl, accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash; that due to the weather conditions in the area, it could only be seen at certain times. In addition, 354 minutes of low and medium amplitude tremor were recorded. The VAAC Washington issued an ash scatter advisory, with a plume reaching 6,100 meters above sea level, or about 670 meters above the summit. CENAPRED reported that each day during 25 August-1 September there were 96-331 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 23rd of August, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours, the volcano monitoring system has identified 153 exhalations accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash, reaching up to 1,100 meters above the crater, drifting southwest In addition, 840 minutes of low amplitude tremor associated with the constant emission of water vapor, gas and low ash content were recorded. During the night, an incandescence was observed inside the crater, and the constant emission of water vapor and gas in a south-easterly direction, which continues in the morning of August 23. As of the 14th of August, during the last 24 hours, 36 exhalations have been identified some accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, 189 minutes of low amplitude tremor were recorded,that began on August 14 at 7:25 a.m., accompanied by an emission of ash from a height of 600 m above. above the crater; the ash emission then continued. Ash falls are possible in my municipalities of Amecameca, Chalco, Atlautla, Ozumba, Cocotitlan and Tlalmanalco.During the night, the volcano was partially visible, and a constant emission of volcanic gases and an incandescence above the crater could be observed. As of the 4th of July, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours has identified 16 exhalations accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash at Popocatépetl.In addition, 1292 minutes of tremor were recorded, generated by a constant emission of volcanic gases and light ash, which disperse towards the northwest. It was also recorded yesterday at 1:57 p.m., a moderate explosion which, due to weather conditions, could not determine the height of the column. During the night, there was partial visibility of the volcano, however, an incandescence could be observed above the crater. As of the 2nd of August, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 10 exhalations have been identified accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, 1159 minutes of tremors were recorded, sometimes accompanied by incandescent fragments that fell a short distance from the crater. During the night, an incandescence could be observed above the crater during short periods of clearing, with fallout of fragments in the crater.In the morning of August 2, it was possible to observe a constant emission of gas, light ash which dispersed towards the west-southwest. As of the 29th of July, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours, 16 exhalations occurred accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, 1,097 minutes of tremors associated with the emission of water vapor, gas and light ash were recorded, with heights of up to 1,000 m in a north-northwest direction. There were also three minor explosions, the first on 07/28 at 5:57 p.m., the others at 07/29 at 1:20 p.m. and 8:31 p.m. During the night, an incandescence could be observed above the crater. As of the 28th of July During the last 24 hours, CENAPRED reported nine exhalations accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash have been identified, a moderate explosion on July 27 at 11:35 a.m. and a minor explosion on July 28 at 5:11 a.m. In addition, 671 minutes of tremor were counted, of which 578 minutes of low amplitude and 93 minutes of medium amplitude, accompanied by the emission of water vapor, gas and light ash, with heights up to 1200 m in a north-westerly direction. As of the 26th of July, CENAPRED reported tht during the morning, an episode of tremor occurred accompanied by the expulsion of fragments a short distance from the crater and a column of gas and light ash with a height of about 1300 m in the north-west direction. There is no information on ash falls in nearby towns. Additionally, most of the nighttime glow was observed over the crater. From the morning and during the day, a constant emission of water vapor was observed, to the north-west. From 9 p.m. on the 26th, a constant emission of gas and ash occurred and the expulsion of incandescent fragments to a short distance from the crater. As of the 23rd of July, CENAPRED reported that in the past 24 hours, nine exhalations have been identified accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash, as well as a moderate explosion, recorded on July 23 at 9:27 p.m. In addition, 1348 minutes of tremor were counted, including 854 minutes of low amplitude and 494 minutes of moderate amplitude, accompanied by emission of steam, gas and low ash content, with heights up to 2000 meters, in a southwest direction; a slight fall of ash was reported in the following municipalities: Tetela del Volcán, Ocuituco, Atlatlahucán, Yecapixtla, Yautepec and Jiutepec (State of Morelos), as well as Juchitepec, Tepetlixpa, Atlautla, Ozumba and Ecatzingo (State of Mexico). As of the 22nd of July, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours,the monitoring system recorded 46 ​​exhalations have been identified, accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, 101 minutes of low amplitude tremor were counted. Incandescence was observed overnight. From 7:59 am and at the time of this report, a constant emission of water vapor occurred and gas and light quantities of ash dispersed towards the west-southwest. Ash falls were expected in: Ecatzingo, San juan Tepecoculco and San Andrés Tlalamac (EDOMEX) and San Pedro, Tetela del Volcán, Texcala, Jumiltepec, Ocuituco and Yecapixtla. (Morelos). CENAPRED reported that each day during 8-14 July there were 40-109 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Minor crater incandescence was visible most nights. An explosion at 2320 on 8 July ejected incandescent material a short distance. An eruptive event at 0112 on 11 July ejected incandescent material within the crater and onto the crater rim. Incandescent material ejected within the crater was again visible at 0204 and 0454 on 12 July. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 19th of June, CENAPRED reported that In the past 24 hours, 221 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash at Popocatépetl. In addition, two moderate explosions were recorded this day at 04:56 and 07:18. The first explosion ejected incandescent materials on the sides near the crater. A minor explosion was also recorded today at 7:33 a.m., with an ash plume at 3,000 meters. The emissions from the three explosions dispersed in a southwest direction. Note that the number of explosions has decreased in recent days, with 14 explosions on June 16, 4 on June 17, 9 on June 18 and 3 on June 19. In addition, 166 minutes of low and medium amplitude tremors were recorded. Following the activity, a slight fall of ash is reported in the municipalities of Zacualpan de Amilpas, Temoac and Amayuca belonging to the state of Morelos. From the morning when the volcano is visible, all emissions will be dispersed towards the southwest. As of the 17th of June, CENAPRED reported that In the past 24 hours 194 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, four minor explosions were recorded at 5:30 p.m., 6:03 p.m. and 6:18 p.m. on June 16, and at 1:26 a.m. on June 17. In addition, 591 minutes of low and medium amplitude tremors were recorded. CENAPRED reported that each day during 10-16 June there were 145-302 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. The plumes did not rise more than 1 km above the crater rim. An overflight was conducted on 13 June by the National Guard, Instituto de Geofisica de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), and CENAPRED scientists. They noted that the inner crater was 350-380 m in diameter and 100-150 m deep; the crater floor was covered in tephra and the remains of a lava dome which had possibly been seen in May. At 1612 that same day a minor explosion was recorded, though an ash plume was not observed due to weather clouds. Incandescent material was ejected a short distance onto the flanks. Seven minor explosions were recorded on 15 June and again on 16 June. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 14th of June, CENAPRED reported that in the past 24 hours, using the Popocatépetl volcano monitoring system, 225 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, 295 minutes of tremor were recorded. In the morning there is a slight emission of vapor and gas moving south-east (SE).On Saturday June 13, with the support of the National Guard, expert staff from the Geophysical Institute of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the National Center for Disaster Reduction (CENAPRED), an overview of the Popocatépetl volcano found that the internal crater maintains a diameter of 350 to 380 meters and the approximate depth is 100 to 150 meters, which is covered with tephra. At the bottom, remains of materials from a dome, probably put in place in May, were observed. Cenapred reports 2 explosions on June 8, and one on June 13, 2020. As of the 5th of June, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, the Popocatépetl volcano monitoring system has identified 344 exhalations accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. The ash emissions were scattered in the south, southwest sector. Two moderate explosions were also detected yesterday at 11:00 p.m. and 11:02 p.m. local time. In addition, 453 minutes of tremors were recorded.During the night, continuous emissions of water vapor, gas and small amounts of ash were observed. During the morning of June 5th, there were volcanic gas emissions and small amounts of ash scattered to the southwest. The volcanic alert remains at Amarillo Fase 2. As of the 3rd of June CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours, 153 exhalations have been identified in Popocatépetl, accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash, dispersed towards the west. In addition, 47 minutes of low and medium amplitude tremors were recorded, as well as a volcano-tectonic earthquake yesterday at 11:46 am with a calculated magnitude of 2.8. CENAPRED reported that each day during 20-26 May there were 90-251 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. The plumes drifted mainly E and SE. An explosion at 0302 on 21 May ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). As of the 12th of May, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours, Cenapred has counted 130 exhalations accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes small amounts of ash. In addition, 172 minutes of tremors and four minor explosions were recorded, two recorded on May 11 at 5:23 p.m. and 11:51 p.m., the others on May 12 at 3:02 a.m. and 6:04 a.m., not observable due to the cloudiness of the area. During the night, there was no visibility towards the crater due to the weather conditions.Since the morning, the volcano was observed with a continuous emission of water vapor and gas, however, at the time of this report, due to the cloudy conditions, there is no visibility towards the crater, no emission water vapor, gas and ash will disperse in a northeast direction. As of the 2nd of May, CENAPRED has identified over the past 24 hours 142 exhalations and small explosions, accompanied by gas emissions and small amounts of ash, which continued during the day. A total of 491 minutes of tremor was recorded. Night glow marked the summit of the volcano, visible on the webcams from 9 p.m. to more than 10:30 p.m. As of the 29th of April, in the past 24 hours, using the Popocatépetl volcano monitoring system, 52 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by water vapor, gas and slight amounts of ash dispersed towards the southeast sector (SE).Similarly, 908 minutes of tremor of low and medium amplitude were recorded. At the time of this report, there is a partial visibility, however in the morning a constant emission was observed in the southeast direction. As of the 24th of April, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours, using the Popocatépetl surveillance system, 215 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes ash, and two explosions, one moderate and one minor, were recorded today at 4:58 am and 5:07 am respectively. In addition, 304 minutes of tremor were recorded.An incandescence was observed during the night during certain exhalations. CENAPRED reported that for the last 24 hours, 97 exhalations, of volcanic gases occurred, sometimes accompanied by ashes. Seismicity presented 132 minutes of tremor An explosion occurred on April 21 at 9.45 p.m., accompanied by the expulsion of incandescent fragments and a plume 800 meters away. Night glow was reported. CENAPRED reported that an explosion occurred on April 13 at 11:16 p.m., which was accompanied by the expulsion of incandescent fragments on the flanks of the volcano, and a plume of gas and ash at a height of 1,500 meters, dispersing to the north-east.As of the 1st of April, CENAPRED reported that In the past 24 hours, the Popocatépetl volcano monitoring system has identified 100 exhalations accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash, as well as an explosion on March 31 at 10:08 a.m. In addition, there were 500 minutes of tremors, and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes with a calculated magnitude of 1.7, 2.1 and 1.7, respectively.Since 10 a.m. on April 1, there has been an emission of volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash scattered west-southwest. CENAPRED reported that in the past 24 hours, 128 exhalations have been identified at Popocatépetl, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of  ash. Emissions of ash dispersed in the northwest sector (NW). So far, there have been no reports of ash falling. WebcamsdeMexico posted photos of the activity at 8:16 a.m., 8:29 a.m. and 11:55 a.m., viewed from San Nicolás de los Ranchos, Puebla. In addition, 967 minutes of tremor were recorded. At the time of this report / 11h local, and from an hour, an emission of volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash dispersed to the northwest (NW) are observed. As of the 26th of March, In the past 24 hours, CENAPRED has identified 147 exhalations at Popocatépetl, accompanied by gas, a little ash, and two minor explosions, respectively on March 25 at 4:10 p.m. and March 26 at 2:00 a.m. Meanwhile, the constant emission of volcanic gases, sporadically accompanied by slight amounts of ash is reported, dispersed towards the NNO.At the seismicity level, 653 minutes of low amplitude tremor and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded, respectively from M1.2 at 4:34 p.m. on March 25 and from M2.3) at 8:55 a.m. on March 26. The volcanic alert remains fixed at Amarillo Fase 2. CENAPRED has identified in the past 24 hours a hundred exhalations, accompanied by gas, small amounts of ash and incandescent fragments; a moderate explosion, around 2:59 am, produced an eruptive column 1,000 meters high dispersing to the south and the expulsion of incandescent fragments some 800 meters on the flanks.Seismicity is further characterized by 129 minutes of low amplitude tremor. During the day of the 22nd, a constant emission of gas and occasionally also a little ash is reported. On March 23, around 12:41 am, a new explosion was accompanied by a plume of ash of medium height and ejection of incandescent materials up to 700 meters on the high flanks.The level remains at amarillo Fase 2. As of the 21st of March, CENAPRED reported that in the past 24 hours, 74 exhalations have been identified thanks to the surveillance system, accompanied by volcanic gas emissions, small quantities of ash and sometimes incandescent fragments. Night glow was observed. During the day constant emission of volcanic gases occurred and sometimes with slight amounts of ash, which were dispersed to the northwest. The activity was a little more intense in the evening, with an explosion at 10:40 pm, and the ejection of incandescent materials on the upper slopes. This activity remains under the Amarillo Fase 2 alert. As of the 15th of March, CENAPRED reported that over the past 24 hours at Popocatépetl, Cenapred has identified 125 exhalations, accompanied by gas, water vapor and little ash, as well as explosions, including two minor around 11:07 p.m. and 4:05 a.m., and a moderate, the 14.03 at 8.45 p.m. All the explosions were responsible for a plume of about 1,500 meters, dispersing to the northeast, and for ejecting incandescent materials at a medium distance from the crater. Between these episodes, gas emissions, and slight amounts of ash were reported.Tremor was recorded for 189 minutes. As of the 13th of March, CENAPRED reoprted that in the past 24 hours, using Popocatépetl volcano monitoring systems, 163 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. In addition, a minor explosion was recorded earlier today at 7:01 a.m., which had a low ash content that dispersed in a southwest direction. There were also 97 minutes of tremors. At the time of this report on March 13 at 11:00 GMT, emissions of volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash were presented, dispersing preferentially to the southwest.The tracking by webcams showed a minor explosion at 8:46 p.m., accompanied by a plume of ash and gas reaching 1,500 meters and the expulsion of incandescent materials covering the side is 500 meters. Another explosion was observed at 11:08 p.m. The alert levels remain at Amarillo Fase 2, with a 12 km no-go zone. As of the 9th of March, CENAPRED reported for the last 24 hours, 176 exhalations accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash, and two minor explosions, one yesterday at 5:28 pm and the following day today at 07:46 h.797 minutes of small amplitude tremor were also counted. During this morning, a slight fall of ash occurred in Amecameca, in the State of Mexico. Then, volcanic gas emissions and small amounts of ash dispersed in the northeast of the north. As the 8th of March, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours to Popocatépetl 189 exhalations, some of these events were accompanied by gas emissions and slight amounts of ash. and three minor explosions recorded yesterday at 7:30 p.m., 9:20 p.m. and March 7 at 7:23 a.m. At the seismicity level, 215 minutes of tremor were also recorded. On the morning and volcanic gas emissions and slight amounts of ash have been presented which were cattered towards the northeast. As of the 5th of march, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours 287 exhalations and 6 minor explosions occurred, respectively at 8:32 p.m. on 04.03, and 2:30 a.m., 2:47 a.m., 3:07 a.m., 3:26 a.m. and 6:22 a.m. on 05.03., accompanied by gas and slight amounts of ash. The rest of the day was marked by gas and ash emissions, reaching max. 1,000 meters, dispersed to the northeast.The seismicity was characterized by an earthquake of M1.5 at 8h54 and 304 minutes of tremor.Volcanic alert remains at Amarillo fase 2. CENAPRED reported that two minor explosions were recorded on 28th of February at 6:56 a.m. and 8:29 a.m. Two volcanotectonic earthquakes were also recorded today at 05:48 and 07:12 with an estimated magnitude of 1.2 and 1.7. During this morning and until 17:00 GMT, there have been emissions of volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash which are scattered east-southeast, with a maximum height of 1100 m. Volcanic alert level remains at Amarillo Fase 2. CENAPRED reported that on February 25, an explosion at 12:16 a.m. sprayed incandescent materials on the flanks of the volcano accompanied by a plume of gas and ash at 1,500 meters dispersed towards the northeast. The volcanic alert remains at amarillo fase 2, with a 12 km exclusion zone. CENAPRED reported that 148 exhalations, a moderate explosion at 4:07 p.m., and 10 minor explosions occurred on February 23 at 12:16 p.m., 6:45 p.m., 8:37 p.m. and 9:58 p.m., on February 24 at 12:08 a.m., 1:01 a.m. , scattered to the southwest. In addition, 525 minutes of tremor were recorded. CENAPRED has identified 234 exhalations, 352 minutes of tremor and 9 minor explosions during the last 24 hours, recorded at 02:12, 02:47, 04:51, 06:01, 06:08, 06: 1: 7:17 a.m., 8:00 a.m. and 8:33 a.m., accompanied by the emission of gas and small amounts of ash that have dispersed to the northwest, in addition to the emission of fragments for some of they.The volcano presents a continuous emission of gas and light ash with a predominant direction to the north. On February 18, with the support of the National Guard, a reconnaissance overflight was carried out at the crater of the Popocatepetl volcano. During this overview, specialists from the National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) of the National Coordination for Civil Protection and researchers from the Geophysics Institute of UNAM were able to observe that no substantial change has been made. happened. The internal crater, covered with tephra, maintains a diameter of 350 m and an approximate depth of 100 to 150 m.CENAPRED reported that 386 exhalations and 296 minutes of tremor occurred, some of these events were accompanied by the emission of gases and light quantities of ash which dispersed on 14.02 towards the east and the 15.02 towards the northwest In addition, three explosions were recorded. The first of the moderate type yesterday at 10:31 p.m. even expelled incandescent fragments by the east and north slopes, accompanied by a column of 1200 m high. Subsequently, two minor explosions were recorded on February 15 at 07:12 and 09:32 respectively.CENAPRED reported that on February 13, a strong explosion was observed at 00:55, with incandescent fallout on the first 500 meters of slopes of the volcano and a large plume of ash reaching 1,500 meters in height before dispersing towards the northeast.CENAPRED reported that 128 exhalations and 523 minutes of tremor have been identified in the past 24 hours (report of February 12/11 a.m.), some of these events have been accompanied by the emission of gas and light amounts of ash which have scattered north-northeast. In addition, a volcano-tectonic earthquake of magnitude 1.5 was recorded today at 07:44.CENAPRED reported that each day during 5-11 February there were 57-154 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. An explosion at 1754 on 5 February produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and drifted NNE. A minor explosion at 0029 on 9 February ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. An explosion at 0233 on 10 February produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted NE, and ejected incandescent material as far as 500 m down the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages. (GVN/GVP) . - Live cam of Popocatepetl -

MEXICO - Colima volcano

July 16th, 2019

Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and two small explosions were recorded during 5-12 July. Five lahars descended the Montegrande ravine. An overflight on 9 July revealed that the diameter of the vent had slightly increased, likely caused by subsidence, and other areas of minor subsidence within the crater were noted. An area of collapsed material on the outer W wall was also identified. Temperatures inside the crater were 116 degrees Celsius, lower than the temperature of 250 degrees Celsius recorded in May. The temperatures in the fumarolic area decreased from 202 degrees Celsius in May to 169 degrees. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with fumarolic emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and three small explosions were recorded during 29 June-5 July. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater and small explosions continued to be recorded during 8-14 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, originating mainly from the NE side of the crater, continued to be recorded during 1-7 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during 25-31 May small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater continued to be recorded. During overflights conducted during 23-24 May scientists observed that the new feature (a crack or cavity) reported the previous week had become a hole due to the combination of excavation due to explosions and probable subsidence. The maximum temperature recorded with a portable thermal camera was 252 degrees Celsius, an increase of 80 degrees since recorded on 1 May. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that 51 low-magnitude explosions mainly from the NE part of Colima’s crater were recorded by the seismic and infrasound network during 11-24 May. Emissions from the explosions consisted mainly of water vapor and gas, and were the first surficial manifestations of activity since seismicity increased in the past few weeks. Footage from five drone overflights conducted on 22 May showed fumarolic activity on the inner wall of the NE part of the crater and a new small explosion crater near the center of the main crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported increased seismicity at Colima during 20-26 April characterized by a considerable increase in the number of high-frequency and volcano-tectonic events. On 26 April a consensus was reached to raise the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and extend the exclusion zone to a 8-km radius during a meeting of the Coordinación Nacional de Protección Civil (CNPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil Colima (UEPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil y Bomberos de Jalisco (UEPCBJ), the Universidad de Colima (UdeC), and la Universidad de Guadalajara (UdeG). Seismicity continued to be elevated through 3 May. The largest events (M 2.4-3) were located 0.5-3 km deep in the N and NE parts of the volcano. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base - new webcam *************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

November 22nd, 2020

As of the 21st of November, INSIVUMEH reported that the volcano showed 4-8 weak and moderate explosions per hour, expelling plumes of gas and gray ash at an altitude of 4,500 to 4,700 meters (14,763 to 15,419 feet) which disperse mainly to the south -Where is. Some explosions are strong and cause shock waves that vibrate the roofs and windows of houses near the volcanic perimeter. The explosions are accompanied by weak and moderate avalanches, which disperse towards the ravines of Seca, Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Las Lajas. Avalanches with strong characteristics persist on the ravines of Seca and Ceniza, some of which reach the vegetation limit. Fine ash falls were recorded in the Panimaché 1 area. At night and early in the morning, reflections of incandescent pulses were observed on the crater. INSIVUMEH reported that 2-14 explosions were recorded per hour during 27 October-3 November at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 10-25 km generally S, SW, and W. Shock waves rattled buildings within 12 km of the summit. Incandescent material ejected 100-300 m high caused block avalanches in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported during 30 October-3 November in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Ceylon, El Zapote (10 km S), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). INSIVUMEH reported that, during September, a total of 2,306 explosions occurred. In mid-October, 1,037 explosions were recorded, including 5 strong explosions over the last 18 hours, accompanied by white-gray plumes of 1,000 meters above the crater. On October 14 at 10 a.m., an illustrated explosion, qualified as moderate, generated an avalanche in the barranca Ceniza. As of the 27th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions occurred, at a rate of 6 to 12 per hour, generate incandescent impulses 200 meters above the crater, and were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500-4,700 meters asl., dispersing to the west and the southwest for about ten kilometers. Avalanches affecting Barancas Seca, Ceniza, Tanilyua, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some reaching the vegetation limit. Fine ashes fall on the surroundings of Panimache, Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Morella and Santa Sofia.As of the 24th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that a high amplitude tremor on the southeast flank has been recorded at the volcano yesterday. According to seismic instruments a moderate to strong lahars (mud flows) were detected towards the El Jute and Las Lajas direction as the heavy rainfalls remobilised the fresh ash deposits. Larger lahars are expected including blocks with diameter between 1-2 m today. As of September 23, INSIVUMEH reported that the pattern of activity remains the same as the previous days, with weak to moderate explosions, at a rate of 12 to 18 per hour, accompanied by columns of ash reaching 4,700 meters asl. Constant avalanches from the edge of the crater are observed in the direction of the many drainages. Ash falls are reported in the areas of Panimache, Morella, Santa Sofia, Porvenir, Yucales, Sangre de Cristo and San Pedro Yepocapa. As of the 20th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that explosive eruption of the volcano continued moderate to high levels. The effusion of the lava flow in Ceniza direction has stopped and is no longer active.Near-constant strombolian explosions are associated with incandescent material that is ejected to an approximate height of 300 m above the crater with moderate to strong avalanches. As of the 12th of September, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 .INSIVUMEH reported that the activity of the Fuego remained charaterzed by explosions, which generate avalanches of blocks in the direction of the various drainages, which for some reached the limit of the vegetation; the ash plumes that accompany them cause only small fallout of ash and shock waves perceptible up to 8 km from the volcano. Tthe lava flow in the Ceniza barranca was no longer active. Insivumeh reports in its special September 11 bulletin that the effusive activity of Fuego has been on the increase since the 5th of the month. Extrusion does not happen at a constant rate; the length of the lava flow in the Ceniza barranca varies from 100 to 650 meters approximately - the last daily bulletin indicates it at a length of 200 meters -, and the avalanches generated by the flow also affect the barrancas Trinidad and Tanilyua. INSIVUMEH reported that during 31 August-1st of September the first 200 m of the lava flow was active and continued to produce block avalanches. As of the 28th of August INSIVUMEH reported that 5 to 10 Vulcanian explosions, weak and moderate occurred per hour, during the night and early in the morning which expelled plumes of ash to a height of 4400 to 4700 meters above sea level, which dispersed in a north and northwesterly direction, accompanied by incandescent pulses between 150 and 300 meters high above the crater, weak and moderate avalanches channeled towards the barrancas Santa Teresa, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some advancing to the limit of vegetation. Low, moderate and up to four loud rumblings were heard, causing sensitive shock waves up to 12 km from the volcano. The lava flow towards the barranca Ceniza remained active, with an approximate length of 400 meters and the detachment of blocks in front. As of the 26th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that that explosions occurrs at a rate of 4 to 6 per hour, accompanied by shock waves, avalanches of blocks in the direction of the Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas drainages, some of which reach the limit of vegetation, and ash plumes at 4,500-4,700 meters above sea level. Ash falls were reported in the villages of Panimaché I, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde and Yepocapa. Incandescent pulses were observed during the night and early in the morning. INSIVUMEH reported that at 2050 on 29 July lahars descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on Fuego's SE flanks. There were 6-13 explosions per hour recorded during 29 July-4 August, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 15-20 km NW, W, and SW. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius, particularly in areas on the S flank. Incandescent material ejected 100-350 m high caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluye (SW), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). INSIVUMEH reported that on July 25th that moderate explosions continued at a rate of 8-12 per hour, accompanied by plumes at 4,700 meters asl., Dispersing over a west / north- west sector over 15 km. During the night and in the morning, incandescent pulses were observed at 100-200 meters in height, as well as boulder avalanches in the barrancas Seca, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some of which reach the vegetation zone . Ash particles were reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, el Porvenir, Palo verde and San Pedro Yepocapa.As of the 21st of July, INSIVUMEH reported that weak to moderate explosions occurred at a rate of 8-11 per hour, accompanied by plumes of gray ash reaching 4,500-4,700 meters asl. Incandescent projections were observed 100-200 meters above the crater, which generate weak to strong fallout, and avalanches in the direction of the Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, lajas and Honda barrancas, with blocks reaching the level of vegetation. The shock waves are perceived at 20 km from the volcanic perimeter, with vibrations of the roofs and windows. Ash falls were reported in the villages to the south, Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa. As of the 13th of July, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions still occurs at the rate of 6-9 per hour, accompanied by columns of gas and ash at 4400-4700 meters asl. dispersing west. Ash falls were reported in the areas of Panimache II, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde and El Porvenir. Night glow was reported, 150 to 300 meters high, accompanied by avalanches of boulders towards the Trinidad, Tanilyua, Ceniza honda, Las Lajas and Seca barrancas; some blocks roll to the limits of vegetation. INSIVUMEH reported that around 2:30 p.m. on June 24, a moderate lahar descended the El Jute and Las Lajas barrancas, on its western flank and tributaries of the Achiguate and Guacalate rivers respectively. From 3.30 p.m. local time, a lahar was observed in the Secanca barranca, a tributary of the Rio Pantaleon. As of the 19th of June INSIVUMEH reported that a slight white degassing rose at a height of 4,200 m above sea level, and 7 to 9 light and moderate explosions per hour which expel columns of gray ash at a height of 4,300 to 4,700 m. asl., which dispersed in a west and southwest direction, and which were accompanied by incandescent pulses between 200 and 300 meters above the crater, as well as weak and moderate avalanches in the direction of the canyons of Santa Teresa , Ceniza and Las Lajas, some extending to the edge of the vegetation. A low and moderate rumbling was perceived, causing shock waves causing vibrations in the houses of the villages near the volcano on its southern flank. Sounds similar to train locomotives are heard for periods of 2 to 5 minutes. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 4-13 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 10-16 June, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km NW, W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Shock waves from explosions sometimes rattled houses in the vicinity of the volcano. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Santa Teresa (W), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. A new lava flow traveled 250 m down the Seca drainage on the NW flank in the early hours of 12 June. The lava effusion was accompanied by almost constant summit crater incandescence and gas emissions. Incandescent material was ejected 100 m above the summit. Avalanches of material descended the flanks and reached vegetated areas. Ash plumes rose over 1 km and shock waves from explosions were felt. The lava flow had lengthened to 300 m by 13 June, but was an estimated 250 m long on 14 June. Effusive activity can intensify and even extend to another ravine, presenting block avalanches; it is recommended not to stay near or in the barrancas. A notice of possible dispersion of ash up to 20 km in a south and southwest sector has been issued to civil aeronautics. As of the 8th of June, INSIVUMEH reported that a weak white fumarole rose a height of 4,100 meters with weak and moderate explosions, between 7 to 10 per hour, accompanied by columns of gray ash, at a height of 4,300 to 4,600 meters, dispersed in a north and northeast direction. Weak incandescent pulses were observed at the crater, as are weak and moderate block avalanches, towards the Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Honda and Seca barrancas. The explosions generated low rumblings with shock waves, vibrant roofs and windows in the homes of villages near the volcano. Sounds similar to locomotives are heard for periods of 1 to 3 minutes. As of the 28th of May 2020 INSIVUMEH reported that moderate to strong Strombolian explosions occurred at the rate of 8-12 per hour which raise columns of ash at 4,500-4,700 meters asl., dispersing south and southwest. Moderate avalanches occurred in the Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas barrancas. Fine ashes fall on the volcano observatory. Lahar has been also reported reported in the Barra Seca, a tributary of the Pantaleon river, located on the southwest flank of the volcano at 1 p.m. A weak to moderate lahar flowed in the Ceniza barranca tributary of the Achiguate river, from 4:20 p.m. Maintaining heavy rains can result in more lahars, carrying tree branches and volcanic material. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 5-12 explosions per hour recorded during 22-26 May, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km in multiple directions. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius, particularly in areas on the S flank. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Ciudad Vieja (13.5 km NE), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), and Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE). Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage varied in length between 150 and 400 m long. As of the 24th of May, lava flow a hundred meters long towards the Seca barranca was observed in the images of Sentinel-2, as well as avalanches of blocks reaching up to 280 meters in length. The rains on the upper parts of the drainage generate weak to moderate lahars, marked by volcanic material, blocks of 1-2 meters in diameter, and trees. INSIVUMEH reported a lahar on May 25 at 8:15 p.m. local in Barranca Seca, and Rio Pantaleon. INSIVUMEH reported that a change in the type of activity was recorded by the seismic and acoustic networks from May 5, 2020 . On the evening of May 8 a lava flow has been observed since the morning, in the direction of Barranca Ceniza reaching a length of about 400 meters. It was accompanied by almost constant incandescence at the crater and avalanches towards the vegetation zone over 1 km. The explosions remained weak to moderate, with shock waves and ash plumes reaching 4,800 m. asl. There were 5-12 explosions per hour recorded during 22-28 April, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). The two lava flows continued to be active during 25-28 April; the flow in the Ceniza drainage did not advance past 200 m and the flow in the Seca drainage had extended to 800 m long. The ends of the lava flows continued to generate blocks that reached vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that lava began to descend Fuego's Ceniza (SSW) drainage on 19 April. The rate of effusion increased in the evening of 23 April and observatory staff saw a second lava flow in the Seca (W) drainage that was 170 m long. On 24 April satellite data confirmed thermal anomalies from both lava flows. The main part of the lava flow in the Ceniza was 200 m long, but prodced incandescent blocks from the end of the flow traveled an additional 240 m, reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent blocks from the end of the flow in the Seca drainage traveled 520 m. Explosions at the summit crater generated shock waves and ash plumes that rose almost 1.2 km above the crater. Avalanches of blocks from these explosions traveled up to 1 km down all flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that the night of April 18 the seismic and acoustic network of Fuego recorded a change in the type of activity. bad meteorological conditions no permitted observation of the lava flow, but analysis of satellite images helped to obtain its characteristics. The flow to Barranca Ceniza on April 19 was approximately 320 meters long. The activity was accompanied by almost constant incandescence at the crater and avalanches over 1 km, reaching the level of vegetation. There were 5-14 explosions per hour recorded during 7-14 April, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-20 km in multiple directions. Minor ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Quisache, and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within a 25-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-600 m high. Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage had variable lengths during the week, from 200 to 600 m long. Avalanches of blocks from the lava flows traveled sometimes long distances, and in some cases set fire to vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that on April 12th, 4 strong explosions occurred with expulsion of incandescent materials on the flanks of the volcano, respectively at 2:42, 2:56, 3:55 and 4:12 Yhis day, the sector was cloudy and the atmosphere is warm, and moderate fallout; a lava flow of 200 meters wide followed the barranca Ceniza. INSIVUMEH reported that on April 8th weak to moderate explosions, 10 to 14 per hour, accompanied by gray plumes at 4,500-4,800 meters asl. scattered west and southwest, as well as incandescent pulses 300-400 meters high and avalanches in the vicinity of the crater, and the various drainages.A change in Fuego's activity since April 6 is reported by the Government in a special bulletin on April 8 at 9 p.m. local, following the change in seismicity: the activity has now become effusive, and forms a flow of lava 400 meters long towards the Ceniza barranca. There is an almost constant glow at the crater and avalanches up to 1 km. reaching the vegetation. The current activity is similar to that recorded from March 16, 2020, which lasted 8 daysThere were 4-12 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 17-24 March, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km S, SW, and W. Almost daily ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and La Cruz. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled nearby houses and were felt in communities within a 25-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Honda, and Las Lajas ravines. Lava flows of variable lengths (400-1,000 m) descended the Trinidad and Ceniza ravines each day but were inactive by the evening of 23 March. INSIVUMEH reported that a new change occurred in eruptive behavior on March 15 from 19:24, with an increase in degassing accompanying the lava flow, well observable at night on about 600 meters long in the Trinanca barranca. An increase in avalanches was reported in Las Lajas, Trinidad and Cenizas barrancas.Effusive activity was accompanied by weak explosions.The seismic activity presented a continuous signal of low amplitude in relation to the expulsion of the materials feeding the lava flow and its degassing. As of the 26th of february INSIVUMEH recorded 5 to 12 moderate explosions of Strombolian type per hour which generated a plume of gray ash which reached approx. 4,500 m-4,700 m asl and derivative W and SW. In addition, a white plume that reached 4,300 m asl and drifted west and southwest is observed.The incandescent material is ejected at an approximate height of 100 m to 200 m above the crater with moderate avalanches around the crater, mainly in the Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Santa Teresa, Trinidad, Las Lajas barrancas, with slight fallout.A lava flow 300 meters long is described in the Ceniza barranca, with moderate to strong avalanches from the flow front.Ash falls have been reported in several leeward areas, including Santa Sofía, Morelia , Panimaché I and II , Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa , Sangre de Cristo and El Porvenir .INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-16 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 12-18 February, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Alotenángo (8 km ENE), and La Soledad (11 km N). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within an 8-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 150-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines lava flows in the Ceniza drainage were 700-800 m long during 13-17 February and lengthened to 1.2 km during 17-18 February. INSIVUMEH reported that on February 5th explosive activity continued at the rate of 5 to 8 episodes per hour, accompanied by ash plumes reaching an altitude of 4,900 meters (flight alt. 160 / VAAC Washington). The ashes move towards the northeast for about twenty kilometers, with fallout on Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja and Antigua Guatemala. Night glow is linked to impulses 200 meters high and avalanches of boulders in the barrancas. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-17 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 14-21 January, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within a 7 km radius, though they were felt up to 25 km away during 19-20 January. Incandescent material was ejected 100-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ash plumes drifted 18 km E during 20-21 January. INSIVUMEH reported that low to moderate ash emissions continued at the rate of 11-17 episodes per hour, accompanied by plumes between 4,500 and 4,800 meters asl. moving west and southwest. Night glow was observed at 200-300 m. above the crater; this activity generating weak to moderate avalanches around the crater, and some stronger towards the drainage. Ash falls were reported on Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de cristo, San Pedre Yepocapa, and Panimache. Previous news 2019 - As of the 27th of December, INSIVUMEH reported that activity remained at the same level the last days with 15-18 explosions per hour, weak to moderate, which were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,200-4,500 meters asl., and avalanches in direction of the different barrancas. Nighttime incandescent impulses were observed at 100-200 meters in height and a lava flow in the barranca Seca reached a length of 300 meters. On the other hand following a change of direction of the winds blowing from the southwest, the ash plumes dispersed on December 27 in the morning towards the northeast and the north, with the probability of falls in the areas of Acatenango, Ciudad Vieja and Antigua Guatemala. INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity increased; night and early morning glow were visible and according MIROVA moderate thermal anomalies could be observed, included in recent days between 18 and 91 MW.The active lava flow in the direction of the Ceniza barranca was about 600 meters, with avalanches and steam at the head of the lava front. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 6-15 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 20-26 November, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 100-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows advanced in the Seca and Santa Teresa (W) drainages during November, and were 300 and 800 m long on 21 and 24 November, respectively. INSIVUMEH following important rain on of the volcano, a weak to moderate lahar was reported on November 17th of November in the Ceniza gorge consisting of ashes and blocks deposited by constant activity, and remobilized. INSIVUMEH reported that since November 6 a lava flow towards the barranca Seca, long on November 13 of about 900 meters. This activity was effusive, according to the OVFGO, despite a notable incandescence in night and hours of low light, as well as a sustained degassing. This activity, similar to that recorded in April, could be prolonged in the following months. Discrete emissions of ash and gas continue, with a plume at 4,700 m. asl., moving west and southwest for 20 km. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-18 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 2-8 October, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, W, and NW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows traveled 200 m down the Seca drainage on 6 October and were active in the Santa Teresa (W) drainage on 8 October. Lahars descended the Ceniza, El Mineral, and Seca drainages during 3-7 October, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks 1-3 m in diameter. As of the 5th of October, INSIVUMEH reported that constant rains over the past few days are likely to cause floods, lahars and landslides. Especially in the area of ​​the Fuego volcano, weak to moderate lahars were reported in different drainages: the Ceniza, Las Lajas, Seca and Rio Mineral barrancas are involved. These lahars were characterized by the transport of ash, blocks 1 to 2 meters in diameter and generate steam columns and shock waves. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that at night and early June 22 in the morning, incandescence was observed at a height of approximately 350 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches in the crater contour, some over long distances to vegetation in the direction of the crater. Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, El Jute, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash fallout is reported from Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimache I and II. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 15-18 June, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km W, SW, and E. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluya¡ (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofi­a (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Previous month, INSIVUMEH reported that there were 15-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 16-17 and 19-20 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, and W. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 300-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). A lava flow on the W flank was 300 m long. On 16 May lahars carrying variously-sized blocks and tree branches and trunks descended the Las Lajas ravine. On 20 May hot lahars with a sulfur odor descended the Ceniza, El Jute, and Las Lajas drainages, carrying blocks 1-3 m in diameter. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 13-24 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 9-10 and 12-14 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km S and SW. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in areas to the S and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (and reached vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW).Lava flows were 500-600 m long on the W flank. On 11 May steaming lahars descended the Las Lajas, Seca, Ceniza, and Mineral drainages, carrying variously-sized blocks and tree parts. Lahars on 14 May carried blocks and tree trunks down the Ceniza drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that on 18 April steaming hot lahars descended Fuego's Ceniza (SSW) and Taniluya (SW) drainages, carrying variously-sized material including blocks up to 2 m in diameter. The lahars were 1 m deep, 15 m wide, and had a sulfur odor. During 20-23 April there were 17-22 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1.1 km and drifted 15-20 km S, SW, and W. Shock waves vibrated local structures. Incandescent material was ejected 300-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines. A lava flow, 600 m long, advanced in the Seca drainage. Ashfall was reported in reported in Yepocapa (8 km N), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Panimache (8 km SW). INSIVUMEH reported that on April 11 between 18 and 22 low to moderate explosions occurred every hour, with ash plumes as high as 4,800 meters asl, before dispersing to the east. During the night, incandescent impulses rose 300 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches to the barrancas.A lava flow extends for 500 meters, from the crater to the direction of Barranca Seca. A low ashfall is reported on Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja, and La Reunión; according to the direction of the wind, the ashes could fall back on Antigua Guatemala.Persistent heavy rains on the Fuego volcano in Guatemala resulted in lahars in various drainages on April 11th: the Taniluya, Ceniza and El Jute barrancas were impacted, and thousands of people from surrounding communities were blocked. Previously, a special bulletin from INSIVUMEH was issued on 31 March describing another increase in activity with the number of explosions ranging from 14 to 32 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted W, SW, and S. The explosions vibrated local residences. A lava flow that had emerged in the early morning hours advanced 800 m in the Seca drainage. On 1 April there were 13-16 explosions recorded per hour. Ash plumes rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-15 km S, SE, and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate residential structures. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, reaching vegetation. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I, Morelia, Palo Verde Estate, Santa Sofia, La Rochela, and San Andres Osuna. INSIVUMEH reported that on 29th of March, the eruptive activity was characterized by constant periods of increase in its eruptive behavior, with 20 hourly explosions, and plumes of ash reaching 5,000 meters asl. before moving for 15 to 30 km. These explosions generate avalanches in the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas, which remobilize materials; at night, they were incandescent and visible over 350 meters from the crater. The respect of the instructions is recalled in view of possible new eruptions, accompanied by pyroclastic flows. As of the 22nd in the morning, INSIVUMEH reported an increasing activity of the volcano; between 15 and 20 moderate and strong explosions occurs every hour, columns of ash and degassing rising up to 5 thousand meters above sea level, dispersing at 30 kilometers south, west, south-west, east and southeast, generating moderate and strong crater avalanches that take the direction of Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash falls were reported on La Rochela, Ceylon, Osuna, Las Palmas, Siquinalá and Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa; other communities could be affected up to 30 km from the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that explosive activity was still contnuing during recent days, with 13 to 16 weak to moderate explosions accompanied by ash plumes at 4.400-4.700 meters asl, scattering over a wide area according to the winds.Incandescence was observed at 200 -300 meters in height, as well as avalanches in the contours of the crater and the barrancas.Ash falls occurred in El Rodeo, El Zapote, Celan, La Rochela, Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, and Sangre de Cristo. INSIVUMEH reported that on the 1st of February, nocturnal glow was observed, and the rhythm of the explosions was13 to 18 per hour at the beginning of the day, with plumes of ashes reaching 4,800 m. asl. The ashfall occurred toward the Northeast on Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja, and the capital Ciudad Guatemala. Avalanches were observed in the barrancas Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that 10-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 29-31 January. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted E and NE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE), and Guatemala City (70 km E). Incandescent material was ejected 300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. During 31January-1 February there were 14-16 explosions recorded per hour, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km and drifting 20-25 km S and SE. Ash fell in the communities of El Rodeo (10 km SSE), El Zapote, Ceilan, and La Rochela. Incandescent material rose 200-400 m high causing avalanches of material to descend the Seca, Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda (E) ravines. Shock wave causing vibration in the communities near the volcano.INSIVUMEH reported that on January 22, the activity was maintained with 15 -25 low to high explosions, per hour, a plume of ash amounting to 4,800 m asl. before dispersing to the west and south-west, and incandescent impulses 100-300 meters above the crater.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché I y II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Yepocapa. As of the December 5th, few explosions occurred accompanied by plumes of gray ash at a height of 4,500-5,000 meters asl. dispersing to the west and southwest over 25 km. Incandescent impulses are reported at a height of 150-200 meters above the crater, generating fallout in the vicinity of the crater and to the main barrancas. INSIVUMEH repored that heavy rains during 28 and 29 November generated hot lahars, accompanied by the smell of sulfur and degassing columns, towards the Seca, Santa Teresa and El Mineral barrancas. The lahars carried ash and blocks 1 to 3 meters in diameter, volcanic materials deposited during the last eruptions.INSIVUMEH reported that moderate to strong explosions continued at a rate of 12 to 15 per hour, this vulcanian-type activity is accompanied by eruptive columns with ashes rising to 5,000 meters asl. and shock waves and vibrations felt within a radius of 25 km. A change of wind direction, November 26 in the morning from south to north, produced ashfalls on Alotenango, San Miguel, Dueñas, Antigua Guatemala and Ciudad Guatemala. During 24-25 November there were 12-15 weak-to-moderate explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate local structures, and ashfall was again reported in Panimache, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Moderate-to-strong Vulcanian explosions on 26 November generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted N. The explosions were heard, and shock waves felt, mostly within 25 km, though some explosions were audible to residents of Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Explosions continued the next day at a rate of 10-15 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high, and avalanches of material descended multiple drainages. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. As of the 22nd of November, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions accompanied by expulsions of a dark gray plume continued.The avalanches of blocks and ashes, accumulated during the eruption of November 18, continued in the Seca, Ceniza, El Jute, Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that the strong eruption of the Fuego was accompanied on November 19 in the morning by constant explosions, and a sustained ash plume rising to about 7,000 meters asl, before dispersing 50-60 km to the west and southwest.The incandescent source was observed 800-1000 meters above the crater, with ballistic materials scattered for more than one kilometer around the volcano.The main lava flow reached about 3,000 meters in length towards the barranca Ceniza ; two other shorter flows, of about 300 meters, were observed in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. The flows was accompanied by avalanches and mobilization of ashes.Pyroclastic flows descended from the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. Abundant falls of ash and particles are falling on Panimache, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Paolo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, San Juan Alotenango, and Antigua Guatemala.The Conred also reported light ash falls on Mazatenango, San Bernardino, San Antonio, San Miguel Panán, Chicacao, San Juan Bautista, Santa Bárbara Río Bravo and Patulul, and that 2,052 people were safe and 3,000 have been evacuated; 76,145 people would be affected. At about 11h40 AM slight decrease in seismicity was observed, as well as a decrease in the height and extension of the ash plume: height of 6,000 meters asl dispersing over 20-30 km. In the evening (6PM) the seismogram and the RSAM showed a drop in activity, and according to the observatory this 5th eruptive phase of the year was over, after a duration of 32 hours. However, Explosions were always recorded, weak to moderate, accompanied by a plume of ash at 4,800 meters asl, drifting to a west and southwest sector over 15 km.The incandescent impulses were reduced to 100-300 meters, generating weak avalanches mainly in the crater contour; some ejections reach the limit of vegetation towards the main barrancas. A special INSIVUMEH bulletin of 18 November reported that at 10.10 local, the fifth eruption 2018 started. It was characterized by a permanent ash plume at 4,900 meters asl, dispersing to the south for 15-25 km, and generating moderate to strong avalanches in the Ceniza and Tanilyua Barrancas, up to the vegetative limit. The incandescent fountain was observed up to 300 meters high above the crater. A lava flow, 2,000 meters long, in the direction of the barranca Ceniza, has a front generating avalanches and ash rising. A possibility exists of the beginning of lava flow in the Taniluya barranca in the next hours, and of pyroclastic flows.Ash falls have been reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, and Finca Paolo Verde.During the night, the explosions generated a plume rising to 5.200 meters in height before dispersing 20-30 km in a westerly and north-easterly direction; the incandescent fountains rose up to 500-600 meters above the crater and the ballistic ejections reached 800 meters in various directions. The lava flow towards the Ceniza gorge reaches a length of 2,500 meters.At the time of the 0h40 report, a pyroclastic flow descended in the direction of the Seca barranca. Comred declared the red alert and activated the Emergency Operations Center-COE-Municipal to coordinate the response actions. National Highway 14 is closed. Self-evacuation is in progress. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that on 18th of November, the activity increased again rising: 8 to 14 explosions, low to moderate, per hour are accompanied by emission of plumes of ash to 4,700 meters asl., drifting on 15-20 km to the southwest and west. Incandescent pulsatile emissions at 150-200 meters are observed, as well as moderate avalanches in the crater contour. A lava flow reaches a length of 1,300 meters in the Ceniza barranca, permanently fed.Ash falls are reported on Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde.INSIVUMEH reported that 7-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 8-12 November. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 8-20 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porveni, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-300 m high and caused avalanches that traveled far, reaching vegetated areas in multiple drainages. Lava flows as long as 1.2 km advanced in the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, though lava-flow activity greatly decreased by 12 November. As of the 9th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity continued; the lava flow in the Ceniza barranca reached a length of 1 200 meters. Avalanches were reported in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas.Low to moderate explosions occurred ranged from 12 to 18 per hour, with ash plumes rising to 4,600-4,700 meters asl, before dispersing over 10-15 km. towards a western sector, accompaznied with fallout of fine particles on this zone, including Sangre de Cristo, Santa Sofia, Panimaché I and II, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir. The explosions were accompanied by outgassing noises for 2 to 5 minutes.INSIVUMEH reported that a new eruptive phase began on November 6 in Fuego, the fourth in 2018.Low-to-moderate steady-state explosions are recorded, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,800 m. asl.,then drifting 20 km westerly and southwesterly, and with shock waves and sounds.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finac Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Incandescences impulses are visible in the crater that rose to about 200-300 meters high, generating avalanches around the crater, impacting the vegetation towards the Seca and Taniluya barrancas, and feeding a 1000 meter long flow, then reaches 1,200 meters in the Ceniza gorge.The effusive activity then continued until the evening, weakening very slightly. As of the 5th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that activity of Fuego increased, with 10 to 15 hourly explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 4,700 meters asl. dispersing 15 km in a westerly and southwesterly direction. Nighttime glow is observed to 200-300 meters above the crater; the explosions generate weak to moderate avalanches, and lava flows 600 meters long towards the Tanilyua and Ceniza barrancas.The ash falls concern Panimaché, El, Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde and San Pedro Yepocapa.t INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 20 October hot lahars descended Fuego's Las Lajas (SE) and Mineral drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter along with branches and tree trunks. The lahars were 20-30 m wide and 2 m deep. During 20-23 October there were 8-15 weak explosions recorded per hour, producing gray ash plumes that rose 750-850 m above the crater rim and drifted 12 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimaché (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Lava fountains rose 100-200 m high. Avalanches of blocks descended the El Jute (SE), Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, with material reaching vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-16 October explosions (8-18 per hour) produced ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 8-12 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, and Panimache I and II (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-200 m high, causing avalanches of material within the crater, though some of the avalanches traveled long distances, reaching vegetated areas. The lava flow on the W flank was still visible but by 14 October no longer active. On 13 October a steaming lahar descended the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reported that from 3.50 am on October 12, a new phase of the eruption began, effusive: fountains of 400 meters above the crater generated a lava flow that reaches 600 meters long towards the west drainages of the volcano. A possibility of pyroclastic flows is considered towards the seca, Las Lajas and Cenizas barrancas. On the evening of October 12, pyroclastic flows are reported in the Barranca Seca, where the lava flow reaches a length of 1,500 meters. Its advance causes a lifting of materials and some avalanches. A pyroclastic flow is also observed in the Barranca Santa Teresa. The eruptive dynamics is maintained with moderate explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 5,000 meters asl, dispersing to the SW, O and SE over 15-20 km. ; incandescent impulses are observed 200-300 meters above the crater. The fallout of ashes concerns Panimache I, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde..INSIVUMEH reported that on October 11, a slight increase in the explosive activity of the Fuego was reported characterized by 10 to 14 hourly explosions, weak to moderate, accompanied by plumes of ash rising to 4,600 meters asl. traveling 15 km to the west and southwest. Incandescent impulses are observed 100-200 meters above the crater, generating the fall of volcanic materials and avalanches towards the Santa Teresa and Las Lajas barrancas. This activity is accompanied by moderate fallout, shock waves and constant outgassing noise.INSIVUMEH reported that on September 29 in the evening an increase of the explosive activity occurred ; tremor and degassing pulses lasting up to 3-4 hours were accompanied by aircraft turbine sounds and block avalanches on the southwestern flank. About Five to nine hourly explosions were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,400 - 4,700 meters.In the evening, 10 to 15 hourly explosions were recorded, weak to moderate, and accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500 meters asl. moving 10 km to the west and southwest, and fallout of volcanic materials that generate small avalanches.Ash falls are reported on San Pedro Yepocapa, Finca Palo Verde, Morelia, and Panimache.The summit is marked by a constant incandescence during the night.INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 and 24-25 September explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted 12 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimache (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). On 25 September hot, steaming lahars descended the El Jute (SE) and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reporterd that on 7 September at 7:31 local time, an avalanche occurred on one of the flanks of Fuego due to a fissure in the upper part of the Barranca Las Lajas, the destabilization of materials accumulated during the eruption of June 3, and preceded by a small ash emission from a vent located lower down the slope.During the last 24 hours about 5 to 12 low to moderate hourly explosions occurred , accompanied by ashes and gas reaching 4,700 meters above sea level, before moving west-southwest 15 km INSIVUMEH reported that heavy rain generated lahars during 29 August-1 September that descended Fuego's El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), Cenizas (SSW), Taniluya (SW), Seca (W), Mineral, Honda, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. The lahars were hot, had a sulfur odor, and carried tree branches and blocks (2-3 m in diameter). On 1 September lahars disrupted roads between San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW) and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and from Finca Palo Verde and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). During 2-4 September explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Avalanches of incandescent material were confined to the crater. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH reported that during 18-21 August explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 850 m above the crater and drifted 12 km NW, W, and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area and down drainages on the flanks. According to CONRED, as of 22 August, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 169, and 256 remained missing. On 17th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that volcanic activity remains moderate with 6 explosions, accompanied by ash plumes at a height of 4,100-4,200 meters asl, drifting to the northwest and west; low avalanches are reported towards the Cenizas barranca.The heavy rains remobilized the ashes and caused a lahar in the barranca Honda. INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 August heavy rain triggered lahars that traveled down the Seca drainage on Fuego's W flank and the Mineral drainage, carrying tree trunks and blocks as large a 2 m in diameter. During 12-14 August weak-to-moderate explosions generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m high, and avalanches of blocks descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Santa Teresa (W) SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), and finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH rported that a strong explosion, accompanied by avalanches around the crater, fallout and shockwaves, occurred on August 8 at 21:20 local. Incandescent materials were ejected at 4,800 m Asl., Evening about 1,100 meters above the summit; the ash plume moved 12 km to the west. This is the first strong explosion recorded in the last six weeks.INSIVUMEH reported that during 29-30 July avalanches of material descended the Cenizas drainage on Fuego's SSW flank. Hot lahars generated by heavy rains on 30 July descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), El Jute (SE), and Cenizas drainages, carrying blocks 2-3 m in diameter and smelling of sulfur. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported relatively quiet conditions at Fuego during 4-9 July characterized mainly by gas emissions and block avalanches on the flanks. During 7-8 July there was about one explosion detected every two hours, producing diffuse ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Cenizas (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, while lahars were present in the El Jute (SE), Las Lajas, Cenizas, Taniluya (SW), Seca, Mineral, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. Seismicity increased on 10 July. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km and drifted 12 km SE, causing ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimaché (8 km SW). According to CONRED, as of 4 July, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 332 remained missing. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that 2-7 weak explosions per hour at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 650 m above the crater rim and drifted W and SW during 27-29 June and 1-3 July. Ashfall was reported on 27 June in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo and Yepocapa. Avalanches of material descended the S, SW, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, El Jute, and Cenizas drainages). INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 20-26 June multiple lahars at Fuego were often hot, steaming, and had a sulfur odor, and were generated from heavy rains and the recent accumulation of pyroclastic-flow deposits from the 3 June events. Lahars remained a significant hazard, and descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Santa Teresa (W), and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. They were 25-45 m wide, as deep as 3 m, and often carried blocks up to 3 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. The agencies warned that because the Las Lajas drainage is full of deposits, lahars can continue to descend that drainage or create new channels in San Miguel Los Lotes (one of the hardest-hit areas). Explosions continued, producingash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde on 22 June. Avalanches of material descended the SE, S, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages). According to CONRED, as of 26 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 remained evacuated. During 16-19 June as many as seven explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km W, SW, and S. Some explosions were heard in areas within a 10-km radius. Avalanches of material descended the Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages during 17-18 June, producing ash plumes, and ashfall in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde. According to CONRED, as of 19 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows remained at 110, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 people had been evacuated. As of the 15th of June, INSIVUMEH reported that following heavy rains hot lahar traveled down in Santa Teresa Barranca and Rio Mineral, a tributary of Rio Pantaleon. Large of 20 to 25 meters and 2 meters high, and carrying fine and pasty materials, blocks of 3 meters in diameter and trunks. At 17:40, a lahar descended the river Ceniza. Other lahars were reported in Taniluya and Las Lajas barrancas, about 30 to 45 meters wide and 3 meters high As of the 13th of June INSIVUMEH reported that a lahar was observed traveling down in the Ceniza gorge; about 25 meters wide and 2 meters high, it carries fine and pasty materials, blocks one to three meters in diameter and tree trunks. Another lahar has taken the Las Lajas barranca, 30-40 meters wide and 3 meters high, characterized by the transport of similar materials.As of the 12th of June INSIVUMEH reported that at 7 am local an increasing of the explosive activity occurred, characterized by columns of ashes between 4,500 and 5,000 meters height asl., dispersed on 15 to 25 km to the northeast . Ashfall is likely to occur in Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja and San Miguel Duena. At 7:35 local time, the observatory reported a pyroclastic flow in the Seca barranca, producing a curtain of ashes that reached 6,000 meters asl before dispersing to the north and north-east. The explosive activity causes avalanches that produce thick columns of ash, which disperse along the same axis.These episodes are likely to impact the main drainages in next hours or days.In addition of the danger created by the pyroclastic flows, there are lahars due to the remobilization of the ashes following the heavy rains. On 11th of June at the end of the afternoon, hot lahars descended the barrancas Las Lajas and El Jute, made of fine and pasty materials, blocks of large diameter up to 3 meters, and trunks and branches; his measurements were 35 to 55 meters wide and 5 meters high. Other lahars have been reported in the Seca and Mineral barrancas, with the risk of overflowing rivers.As of the 8th of June,INSIVUMEH reported lahars in Santa Teresa, Mineral, Taniluyá and Ceniza barrancas, tributaries of the Pantaleón and Achiguate rios; these lahars are hot, emit fumes, and carry fine materials, and rocks 2-3 m in diameter, as well as tree trunks. In parallel, pyroclastic flows are reported in El Jute and Las Lajas drainages, accompanied by co-pyroclastic plumes up to 6,000 meters asl.The latest assessment given to 8 June / 8:30 by the Conred, is 109 dead, 197 missing, and 1,713,617 people affected by the climax and its aftermath. As of the 7th of June, at the beginning of the evening, new pyroclastic flows descended the Las Lajas and El jute drainages, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic cloud rising to 6,000 meters asl.CONRED reported that by 0630 on 6 June a total of 12,089 people had been evacuated, with 3,319 people dispersed in 13 shelters. One bridge and two power networks had been destroyed. According to news sources on 6 June, Guatemala's National Institute of Forensic Sciences stated that 75 people were confirmed to have died and 192 were still missing. Many, possibly thousands, received burns and other injuries. Weather conditions, continuing activity at Fuego, poor air quality, hot pyroclastic flow deposits, and rain made rescue efforts difficult. On Tuesday, an explosion forced relief to stop the research. The disaster has affected, to varying degrees, a total of 1.7 million Guatemalans.Details about volcanic event : the strong eruptive phase occurred at the volcano on Sunday 3rd of June). Lasting for about 16-17 hours until the evening, it generated ash clouds reaching up to 10 km, which drifted into westerly directions for more than 40 km, lava flows descending on the flanks, heavy ash fall in nearby areas and secondary mud flows triggered by strong rainfall. Massive pyroclastic flows - fast-moving turbulent avalanches of gas and hot rock material have claimed lives as well. Information from official side at least 69 victims have been confirmed. All fatalities occurred as result of being engulfed in pyroclastic surges, it seems mainly on the eastern flank.The eruption has abruptly decreased after 18:45 local time and returned to small to moderate intermittent explosions and minor rockfalls. Incandescence is visible at the crater, where fresh lava flows begin to cool. Civil protection has declared the highest alert level RED for the areas of Escuintla, Alotenango, Sacatepéquez, Yepocapa and Chimaltenango, while Escuintla is kept at the second highest, ORANGE. More than 3000 people are reported to have been evacuated and ash fall from the eruption has been affecting an area with a population of more than 1.5 million, roughly 10% of the country's population total. Previously, local news reported that a violent eruption occurred on the evening of Sunday, June 3 (local time), leaving at least 25 people dead and injured several other people after pyroclastic flow entered into Rodeo village. Volcanic ash has reportedly covered nearby villages, including San Pedro Yepocapa and Sangre de Cristo, ashfall has also been reported in Guatemala City. Some 100 people have been evacuated from affected areas. Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales has declared that a national emergency response has been mobilized. La Aurora International airport was closed on Sunday due to ashfall. Further eruptions, evacuations, and transportation disruptions are expected in the coming hours and days. INSIVUMEH reported that beginning at 1400 on 17 May a lahar descended the Seca (Santa Teresa) drainage on Fuego's W flank. The lahar was 25 m wide, 1 m deep, and carried trees and blocks 1.5 m in diameter. During 19-21 May explosions occurred at a rate of 5-8 per hour, and generated ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Some explosions were accompanied by rumbling audible more than 30 km away, and shock waves that vibrated structures in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimache (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material within the Seca, Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages that reached vegetated areas. Ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia, Panimache I and II, and Finca Palo Verde. A lava flow 700-800 m long was active in the Ceniza drainage. Small ash explosions at Fuego on 11 and 12 May rose to 5 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. or approximately 1 km (3,280 ft) above the summit. The ash dispersed quickly to the southwest and was visible on webcams. Activity increased on 14 April and remained elevated through 17 April. Moderate-to-strong explosions were detected at a rate of 6-9 per hour, and sometimes produced shock waves that vibrated houses in Morelia and Panimache. Dense ash plumes rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20 km W and S, though winds also carried the ash to higher altitudes to the SE. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in Santa Sofía, Morelia, Panimache I and II, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde. The rate of explosions increased to 7-10 per hour on 16 April; explosions sometimes caused structures in Panimache, Morelia, La Reina, and Alotenango (8 km ENE) to vibrate. A lava flow traveled 1.3 km down the Seca drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-10 April explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 10-15 km SW and S. Sometimes the explosions were accompanied by weak shock waves. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 200 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the Seca (Santa Teresa, W), Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Trinidad (S) ravines. During 9-10 April ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). (INSIVUMEH) - Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

November 22nd, 2020

INSIVUMEH reported that after previous activity, degassing was observed during a certain time and prolonged, of white and gray color, which dispersed towards the west and reached heights of 600 meters above the dome of Caliente. For short periods, it was possible to hear sounds similar to those of an airplane turbine, due to prolonged degassing of the Caliente dome. Seismic recording weak and moderate explosions. These generate plumes of gas and ash, and altitudes of up to 3400 meters above sea level. Boulder and ash avalanches were also recorded mainly towards the southwest flank. INSIVUMEH reported that an explosive episodes occurred on morning November 20th at the Santiaguito dome complex; they were accompanied by a plume of ash at 3,600 meters asl. and descent of small pyroclastic flows from the top of the Caliente dome to its base, in a westerly direction. Ash falls are reported in the perimeter of the volcano and populations to the southwest and east. INSIVUMEH reported that a moderate explosion occurred on November 16 at 7.15 am local time; This event was accompanied by a plume of ash at 3,600 m. asl. and pyroclastic flows on the sides of the Caliente dome. The most important flow moved towards the upper part of the bed of the Rio San Isidro, on the SW flank of the dome. The ashes dispersed in a SW direction towards the area of ​​San Marcos Palajuno and its surroundings. This type of event is due to the unstable accumulation of blocky lava and fine pyroclasts in the dome of Caliente Dome, causing it to detach and channel in the form of avalanches and pyroclastic flows. INSIVUMEH reported that during 27 October-3 November lava extrusion at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated block-and-ash flows that descended the W, SW, S, and SE flanks. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the summit; ash plumes drifted 1 km SW during 27-28 and 30-31 October and as far as 10 km SW during 1-2 November. The lava dome was incandescent most nights. As of the 17th of October, INSIVUMEH reported that the activity of the Caliente dome of Santiaguito continued, with the extrusion of lava in blocks and degassing. A white plume 3,000 meters asl high was present, replaced during the explosions by an ash and gas plume at 3,300 meters asl. causing light ash fall in the vicinity of the volcanic complex. Avalanches of boulders and ash descended the southern flank to the base of the dome. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-13 October lava extrusion at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated block-and-ash flows that descended the W, SW, S, and SE flanks, sometimes reaching the base of Caliente cone. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted as far as 10 km NW, W, and SW. The lava dome was incandescent most nights, sometimes for prolonged periods of time. INSIVUMEH reported that during 26 August-1 September explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted as far as 1 km W and SW. Block avalanches descended multiple flanks of Caliente cone; some reached the base of the cone and were sometimes accompanied by small pyroclastic flows. The lava dome was incandescent most nights, sometimes for prolonged periods of time. As of the 28th of August INSIVUMEH reported that the activity of the Caliente dome, part of the Santa Maria-Santiaguito volcanic complex, continues. The number of explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash is maintained between 2 and 4 per hour; these explosions are interspersed with periods of degassing, forming plumes of vapors rising 500 meters above the dome. As of the 21st of August, INSIVUMEH reported that the Caliente dome exhibited weak to moderate explosions, some with an ash plume reaching 3,300 to 3,600 meters asl. and dispersed within a 10-12 km radius of the volcanic complex. There was an average of 40 explosions per day, according to Conred. This activity continuously generates avalanches in the direction of a large southern sector and in its western part. Night incandescence was observed. The possibility of larger pyroclastic flows was mentioned by the observatory. INSIVUMEH reported that during 29 July-4 August explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 900 m above the crater and drifted as far as 1 km W and SW. Avalanches of blocks descended the SE, S, and SW flanks of Caliente cone; some reached the base of the cone and were sometimes accompanied by small pyroclastic flows. Minor ashfall was noted in areas downwind including San Marcos (10 km SW), Loma Linda (6 km WSW), and Palajunoj (18 km SSW) during 29-30 July and 2-4 August. INSIVUMEH reported that the seismicity of July 16, 2020 corresponds to explosions accompanied by ash at 3,400 meters asl. at the Caliente dome, moving for 1 km to the southwest. Some explosions generate aircraft turbine noises, under the pressure of magmatic gases.The southern flank of the Caliente dome is marked by avalanches of boulders, and nocturnal glow is observed. As of the 10th of July, INSIVUMEH reported that an increasing activity occurred characterized with a constant extrusion of lava in blocks, which descend from the edge of the crater of the Caliente dome on the western and north-western flanks, causing weak to moderate pyroclastic flows, which reach the base of the dome. Explosions expel ash and gas at a height of 3,000 meters, moving west for approximately 12 km. The STG3 seismic station records the signal of explosions, avalanches and pyroclastic flows. INSIVUMEH reported that on June 29th, at 2:22 p.m. local time, a pyroclastic flow occurred on the western flank of the Caliente dome of the Santa Maria-Santiaguito complex. It finds its origin in the overflow of materials which have accumulated in the dome of the dome, causing the descent of a mixture of blocks of rocks, ashes and gases forming a cloud which reached the base of the dome, without extending to cultivated / inhabited areas. This event follows a precedent on June 19 at 5:35 am local time, which shows that the explosive activity, accompanied by avalanches of boulders on the flanks of the Caliente, has increased and is likely to last in the coming days or weeks. INSIVUMEH reported that during 19-26 May explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 700-1,000 m above the crater and drifted as far as 1 km NW, W, and SW. Avalanches of blocks descended the S, SE, and SW flanks of Caliente cone. Local ashfall around the volcano was sometimes reported. scientific blog about Santiaguito). The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

November 21st, 2020

INSIVUMEH reported that due to night and early morning weather conditions, visibility towards the Mackenney Cone and its crater were limited. The seismic stations of PCG and PCG5 record tremors associated with the rise of magma and constant degassing in a south-southwest direction. Lava flow in a west-southwest direction, about 1,030 meters long. INSIVUMEH reported that Strombolian activity and lava effusion continued at Pacaya during 10-17 November. Explosions from the cone in Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 300 m above the vent. As of the 15th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that during the last hours, the Pacaya volcano has increased its effusive activity; mainly on its southwest flank. Avalanches of large blocks (1 to 3 m.) Over 500 meters were recorded, and two lava flows, each about 300 meters long, in a south-westerly direction. A degassing plume, white and bluish, 3,000 m high. asl. accompanied this activity. This activity was effusive, the lava flows occured through fissures, a type of activity specific to the volcano. The explosive activity is maintained, in a cycle of construction-destruction of the intracratical cone.INSIVUMEH reported that onNovember 10th a Sentinel-2 photo showed a lava flow 1,200 meters long in the direction of WSW. The seismic stations recorded the tremor linked to the rise of the mama and to a constant degassing. Strombolian explosions are recorded, but not observed, as the region is subject to bad weather conditions from Tropical Storm Theta. INSIVUMEH reported on the morning of Monday, November 9 that the Pacaya volcano presented a lava flow on the southwest flank with an approximate length of 800 meters. Latest bulletin noted that appearance of more lava flows on other flanks in the coming hours or days was not excluded. Weak and moderate Strombolian-type explosions are reported. Due to atmospheric conditions, it was not possible to observe the volcanic material. INSIVUMEH reported that Strombolian activity and lava effusion continued at Pacaya during 27 October-3 November. Explosions from the cone in Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 250 m above the vent. Lava flows were 20 m and 1 km long on the NE and SW flanks, respectively. The lava flow on the NE flank was no longer active by 28 October, though parts of the SW-flank lava flow continued to advance through 3 November. As of the 1st of November, INSIVUMEH reported that effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano has remained essentially unchanged at moderate levels. Eruptive fissure, opened on the southwestern flank of the volcano, generates the lava flow that continues to be active and branches off into two arms, currently about 475 m and 75 m long. Weak strombolian-type explosions are recorded with scoria thrown at an approximate height of 100 meters above the Mackenney summit crater. A fumarolic activity is detected with small amount of ash and extending about 1 km to the south of the volcano. The seismic instruments record internal tremor associated with explosions and lava flows and magma rising within the volcano edifice. According to the National Institute of Seismology, Volcanology, Meteorology and Hydrology - INSIVUMEH, on the night of Sunday October 25 to the morning of Monday October 26, Strombolian explosions were recorded between 50 and 250 meters above from the crater.The latest reports for the local and communal disaster prevention coordinators -COLRED and COMRED- indicate the presence of 2 lava flows in the Pacaya volcano directed north and southwest, respectively over 350 and 800 meters long. A white and blue plume was observed above the Mackenney crater. At the same time, there is ashfall in the village of Los Pocitos, Villa Canales, Guatemala. INSIVUMEH reported that an eruptive fissure opened on the southwestern flank causing lava flow with length approx. 1,000 m due to strombolian activity. Weak to moderate strombolian-type explosions are recorded with scoria thrown at an approximate height of 50 to 125 meters above the Mackenney summit crater. Constant incandescence continues to be observed related to degassing in the crater. INSIVUMEH reported that weak to moderate explosions continued on October 13, with projections 75-150 meters above the Mackenney crater, and a plume of gas and steam in a westerly direction at low altitude. The lava flow on the northern flank was reported with a length of 250 meters. Tremor was recorded associated with the ascent of magma, and movements of gas and lava flow. As of the 8th of October, INSIVUMEH reported that effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues at high levels. Moderate to strong strombolian-type explosions continues from the Mackenney summit crater with scoria thrown at an approximate height of 200 to 300 meters. Volcanic ash is extending about 12 km to the west of the volcano. Lava effusion is characterized by 4 lava flows (visible from Guatemala city) which continue to be active on the north and east slopes of the volcano, currently about 250 and 300 m long. As of the 27th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that strombolian activity continues, with explosions ejecting materials between 78 and 150 meters above the Mackenney crater. Of the two lava flows, one to the north, the other to the northeast, only the one on the northern flank remains active and approaches 400 meters long.INSIVUMEH reported that effusive strombolian activity of the Pacaya increased on September 26th, 2020; this activity feeds two lava flows, a first to the northeast and 300 meters long, the second on the northern flank, divided into 2 arms reaching about 500 meters wide.The explosions remained between weak and moderate, and are between 75 and 150 meters above the Mackenney, accompanied by a plume of magmatic gases moving towards the west for a dozen kilometers. INSIVUMEH reported that effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continued characterized by strombolian activity.The lava flows on the northeast flank were no longer active. The reactivation and formation of these lava flows in the near future is a possibility if activity at the volcano increases further. The lava flow continues to be active on the southeast slopes of the volcano, currently about several m long. INSIVUMEH reported that lava flows continued to be active during 13-15 September; reaching 600 m long on the NE flank, 300 m long on the N flank, and 400-425 m long (and most active) on the S flank. Strombolian explosions continued to ejected material as high as 200 m. As of the 13th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues at moderate levels characterized by strombolian-type explosions and three active lava flows.Strombolian activity of the volcano continues from the Mackenney summit crater producing frequent moderate to strong explosions that ejected incandescent material to an approximate height of 200 meters and weak explosions with height of 70-100 m above the crater. Emissions of steam and gases were extending about 8 km to the west and southwest of the volcano. INSIVUMEH-CONRED reported that the effusive-explosive eruption continues. Of the two lava flows on the northern and northeastern flanks, only one remains active: the northeastern flow does not exhibit incandescence or degassing and is considered inactive. SE-Conred continues to follow the 450-meter-long north flow on August 31, 2020. The Mckenney exhibits weak to moderate Strombolian explosions, with ejections 100-150 meters above the active crater, and prolonged degassing. Seismic stations constantly record tremors, associated with the rise of magma and degassing. As of the 28th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that since the end of April, the seismicity of the Pacaya has shown an increasing in episodes of explosive strombolian activity, which was accompanied by lava flows within the crater and on the medium-high part of the northern sector flanks, and fallout. In recent weeks, however, there has been a downward trend in the amplitude of RSAM and explosive activity.the lava effusion feeds two active flows on the northern flank and the northeast flank, respectively 600 and 300 meters in length. These flows degass abundantly, and keep a high temperature, visible on the satellite images in the bands sensitive to IR. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during the past week from 14th to 21st of August, Strombolian activity continued. The explosions ejected materials up to 200 meters above the crater; nocturnal incandescence was reported as well as a constant white-bluish degassing at the Mackenney crater. The northwest flank is considered an unstable area; thermal anomalies, cracks and a lava flow reached a length of 300 meters, accompanied by degassing and small avalanches were observed there. Ashfall was weak to moderate, and affected San Francisco de Sales, el Patrocinio, El Rodeo, localities located within a radius of 4 km. INSIVUMEH reported that during 29 July-3 August Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 150 m above the crater rim. No active lava flows were visible. INSIVUMEH reported that according to analyzes of Sentinel-2 images, incandescence and Strombolian explosions 25-75 meters above the Mackenney crater of Pacaya on July 28. During the day, a white plume of gas was observed, dispersing to the west and southwest. As of the 21st of July, INSIVUMEH reported that the volcano's activity ranges from a white fumarole at Mackenney and explosions at about 78-100 meters high. During the night, three lava flows were observed in a northwest direction, located in an area of fissures in the plateau, about 300 meters long. Seismicity was marked by the tremor associated with the rise of magma, the production of gas and the movements of lava flows. INSIVUMEH reported that on the morning of July 20, a new flow was recorded by an increase in the energy released (RSAM) compared to the previous days; it does not come from an eruptive focus in the crater area, but from the north-western base of the cone, in front of Cerro Chino, flowing on the plateau in a south-eastern direction.As of the 13th of July, INSIVUMEH reported that during the night and at the early morning, strombolian explosions ejected materials between 50 and 100 meters high. A lava flow was observed over 25 meters to the northwest, and block avalanches reached an additional 150 meters from the flow front. As of the 12th of July, INSIVUMEH reported that strombolian explosions continued ejecting incandescent materials 50-75 meters above the crater, which keep active the cycle of destruction and reconstruction of the intracratric cone. The effusion generates lava flows, emitted mainly towards the north and the northeast, which modify the surface of the sides of the volcanic edifice. Seismicity is characterized by constant tremor of high amplitude, associated with the rise of magma, its extrusion, permanent degassing and the effusion of lava. INSIVUMEH analysis 2019 mid 2020 Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone. New Webcam

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COSTA RICA - Irazu volcano

November 6th, 2020

OVSICORI-UNA reported that Irazu's seismic network recorded a significant landslide in the W part of the volcano on 4 November along with a lahar. A small thermal anomaly was detected in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data. OVISCORI reported that the fissured slope of the Irazú volcano, located on the western flank of the Carthaginian colossus, collapsed on the morning of August 26 at a rate that remains to be determined. The event took place at around 4:10 a.m. when officials who were there began to perceive a seismic movement and vibration which, according to their reports, lasted for about a minute and a half. Ovsicori expert reported that just yesterday there were at least 100 small landslides; and that between Monday and Tuesday, the crack in the slope had moved 40 centimeters. The displaced materials are estimated to be several million cubic meters of rocks. The president of the National Emergency Commission (CNE) reported that this event is only alandslide and has not relationship with volcanic activity. The damage is material, and only concerns telecommunications installations that could not be moved. Irazú, one of Costa Rica's most active volcanoes, rises immediately E of the capital city of San José. The massive volcano covers an area of 500 km2 and is vegetated to within a few hundred meters of its broad flat-topped summit crater complex. At least 10 satellitic cones are located on its S flank. No lava flows have been identified since the eruption of the massive Cervantes lava flows from S-flank vents about 14,000 years ago, and all known Holocene eruptions have been explosive. The focus of eruptions at the summit crater complex has migrated to the W towards the historically active crater, which contains a small lake of variable size and color. Although eruptions may have occurred around the time of the Spanish conquest, the first well-documented historical eruption occurred in 1723, and frequent explosive eruptions have occurred since. Ashfall from the last major eruption during 1963-65 caused significant disruption to San José and surrounding areas.

COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

October 7th, 2020

According to the latest report dated 6th of October from OVSICORI-UNA, over the past few days the sulfur dioxide emissions from the Poás have caused a smell of sulfur in neighboring areas and acid rain has been recorded in the Poás Volcano National Park ( PNVP) and the National University of Costa Rica (UNA). Seismic activity was higher on October 6 compared to the day before. OVSICORI reported that on the morning of May 14, an SO2 peak of 29.2 ppm was recorded. On the other hand, from the point of view, maximum concentrations of SO2 greater than 2 ppm were detected. Band tremor is observed in the range of 1 to 5 Hz. The lowest frequency tends to be persistent, unlike the highest frequency.The OVSICORI also reported stable CO2 / SO2 and H2S / SO2 ratios, around 1.0 and 0.1, respectively As of the 6th of May, OVSICORI reported that during the day, the hot magmatic gases fed the fumarole, with separate exhalations of 5-6 minutes, with a seismic signature.The volcano continues to present an average of 300 earthquakes of low frequency and low amplitude per day. The measured magmatic gas concentrations remain low, with SO2 concentrations of less than 5 parts per million (ppm), an H2S / SO2 ratio of less than 0.1 and a slight decrease in the CO2 / SO2 ratio with values ​​around 0.7. OVSICORI reported that seismic activity is higher on February 25 compared to the previous day. A slight increase in seismic activity was observed with frequent low frequency (LP) volcanic earthquakes which showed an increase in amplitude, as in the almost continuous volcanic tremor. OVSICORI reported that fumaroles still rose the acid lake which remains filled in this season. The sulfur dioxide concentration on January 26 is max. 24 ppm, down on January 27 with less than 0.4 ppm measured at the ExpoGas station. Seismic activity remains stable. Previous news 2019 - As of the 28th of November, OVSICORI reported that the crater lake maintained its surface area compared to the previous week.The color of the water tends to be greenish. Evaporation processes were a little more intense than the previous week and rainfall decreased. The field of sulfur-rich fumaroles in the northeast maintains its exhalation activity. At the mouth A, bubbling and emission of gas were observed. At the seismic level, the tremor of small amplitude was maintained (2 to 4.5 Hz), as well as discrete events of type LP (long duration) of low amplitude. OVSICORI reported in November that the acidic lake maintained its surface area compared to the previous week. Its color tends to become greenish. The evaporation processes were less intense and the precipitation constant. The field of fumaroles rich in sulfur in the north-east sector maintains its activity.Seismically, the low amplitude background tremor is maintained (2 to 4.5 Hz), as well as discrete earthquakes of type LP (long period) also of low amplitude. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new explosive event occurred on 30th of September at 5:40 AM. it produced a black cypressoid plume that rose above the edge of the crater, immediately accompanied by a plume of gas ... the eruptive column filled the crater before rising to 2,000 meters above it ( 4.708 m asl) then disperse to the southwest. Ovsicori reported an activity duration of 5 minutes.Thick, acidic ash has settled down, accompanied by an odor of sulfur, according to testimonies from inhabitants of Trojas de Sarchi. Since the eruption, the weak degassing concerns three vents, and especially the main mouth; some bubbles are observed at vent C. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a phreatic eruption occurred September 27, with activity level slightly down. A plume rich in water vapor, gas and aerosols is observed 1,000 meters above the crater. The NASA Satellite AURA detects a plume of sulfur dioxide between 16 and 26 September dispersing to the northwest northwest. A sulphurous smell is perceptible by the inhabitants of Alajuela, Heredia, San José, and Cartago. Fog and rain, hyperacids, saline and viscous, generate a rapid and extreme corrosion at the top of Poás (see article of 25.09). The hyperacid rains were measured at the home of PNVP staff (pH = 3.31) on Monday, September 23rd. The water of Laguna Botos is also very acidic, pH = 3.60.OVSICORI-UNA reported that an hydrothermal eruption of Poas volcano was recorded on 22 September at 20h59 local time. It lasted 25 minutes, accompanied by a plume rising to 2,000 meters above the summit, before dispersing to the northeast.The event was captured by the thermal camera located on the southern edge of the active crater. Activity continued until 4 pm on September 23, and a collapse was generated on the southern edge of mouth A with a widening of the fumarole fieldOn September 20, Poas maintained a vigorous degassing, characterized by a plume of gas and white vapor rising more than 1,000 meters above the crater. The decrease of the wind and the atmospheric conditions made it possible to see this plume of the Central Valley. On Sunday, September 15th, more than five phreatic eruptions were observed between 16:55 and 22:40:00. The bubling was also constant during this week. At the seismic level, a continuous bottom tremor remained, and increased slightly by magnitude on September 17. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruptive event from vent A (Boca Roja) at Poas generated a 1-km-high plume of steam, gas, and fine particulates at 0650 on 17 August. The event was preceded by an increase in tremor amplitude starting at 0500 that same day. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. Web camera from OVSICORI-UNA.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

August 26th, 2020

On 21 August OVSICORI-UNA reported that fracturing of SW wall of Turrialba's active crater, along with an area of incandescence within the fracture zone, had been observed during the previous month. An eruption was recorded at 1253 on 22 August, though a plume was not visible due to weather conditions. At 2301 on 24 August a plume rose 1 km above the crater rim.
OVSICORI-UNA reported that there were 19 minor ash emissions recorded at Turrialba during 4-5 August, with event durations lasting no longer than three minutes and plumes rising no higher than 200 m above the summit. Four more events were recorded on 5 August, with event durations lasting less than 10 minutes. Plumes again rose no higher than 200 m. OVSICORI reported that the activity since June 2020 was characterized with small eruptions, then on July 30 and 31, various eruptive episodes followed one another, with columns of gas and ash reaching 200 meters above the summit. On August 1, the plume of gas and ash reached 500 meters above the crater.OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 22-23 July white steam plumes from Turrialba contained a minor amount of ash on one occasion. OVSICORI-UNA reported that ash emissions of variable densities were visible at Turrialba almost daily during 16-20 July. Ash plumes rose as high as 200 m above the crater rim each day during 16-18 July. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a passive emission occurred on July 16, 2020 at 12:09 p.m., accompanied by an ash plume 200 meters above the crater; it lasted 2 minutes. This episode was followed by several other very diluted shows during the day. A peak in the CO2 / SO2 and H2S / SO2 ratios was recorded overnight, before returning to values ​​similar to those of the day before.
OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive emissions with minor amounts of ash were occasionally visible at Turrialba during 9-10 July. OVSICORI reported that small emissions occurred at a low height and almost daily between July 1st and 7th, excepted on July 3. On July 6 at 9 a.m., a plume of gas and ash reached a few hundred meters, causing localized ash falls. On July 7, no significant change in gases was observed. However, the CO2 / SO2 ratio fluctuated from 12.3 to 10.3; while the H2S / SO2 ratio remains between 0.3 and 0.4. However, the SO2 concentration varies between 3.3 and 4.6 ppm. During the first hours of today, passive degassing was observed. However, there are sporadic ash emissions, the last reported yesterday morning. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 08:18:00 local time on June 29, 2020 an eruption is recorded with a column that rises 100 meters above the height of the crater and 3440 meters above the level of the sea. (11,283.2 ft). Duration of activity: less than a minute. Seismic activity is similar to that of the day before. During the past 24 hours and when the weather was favorable, several ash eruptions were observed (local hours: 13:48, 17:39 23:03 1:07 2:32 03:06 4:12 8:18) . The plume of these eruptions did not exceed 100 m above the level of the crater. At least 2 of these eruptions were accompanied by ballistics projected on the north wall of the active crater (at 1h07 and 4h12). A subsidence of the volcanic massif is observed, as well as gas ratios in the values ​​of the last days. OVSICORI-UNA reported that ash emissions at Turrialba rose no higher than100 m above the crater rim from events recorded at 1714, 1723, and 1818 on 18 June and at 1023 and 1039 on 19 June. A small ash emission was visible at 1715 on 22 June. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption ( probably phreatic) was observed on the webcams on April 12 around 9:40 pm. Previous news 2019 - OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruptive event at Turrialba was detected at 1441 on 28 July, though inclement weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. Ashfall was reported in La Picada (N) and El Retiro farms. As of the 17th of July, OVSICORI-UNA reported that weak and stable activity remained, with a plume of steam and gas, dispersed towards a west and south-west sector.The crater glow recorded by webcams remained low, compared to that of previous months.Two small lakes are always mentioned at the summit; a third forms temporarily after a few hours of rain, then disappears. Some LP earthquakes were recorded during the past week. On 19 May OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive, short-duration emissions with small amounts of ash had been sporadically occurring at Turrialba over the previous week. Prolonged and intermittent periods of emissions with minor amounts of ash were visible during 19-20 May.OVSICORI-UNA reported that in the past week activity remained low and stable. The LP earthquake record was maintained however.On 27 April at 7:22, a short eruption occurred , accompanied by a small plume of brown ash that rose 100 meters above the summit. OVSICORI-UNA reported that minor ash emissions rose from Turrialba on 8 April. OVSICORI-UNA reported that gas emissions at Turrialba significantly decreased on 30 March. An eruption recorded at 0735 on 31 March was followed by passive emissions with a low concentration of magmatic gases at least through 1 April. Seismicity continued to be dominated by low-frequency events. OVSICORI-UNA reported a period of continuous emissions from Turrialba during 20-22 March. The emissions were characterized as white water vapor plumes with periodic pulses of diffuse ash rising 300 m above the vent rim and drifting W and SW. A sulfur odor was noted in Tierra Blanca de Cartago on 22 March. Only water vapor plumes with a low concentration of magmatic gases were visible during 23-26 March. OVSICORI-UNA reported that during 9-12 March plumes of gas sometimes containing small amounts of ash rose as high as 1 km above Turrialba's crater rim. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an event at 0444 on 1 March produced a plume that rose 200 m and drifted NE. A period of continuous emissions rising 200-300 m was recorded during 2-4 March; the plumes contained minor amounts of ash at least during 2-3 March. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

COSTA RICA - Rincon de la Vieja volcano

November 19th, 2020

OVSICORI-UNA reported that two eruptive episodes occurred on November 18. The first at 10:24 local time was accompanied by a plume of 1,000 meters above the active crater.For the second at 2:50 p.m. local, identified by infrasonic signal, we could not know the height of the plume, due to poor visibility conditions. According to the Ovsicori, between January and October, the volcano presented more than 1,300 eruptive episodes. Its activity has increased since May and the eruptions are recurrent last week. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 5:40:00 local time on November 11th, 2020, an eruption was recorded with a column that roses 1,000 meters above the height of the crater and 2,916 meters above the sea ​​level (meters above sea level) (9,564.48 ft). Duration of activity has been 5 minutes. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 9th of November At 3:23 p.m. local time, an eruption was recorded at Rincón de la Vieja, with a dark gray plume rising 100 meters above the height of the crater and 2016 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level) (6,612.48 feet). OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 08:35:00 local time on November 3, 2020, a new small hydrothermal eruption was recorded with a column that rises 800 meters above the height of the crater, or 2716 meters of altitude asl. Duration of activity: 1 minute. Seismic activity remains low, with low amplitude, low frequency background tremors and sporadic low amplitude (LP) volcanic earthquakes. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new phreatic explosion occurred on 29th of October at 6:18 am generation a plume that rose at about 2000 m high above the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new small eruption probably occurred around 7:30 am on October 25, without being able to be confirmed by the cameras. At 8:06 a.m. local time on October 24, 2020, an eruption was recorded at the Rincon de la Vieja volcano, with a column that rose 1000 meters above the height of the crater, or 2916 m.s.n.m. (meters above sea level) - Duration of activity: 1 minute. OVSICORI-UNA reported that two eruptive episodes occurred on October 11, respectively at 10:09 am local and 5:46 pm local; the height of the plumes could not be increased due to poor visibility conditions. The first episode lasted 1 minute, and tape and discontinuous tremor was recorded (0.7 - 5 Hz). The duration of the second episode is also one minute. OVSICORI-UNA reported that explosive eruption of the volcano continues characterized by phreatic-type (or hydrothermal) explosions at regular intervals of 1 to 2 per day.On 6th of October at 08:22 local time a new explosionoccurred producing gas-steam plume that rose 1,640 ft (500 m) above the summit crater. No ash fall was reported. OVSICORI reported that hydrothermal explosive activity continues with a few episodes : on October 5th at 12:39 am local time, an episode was accompanied by a plume reaching about 500 meters above the active crater. Also on October 5 at 7:27 p.m. local time, another episode occurred lasting one minute, without determining the height of the plume due to the darkness and on October 6th at 5:31 UTC, another eruptive episode occurred. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on Friday, October 2, 2020, at 5:40 a.m., an explosive, hydrothermal-type eruptive episode was recorded at the active crater of the Rincón de la Vieja volcano, with a plume height of about 800 m above the edge of the crater. , or 4,140 meters asl. It lasted 2 minutes. The event was also reported by the inhabitants of Curubandé and Gavilán. It was not excluded that the material expelled by the eruption was deposited in the basin of the rivers located to the north of the volcano, precautions are therefore required because of the sudden floods of these channels. OVSICORI-UNA reported that small, frequent eruptions at Rincon de la Vieja continued to be recorded, though sometimes not visually confirmed, during 16-22 September. A larger event, at 1053 on 22 September, ejected material out of the crater and into the drainages on the N flank. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new phreatic eruption occurred at 06:32:00 local time on September 17th, 2020, with a column rising 700 meters above the height of the crater and 2616 m.s.n.m. (meters above sea level) (8580.48 ft). Duration of the activity: 1 minutes. Seismic activity is similar, with respect to the day before. The 6:32 eruption did not generate lahar. A banded and discontinuous tremor between 1 and 4hz was observed. OVSICORI-UNA reported that the volcano erupted on September 7th at 7:50 am for about a minute; the eruptive plume rose 50 meters above the crater. The Ovsicori also indicated that the quasi-continuous tremor showed increasing amplitude sharply from 7 am, followed by a pause of one hour after the eruption; the plume of gas and ash particles rose 500 meters above the summit. The decrease in the level of the lake generates a greater presence of ash in the gas plume; these ashes are dispersed by winds towards the west of the volcanic massif, and can, in the event of heavy rains, feed lahars. OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing phreatic activity at Rincon de la Vieja during 19 August-1 September. Phreatic explosions were recorded almost daily, sometimes multiple times a day, though weather conditions often prevented visual confirmation of emissions. Plumes were seen rising 0.5-1 km above the crater rim on 19, 24, 28, and 31 August. Rincon de la Vieja, a composite stratovolcano in Northwestern Costa Rica forms a NW-trending ridge consisting of several eruptive centers that have coalesced through time. Elevations of the individual cones range from 1670 to 1920 meters and nine craters are readily identified by their topographic expression. Numerous phreatic eruptions have occurred since 1851 (as recently as November, 1995), all from the Active Crater. The last major eruption involving juvenile magma occurred at ~3,500 ybp, producing the Rio Blanco tephra deposit. Ash, pumice, and lithics ejected during this eruption were deposited in a highly asymmetrical dispersal pattern WSW of the Active Crater, indicating strong easterly prevailing tradewinds at the time of the eruption. Historical descriptions of the summit crater morphology suggest that conditions there have changed little over the past century.
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NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

October 17th, 2019

According to local news, ashes ejection occurred on October 15th, 2019. Samples were collected and recorded in the municipality of Ticuantepe, which, as a result of the change in wind direction, received the ash particles from the volcano. If The winds continued to blow from south-east to north-west the city of Managua could be affected by gases or falls of pyroclastic material. Previous notable news 2017 - The Washington VAAC reported that on 13 May a west-drifting ash emission from Masaya was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot.
Previously, based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 21 January a possible emission from Masaya with minor ash content drifted almost 25 km NW.Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 5 January a gas, steam, and ash plume from Masaya drifted W. Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that a steam-and-gas plume from Masaya possibly contained some ash on 3 November. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 28 August a gas plume with possible ash rose from Masaya to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 15 August a possible ash plume from Masaya rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Elevated seismicity and a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images indicated increased activity. In a report posted later that day the Washington VAAC noted that the webcam recorded minor ash emissions. Previously, INETER reported that during 18-19 May RSAM values at Masaya fluctuated between 300 and 700 units which are low-to-moderate values. The lava lake in Santiago Crater continued to strongly circulate and the vent widened through 24 May. INETER reported that between 1700 and 2400 on 3 May volcanic tremor at Masaya increased; RSAM values spiked at 1,000 units and then dropped to 250. Gas emissions at Santiago
crater were at low-to-moderate levels, and the lava lake continued to strongly circulate. On 5 May RSAM values fluctuated between 250 and 500 units which are low-to-moderate values. INETER reported that during 27 April-3 May gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels. Seismic tremor decreased though continued to fluctuate between low to moderate levels. The lava lake continued to strongly circulate. INETER reported that during 20-23 April gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels and RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 22 April the level of the lava lake decreased, though strong lake circulation was reported on 23 April. INETER reported that during 6-12 April the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. (Time-lapse video). Previously on 30 March INETER reported that the lava lake rose in Masaya's Santiago crater and several landslide deposits from the precious few days were visible in the NE crater. RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that tremor continued and the widening of the vent in the SE part of the crater persisted. According to a SINAPRED report on 28 March INETER noted that lava-lake activity at Masaya's Santiago crater was intense and the craters continued to gradually widen. Emissions were at low levels. INETER reported that on 3 March the lava lake on the SW floor of Masaya's Santiago crater was very active. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. Previously, INETER reported that the lava lakes in three vents on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater were active during 20 February-1 March. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. On 23 February small explosions ejected spatter onto the crater floor. During fieldwork volcanologists observed active lava lakes in all three vents on the crater floor, and noted that the inner walls of the crater were being eroded due to the lava lake. A new vent was forming on the SE part of the crater floor. During a second visit on 24 February INETER staff noted that the vents had become larger due to landslides on the crater walls. Small streams of lava sporadically originated from the NE vent. By 1 March the two vents in the SW part of the crater had almost merged. On 17 February INETER reported that the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. During 10-11 February sulfur dioxide emissions at Masaya rose to high levels (1,500 tons per day), and RSAM values were at moderately-high levels due to higher levels of volcanic tremor. This activity coincided with an increase in the size of the lava lake. Gas emissions were at moderate and low levels on 12 and 16 February, respectively. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindiri­ and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage. (GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Telica volcano

November 2nd, 2020

As of the 2nd of November; explosive eruption of the volcano continues at fluctuating intensity characterized by occasional ash emissions. Since 29 October INETER recorded 9 small explosions containing emissions of water vapor, gases and small amounts of ash. An ash plumes rose 820 ft-1,968 ft (250 m-600 m) above the summit crater. As of the 8th of October, INETER reported that explosive eruption of the volcano continues characterized by moderate content of ash emissions. 5 explosions were detected during the past 24 hours. On 7 October at 07:42 local time the strongest eruption occurred. An ash plume rose 1,968 ft (600 m) above the summit and drifted southwest. INETER reported that a new explosions occurred on July 29, starting around 5:28 am; they were accompanied by emissions of ash and gas, about thirty meters above the crater, blown by the northward winds, without affecting the population.As of the 21st of July, SINAPRED reported that small gas and ash explosions occurred with release of materials 200 meters above the edge of the crater; these explosions are produced following the obstruction of the conduit by small landslides, and accumulation of gas. The tremor has increased from 27 to 153 units during the explosion and remains high, indicating a possibility of small explosions in the following hours or days. Previous news 2018 - SINAPRED reported that on 15 August an explosion at Telica generated an ash plume that rose 200 m above the crater rim. INETER reported that a moderate explosion took place in June 21, 2018 at 7:08 local time. A plume of gas, ash, and some rocks rose 500 meters above the crater, before drifting east, south and southwest. Rockfall occurred near the crater, while the finer and sandy material was found more than one kilometer. Ash falls are reported on Los Manglares, Las Marias, Pozo Viejo, El Porvenir and Monte de Los Olivos.The explosion was followed by gas emissions; new explosions are likely during the day. INETER reported that a small gas explosion was heard by local residents on 10 September 2017. INETER warned the public to stay at least 2 km away from the crater.Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of 1061-m-high Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately SE of Telica, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.(GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Momotombo

July 7th, 2020

SINAPRED reported that a seismic swarm at Momotombo began at 0657 on 6 July and by the next day a total of 51 earthquakes had been recorded. The largest event was an M 2.6 located 9 km SE of the volcano, beneath Lake Managua, at a depth of 3 km. INETER noted that the earthquakes were located along a fault and not directly related to the volcano. INETER recorded small explosions on February 26 at Momotombo; the activity started at 13:55 with an increase in gaseous emissions, then small gas explosions at 14:45 and 15:30, the last accompanied by an earthquake of M1.4. The last eruptions dated from December 2015 and January 2016. 2016 eruption reports - INETER reported that three explosions at Momotombo during 5-6 April ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater. During 6-7 April there were 27 small explosions for a total of 438 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. The explosions ejected some incandescent material, and generated ash plumes that rose 200 m and drifted SW. RSAM values were low during 5-12 April. SINAPRED reported that on 2 April explosions at Momotombo produced gas-and-ash plumes and ejected incandescent tephra. On 28 March SINAPRED reported that 38 explosions were detected at Momotombo over a period of 24 hours, which ejected gas-and-ash plumes and incandescent tephra. The strongest event occurred at 1140 on 27 March and generated a plume that rose 1 km. During 2-3 March INETER reported that 53 small explosions at Momotombo generated low-energy gas plumes that rose 300 m above the crater. On 3 March some of the explosions produced ash plumes that drifted W and SW. RSAM values were at low to moderate levels. SINAPRED reported that during 5-6 March there were 78 explosions for a total of 279 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. One of the most significant explosions occurred on 6 March. The next day gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater. INETER reported that during 19 February-1 March explosions at Momotombo were detected daily; 88 explosions were detected during 1 December 2015-1 March 2016. Explosions produced ash plumes, and ejected incandescent material onto the N, NE, E, and SE flanks. Ash plumes rose 1.7-2.3 km above the crater and drifted SW during 21-22 February; gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.8 km on 24 February; an ash plume rose 1 km on 25 February; and a small gas-and-ash plume rose 300 m on 26 February. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the N and NW flanks during 23-24 February. Explosions on 27 February ejected tephra 300 m above the crater. At 0646 on 1 March explosions ejected gas and incandescent tephra; an ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted W and SW. The gas-and-ash emissions lasted 16 minutes, causing the plume to widen and darken the sky. INETER reported that during 16-17 February two explosions at Momotombo were accompanied by tremor, and produced ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The first and largest explosion (recorded at 0344) ejected incandescent tephra 800 m above the crater. RSAM values were at low-to-moderate levels. Based on webcam views and satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 February ash emissions rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and WSW. The next day ash emissions drifted SW. On 21 February ash plumes drifted about 80 km W and 25 km E. INETER reported moderate levels of gas emissions at Momotombo on 10 February; volcanic tremor and gas emissions increased to moderate-to-high levels the next day. An explosion on 12 February produced small ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the N and SE flanks. An explosion at 1305 on 15 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and ejected incandescent tephra onto the N and NE flanks. INETER reported that during 4-5 and 7-8 February both RSAM values at Momotombo were low to moderate and emissions were at moderate levels. INETER reported that during 26-29 January RSAM values at Momotombo were at low to moderate levels, and gas emissions were at moderate levels. Crater incandescence from high-temperature gas emissions was observed at night during 26-27 January. A Strombolian explosion at 0344 on 30 January ejected tephra onto the E, NE, N, and NW flanks, and produced gas emissions. At 0529 on 31 January another explosion also ejected gas, ash, and incandescent material. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas including the communities of Boqueron, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), and La Sabaneta. Moderate levels of gas emissions drifted SW towards Puerto Momotombo.INETER reported that during 20-21 January both RSAM values and emissions at Momotombo were low. Volcanic tremor increased at 0900 on 22 January, causing RSAM values to rise to high levels. There were no changes to emissions. INETER recommended to the public to stay at least 6 km away from the volcano. INETER reported that at 1209 on 12 January a large explosion at Momotombo ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and generated an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater. Tephra was deposited on the E, NE, N, and NW flanks. Ash plumes drifted downwind and caused ashfall in the communities of Flor de Piedra, La Concha (40 SSE), Amatistan, Guacucal (40 km N), La Palma, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), La Sabaneta, Mira Lago, Asentamiento Miramar, Pancasan, Rene Linarte, Raul Cabezas, and Betania. At around 0500 on 15 January strong volcanic tremor was accompanied by small explosions in the crater; ejected ash and incandescent tephra were deposited on the W flank. Seismicity decreased during 16-17 January. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, three gas-and-ash explosions on 2 January, at 1333, 1426, and 1434, excavated the remaining parts of the lava dome which was emplaced about a month ago. An ash plume rose 500 m above the crater, drifted S and SW, and caused ashfall in Puerto Momotombo (9 km WSW). Possible ash plumes from an explosion at 2129 were hidden by darkness. At 0420 on 3 January an explosion ejected lava bombs 2 km away and caused ashfall in La Paz Centro (18 km SW). Lava flows had advanced as far as 2 km down the NE flank. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, activity at Momotombo continued through 10 December. Fieldwork revealed a small, incandescent, circular crater halfway up Momotombo's E flank that was fuming during the morning on 6 December. An explosion on 7 December destroyed part of the crater. On 10 December SINAPRED reported that material had been accumulating in the crater since the beginning of the eruption on 1 December. Seismicity during 9-14 December was low and stable. Based on satellite and webcam observations, and seismic data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Momotombo rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-225 km NW and WNW. INETER reported that series of at least 4 small explosions occurred at the volcano on the morning, at 07:49, 08:17, 08:42, and 08:55 local time on 1st of December. The eruptions, in particular the last and largest one, produced steam and ash plumes that rose up to approx. 1 km from the summit. Light ash fall was observed in the community of El Papalonal and near the Momotombo geothermal plant to the SW of the volcano. Later, during the day, It seems that the volcano continues to erupt and have been intensifying its activity with near-continuous strombolian explosions accompanied with hot incandescent material and a small et slowly lava flows went down from the summit crater on the Northeast flank.Ashfall was reported in nearby communities to the W and SW, including La Concha, Los Arcos, Flor de la Piedra, La Paz Centro, and Leon. Some families in La Paz Centro self-evacuated. This is the first eruptive activity of the volcano in 110 years, the last confirmed eruption of Momotombo occurred in 1905 . Momotombo is a young, 1297-m-high stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows from Momotombo have flowed down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms a 391-m-high island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional larger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after an April 10, 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the southern flank of the volcano. INETER

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

March 5th, 2019

INETER reported that a low-energy explosion at San Cristobal was detected by the seismic network at 1550 on 4 March 2019. The event produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Previous news 2018 - INETER reported that at 1320 on 22 April a small explosion at San Cristobal generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in the La Bolsa region and Hacienda Las Rojas. Previously, INETER reported that a series of 14 explosions at San Cristobal began at 2134 on 7 November 2017. The first explosion was the strongest, causing an increase in RSAM to 150 units; RSAM dropped to 50 after the last explosion. Ash fell in areas to the W and NE, including in the communities of Los Farallones, San Agustin, La Mora, El Naranjo, and Chinandega. Based on seismic data INETER reported that a period of tremor recorded at San Cristobal during 1939-2005 on 9 September ended with an explosion signal. INETER and Sinapred reported that an ash eruption began this 18 August around 6:30 am local time at the San Cristobal volcano, the highest volcano in Nicaragua, and continued during the day. No rumblings or explosions were reported. The likely hydrothermal or phreatic episode began with a large degassing. Many communities have been impacted by ash falls, which have mainly affected the communities of La Grecia, Las Hamacas, Ranchería, La Joya and Mocorón. Based on analysis of satellite images and information from INETER, the Washington VAAC reported that a small ash puff from the volcano rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NW. Later that day a gas emission possibly containing ash rose 300 m and drifted W. An ash plume identified in satellite images extended as far as 265 km W. Seismicity was elevated. Steam-and-gas emissions continued through the rest of the day. Previously, INETER and SINAPRED reported that at 1020 on 22 April 2016 an explosion at San Cristobal produced an ash-and-gas plume that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted SW. The seismic network recorded 10 additional explosions by 1200. Ashfall was reported in local areas including Las Brisas (10 km S), San José (8 km SSE), Santa Narcisa, Pellizco Central (12 km SSE), Los Albanos, Los Lirios (18 km WSW), Santa Cruz (35 km SE), Las Grietas (14 km E), El Liberal, and San Lucas (13 km E). The INETER report noted that the last explosive activity occurred on 6 June 2015, though explosions that day were of lesser magnitudes. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP

NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

October 20th, 2019

According to news reports, ash was emitted from Masaya on 15 October, causing very minor ashfall in Colonia 4 de Mayo, 6 km NW. Previously, Ineter, reported that an explosion occurred on Sunday, July 21, in the afternoon in the crater Santiago of Masaya. According to official reports, the ashes released did not cause injuries to people who were near the crater and did not pose a problem for neighboring populations, but the authorities did not rule out any additional activities. The Masaya Park has been temporarily closed.Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage. GVN/GVP)

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El SALVADOR - San Miguel volcano

April 2nd, 2020

SNET stated that during 30-31 March the seismic network at San Miguel recorded a period of increased seismicity characterized by continuous, low-frequency, tremor-type signals.RSAM values were between 90 and 116 units, lower than the normal values of 150, at a seismic station located on the upper N flank. SNET stated that during 28 February-6 March there were no reports of noises or gas emissions at San Miguel from the network of local observers. Seismicity was stable; 50-60 low-magnitude earthquakes were recorded per hour with RSAM values between 40 and 98 units, lower than the normal values of 150. The sulfur dioxide emission flux was 517-808 tons per day. SNET reported that during 23-28 February activity at San Miguel was low. An increase in the number of very small-magnitude earthquakes was recorded by the VSM seismic station located on the upper N flank. RSAM values were between 45 and 75 units, lower than the normal values of 150. SNET report noted an increase in amplitude of microearthquakes and minor gas emissions form the main crater. Sulfur dioxide levels had also increased. Beginning at 1055 on 22 February an ash emission that lasted 10 minutes long resulted in a small gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim. Minor ashfall was reported in the area of Piedra Azul, 5 km SW. RSAM peaked at 510 units during the period of emissions, above the normal values of 150, as recorded by station VSM located on the upper N flank. The number of low-amplitude tremor events increased after a quiet period of about 11 hours and were associated with gas emissions; RSAM was 33-97 units and minor gas plumes were visible rising 400 m during 23-24 February. SNET reported that starting at 7:00 p.m. yesterday February 20th, 2020 at 7:50 a.m. Friday 21, the Network of local observers reported the occurrence of a series of rumblings from the volcano. Monitoring data indicates that the volcano has exhibited a change in behavior, evidenced by the increase in the amplitude of microseisms and slight gas emissions by its central crater. The seismicity recorded in the volcano shows signs that may be related to fractures and small internal explosions of the volcano, which indicates an increase in its internal pressure, with the possibility of the appearance of a more significant degassing which can be accompanied by small ash fumes, which, if they occur, will preferably be transported to the southwest flank of the volcano. Previous news 2018 - SNET reported a significant increase in the number of low- and high-frequency earthquakes beneath San Miguel's crater beginning on 22 May. RSAM values fluctuated between 142 and 176 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 30 May-1 June. Webcam images on 30 May showed a small gray gas emission. On 2 March SNET reported that gas plumes rose as high as 400 m above San Miguel's crater rim during the previous week. Ash was in the emissions on 24, 26, and 28 February, and 1 March. RSAM values fluctuated between 70 and 179 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 1-2 March. At 2200 on 5 March seismic amplitude began to increase, with RSAM values rising to 318 units by 0600 on 6 March. A webcam recorded minor gas emission during 5-6 March. SNET reported that during 0800-1100 on 19 February gas-and-ash emissions from San Miguel rose 350 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Ash fell on the upper flanks of the volcano, and a sulfur odor was reported in La Piedra farm. On 2 February SNET reported that seismicity at San Miguel was decreasing, along with a decrease in emissions. RSAM values fluctuating between 63 and 114 units; normal values are between 50 and 150. Small pulses of gas near the crater rim were visible. SNET reported that during 25-26 January seismic activity at San Miguel was slightly higher than normal, with RSAM values fluctuating between 75 and 179 units. Small pulses of gas near the crater rim were visible. SNET reported that during 14-17 January there were four gas-and-ash emissions from San Miguel that rose no higher than 300 m above the crater rim. The report noted that prior to each emission seismicity decreased and then suddenly increased. SNET reported that at 1653 on 14 January and 1615 on 15 January gas-and-ash plumes from San Miguel rose no more than 300 m above the crater rim and dispersed SW. The report noted that prior to both emissions seismicity decreased and then suddenly increased. Previously - On 19 May 2017 SNET reported that during the previous 24 hours RSAM values at San Miguel continued to decrease, fluctuating between 69 and 80 units (typical background levels average 50 units). Sulfur dioxide flux was also lower, though changing winds may have affected readings. SNET reported that during 28 April-5 May RSAM values at San Miguel had decreased and fluctuated between 50 and 173 units (typical background levels average 50 units). Sulfur dioxide flux was also lower, though changing winds may have affected readings. SNET reported that during 27-28 April RSAM values at San Miguel fluctuated between 106 and 176 units (typical background levels average 50 units). At 1532 on 27 April a strong gas plume rose 1.2 km above the crater rim. In a special report from 17 April 2017, SNET reported an increase in seismicity and gas emissions from San Miguel in recent days. Earlier that day during 0620-0630 RSAM values spiked to 356, an increase over normal values around 50. During 18-21 and 23-24 April RSAM values fluctuated between 80 and over 300. The symmetrical cone of San Miguel volcano, one of the most active in El Salvador, rises from near sea level to form one of the country's most prominent landmarks. A broad, deep crater that has been frequently modified by historical eruptions (recorded since the early 16th century) caps the truncated summit of the towering volcano, which is also known locally as Chaparrastique. Radial fissures on the flanks of the basaltic volcano have fed a series of fresh lava flows, including several erupted during the 17th-19th centuries that reached beyond the base of the volcano on the N, W, and SE sides. The SE-flank lava flows are the largest and form broad sparsely vegetated lava fields. GVN - (SNET)

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COLOMBIA - Galeras volcano

April 22nd, 2013

INGEOMINAS reported that during 15-21 May seismicity at Galeras was at a low level; during 19-20 May earthquakes with magnitudes 2.6 or less were concentrated in an area 3 km SW at depths near 4 km. Gas plumes rose 500 m above the crater and contained small amounts of ash during 15-16 and 20-21 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). INGEOMINAS reported that during 10-16 April 2913 earthquakes at Galeras were located in various areas as far as 13 km from the crater, at depths no greater than 14 km and with maximum magnitudes of 2. Moderate levels of sulfur dioxide were detected; plumes drifted NW. Cameras recorded ash emissions all week, especially on 9, 11, 12, and 14 April, when pulsating activity produced plumes that drifted W. Plumes rose no more than 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").INGEOMINAS reported that during 30 October-6 November 2012 seismicity at Galeras fluctuated but was slightly lower compared to the previous week. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low. Cameras around Galeras recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising from the crater on 30 October and 1 November. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. Webcam image

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Ruiz

November 14th, 2020

SGC reported that the volcano continues to emit water vapor and gases, mainly sulfur dioxide. The column of gas and vapor reached a maximum height of 2,122 m measured at the top of the volcano on November 4. On November 13, Sentinel-5P / Tropomi detected a strong signal of sulfur dioxide with 11.66 DU of SO2.SGC reported that on the morning of October 18th, the Nevado del Ruiz displayed dense, white plumes of gas and steam, reaching a height of about 1,400 metres, dispersing towards ONO. The activity level is 3 / amarillo, marking a change in the behavior of volcanic activity. As of the 13th of October, SGC reported that the seismicity generated by the fracturing of rocks increased in number of earthquakes and in energy released compared to the previous week.A few "drumbeat" type episodes associated with low energy fracturing have been recorded. They are associated with the process of evolution of the dome of the Arenas crater. Seismicity linked to the dynamics of internal fluids is also on the rise.The SGC does not report significant changes in surface deformation. The gas and steam plumes reached heights of up to 1,350 meters above the summit.The level of activity remains amarillo. As of the 29th of September, SGC reported the weekly bulletin that the volcano continues to present instability, and remains in level 3 / yellow. Seismicity in relation to the dynamics of internal fluids has increased in number of events and in released seismic energy. It is characterized by a continuous tremor, or in pulses, of LP and VLP earthquakes, sometimes associated with gas and ash emissions. The surface deformation does not show significant variations compared to the past weeks. Servicio Geologico Columbiano, informed that the volcano continued to present, during the week of August 18th to 25th, behavioral instability. The seismicity generated by rock fracturing (volcano-tectonics, VT) showed a significant increase in the number of earthquakes and in the seismic energy released, compared to the previous week. This type of seismicity was located mainly in the south-south-east, south-west and north-east of the volcano and, to a lesser extent, in the Arenas crater. The depth of the earthquakes varied between 0.3 and 5.6 km. An increase in VT seismicity stands out, recorded since dawn today in the south-eastern sector, about 2.2 km from the Arenas crater. The two most significant earthquakes occurred at 6:12 am and 7:57 am local time, with a magnitude of 2.8 ML (Local Magnitude), at depths of 3.4 and 3.3 km respectively. These earthquakes were reported to be felt by locals in the volcanic area.The volcano continue to emit water vapor and gases, mainly sulfur dioxide. The gas and steam plumes reached a maximum height of 1,672 m measured at the top of the volcano on August 23. The dispersion of the column was governed by the direction of the wind, which tended mainly towards the west-northwest of the volcano.Servicio Geologico Columbiano, informed that from August 8, 2020 at 00:50 (local time), there was a significant increase in the volcano- seismic activity. tectonic, associated with the fracturing of rocks around the volcanic building. The seismic activity was located in the West-South-West sector at an average distance of 6.0 km from the Arenas crater. The recording of a volcano-tectonic earthquake that occurred at 7:04 a.m. (local time), at a depth of 4.1 km with a magnitude of 3.1 ML (local magnitude), was reported as felt by officials of the National Natural Park of Los Nevados. On July 30 at 6:36 a.m. local time, the SGC recorded a seismic signal related to internal fluid movements of the Nevado del Ruiz, and associated with a small emission of gas and ash at a maximum of 560 meters above the summit of the volcano. Ashes were reported in Malteria, Palermo and La Enea (sectors of Manizales). The level of activity remains in Amarillo, as it continues to exhibit instability and further emissions of gas and ash could occur. As of the 16th of June, SGC reported that the volcano has continued to exhibit behavioral instability in the past week. The SGC also reported an increase in seismicity in relation to rock fracturing, the occurrence of several episodes of the drumbeat type, and an increase in the number of events related to the dynamics of internal fluids and their energy. Small gas and ash emissions were noted, with dispersion towards the WNW; the plumes have reached max. 1.000 meters above the summit. No noticeable change in surface deformation. The activity level remains at Amarillo / 3. Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 27 May-2 June seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was at similar levels to the week before, with signals dominated by periods of continuous volcanic tremor, tremor pulses, long-period, and very-long-period earthquakes. Some of the earthquakes were associated with minor gas-and-ash emissions that drifted N and were recorded by the webcam. The highest gas-and-steam plume rose about 1.3 km above the summit, recorded on 29 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). On 28 April Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that small ash-and-gas emissions from Nevado del Ruiz were periodically visible in webcam images and observed by Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados officials during the previous week. These emissions drifted WSW and NW. A gas-and-steam plume rose 1.2 km above the crater rim on 21 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Servicio Géologico Colombiano reported that seismicity related to fluid dynamics, inside volcanic conduits, showed an increase in the number of events and the seismic energy released, during the week of 6 to April 13. The seismicity generated by the fracturing of the rocks presented a slight decrease in the number of earthquakes and increase in the seismic energy released, compared to the previous week. This kind of seismicity was located mainly in the Arenas crater and in the south-southwest, northwest and northeast sectors of the volcano, at depths varying between 0.3 and 6.3 km. The occurrence of several seismic events of the drum-beat type, associated with fracturing of rocks were recorded on April 9, 10 and 12. Small gas and ash emissions have been confirmed by cameras and reports from officials in Los Nevados National Natural Park, as well as by the VAAC Washigton VAAC, with a plume of gas and vapor reaching max. 1,300m above the summit on April 9. The deformation of the volcanic surface, measured from GNSS stations (Satellite System of Global Navigation), showed no significant change. By monitoring the information provided on Mirova and NASA, low energy thermal anomalies at the volcano over the past week Servicio Géologico Colombiano informed that ash and gas emissions were recorded on March 23 at 6:30 a.m., observed by web cameras installed in the volcano area and in Manizales and also reported that earthquakes of low energy levels associated with low ash emissions have continued in recent days. The direction of dispersion of the last emissions was governed by the direction of the wind, mainly to the northeast and southeast of the volcano, and a possible ash fall is expected in the area. New earthquakes associated with gas and ash emissions are also not excluded. The activity level continues in yellow or (III) / changes in the behavior of volcanic activity. Servicio Géologico Colombiano informed the authorities and the community that in recent days, the snow-capped volcano has presented small emissions of ash associated with seismic signals of low energy level. A 10 MW thermal anomaly c was observed by Mirova on 10.03.2020 / 03h35. On March 10, three gas and ash emissions were recorded today at 07:42 h 10:29 and 10:55 (local time), with column heights measured at the top of the volcano of 696, 346 and 552 m respectively, with a dispersion influenced by the wind direction and speed, which varied from the southwest to the southeast of the volcano. Very fine ash fall is possible near the volcano and in populations located in the direction of the wind regime. The different monitoring parameters show that the volcanic system is still unstable, which can give rise to new ash emissions.The level of activity continues in yellow or (III): Changes in the behavior of volcanic activity. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption. (GVN/GVP)

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PERU - Ubinas volcano

October 7th, 2020

IGP continues to record a slight increase in seismic activity at Ubinas during the analysis period from September 28th to October 4th. Seismicity is characterized by 42 Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes with magnitudes less than M1.3, which would be associated with rock breaking processes. Likewise, 18 seismic signals were recorded which would be associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (gas, mainly water vapor), within them, 2 earthquakes of the tornillo type. Plumes of volcanic gas and water vapor reaching heights of up to 300 m above the summit of the volcano are recorded by remote monitoring, dispersed towards the eastern sector of the volcano. IGP reported that the volcano continued to record a slight increase in seismic activity between July 27 and August 2, 2020. The occurrence of 83 earthquakes with a magnitude less than M1.7 has been identified, events that would be associated with rock breaking processes that occur inside the volcano. On average, the occurrence of 12 earthquakes per day was recorded. Likewise, 18 seismic signals were recorded which would be associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas), among them, 5 Screw type (tornillo) seismic signals which would be related to the increase in pressure inside the volcano. and which are considered to be seismic signals precursors of volcanic eruptions, Surveillance cameras recorded columns of gas (water vapor) that reached heights of up to 1000 m above the summit of the volcano. IGP reported that the activity continued to show a slight increase in its seismic activity between July 20 and July 26; twenty earthquakes of magnitudes less than M1.5, associated with rock breaking processes that occur inside the volcano have been recorded; similarly, 6 seismic signals were recorded which would be associated with the movements of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas); Within these, 2 tornillo-type events were identified which would be linked to the increase in the internal pressure of the volcano. No seismic activity linked to the rise of magma was observed. Surveillance cameras recorded columns of gas and water vapor reaching heights of up to 700 m above the summit of the volcano, dispersed towards the southeastern sector of the volcano. IGP reported that a slight increase in seismic activity occurred, for the period from 15 to 21 June, with 61 earthquakes of magnitudes below M1.7, which are associated with processes of rupture of the rocks inside the volcano. Similarly, 7 seismic signals were recorded associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas).Slight plumes of gas and water vapor have been observed reaching heights up to 1000 m above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the northeast and southeast sectors of the volcano. IGP reported that between June 13 and 14, 2020, tthere were the occurrence of 9 earthquakes of magnitude less than M1.9, located 4 km south of the crater and 2.5 km from depth, associated with rock rupture processes in the volcano. Similarly, a seismic signal was recorded which would be associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas). Surveillance cameras installed in the Ubinas recorded plumes of gas and water vapor that reached up to 700 m above the summit of the volcano, scattered emissions to the southeast sections of the volcano. During 11-18 May the number of seismic events at Ubinas totaled 54 with volcano-tectonic (VT) signals being the most numerous. Sporadic emissions of gas and steam were recorded by the webcam rising to heights less than 300 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. As of the 16th of march, IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remains at low levels. Sporadic emissions of bluish gases and water vapor were recorded. MIROVA satellite surveillance did not record any thermal anomalies.The IGP recommended reducing the level of volcanic alert from orange to yellow. IGP reported that the eruptive activity between March 2 and 8, remained at low levels. To date, the record of earthquakes that would be associated with the rise of magma to the surface is weak. In addition, there are sporadic emissions of bluish gases (of magmatic origin) and water vapor. According to this scenario, the possibility of volcanic explosions and / or low ash emissions remains low. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained at low levels. In early January, the energy of earthquakes which would be associated with the rise of magma on the surface has considerably decreased. There are weak and sporadic emissions of bluish gases (of magmatic origin) and water vapor, observed through surveillance cameras. Previously in 2019 IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained low. From 18th to 24th of November earthquake energy associated with rising magma at the surface has decreased. In addition, there was low and sporadic bluish gas (magmatic) and water vapor emissions observed by surveillance cameras. According to this scenario, it is unlikely that volcanic explosions and / or ash emissions will occur. The alert level remains at orange. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained low during the period from 11 to 17 November 2019. To date, earthquake energy associated with rising magma at the surface has decreased. The IGP recorded and analyzed a total of 480 seismic events associated with the eruptive process of the Ubinas volcano, with predominant seismicity of the volcano-tectonic (VT) type, related to the fracturing of rocks in the interior. of the volcano. The seismic signals that would be related to the rise of magma (hybrid type) have decreased both in number of events (12 earthquakes daily) and energy generated. In addition, there has been no volcanic explosion since September 12th.Plumes of blue (magmatic) gas and water vapor retain heights less than 500 m above the summit. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure does not present anomalies. MIROVA satellite monitoring did not record thermal anomalies in the volcano. IGP reported that during the period from 7th to 13th of October, the eruptive activity remained light, and characterized by magmatic gas emissions and steam at less than 1,000 meters above the summit. At the seismicity level, 3533 earthquakes were recorded in relation to the eruptive process, with a predominance of VT earthquakes of M <2.1. No significant signs at the deformation level, and three small thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova. During the period from 16 to 22 September, the IGP recorded and analyzed a total of 4.356 seismic events, with a predominant volcano-tectonic (VT) type seismicity with an average value of 567 events per day, all of a magnitude less than M2.5. Seismic signals that would be related to the rise of the magma (hybrid type) were also recorded, at the rate of 119 events per day.During 10-15 September the number of seismic events at Ubinas totaled 4,093, with volcano-tectonic (VT) signals being the most numerous, averaging 572 events per day, and all having magnitudes under M 2.5. Hybrid events averaged 299 events per day. Continuous emissions of blueish gas and water vapor were recorded by the webcam rising to heights less than 1.5 km above the summit. Two thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. An explosion at 0725 on 12 September produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 1.5 km and affected several districts S and SE in the Moquegua region. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. IGP reported that during 3-9 September three volcanic explosions were detected at Ubinas, all producing eruption plumes that rose to heights less than 2.5 km above the crater rim. The largest, and first, was recorded at 1358 on 3 September and produced significant amounts of ash and gas, affecting areas to the S and SE. After the explosions gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 1 km. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. IG reported that the volcano experienced an explosion on September 3 at 13:58 local, accompanied by an ash plume of 5,500 meters above the crater, then dispersed to the south and southeast in the district of Ubinas. IG reported that during the past week the seismic activity was slightly increased with an average of 118 to 225 episodes per day, with a weekly total of 2828 earthquakes. No explosions were recorded; only a moderate emission of ash is reported on September 1 at 9:45 pm, associated with a tremor signal; On the other hand, the emissions of gas and steam are continuous and reach 1,000 meters above the summit. Three thermal anomalies were reported by Mirova attesting to the proximity of the magma to the surface. Following a few weeks of calm, new ash emissions occurred on August 26 at 10:30, and few later a phreatic activity occurred generating a plume that reached 1,600 meters above the crater, then dispersed to a north and northwest sector (San Juan de Tarucani district). Continuous ash emissions on 27 August were recorded by satellite and webcam images drifting S and SW. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 15-km radius. As of the 23rd of August, IGP reported that the eruptive process continued. A decrease in seismic activity related to the rise of magma was recorded, but the satellite images indicate the presence of a hot magmatic body close to the surface, and emissions of bluish gas (magmatic gas) and steam vapor. water were observed. IGP reported that during 13-19 August blue-colored gas plumes from Ubinas rose to heights of less than 1.5 km above the base of the crater. Seven thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. The number of seismic events was 1,716 (all under M 2.4), a decrease in the total number recorded during the previous week. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 15-km radius. As of the 14th of August the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) reported that the Ubinas volcano continued its eruptive process. Bluish gas (magmatic gas) and water vapor emissions observed by surveillance cameras continue to be recorded. Satellites detected thermal anomalies which indicate the proximity of the magma to the surface of the crater. As of the 28th of July satellite images by visible infrared radiometers (VIIRS), thermal anomalies observed on the edges of the Ubinas volcano crater corresponding to the presence of a body of lava / lava plug about 180 m. diameter at the base of the crater, which would prevent the emission of gas and ash. At the seismicity level, during the 7-day period, 2,295 earthquakes with a magnitude of less than 2 were recorded, including a percentage related to the rise and movements of fluids. IGP reported a total of 1,522 seismic events between July 20th and 24th, all of a magnitude below 2.2. During the analyzed period, an increase in seismic signals in relation to the rise of the magma (LP & hybrids) causes fear of explosive activity in terms of hours or days; it should be noted that more than 35 hours have passed since the last explosion. Thermic anomalies remain moderate to low, between 11 and 6 MW. Updated information on Ubinas' activity on July 23rd at 8pm. Peruvian autorities and INGEMMET reported that anomalies in the various geophysical parameters are associated with the rise of magma and the increase of seismic energy, LP and hybride, similar to the scenario that preceded the 22 July explosion at 23:25.Due to rainfall in the volcano area, lahars are possible. Ingemmet recommends to the populations of the villages of Querapi, Ubinas, Escacha, Huatahua, Tonohaya, Sacohaya, and San Miguel, to evacuate immediately, before a possible increase of the volcanic activity. IGP reported that new ash emissions occurred between 500 and 1.500 m., during the day of July 22, scattered to the southeast.An explosion on July 22 around 11:25 pm projected incandescent materials. The ashes spread over more than 10 km. to the villages of Ubinas, Lloque and Chojata districts.IGP reported that ash emissions continued to Ubinas on July 21, reaching about 500 meters above the crater, with scattering in a southeast and east sector of the volcano.The I.G.Peru does not notice deformation and probably a continuation of the eruptive process at moderate level. The orange alert level is maintained, moderate explosions can occur, accompanied by consequent emissions of ashes. IGP reported that explosive activity continued on July 20, with smaller ash plumes, rising to an estimated height of 7,300 meters (flight altitude 240). The Peruvian authorities ordered on Friday the evacuation of hundreds of people living near the Ubinas volcano in southern Peru, after two explosions and a rain of ashes and gas. The evacuation was decided after the announcement by the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) of raising the level of volcanic alert from yellow to orange. About 15,000 people are exposed to ashes within a radius of 30 km.The Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) reported that since 2 h 35 July 19th, 2019 an intense explosive activity on the volcano Ubinas. Three volcanic explosions generated energy equivalent to earthquakes of magnitude 5.8, M5.3 and M4.1. as well as typical tremors of intense ash and gas emissions.The deformation of the volcanic structure does not show any anomalies, and TROPOMI (SO2) and MIROVA data do not show any significant changes.The column of ash has exceeded 7 km height above the crater level / 12.2 km asl. According to VAAC Buenos Aires, the cloud spreads towards Bolivia. Ash falls have been recorded in the cities of Ubinas, Escacha, Anascapa, Matalaque, San Miguel, Huarina, Tonohaya, for which an ash dispersal alert has also been launched so that the authorities and take steps to prevent harm to health. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

PERU - Sabancaya volcano

November 24th, 2020

IGP reported that xxplosions recorded on November 23 generated the emission of the ash dispersion alert, with plumes at times more than 3,000 m above the summit.The evolution of the lava dome is not considered to be a direct danger for the populations of the Colca valley: its surface occupies 11,700 m² in mid-November; in November 2019, its surface was 54,700 m². Its formation is considered a normal aspect in the current eruptive process of the Sabancaya volcano. As of the 19th of November, IGP reported a few days ago that satellite images confirmed a new lava dome located in the northeastern part of the crater. According to volcano observatory an area of the new lava dome is approx. 12,000 m². The new lava dome growth is associated with increasing activity such as stronger explosions, higher thermal anomaly and constant incandescence that suggest continued rise of fresh magma accumulating as a new lava dome in the inner summit crater. IPGP reported that between November 9 and 15, 2020, I.G. Peru recorded 2,264 volcanic earthquakes in connection with the circulation of magmatic fluids inside Sabancaya. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes are located mainly to the northeast of the volcano. The eruptive activity continues, at a moderate level, with an average of 54 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 3,300 meters above the summit. IGP reported that for the day of 2th of November 43 explosions with ash plumes reaching up to 2,000 meters for that of 6:57.IGP reported that eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels between October 26 and November 1, with explosions, at the rate of 35 daily episodes, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 3 km altitude. above the summit.IGP reported that between October 19th and 25th, the Sabancaya continued his eruptive activity at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of explosions at the rate of 37 daily episodes on average, accompanied by columns of ash and gas up to 2.5 km from high to the top of the volcano. Fine ash falls were reported in the districts of Huanca on October 19th and 22, and Lluta on October 19 and 24.IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano continues at moderate levels, explosions, on average 34 daily, with plumes of ash and gas up to 3 km high at the top of the volcano, followed by ash falls in the districts of Huanca and Madrigal.IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano, for the period from October 5th to 11th, continued at moderate levels, with explosions at an average rate of 34 per day, accompanied by columns of ash and gas up to 3.9 km high at the top of the volcano.Explosive activity continued on 10th of October Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 24000 ft (7300 m) altitude or flight level 240 .IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano continues at moderate levels, for the period from September 28th to October 4th, with the continuous recording of explosions, at the rate of 40 daily events of low to medium intensity, and accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2.6 km high above the summit dispersing towards the southeast, east, southwest and west sectors of the Sabancaya. This activity has been corroborated by reports of ash fall in the districts of Huanca and Lluta.I.G.P. issued an ash scattering advisory on September 24th at 7:27 a.m. within a dispersal radius of 20 km west and south-west (pasture and estancias area). On September 23, 31 explosions were recorded in 24 hours. The level of volcanic activity remains in Naranja. IGP reported that between September 7 and 13, 2020, the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano continues at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of explosions - 38 explosions / day on average - with columns of gas and ash rising up to 3.5 km above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the southern, southeast and eastern sectors of SabancayaAs of the 12th of September explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Buenos Aires warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 24000 ft (7300 m) altitude or flight level 240 and is moving at 15 kts in SE direction.IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano showed a slight increase since August 15th. During the week of August 31 to September 6, there were an average of 43 daily explosions that generated columns of ash and gas up to 3.5 km high at the top of the volcano. Therefore, for the following days, minor changes regarding the eruptive activity are not excluded.As of the 31st of August, IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with explosions, at an average rate of 29 per day, which generated columns of gas and ash during this period that rose up to 3.5 km above the summit of the volcano and were scattered to the south, southeast and east of the volcano. The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of 2,063 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids in the Sabancaya. During this period, Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes, with a magnitude between M2.2 and M3.7, were located mainly in the northwest area of ​​Sabancaya. The main earthquake (magnitude M3.7) was recorded on August 25 at 8:37 p.m., 14 km north of Sabancaya and at a depth of 15 km. Seismic activity saw a slight increase last week, recording up to 41 explosions on August 30, 2020; however, this activity is within the parameters observed in the current eruptive process of Sabancaya. As of the 30th of August INGEMMET/OVI reported that during the last two days an increase in the eruptive columns was recorded at the Sabancaya volcano. Ingemmet recommends taking precautions against possible periods of ash fall in towns around the volcano. In recent weeks, the volcano has recorded an increase in seismic activity, volcanic outgassing and deformation (inflation). Information that was sent to the corresponding authorities via reports of volcanic activity, indicating a probable increase in explosive activity. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, between August 17th and 23rd, 2020, with the continuous recording of an average of 13 daily explosions, which generate columns of gas and ash that rise up to 2.2 km above the summit of the volcano. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels between August 10 and August 16, with the continuous recording of explosions (an average of 17 daily explosions, low to medium) with plumes up to 2.5 km high at the top of the volcano and the consequent emission of ash and gas.IGP reported that during the period from 3th to 9th of August the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remains at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of explosions, at the rate 9of an average of 19 explosions of low to medium intensity, accompanied plumes of ash and gas up to 2.5 km high at the top of the volcano.IG reported that during the week of July 27 to August 2, 2020, I.G. Peru recorded 1,519 earthquakes in Sabancaya, associated with an increase in internal pressure. An average of 27 explosions per day is reported, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,300 meters in height. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained between July 20 and July 26 at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of explosions, on average 13 per day, with plumes of gas and ash up to 2.6 km above the top of the volcano. The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of about 400 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels between July 13 and 19, 2020, with the continuous recording of explosions, on average 15 per day, with columns up to 2.4 km high at the top of the volcano and the consequent emission of ash and gas. About 446 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids (magma, gas, etc.) within the volcano have been recorded. Slight inflation was recorded in the northern sector (Hualca Hualca volcano) and south-eastern flank of the Sabancaya volcano. Satellite monitoring has identified the presence of 12 thermal anomalies with values ​​between 2 MW and 12 MW, associated with the presence of a lava body on the surface of the volcano's crater. The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, with a 12 km radius prohibited zone. IGP reported that the eruptive activity during the week of July 6 to 12 remained at moderate levels, with the recording of an average of 17 daily explosions, with formation ash and gas columns up to 2.5 km high above the top of the volcano. Consequently, for the following days, no significant change is expected regarding his eruptive activity.IGP issued a notice of dispersion of ash by the Sabancaya was issued on July 9, 2020. The event was recorded at 8:09 am and the radius of dispersion of the ash expelled by the Sabancaya, with a northeast and east direction, reaches 20 kilometers from distance, affecting the districts of Lari, Maca, Achoma, Ichupampa, Yanque, Chivay, Coporaque and Tuti. In the alert the local authorities of these districts are warned to take preventive measures against the possible fall of these particles ejected by the Sabancaya volcano. The ashes also affect the rooms and the pastures of the referred districts. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels from 29th of June to 5th of July with the continuous recording of explosions - on average 20 daily explosions of low to medium intensity -, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 3.5 km high above the top of the volcano The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 602 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) within the Sabancaya volcano. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure, using GNSS data (processed with fast orbits), does not present any significant anomalies; however, slight inflation was recorded in the north and southeast sector. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels during the week of June 11 to 28, 2020, with the continuous recording of explosions, on average 12 per day, accompanied by plumes up to 4 km high above the summit of the volcano and the consequent emission of ash and gas. The ash dispersed this week towards the Valle del Colca. The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of about 400 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano. Ten thermal anomalies with values ​​between 2MWa and 10MW, associated with the presence of a lava dome in the crater of the volcano being destroyed due to an explosive activity. The alert level remains orange. As of the 24th of June,IGP reported that in the past 24 hours, the OVI has recorded 5 explosions, with continuous emissions of gases and volcanic ash that reached 1,800 meters above the crater, dispersing in an east and southeast direction, having as possible affected the areas of the districts of Chivay, Achoma, Ichupampa, Yanque, Coporaque and the annex of Sallali. INGEMMET, confirmed last Saturday June 20, during field inspections, the total destruction of the dome which was in the crater of the Sabancaya volcano.Specialists from the Inggemmet Volcanological Observatory / OVI, used unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) and observed that the dome was completely destroyed, leaving blocks and fractures that produce gas and ash during explosions and emissions. gas continuous. IG reported that between June 15 and June 21, the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of explosions, on average 8 per day, with columns reaching 2.7 km from high on the top of the volcano and the consequent emission of ash and gas. The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 216 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) within the Sabancaya volcano. IGP reported that from 8th to 14th of June the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of explosions, on average 16 per day, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2 , 2 km high above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the southwest, south and southeast sectors. The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 498 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the Sabancaya volcano. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels from 1st to 7th of June characterized with the continuous recording of explosions, at the rate of 18 explosions daily on average, with ash plumes up to 1.5 km high above the summit of the volcano and the emission consequent of ash and gas.During this period, the IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 598 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) within the volcano. Between June 2 and 5, earthquakes of magnitudes M2.9 to M3.6 occurred, located between 12 km to 15 km southwest and northeast of the volcano, near the populated centers of Huambo, Maca and Pinchollo, which would be associated with the tectonic and volcanic activity of the area. As of the 2nd of June, IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of 14 explosions per day on average, with plumes up to 2 km in height on the summit of the volcano, and consequent emissions of ash and gas, dispersed towards the east and southeast sectors of the volcano.IGP reported that during the week from 18th to 24th of may, the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of explosions, on average 6 per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 3 km high above the summit of the volcano.During the same period, the IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 525 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano. IGP reported that during the week of May 11th to 17th, 2020, the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with the recording of an average of 12 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 2, 5 km high above the summit of the volcano, dispersing in an east and southeast sector. Consequently, for the following days, no significant change is expected regarding its activity. The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 413 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure, using GNSS data (processed with fast orbits), does not present any significant anomalies.Satellite surveillance identified the presence of 7 thermal anomalies with values ​​between 1 MW and 10 MW, associated with the presence of a body of lava on the surface of the volcano crater. the IGP recorded and analyzed the presence of approximately 380 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano, in the week of 4 as of May 10, 2020. Between May 4 and 6, earthquakes of magnitude M3 occurred : seven to M3.0, located between 12 km to 15 km north and northeast of the volcano, near the populated centers of Maca and Pinchollo , respectively. These events would be associated with the tectonic and volcanic activity of the area. In addition, on average 11 daily explosions of low to medium intensity were recorded; the ash and gas plumes reached up to 3,000 meters above the summit, with a dispersion going from east to north of the volcano. Between May 5 and May 7, a slight ash fall was reported in the districts of Lari, Macay Achoma, located northeast of the volcano. The I.G.Peru reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels for the week of April 27 to May 3, 2020; that is to say with the recording of explosions, 9 per day on average, with eruptive columns up to 2.5 km high above the summit of the volcano and the consequent emission of ash and gas. Consequently, for the following days, no significant change is expected regarding its activity.IGP reported that between 20 and 26 April 2020, around 297 earthquakes of volcanic origin occurred associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano.On average, 9 daily explosions of low to medium intensity were recorded. Plumes of gas and ash up to 2 km high above the summit of the volcano could be observed, scattered towards the southwest, south and southeast sectors of the Sabancaya. Between April 21 and 25, major earthquakes were recorded in the Colca Valley region, with magnitudes between M3.2 and M4.1, associated with tectonic and volcanic activity; The epicenters of these earthquakes are located within a radius of 20 km around the crater of the volcano. IGP reported that a daily average of 11 explosions occurred at Sabancaya during 13-19 April. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.9 km above the summit and drifted NW, S, and SE. There were eight thermal anomalies identified in satellite data, originating from the lava dome in the summit crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 12-km radius. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels between March 23 and 29, with the continuous recording of moderate explosions and the consequent emission of ash and gas. Consequently, for the following days, no significant change is expected regarding its activity.During the aforementioned period, the IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 536 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano and accompanied columns of gas and ash up to 3 km high above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the western, southwest and southern sectors of Sabancaya.In addition, 16 medium to low intensity daily explosions were recorded on average. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure records significant anomalies. Satellite surveillance has enabled the presence of 5 thermal anomalies with values ​​between 2MW and 13 MW, associated with the presence of a surface lava body in the crater of the volcano. The volcanic alert level in orange and it is recommended not to approach within a radius of 12 km. As of the 25th of March, IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of moderate explosions and the consequent emission of ash and gas. Nineteen daily explosions of medium to low intensity were recorded, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 3,000 meters above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the southwest and south sectors of Sabancaya.At the seismic level, 738 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal fluids were recorded. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure records significant anomalies. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels.Between March 9 and 15, the IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 1,384 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano. In addition, 24 daily explosions of medium to low intensity were recorded on average, accompanied by columns of gas and ash up to 3.5 km high above the summit of the volcano, which were mainly dispersed towards the sectors south, southeast and northeast of Sabancaya. Monitoring the deformation of the volcanic structure records significant anomalies.Satellite surveillance enabled the presence of 3 thermal anomalies with values ​​between 11 MW and 14 MW, associated with the presence of a body of delava. inside the crater of the volcano. The volcanic alert level remains orange. IGP reported that the eruptive activity between March 2 and 8 remained at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of moderate explosions and the consequent emission of ash and gas. Consequently, for the following days, no significant change is expected regarding its activity. During the above-mentioned period, the IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 748 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano, in addition to 17 daily explosions of medium to low intensity, accompanied by columns of gas and ash up to 3.7 km high above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the west, north and northwest sectors of the volcano. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels during the week of February 24th to March 1st, characterized by the continuous recording of moderate explosions and the resulting emission of ash and gas. The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 633 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano. An average of 18 daily explosions, medium to low, were recorded, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching up to 2,000 meters above the summit.On February 26, 27 and 28 at 3:52 p.m., 2:20 p.m. and 1:00 p.m. respectively, the IGP recorded and reported the descent of 3 lahars, through the Huayuray-Pinchollo stream, in the northern sector of the volcano. Sabancaya. The events presented volumes deemed small to moderate, which generated the temporary blockade of the Chivay-Cabana highway in the Cabanaconde district.IGP reported that activity during the week of February 17-23 remained at moderate levels. For the following days, no significant change in activity is expected. Sabancaya, located on the saddle between 6288-m-high Ampato and 6025-m-high Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three volcanoes, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. Both Nevado Ampato and Nevado Sabancaya are only slightly affected by glacial erosion and consist of a series of lava domes aligned along a NW-SW trend. The name of 5967-m-high Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua Indian language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750. (GVN/GVP)

PERU - Misti volcano

March 14th, 2020

A lahar was reported by the Instituto Geofisico this March 13th, 2020 at 4:30 p.m. on the southeast sector of the El Misti volcano; of moderate volume, it lasted about 15 minutes and borrowed the southeast quebradas, in the districts of Chiguata and Paucarpata. Previous data 2014 - Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) reported that, during the last 12 months, seismicity at El Misti was dominated by volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. Two seismic swarms (more than 100 events per day) occurred during the last three months, on 19 May and 3 June. An increase in tremor was noted in April, although the total duration did not exceed 10 minutes and was generally low-amplitude. Long-period seismicity was not significant. In the last 15 days, seismicity increased slightly and tremor was recorded daily. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismicity at El Misti increased during January, and a seismic swarm consisting of 119 volcano-tectonic events was detected during 14-15 January. Despite the increase, activity remained at a low level. El Misti, Peru's most well-known volcano, is a symmetrical andesitic stratovolcano with nested summit craters that towers above the city of Arequipa. The modern symmetrical cone, constructed within a small 1.5 x 2 km wide summit caldera that formed between about 13,700 and 11,300 years ago, caps older Pleistocene volcanoes that underwent caldera collapse about 50,000 years ago. A large scoria cone has grown with the 830-m-wide outer summit crater of El Misti. At least 20 tephra-fall deposits and numerous pyroclastic-flow deposits have been documented during the past 50,000 years, including a pyroclastic flow that traveled 12 km to the south about 2000 years ago. El Misti's most recent activity has been dominantly pyroclastic, and strong winds have formed a parabolic dune field of volcanic ash extending up to 20 km downwind. An eruption in the 15th century affected Inca inhabitants living near the volcano. Some reports of historical eruptions may represent in creased fumarolic activity. Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and (GVN/GVP)

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CHILE-ARGENTINA - Copahue volcano

November 3rd, 2020

As of the 2nd of November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity of the volcano continues at low levels characterized by continuing ash emissions from the crater. Emissions of steam, gases with minor ash content occurred and reached approx. 10,000 ft (3,048 m) altitude. Seismicity continues at low levels. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on October 23, a plume of gas, lightly loaded with ash, blown by the winds rose above the village and Lake Caviahue.According to Sernageomin, the seismic activity of the Copahue remains at a low level, but there are transient increases in the amplitude of the tremor, in relation to the emissions of particulate materials, suggesting the interaction between the magma and the superficial hydrothermal system. On the satellite images, a large area of ​​ash deposits was visible estimated between 6-7 km. In diameter, mainly in the proximal area of ​​the crater. As of the 28th of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the volcano continues its activity of gas emissions occasionally laden with ash. Night incandescence and these emissions testify to an instability of the volcanic and hydrothermal system. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity remained characterized by continuous emissions of gray ash. As of August 5th, the ash plume rises above the summit, and the snows are colored by the fallout of ash and particles. The seismic activity shows low levels, with occasional variations in the amplitude of the continuous tremor. The technical alert remains in Amarilla / change in behavior of volcanic activity; the possible assignment area is set at 1,000 meters radius around the crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity of Copahue remained essentially unchanged, and characterized by continuous emissions of gray ash. On August 31, the ash plume is observed 500 meters above the summit, and the snow is colored by the fallout of ash and particles. The seismic activity shows low levels, with occasional variations in the amplitude of the continuous tremor. SERNAGEMIN reported that the monitoring stations recorded on August 6 at 4:25 am local a change in activity, marked by the emission of more colored gas, due to the particle load, accompanied by a "subtle" increase in the tremor and a displacement. reduced. The plume reached a height of max. 1,000 meters above the point of emission and dispersed in a northeastern direction. The emission lasted until 6:50 am local, then decreased to return to a usual white degassing. SERNAGEOMIN raised the technical alert level of Copahue in Amarilla on July 17 at 3.30 p.m. local time. During the previous months, the seismicity was marked by numerous VLP earthquakes, in relation with the rise of magma to more superficial levels; in addition, in recent days, signs have been observed on the surface, with the emission of particulate materials associated with a column of gas from the active crater, and incandescence. The satellite images indicate a decrease in the volume of the crater lake ... all these signs testify to my presence of a volume of magma at a superficial level. An area of ​​1,000 meters in radius around the crater is considered as a possible assignment area. From 1st to 16th of July, the volcano presented a low level seismic activity, but with an increase in the tremor, associated with the emission of particulate materials, and gas; These are signs of an instability of the volcanic system, associated with that of the hydrothermal system and a drop in the level of the crater lake; The technical alert is passed to amarilla, and the possible assignment area to 1 km radius around the crater. As of the 8th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that conditions at Copahue had returned to normal levels and seismicity was low. The Alert Level was lowered to Green (second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 7 July. SERNAGEOMIN reported that over the past few days, Copahue's volcanic activity has evolved to show visible signs on the surface. It is important to mention that very low frequency (very long period VLP) seismicity has been recorded in the previous months, generally linked to the rise of the magmatic material to more superficial levels. Likewise, on May 20, a series of volcanic seismological events located south-southwest near the volcanic building were recorded. On June 16, there was an increase in energy from the seismic tremor with subsequent stabilization and decrease in the following hours. At the same time as this decrease, the incandescence and the emission of particles were detected from cameras installed by OVDAS. The latest sulfur dioxide recordings obtained by the equipment installed for its detection indicate average flows of 592 tonnes / day for June 15, considered as usual values ​​for this activity. On the other hand, the monitoring stations which measure the deformation in the volcanic sectors do not show changes related to this activity. In addition, the images available on the Planet satellite platform indicate a decrease in the volume of the lake housed in the active crater. In summary, the changes in seismological behavior, the anomalies in the surface assessments and the decrease in the volume of the crater lake suggest the presence of a volume of magma at superficial levels. Volcan Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Rio Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Copahue since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Puyehue-Cordon Caulle

May 3rd, 2020

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on May 2nd, 2020 at 7:33 p.m. local to the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex a volcanotectonic earthquake of M loc. 3.0 / depth 3.1 km, associated with the fragmentation of rocks. The technical alert remains unclear. The last period of activity dates back to June 2011 - April 2012, characterized by an VEI 5. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that.on March 14, starting at 6:30 am local time, the monitoring stations of the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex recorded a swarm of 185 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, associated with rock fracturing, at 1,600 meters NNW from the emission center of 2011; the most energetic earthquake was Ml 2.2 at a depth of 4.3 km. No surface activity has been described by the Sernageomin and the technical alert level remains green.The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (PCCVC) is a large NW-SE-trending late-Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic-to-rhyolitic transverse volcanic chain SE of Lago Ranco. The 1799-m-high Pleistocene Cordillera Nevada caldera lies at the NW end, separated from Puyehue stratovolcano at the SE end by the Cordón Caulle fissure complex. The Pleistocene Mencheca volcano with Holocene flank cones lies NE of Puyehue. The basaltic-to-rhyolitic Puyehue volcano is the most geochemically diverse of the PCCVC. The flat-topped, 2236-m-high volcano was constructed above a 5-km-wide caldera and is capped by a 2.4-km-wide Holocene summit caldera. Lava flows and domes of mostly rhyolitic composition are found on the E flank. Historical eruptions originally attributed to Puyehue, including major eruptions in 1921-22 and 1960, are now known to be from the Cordón Caulle rift zone. The Cordón Caulle geothermal area, occupying a 6 x 13 km wide volcano-tectonic depression, is the largest active geothermal area of the southern Andes volcanic zone. Latest eruption occurred in 2012. (SERNAGEOMIN)

CHILE- ARGENTINA border - Planchon-Peteroa volcano

March 8th, 2019

As of the 8th of March, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the cameras always showed a constant degassing of gray color, marked by a plume at a height of less than 2,000 meters, indicating the presence of particles, moving mainly towards the southwest.The seismicity of the last days was characterized by VT earthquakes, associated with the fracturing of rocks, and a large number of LP earthquakes, in relation with the dynamics of the internal fluids.The superficial activity of Peteroa suggests that we are dealing with an open system. Alert level remains at Amarillo / change in behavior of volcanic activity. SERNAGEOMIN surface activity has continued since the beginning of February. The gray plumes, with a maximum height around 2,000 meters above the crater are still observed this 23 February. The alert level remain Yellow. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the superficial activity of Peteroa has continued since the beginning of February. The gray plumes, with a maximum height around 2,000 meters above the crater shows with the presence of ash a volcanic system open in the superficial part of the volcano. On February 22, plumes, more or less laden with ashes, were observed throughout the day. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 6th of February, the intense eruptive activity was still continuing, marked by a change of wind direction, which blows the ash plume to the northeast and the Vergara international pass, between Chile and Argentina. On the morning of February 3, Sernageomin recorded a continuous increase in the column of gas and particles at about 1,600 meters above the crater, dispersing to an eastern secto. An episode at 10:33 local, was associated with tremor and a low displacement. The energy of the seismic signal has been rising since February 1st. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 1st February from 5 pm local time, the cameras recorded a steady and continuous increase in particulate matter emissions, with a column of 2,000 meters and a dispersion towards the east. This episode was accompanied by VLP earthquakes between 17 and 19h local, in connection with the injection of magma from a greater depth, and tremor.The increase in ash emissions and seismicity suggest an open system, and possible new minor eruptive episodes affecting the area of ​​active craters. The alert is maintained in yellow level. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on January 15 at 9h56 PM local an explosion accompanied by a greyish ash plume at about 600 meters, moving mainly northwest.In a previous bulletin, the Sernageomin specified that according to the observations and the recorded measurements, a new eruptive cycle of phreatomatic characteristics develops, following the possible contact of a magmatic body with a part of the hydrothermal system. which would facilitate the fragmentation of a minor volume of magma and the expansion of steam and the emission of ashes.The alert level remains in Amarilla. Previously, Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS)-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported increased activity at Planchon-Peteroa beginning in the morning of 16 December. Low-intensity pulses of tremor were detected by the seismic network and associated with pulsating grayish gas emissions which rose no higher than 800 m above the vent rim. Webcams recorded crater incandescence during the night of 15-16 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the volcano, and ONEMI maintained Alert Level Yellow for the communities of Molina (66 WNW), Curica (68 km NW), Romeral (75 km NW), and Teno (68 km NW). The OVDAS / Sernageomin reports an explosive emission of ashes and gas this December 14 at 9:57 local to the complex Planchón Peteroa located on the border Chilio-Argentina, associated with a seismic signal LP and tremor, which remained after the emission .The gray plume rose to 800 meters before dispersing to the east. The alert level remains in Amarillo. Planchón-Peteroa is an elongated complex volcano along the Chile-Argentina border with several overlapping calderas. Activity began in the Pleistocene with construction of the basaltic-andesite to dacitic Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of basaltic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the north. About 11,500 years ago, much of Azufre and part of Planchón collapsed, forming the massive Río Teno debris avalanche, which traveled 95 km to reach Chile's Central Valley. Subsequently, Volcán Planchón II was formed. The youngest volcano, andesitic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Peteroa, consists of scattered vents between Azufre and Planchón. Peteroa has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake. Historical eruptions from the complex have been dominantly explosive, although lava flows were erupted in 1837 and 1937. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Nevado de Chillan

November 13th, 2020

As of the 12th of November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during the last 24 hours in Nevados de Chillan, the seismicity consists of LP earthquakes and low to moderate energy tremor, related to the explosions, accompanied by plumes up to 600 meters in height .SERNAGEOMIN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues and has remained essentially unchanged. A minor explosion occrred on 29th of Ocotbe at 11:55 local time with emissions of water vapor, gases and small amounts of ash. An ash plume rose 1,181 ft (360 m) above the summit and drifted southwest. Viscous lava flow continues to be active on the north slopes of the volcano. A glow visible from the crater suggesting rise of magma. The latest report from Sernageomin (13th of october) indicated that the parameters of rock fracturing and internal fluid dynamics (VT, LP and Tr earthquakes) remain unchanged.The effusive activity was characterized by the extrusion of lava which accumulates in the crater and which overflows, forming a lava flow approximately 615 meters long on the north side. The explosive activity does not produce plumes greater than 1,500 meters, with a majority gas content. Some episodes show a content of reddish pyroclasts.The lava dome seems increasing slightly, according to satellite measurements. Night-time incandescence is observed when the weather permits.A new map of potentially at-risk areas has been published by Sernageomin / Onemi. SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 4:55 p.m. local time on October 3, 2020, an earthquake related to the movement of fluids (long period) was recorded at Nevados de Chillan, at a depth of 0.6 km with a reduced displacement of 526 cm. Due to weather conditions, it was not possible to verify the surface activity at the active crater.These types of earthquakes have been recurrent in the current Nevados de Chillán cycle and generally have been associated with crater level explosions. As of the 22nd of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that explosive and effusive activity continues, with a continuous magmatic feed. The latest estimates of the volume extruded by the dome of the Nicanor crater via the L5 flow reach 0.0004 km³, with a rate of 0.1 m³ / s. On the N-NE flank of the volcano, the fourth block lava flow continues. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on Saturday 05 September at 09:31 local time (13:31 UTC), the monitoring stations installed near the volcanic complex of Nevados de Chillán recorded an earthquake associated with the dynamics of fluids within the volcanic system (long period) - Depth : 0.3 km - Reduced displacement: 597 (cm * cm)Due to the weather conditions in the area, it was not possible to verify the surface activity of the active crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on Wednesday August 19 at 02:30 local time (06:30 UTC), the monitoring stations installed near the Nevados de Chillán Volcanic Complex recorded an earthquake linked to the fracturing of rocks (Volcano-Tectonics). The characteristics of the earthquake after its analysis are as follows: - original time: 02:30 local time (06:30 UTC) - depth: 3.7 km - local magnitude: 3.8 (ML) . No surface activity associated with the reported event is observed. There is no report from neighboring communities on the perception of the earthquake. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the main lava flow  lengthened sharply between July 13 and August 3, according to images captured by the Portezuelo webcam. Since the beginning of August, the snow on the summit has been soiled by ash. As of the 29th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruptive process continues with the probable location of a second lava flow, located east of the first, highlighted by the nocturnal superficial incandescence. The L5 lava flow, overflowing from the Nicanor crater, has traveled 382 meters from the northern edge and is advancing slowly on this flank. Analysis of the satellite images of July 13 (SkySatCollect) and July 14 (Sentinel-2A- by the Sernageomin) made it possible to specify the current morphology of the Nicanor crater and the lava flows called "L5" and "L6" of the Nevados de Chillan complex. The flow "L5" extended over 268 meters from the north edge of the crater,) an average speed of 0.8 m / h. A new lobe has developed and passed the eastern edge of the crater, and descends 55 meters east; it was detected by cameras on July 14. Another lava emission , called "L6", also exceeded the northern limit of the Nicanor crater, and extended for 194 meters on the northeast flank. The Sernageomin classifies the flows "L5" and "L6" as distinct: with differences in texture, speed and distribution. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the viscous lava flow emanating from the Nicanor crater continued to descend slowly the northern flank of the volcano. The Sernageomin has determined a danger zone of 3 km to the west and up to 5 km to the east. During the night, it was possible to observe a glow emitted by the flow; its emission rate was around 0.2m³ / sec. SERNAGEOMIN reported that small explosions continued. The lava dome, which began to form and grow from the second week of June, reached the lower edge of the active crater, starting to flow slowly since June 27 along the northern flank at an extrusion rate or a flow rate of 0.2 m³ / s and with maximum surface temperatures of 110 ° C. Since the start of the extrusion of the magmatic body (June 10-11), continuous explosive activity has been recorded with columns of whitish gases at low altitude (<500 meters above the crater) and the seismic recording of LP type events and tremors, the latter compatible with the placement of lava on the surface.SERNAGEOMIN reported an increase in the rate of inflation in the vicinity of Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater beginning on 20 June. The lava dome in the crater that was visible in satellite images on 11 June (but described in previous reports) had increased in volume based on analysis of 23 June images, and lengthened on the E side. The estimated growth rate of 0.1-0.3 cubic meters per second is two orders of magnitude greater than growth of the Gil-Cruz dome measured during December 2018-early 2019 and one order of magnitude greater that dome growth during August-December 2019. Occasional explosions continued to be recorded, with emissions rising to low heights, and nighttime crater incandescence was visible. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that the Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, and that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that from the analysis of satellite images of the Nevados de Chillan complex, it was possible to observe the location of a new magmatic lava-dome inside the active crater (Nicanor) with an elliptical morphology of NW-SE orientation and was about 100 m long and 60 m wide. ( similar to the one formed at the end of 2017). The presence of thermal anomalies coincides with the location of the magmatic lava dome. In addition, the deformation stations detected vertical variations and since June 10, explosive activity is associated with long-term seismicity (LP; movement of fluids) and tremors with harmonic characteristics, which demonstrate the extrusion of lava.thermal anomaly was visible on 10 and 14 June, and at night incandescent material was sometimes ejected from the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale, and residents were reminded not to approach the crater within 3 km. ONEMI stated that the Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, and that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater. SERNAGEOMIN-OVDAS reported an LP earthquake, associated with the dynamics of internal fluids at the Nevados de Chillan complex on June 6, at 4:17 am local; the hypocentre was located 6 km deep. The corresponding explosive activity on the surface was characterized by a plume of ash, incandescent materials and gases rising 760 meters above the point of emission, with a dispersion towards the northeast, and projections on the upper flanks of the volcano.The Amarilla alert level is maintained. SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosion occurred at the Nevados de Chillan Complex on May 22, 2020 at 11:36 am local time, associated with an LP seismic signal, in connection with the dynamics of internal fluids; the gas and ash plume rose to 2,200 meters above the emission bridge, before dispersing to the northeast.SERNAGEOMIN reported that after a volcano-tectonic earthquake on May 11 at 8:06 a.m., in connection with rock fracturing, presented some explosions on May 12 at 11:35 a.m., 1:45 p.m. and 2:25 p.m. They were accompanied by plumes of gas and ash at 1,100 meters, 1,600 meters and 1,280 meters above the active crater respectively. The plumes dispersed to the northeast.SERNAGEOMIN reported that two new explosions occurred on May 7, respectively at 7:43 am and 7:51 am local; two lower plumes, 1,800 and 1,500 meters, deposited volcanic material on the northeast flank of the active crater. The activity was associated with a tremor.SERNAGEOMIN reported that on May 6 at 9:45 p.m. UTC / 5:47 p.m. local time, an explosive activity occurred. accompanied by a plume of ash and gas reaching 2,500 meter high above the emission point, dispersing to the northeast, and a seismic signal of wide period associated with the dynamics of internal fluids.SERNAGEOMIN reported that on April 21 at 1:33 p.m. local time (5:33 p.m. UTC), the monitoring stations installed near the Nevados de Chillán Volcanic Complex recorded an explosion associated with fluid dynamics in the volcanic system with emission of gases and particles. This activity was accompanied by a plume at 2380 meters above the emission point, moving in a south-easterly direction. SERNAGEOMIN-OVDAS reported that two low energy explosions were recorded on 12 April 2020. They were accompanied by ash plumes, respectively at 2,300 m. and 1,800 m. high, displaced by the winds towards the south-east. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on April 8 at 17:54 local / 21:54 UTC an earthquake LP, associated with the dynamics of internal fluids, was recorded at a depth of 0.4 km. An energetic explosion was associated with a plume of gas and ash rising to 3,700 meters above the point of emission, before drifting south. Basal pyroclastic flows were observed mainly in the north, northeast and southeast sectors. Mirova recorded two thermal anomalies, respectively on April 8 at 6:10 am, from VRP 27 MW, and on April 9 at 3:35 am, from VRP 4 MW. SERNAGEOMIN reported that explosive activity was recorded on March 29 at around 6:38 p.m. local, with a scattering of ash at low altitude in an east-southeast direction. Activity continued on March 30, with grayish emissions reaching a maximum of 1,400 meters.Volcano-tectonic earthquakes dominate at the seismicity level.The technical alert is maintained in Amarilla. SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosion was recorded at 6:00 p.m. on Thursday, March 19, 2020 at the Nevados de Chillan complex, accompanied by an ash plume 1,500 meters above the active crater, with dispersion to the southeast. The last Sentinel satellite image -2 (ESA) of March 16, continues to show a thermal anomaly (weak) inside the active crater. The thermal anomaly measured by Mirova on 19.03 is 4MW. The technical alert is maintained at Amarilla. A special report on volcanic activity (REAV) of March 5 indicates that the seismic and surface activity has decreased since December 14, 2019, as well as the frequency of explosions and the dynamics associated with the movement of fluids at inside the volcano. The Sernageomin, on the basis of this history, declares that there is a low probability of a major eruption (eruptive columns> 4 km) and therefore reduces the radius of exclusion from 3 to 2 km, and also reduces the alert orange technique in AMARILLA. The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, 3212-m-high Cerro Blanco (Volcan Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group, and 3089-m-high Volcan Viejo (Volcan Chillan), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcan Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcan Viejo in altitude. The Volcan Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcan Nuevo between 1973 and 1986, eventually exceeding its height by 20 m. (GVN/GVP)

Chile - Villarica

November 19th, 2020

SERNAGEOMIN-POVI reported that an explosion occurred on November 17 accompanied by a small plume of ash about thirty meters above the crater. During a reconnaissance overflight on November 15, observation showed that the bottom of the crater, at about 70-80 m deep, of the 4 active orifices documented on November 10, 3 have become passive and the 4th maintains a pit of lava. SERNAGEOMIN-OVDAS reported that on Tuesday, November 10th at 3.14 p.m. local time, an expulsion of particulate material occurred in Villarica; this episode was associated with continuous tremor and an eruptive column of 320 m. of height, with dispersion towards the SSO. During the day, other explosions were recorded, of lesser magnitude. SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity of the volcano was still characterized by strombolian-type explosions during the past four days, which quickly become near-continuous. Eleven small to moderate strombolian-type explosions were detected during 6-8 November. An ash plumes rose 721 ft-1,148 ft (220 m-350 m) above the summit and drifted northwest. Scoria is being ejected to an approximate height of 80 meters above the crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that a phase of Strombolian activity began on the evening of November 7, around 9:35 p.m. incandescent ballistic ejections reached a height of 80 meters, and partially impacted the edges of the crater. On November 8 at 05:51 local (03:51 UTC) an explosive episode accompanied by incandescence occurred at Villarica; the height of the eruptive column was 220 meters max., with associated incandescence. No seismic signal was observed. SERNAGEOMIN reported that a new explosions were recorded on 6th of November at 7.57 local time in the crater of the Villarrica volcano. This time, a pulsatile emission of pyroclastic material was reported, which lasted about 10 minutes, and which could be observed by residents of the sectors surrounding the volcano. The height of the plume was 350 meters max., With north-west dispersion. In addition, the SERNAGEOMIN also reported that there was no seismic signal associated with the event and maintains the technical alert level in yellow. A new ejection of particulate materials was reported at 14:12 local time, with no associated seismic signal. The height reached by the plume is about 250 meters. SERNAGEOMIN reported that an LP earthquake was recorded on October 23 at 10:41 am local time associated with a moderate explosion at the active crater, accompanied by a plume of ash 180 meters high .; the displacement reduced (DR) to 4.1 cm². A drone flight over the crater was carried out last week, revealing that recent explosions have deposited large lava splashes and boulders, some up to several meters. These projectiles are ejected, sometimes at supersonic speeds and reach parabolic trajectories. Its temperature is around 1000 ° C. Although the ascent is not forbidden, all those who undertake it must take into account these types of dangers, and the unpredictability of explosions, which lack instrumental precursors. In addition, these explosions were caused by the conjunction between the level variations of the "lava lake", which is a few hundred meters away in the conduit, and the falls of pyroclast crusts in the cylindrical conduit. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on October 20 at 5:22 p.m. local time, an LP earthquake occurred in Villarica, associated with a moderate explosion at the active crater, accompanied by an ash plume reaching 240 meters above the emission bridge. No significant changes in seismicity, the volcanic technical alert remains at amarilla. SERNAGEOMIN recorded two LP earthquakes in Villarica, associated with moderate explosions at the level of the active crater, on October 15 at 5:34 am local, accompanied by incandescence, and a gray plume and at 8:04 am local, accompanied by a gray plume with particulate material. Displacements have been reduced, respectively by 111 cm² and 5.5 cm². At the surface, the plumes did not exceed 450 meters, and dispersed to the east. They have slightly grayed out the white cover of the volcano. The technical alert remains in Amarilla. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on Monday 05 October at 13:43 and 13:47 local time (16:43 and 16:47 UTC), the monitoring stations installed near the Villarrica volcano recorded two earthquakes of long period (LP) associated with moderate explosions at the level of the active crater, the largest of them with a reduced displacement (DR) equal to 35 cm2. First, a greyish column with input of particles is observed in both events. The column of the most energetic event recorded a height of 400 m. SERNAGEOMIN reported a large period earthquake (LP) associated with an explosion that occurred on 4th of October at 11:30 am local time, with one move. reduced by 14 cm². The explosion, in turn, developed a plume, with a particle charge, with a height of more than 450 m above the crater, which was dispersed to the northeast. This activity is similar to that previously recorded as part of the yellow alert. SERNAGEOMIN reported that a new explosion of gas, ash and lava spatters 100 meters above the edges of the crater occurred on September 27 at around 9:12 p.m. SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosion occurred on September 25th at 13:50 local / 16:50 UTC; an LP earthquake was associated with this moderate episode.A plume of ash and gas rose to 800 m. above the crater, dispersing to the east northeast, and blocks were thrown around the crater.A new emission of ash and particulate matter occurred at 6:29 p.m. local / 9:29 p.m. UTC. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Laguna del Maule

November 10th, 2020

SERNAGEOMIN reported that 10 low-magnitude volcano-tectonic earthquakes were detected at the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex during 16-31 October; seismicity was low in the region where a swarm had occurred in June. Satellite data showed no deformation, surface changes, gas emissions, or thermal anomalies. On 6 November the Alert Level was lowered to Green, the lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI cancelled the Yellow Alert for San Clemente, but declared a “Preventive Early Warning ensuring continued surveillance of the area and coordination within the Civil Protection System. SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 September inflation continued to be detected at the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, although at a lower rate of 0.7 cm per month which is below the 2 cm per month average for this year. Seismicity in the S sector was low in both number and magnitude of events. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest color on a four-color scale, as activity remained above baselines. ONEMI recommended restricted access within a radius of 2 km from the emission center. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on July 7th seismicity remained high associated with earthquakes located east of the Laguna del Maule complex, in an area with a diameter of approximately 5 km near the intersection of two faults near Las Nieblas, and corresponded to high levels of carbon dioxide emissions. The alert level remained at Amarilla, along with a 2 km danger zone around the main caldera. SERNAGEOMIN through a special report of volcanic activity (REAV) reported the change of alert from GREEN to YELLOW in the volcanic complex of Laguna del Maule The above responds to the increase in volcano-tectonic (VT) type seismic activity, associated with rock fracturing, through seismic swarms on June 11, 13 and 15-16. These events were characterized by their small scale and by their location in the southwest of the lagoon (Las Nieblas sector) In addition, in this same area during the previous months, diffuse carbon dioxide (CO2) anomalies were detected through the ground. Therefore, due to the persistent presence of seismic swarms in the same area, added to the gas anomaly and the constant deformation that has characterized the volcanic complex over the past decade, it is considered to be at above its basic level.A potential allocation area is set at a radius of 2,000 meters around the passive carbon dioxide degassing center. The 15 x 25 km wide Laguna del Maule caldera contains a cluster of small stratovolcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age. The caldera lies mostly on the Chilean side of the border, but partially extends into Argentina. Fourteen Pleistocene basaltic lava flows were erupted down the upper part of the Maule river valley. A cluster of Pleistocene cinder cones was constructed on the NW side of the Maule lake, which occupies part of the northern portion of the caldera. The latest activity produced an explosion crater on the E side of the lake and a series of Holocene rhyolitic lava domes and blocky lava flows that surround it. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Antillanca-Casablanca volcano group

March 12th, 2020

As of the 11th of March, SERNAGEOMIN announced today that a yellow technical alert has been declared for the Antillanca-Casablanca volcanic complex, in the Los Lagos region. The alert was generated after the detection on March 9 of a series of 73 seismic events located approximately 2.4 kilometers north-northwest of the Casablanca volcano, with a maximum magnitude of ML1.8. Other seismic events were detected respectively on January 31 and February 1 of MI 3.1-3.2 for the strongest west and northwest of the Casablanca volcano.The other parameters do not show significant variations.The Sernageomin specifies that the level of technical alert Amarilla corresponds to minor explosions or possible fumaroles.The Antillanca Group is a group of basalt to andesitic slag cones from the Upper Pleistocene to the Holocene, maars and small stratovolcanoes covering an area of ​​380 km2 SE of Lago Puyehue and NE of Lago Rupanco. The most prominent building is the Holocene stratovolcano of Casablanca, which has a truncated conical profile and produced major explosive eruptions about 2910 and 2260 years ago (radiocarbon dating).

CHILE - Chaiten volcano

April 4th, 2020

SERNAGEOMIN reported that on April 3 at 04.17 local time, an earthquake of local magnitude 2.8 located 3.2 km deep was recorded under the summit of the Chaitén volcano. The National Service of Geology and Mines has indicated that this earthquake is associated with rock fracturing and the dynamics of internal fluids (hybrid earthquake). The volcanic technical alert remains on "verde". The last period of activity of the Chaiten occurred between May 2, 2008 and May 31, 2011. This first historic eruption produced major explosive rhyolitic activity, numerous pyroclastic flows and lahars, and was followed by the installation of a dome complex which filled much of the caldera. Chaitén is a small, glacier-free caldera with a compound Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. Early work had identified only a single explosive eruption during the early Holocene prior to the major 2008 eruption, but later work has identified multiple explosive eruptions throughout the Holocene. A rhyolitic obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km from the volcano to the N and S. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén. The first historical eruption, beginning in 2008, produced major rhyolitic explosive activity and growth of a lava dome that filled much of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

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Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico)

Japan - Suwanojesima volcano

November 15th, 2020

JMA reported nighttime incandescence and intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 6-13 November. A total of 35 explosions were recorded, ejecting bombs up to 700 m from the crater and producing gray-and-white plumes that rose 1.8 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was periodically reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that explosive eruptive activity continues on Suwanosejima, with two episodes reported by JMA on November 12th. A first at 2:57 am, accompanied by a 600-meter-high plume drifted towards the southwest. A second at 12:45 was accompanied by a plume 1,000 meters high, drifting west. According to Japan Meteorological Agency a moderate explosion occurred on 10th of November at 14:45 local time. An ash plume rose 3,280 ft (1,000 m) above the summit and drifted south. Additionally, a surveillance cameras observed a constant glow that is visible from the summit crater and suggesting rise of magma. JMA reported 2 episodes on October 31 at 2:15 p.m. and 3:40 p.m. local time, respectively accompanied by an ash plume at a height of 800 m. and 1,000 m. above the crater. JMA reported nighttime incandescence and intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 30th of October-6th of November. A total of 24 explosions were recorded, ejecting bombs 400 m from the crater and producing a gray ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). VAAC Tokyo issued 11 volcanic ash advisories between October 29 and October 31 (6:49 am UTC). JMA reported a new eruption at Mitake crater on October 29 at 6:13 a.m., accompanied by an ash plume at 1,300 meters above the crater, and at 8:38 p.m., another, generating a plume at 1,100 meters (or more) in a southerly direction.JMA reported that activity at Suwanosejima Mitake Crater continues characterized by plumes of ash on October 26 at 10:39 pm local reaching 1,500 meters above the crater, and on October 27 at 3:28 am local amounting to 2,000 meters above the crater. JMA reported that a nex explosive activity occurred on 22nd of Ocotober at 8:37 UTC. JMA reported that a new eruptive episode occurred on October 20 at 8:56 a.m. local time; an ash plume developed up to 1,300 meters above the crater.JMA reported nighttime incandescence and intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 2-9 October. Ashfall was occasionally reported in Toshima village, 4 km SSW. An explosion at 1155 on 8 October generated an ash plume that rose more than 700 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 25 September-2 October. Eruptive activity was intermittently recorded along with nine explosions. Ashfall was periodically reported in Toshima village, 4 km SSW. At 2028 on 27 September an explosion ejected blocks 400 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that eruption continueds in Suwanosejima, with on September 26th at 8:25 am local an ash plume, followed at 10:45 am local by an episode which produced an ash plume 1,400 meters above the crater, dispersing towards the southeast . JMA reported nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 18-25 September. An explosion at 0923 on 25 September generated a gray-white ash plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim and disappeared into weather clouds. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village, 4 km SSW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 11-18 September. An explosion at 0155 on 15 September generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected large rocks as far as 400 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that a new explosive activity occurred on September 14 at 13:37; it was accompanied by a plume rising 1,200 meters above the crater. Volcanic ash is flowing east from Mitake Crater, and within an hour, a large amount of ash fell in Toshima Village, Kagoshima Prefecture.JMA reported periodic nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater during 28 August-4 September, and there was a total of 11 eruptions. An eruption at 0234 on 4 September generated a grayish white ash plume that rose 1.3 km above the crater rim before entering weather clouds. The Alert Level remained at 2 JMA reported that explosive eruptive activity continued ; it is characterized by almost constant ash emissions between 1,300 and 1,800 meters dissipating towards the northeast on September 3.JMA reported that activity has been constant for a few days. Strombolian eruptions were reported by local observers, including two strong on August 21 at 14:49 and 04:52 ; According to the JMA, a large volcanic bomb landed 600 meters from Mitake crater; the possible fallout area is set at 1 km radius around Mitake, and ash fallout is possible up to 4 km. On August 22 at 5:06 am, an eruption was accompanied by an ash plume 1,500 meters above the crater, with no dispersion towards the northeast, causing significant fallout on the village of Toshima within an hour. JMA reported that an eruption occurred on August 18, 2020 around 8 p.m. It was accompanied by a plume of gas and ash which rose to 1,200 meters above the crater, then dissipated towards the south. JMA reported occasional eruptive events, three explosions, and occasional nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 31 July-7 August. An explosion at 1553 on 1 August generated an ash plume that rose 1.8 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was occasionally visible during 24-31 July. Occasional eruptive events were recorded. An explosion at 1200 on 27 July generated a gray plume that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim. The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-3 August ash plumes rose to 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). The JMA noted an explosion on July 22 at 10:47 p.m., accompanied by a gray plume 1,200 meters above the edge of the crater. A new explosion was reported on July 25 at 4:48 p.m., with a colored plume 1,000 meters above the crater, drifting north-east. At 19:23, the ashes are still observed at 1,100 meters above the crater, north-east direction.Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 persons live

JAPAN - Kirishimayama volcano group - Shinmoedake Peak - (Kyushu)

January 3rd, 2020

JMA raised alert on January 2, 2020 at 10:40 p.m. JST to level 2 / do not approach the crater; The change is due to a series of volcanic earthquakes recorded from 4 p.m. on January 1, with their epicenter just below the crater. Previous news 2019 - JMA raised the Kirishimayama / Shinmoedake alert level on Nov. 18 at 5:10 am JST from 1 to 2 / do not approach the crater, following an increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes, with epicentres just below the crater. On November 18, 16 volcanic earthquakes were recorded from 0 to 15h local time. The number of volcanic earthquakes below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased on 25 February 2019 prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The number of daily volcanic earthquakes decreased during 3-4 March, and each day through 18 March only a few were recorded. Previously in 2018, A punctual emission of gas and ashes occurred from the volcano on 27th of June at 15:34 local; the plume has reached an altitude of 2,200 meters.The alert level remains at 3 out of 5, and it is recommended not to approach the volcano.A new explosive eruption occured from the crater of the Shinmoedake on June 22 at 9:09 local. It was accompanied by an ash plume rising to 2,600 meters; the ash emission lasted about 5 minutes according to the images provided by the JMA webcam. A shock wave spread from the crater over 1,100 meters.That is the 49th explosion at Shinmoedake since April 5, 2018.The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 May ash plumes from Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, were identified in satellite images drifting S at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. JMA noted that white plumes rose 100 m above the crater rim during 18-21 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that a short eruption occurred on 14th of May at 2:.44 am. An ash plume rose to about 4500 m high above the summit crater and drifted toward Southwest. This activity continued until 4:10 am. It's the first activity since the 6th of April. A pyroclastic flow travelled 2 km down the flank. Volcanic earthquake rates under the crater increased after the eruption. Shallow, low-frequency earthquakes and tremor were also reported. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). As of the 5th of April, JMA reported that a new explosive eruption marked the Shinmoedake this April 5 in the early hours. Two larger explosions were observed at 3:31 and 3:47, accompanied by high ash emissions and a plume rising up to 5,000 meters, traversed by volcanic lightning generated by friction of ash particles..Based on observations during overflights on 28 March and 2 April, JMA reported that the crack on the W flank of Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued to widen. White emissions rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim. Several high-temperature regions around the margins of the lava in the crater, and from the flow on the NW flank, were detected on 28 March. The lava flow on the NW flank advanced 85 m from 9-29 March. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 300 tons/day on 30 March. The number of volcanic earthquakes began to decline after 26 March; though from 0014 to 1430 on 3 April the number increased to 239. Many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that the eruption at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued during 19-27 March. Lava effusion possibly stopped on 9 March, though the lava flow on the NW flank continued to advance. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Short-duration volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. During a field survey on 22 March scientists measured 600 tons/day of sulfur dioxide gas, and noted that the crack on the W flank had grown slightly larger. On 25 March an explosion at 0735 was followed by an ash plume that rose 3.2 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 800 m. An event at 0845 generated an ash plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater rim, and a very small pyroclastic flow that traveled 800 m W. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 300 tons/day on 24 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that the eruption at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, continued during 13-19 March. Lava effusion possibly stopped on 9 March, though the lava flow on the NW flank continued to advance. An explosion at 1413 on 15 March generated a gray-white plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater and ejected material 1 km from the crater. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). According to news articles, ash plumes from Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, caused the cancelation of about 80 flights in and out of Kagoshima airport on 6 March. JMA reported that daily explosions during 6-13 March generated ash plumes that generally rose 3 km above the crater rim, though an ash plume on 10 March rose as high as 4.5 km. Explosions also ejected tephra that fell 700-1,800 m from the vent. Ashfall was reported in a wide area including in the prefectures of Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima. An explosion at 1558 on 9 March rattled structures in the Kagoshima and Miyazaki prefectures. Satellite images showed an increase in the crater diameter from 550 m on 7 March to 650 m on 9 March. During overflights on 9 March observers noted white plumes rising from the margins of the lava covering the crater floor, from lava flows on the S flank, and from newly forming lava flows on the NW flank. The volume of erupted lava was an estimated 14 million cubic meters. The NW lava flow had advanced 226 m by 13 March. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded, in addition to many low-frequency earthquakes with shallow hypocenters. Volcanic tremor was continuous from 1 March until 1536 on 8 March; afterwards the signals had small amplitudes and were intermittent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that volcanic earthquakes at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased during 24-25 February. Volcanic tremor began to be recorded at 0815 on 1 March and intensified within a few hours. Residents in Takahara-machi, 12 km E (Miyazaki prefecture), reported ashfall at 1100; poor weather conditions prevented visual observations of the volcano. Later that day a small eruption was confirmed. Ashfall was reported in the Takahara-cho neighborhood, 12 km E (Miyazaki prefecture), around 1615. The eruption was observed at 1707 during an overflight. The sulfur dioxide flux was 5,500 tons/day, but then decreased to 2,200 tons/day on 2 March. During 2-3 March gray ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater, and ash fell in Takahara-cho on 3 March. Ash plumes rose 400 m on 4 March. Explosive events on 6 March generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km. During an overflight observers noted new lava on the E side of the crater, and plumes rising from both the center of the crater and an area on the N side. Ashfall was confirmed over a wide area from Kirishima prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture to the S, to Miyakonojo city (Miyazaki prefecture) to the E. A high number of volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). Kirishimayama is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene dominantly andesitic group consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1700-m-high Karakunidake being the highest. Onamiike and Miike, the two largest maars, are located SW of Karakunidake and at its far eastern end, respectively. Holocene eruptions have been concentrated along an E-W line of vents from Miike to Ohachi, and at Shinmoedake to the NE. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 8th century. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Aso volcano (Kyushu)

August 20th, 2020

JMA reported that no eruptions at Asosan had been observed since 16 June; only white plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater afterwards. Sulfur dioxide emissions had been low since mid-June, and volcanic-tremor amplitude decreased to low levels on 18 July. During a field inspection on 17 August, observers noted no water in the crater and a whitish area at the
center of the crater floor. On 18 August the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that the eruptive activity continued. On June 5th, an ash plume is observed between 500 and 900 meters (after 3 p.m.) above the Nakadake crater.The activity is stil underway on June 6th.
JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 29 May-2 June. Volcanic plumes rose 1,000-1,600 m above the crater rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high; the rate was 1,000 tons per day on 27 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 11-18 May. Volcanic plumes rose 600-1,000 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high; the rate was 1,300 tons per day on 17 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 4-11 May. Volcanic plumes rose 700-900 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 3,000-4,800 tons per day during 7-8 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 13-20 April. Gray-white ash plumes rose 800-1,100 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was somewhat high at 1,600 and 1,200 tons per day on 14 and 16 April, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). .JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 9-16 March. Gray-to-white ash plumes rose 600-800 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 1,600-1,700 tons per day on 11 and 16 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). VAAC Tokyo reports ash emissions to Asosan on Kyushu on February 29 and March 1, 2020, following an activity of previous duration of the volcano. The ash clouds drift east to an altitude flight 70.JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 10-17 February. Ash plumes rose 900-1,300 m above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate continued to be at a high level. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 27 January-3 February. Plumes rose 1.1 km above the crater rim and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was high, ranging from 1,900 to 3,400 tons per day during 28-29 and 31 January and 3 February. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that eruptive activity at Asosan was recorded during 7-20 January. Plumes rose 0.9-1 km above the crater rim during 15-20 January and caused ashfall in areas downwind; the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes mainly drifted S, SE, E, and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Previous news 2019 - JMA reported that the eruption at Asosan that began on 7 October continued through 16 December. Ash plumes rose as high as 1 km and caused ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 3,000-3,300 tons per day on 11 and 16 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that multiple and brief ash emissions characterizes the Nakadake crater of the Aso volcanic complex since April-May 2019. In recent days, the emissions of ashes occurred , while being visible only from the Museum of the volcano, the plume being drived by variable winds. They were reported by VAAC Tokyo, which states that ashes were not identifiable on satellite images. JMA reported that the eruption at Asosan that began on 7 October continued through 18 November. The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 13-18 November ash plumes rose to 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. On 18 November JMA confirmed ashfall in downwind areas. JMA reported that during 7-15 October ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above Asosan's summit crater rim, causing ashfall in areas downwind including periodically at the Kumamoto Regional Meteorological Observatory. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was very high at 4,000 tons per day on 11 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that during 2-7 October ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km above Asosan's summit crater rim and drifted NE and NW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Aso City. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible at night. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,800 tons per day on 7 October. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that during 25-30 September ash plumes rose as high as 1.6 km above Asosan’s summit crater rim and drifted NE and NW, causing ashfall in areas downwind. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 2,600 tons per day on 26 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that ash emissions continued to be observed at Asosan, rising to 1.6, 1.1, and 0.9 km above the crater rim during 14-17, 18-20, and 21-24 September, respectively. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 3,600 tons per day on 17 September and 2,700 tons per day on 19 September. Ashfall was reported in downwind areas to the SW, including at the Kumamoto Regional Meteorological Observatory. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. (GVP/GVN)

JAPAN - Asama volcan (Honshu)

July 23rd, 2020

JMA reported that the activity has increased in recent weeks, associated with fluctuating seismicity. The vapor and gas plume rose 400m above the summit on July 22th. JMA reported that since June 20th, 2020, the number of volcanic earthquakes increased, then fluctuated downward. The number of volcanic earthquakes is 59 on June 24, 113 on June 25, 120 on June 26, 80 on June 27, 24 on 28.06 and 2  at 3:00 p.m. today (29 - preliminary value). Observation by a surveillance camera showed that the white plume remained below 200 m above the edge of the crater, and no particular change was observed. JMA raised the alert level to 2 / do not approach the crater, on June 25 at 3 p.m. JST. It is advised not to enter the danger zone in the municipalities of Gunma: Tsumagoi-mura, Nagano: Komoro-shi, Karuizawa-machi, Miyota-machi. Since June 20, seismic activity on the western flank of the volcano has continued at fluctuating levels. On June 24 and 25, the seismic station recorded 59 and 69 volcano-tectonic earthquakes respectively. An eruption could occur without warning. The warning bulletin indicates that the ballistic impacts of volcanic bombs and pyroclastic flows could affect an area about 2 km away from the main crater. Previous news 2019 - On 6 November JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asamayama to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) noting that no eruptions had occurred since 26 August, volcanic tremor had not been recorded since early September, and volcanic gas emissions had been generally low. JMA a minor eruption occurred on 25 August at 1928, accompanied by a plume rising 600 meters above the crater.Its last activity dates back to August 7th. The alert level was 3 until August 19, when it was lowered to 2. Despite the risk of small eruptions (possibly accompanied by pyroclastic flows and bomb ejections), the level remains at 2 according to the JMA. The plume then turned white and continuous emissions rose 200 m during 25-26 August. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that White plumes rose as high as 700 m above the crater rim during 8-13 August, and the amount of sulfur dioxide released was 90-200 tons per day. JMA reported that un eruption occurred at at 10:08 p.m. Wednesday 7th of August sending ashplume to an altitude of about 1,800 meters. Volcanic ash is reported in small quantities north of the crater on Naganohara, Tsumagoi, Karuizawa, and Miyota.In addition, to the northeast of the crater over a distance of about 2 km, there is a risk that ash will be blown away.There were no reports of injuries nor property damage as of Thursday morning. The small eruption prompted the volcanic alert level to be raised from 1 to 3, on a scale of 5. Asamayama, Honshu's most active volcano, overlooks the resort town of Karuizawa, 140 km NW of Tokyo. The volcano is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan volcanic arcs. The modern Maekake cone forms the summit and is situated east of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofuyama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic shield volcano was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the east flank. Maekake, capped by the Kamayama pyroclastic cone that forms the present summit, is probably only a few thousand years old and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century CE. Maekake has had several major plinian eruptions, the last two of which occurred in 1108 (Asamayama's largest Holocene eruption) and 1783 CE. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Kuchinoerebujima ( Ryu-Kyu islands)

April 29th , 2020

JMA reported that t activity continued at the Shindake crater of Kuchinoerabujima, with an eruption that occurred at 11:05 a.m. on April 29, characterized by a plume of ash and gas 1,000 meters above the crater. The plume flows north, then northeast.JMA reported that very small eruptions are still occuring intermittently in the crater of Shindake. On April 24 at 11:15 p.m., a plume was reported 300 meters above the crater. No volcanic block collapse or pyroclastic flow was observed. A field study from April 21-23 revealed a crack on the west side of the Shindake crater, where a slight increase in temperature in the nearby geothermal field was reported. JMA also reported an increase in activity level on April 24. JMA reported that during 13-20 April very small eruptive events at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater produced grayish-white plumes that rose 600 m above the crater rim. An event at 0147 on 20 April generated a grayish-white plume that rose 800 m and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that currently on level 3 alert, activity continued, with the emission of a white-gray plume on April 16 at around 3 p.m. local. The activity was in progress. Previously, JMA reported that activity continues, according to the JMA with plumes of gas and ash observed this April 6 at 8:10 a.m. JST, from a height of 400 meters, and at 3 p.m. JST, with a plume reaching 700 meters. Ash and lapilli falls are expected. The alert level is 3 / do not approach the volcano. As of the 23rd of March, JMA recorded a white plume 400 meters above the crater of the volcano. Seismicity is characterized by increasing volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the number of which reaches 25 / day. Sulfur dioxide emissions are around 1,300 tonnes / day. The latest bulletin of March 23 also reported bombs and pyroclastic flows likely to affect an area up to 2 km from the crater. JMA reported that very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater during 20-21 February generated whitish plumes that rose 200 m above the crater rim. No changes were observed during field visits on those two days. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 400-600 tons per day during 20-23 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that at 1211 on 13 February a very small eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced a grayish white plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that a small explosion occurred on February 9 at 9:50 a.m. local, with an ash plume rising 500 meters above the crater, before dispersing to the southeast.As of the 4th of February, JMA reported that a pyroclastic flow extending for about 900 meters was observed on the southwest side of Mount Shindake, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic plume 626 meters high, on Kuchinoerabu Island, in the Kagoshima prefecture. However, it did not reach the residential areas and no injuries or damage to the residences were confirmed, according to the local government. The height of the ash plume could not be assessed by the VAAC due to the cloud cover. According to JMA, the eruption occurred around 5.30 a.m. on February 3, 2020. Large deposits of ash were found scattered in areas about 600 meters from the crater. Very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima on 20, 23, and 24 January produced grayish-white plumes that rose 500 m above the crater rim. Ashfall 2 km NE of the crater was confirmed during aerial observations on 23 January. The number of volcanic earthquakes increased during 25-26 January. An eruptive event was recorded at 0148 on 27 January, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation; volcanic tremor, changes in tilt data, and infrasound signals accompanied the event. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were 200-1,000 tons per day during 20-27 January; JMA characterized emissions of 600-1,000 tons per day as high. JMA reported trhat white plumes from Kuchinoerabujima rose 600 m above the crater rim during 14-17 January. Minor eruptive activity from 1659 on 17 January through 1030 on 20 January generated grayish-white plumes that rose 300 m. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 800 and 1,600 tons per day on 15 and 16 January, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). VAAC Tokyo reported that an eruption took place on January 11th at 3:05 p.m. and continued at 3:30 p.m., producing a thick plume of ash and gas rising to 2,000 meters before entering the clouds. The ash is dispersed in an eastern sector.The alert level is 3 / "do not approach the crater" since 28th of October.2019. Previous news 2019 - JMA raised the alert level of the Kuchinoerabujima to 3 / do not approach the crater on October 28, 2019 at 00:15 local. This adjustment of the alert follows a massive earthquake on October 27 at 21:33, with a hypocentre located near the crater Shindake. A possible eruption, likely to cause pyroclastic flows, can impact area from the crater  to the coast.JMA reported that Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater has not erupted since 3 February, and the number of shallow earthquakes located near the crater had been decreasing since then. Deeper volcanic earthquakes had not been recorded since 16 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions remained elevated. JMA lowered the Alert Level to 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-5) on 12 June. JMA reported that during 30 January-1 February and 3-5 February white plumes rose as high as 600 m. An event that lasted during 1141-1300 on 2 February generated a plume that rose 600 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA and VAAC Tokyo reported a new eruption on January 29, 2019 around 5pm local time. The Shindake plume rose to 2,800 meters asl at 5:14 pm to 5:16 pm, accompanied by a pyroclastic flow to the southwest for 600 meters. JMA reported that an explosive eruption occurred at about 9:19 am on January 17th, 2019. This explosive activity was accompanied by a plume of ash to a height of 6.000 meters, ejection of pyroclasts up to 1,000 meters from the crater, but also pyroclastic flows encompassing the southwest flank of the volcano on 1,500 meters. These flows have fortunately not reached the inhabited areas.Following this eruption, a powerful white plume of gas and vapor was observed.The JMA maintains the alert level at 3 / do not approach the volcano within a radius of 2 km.JMA reported that following small, regular eruptions lasting a few weeks, followed by a complete break the volcano showed a strong explosive eruption accompanied by a shock wave perceived at the port of Honmura 2 km from the crater, this December 18 at 16:37; the ash plume reached 2,000 meters before entering the cloud layer, and a pyroclastic flow ran a distance of 1,000 meters on the west flank. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km west of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. The youngest cone, centrally-located Shintake, formed after the NW side of Furutake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shintake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furutake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shintake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions. (GVN/GVP) - NHK webcam

JAPAN - Azumayama volcano (Honshu)

June 19th, 2019

On 17 June JMA lowered the Alert Level for Azumayama to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale), noting that deformation and elevated seismicity recorded in May had stabilized and decreased, respectively. JMA reported that yhe number of volcanic earthquakes at Azumayama increased on 5 May and data from a tiltmeter about 1 km SE of Ohana Crater showed inflation on 9 May, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Field observations on 7 and 10 May indicated no changes in the fumarolic and thermal areas around Ohana. Seismicity began to decrease on 10 May, though continued to fluctuate through 20 May. Deformation continued but at a slower rate. The Azumayama volcanic group consists of a cluster of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones. The andesitic and basaltic complex was constructed in two E-W rows above a relatively high basement of Tertiary sedimentary rocks and granodiorites west of Fukushima city. Volcanic activity has migrated to the east, with the Higashi-Azuma volcano group being the youngest. The symmetrical Azuma-Kofuji crater and a nearby fumarolic area on the flank of Issaikyo volcano are popular tourist destinations. The Azumayama complex contains several crater lakes, including Goshikinuma and Okenuma. Historical eruptions, mostly small phreatic explosions, have been restricted to Issaikyo volcano at the northern end of the Higashiyama group.(GVN/GVP)
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JAPAN - Hakoneyama volcano (Honshu)

October 9th, 2019

On 7 October JMA lowered the Alert Level for Hakoneyama to 1 (the lowest level on a 5-level scale), noting that the number of volcanic earthquakes had decreased to background levels after a spike in seismicity was recorded in May. Inflation had been detected but had become almost stagnant after late August. Fumaroles in the Owakudani hot springs area continued to be active, with gas-and-steam plumes rising 100-400 m above their vents. JMA reported that the number of earthquakes at Hakoneyama increased on 18 May and remained elevated through 27 May. The epicenters were centered around the W bank of Lake Ashinoko and around Komagatake. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data continued to indicate a trend of inflation. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that the number of earthquakes at Hakoneyama increased during 18-19 May, with epicenters centered around the W bank of Lake Ashinoko and around Komagatake. Fumaroles in the Owakudani hot springs area continued to be active. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data showed changes in deformation beginning in mid-March. On 19 May JMA raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Elevated seismicity continued to be recorded through 21 May. Hakoneyama volcano is truncated by two overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 10 x 11 km wide. The calderas were formed as a result of two major explosive eruptions about 180,000 and 49,000-60,000 years ago. Scenic Lake Ashi lies between the SW caldera wall and a half dozen post-caldera lava domes that were constructed along a NW-SE trend cutting through the center of the calderas. Dome growth occurred progressively to the NW, and the largest and youngest of these, Kamiyama, forms the high point. The calderas are breached to the east by the Hayakawa canyon. A phreatic explosion about 3000 years ago was followed by collapse of the NW side of Kamiyama, damming the Hayakawa valley and creating Lake Ashi. The latest magmatic eruptive activity about 2900 years ago produced a pyroclastic flow and a lava dome in the explosion crater, although phreatic eruptions took place as recently as the 12-13th centuries CE. Seismic swarms have occurred during the 20th century. Lake Ashi, along with the thermal areas in the caldera, is a popular resort destination SW of Tokyo.(GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano (Kyushu)

November 18th, 2020

JMA reported that during 9-16 November incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. Two explosions on 10 November produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 600-900 m away from the crater. An eruptive event at 0708 on 16 November generated a plume that rose 1.3 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that Vulcanian-type explosions continue from the Minamidake summit crater. The last explosive eruption was recorded on 10th of November at 13:35 local time increasingly larger plume of ash emissions and gas content can be seen rising from the crater. Ash column reached up to 8,800 ft (2,682 m) altitude and drifted SE. Blocks and bombs were ejected as far as 500 m-700 m distance from the Minamidake summit crater. JMA reported that during 2-9 November incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. Two explosions during 1-2 November produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim. An explosion was recorded at 1504 on 7 November but the weather conditions prevented visual conformation. The daily sulfur dioxide emission rate was high at 2,200 tons per day on 9 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that on November 3th at 3:51 p.m. local / 3:06 a.m. UTC an explosive eruption occurred. The ash plume rose to 1,800 m above the crater, with a dispersion towards the south-east. It was the 199th explosions of the year 2020. JMA reported that during 26 October-2 November incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. An eruption at 0620 on 30 October produced a plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 14-20 October incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. A small eruption was recorded on 13 October. During an overflight that same day scientists observed lava at the bottom of the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) were occasionally recorded during 5-12 October. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) were occasionally recorded during 29 September-3 October. Crater incandescence was visible at night. An eruptive event at 1635 on 3 October produced a plume that rose 1.7 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) were occasionally recorded during 14-21 September. Crater incandescence was visible at night. An eruption at 0810 on 15 September generated an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). As of the 16th of September, JMA reported that the activity of the volcano was characterized by occasional ash emissions. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)and Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Tokyo (VAAC) detected emissions of gas and steam plumes with ash content on 15th of September. The plumes rose 3,280 ft (1,000 m) above the summit crater and were dispersed towards the east direction. As of the 10th of September, JMA reported that glow was visible at night and near-constant emissions of gas and small amounts of ash suggest continued rise of fresh magma probably accumulating as a lava dome in the inner summit crater. JMA reported that on September 4th, 2020 at 12:27 p.m. an explosion occurred, accompanied by a plume of gas and ash rising to 1,600 meters above the summit; the dissipation took place in the direction of a northern sector. JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 17-28 August; the volcano was quiet during 29-31 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) were recorded during 10-17 August. The daily sulfur dioxide emission rate was just over 1,000 tons/day on 13 August. During an overflight on 14 August observers noted that emissions were rising from multiple vents in the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that on August 9 at 5:38 a.m. JST, an eruption occurred from Minamidake summit crater, accompanied by a double plume, of a different color, which rose 5,000 meters above the crater, and projections of bombs and pyroclasts , partly obscured by clouds. The ashes dispersed to the north, and Kajiki, and a large quantity of ashes fell on the city of Kagoshima during the first hour; Kirishima is also expecting ash falls. JMA reported very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 6-10 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported very small eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 29 June-3 July; inclement weather prevented visual observations during 4-6 July. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,300 tons per day on 2 July. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 22-26 June two eruptive events at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) produced plumes that rose as high as 1,300 m above the crater rim. An explosion at 1807 on 28 June ejected material 1,000-1,300 m away from the crater and produced a plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that very small eruptive events were recorded at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 19-22 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). The Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

Japan - Satsuma-Iwojima ( Ryukyu islands)

October 6th, 2020

JMA recorded a small eruption on 6th of October at 07:57 local time. Ash emissions reach up to 3,000 ft (914 m) altitude and drifted NW. JMA reported that during 7-14 September white plumes from Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai's NW caldera rim, rose as high as 1 km above the Iodake crater rim. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). Previously, JMA reported that an eruption occurred at 06:09 am on April 29 at the Iodake crater of Satsuma Iwo Jima. It continued until 6:50 a.m. The height of the gas and ash plume is 1000 meters above the edge of the crater. The ashes should fall to the north of the crater.The inclinometer data near Mount Iodake did not show any significant change due to volcanic activity.Therefore, it is unlikely that a large-scale eruption will occur at this time.Currently, Satsuma Iwo Jima is at eruption alert level 2 (regulation around the crater).Previous news 2019 - The Japan Meteorological Agency has raised the alert level of Satsuma-Iojima to 2 (/ do not approach the crater) on November 2nd of November at 17:50 JST, following an eruption that occurred at 17:35 local, accompanied by a plume of ash which has desegregated the 1,000 meters above the crater. The ashes dispersed in a northwesterly direction, with little impact on the village of Mishima..A grayish-white plume rose 1 km above the Iodake crater rim. The report noted that the number of volcanic earthquakes has been low, with no variations before or after the event. The next day during an overflight conducted by the Coast Guard and the Japan Meteorological Agency Mobile Survey Team (JMA-MOT) observers noted no changes to the geothermal field and no new deposits from the event the day before. Views of the crater were obscured by white plumes rising 300 m above the crater rim.Satsuma-Iojima forms part of the edge of the largely submerged Kikai caldera, 19 km wide, and located at the northern end of the Ryuku volcanic arc, south of Kyushu Island / Japan. Two post-caldera structures contributed to its current morphology: Mt.Iwodake, a rhyolitic lava dome, and the small Inamuradake scoria cone.The historical eruptions of the 20th century have mainly concerned Iwodake, which is marked by a fumarolic activity of high temperature (up to 900 ° C).The summit zone, of 400 over 140 meters, includes several craters, result of the explosive activity following the installation of the dome. The small crater Kintsuba is located southwest of the central crater Oana, a place of mining sulfur . Small ash eruptions were observed in 1999, 2001, 2002-2204, and 2013. (GVN/GVP)

Japan - Nishinoshima volcano - Izu Island

September 13th, 2020

Experts have reported a recent change in the composition of volcanic ash emitted by Nishinoshima. The magma seems to come from a greater depth, and future developments could include a collapse of the central cone, leading to subsidence of the whole island, and a possible tsunami. The large volumes of lava emitted made the island grow by 40%, increasing it from 2.89 km² in May 2019 to 4.1 km² in August 2020, based on satellite images. There was also a change in the mode of eruption. Nishinoshima was only emitting lava until June, but began discharging large volumes of ash in late July, covering the entire island under several meters of this brown ash. Ash analysis in July showed that its silica dioxide content has dropped from 60 to 55%. The magnesium and calcium content has increased, resulting in a greater density of magma. An overflight of Nishinoshima was carried out by the Japan Coast Guards on August 19 between 1:25 p.m. and 2:15 p.m. Despite the veil of clouds, it was possible to observe a consequent widening of the crater of the pyroclastic cone, already partly noticed on the satellite images of August 14 ; a strong diffusion on the infrared images testifies to the activity in the crater, and on a large delta at the edge of the sea .Degassing generates a rather white plume, generous but not very high confirmed by the satellite images, on which the ash clouds are not identifiable.JMA reported that a small explosion occurred on August 16 in Nishinoshima, visible in a NASA image. The VAAC Tokyo reported the continuation of the ash emissions, up to an altitude of flight 130. GSI has uploaded the SAR intensity images of the Daichi-2 satellite taken of Nishinoshima between July 31 and August 14, 2020. The interference zones were considerably reduced over almost the entire surface of the island, covered with ash. The image taken on August 14 showed an expansion of the pyroclastic cone crater. On August 15, gas and ash emissions continue, with the emission of a plume in a southwesterly direction, dissipating in a western sector. JMA reported that explosive activity continues, with an ash plume estimated at an altitude of 4,000 meters / alt. Flight 130, by VAAC Tokyo. On August 11, Nishinoshima was at the center of the cyclonic system formed in southern Japan by Tropical Storm SIX, weakened into a tropical depression while it carried the plume of ash and sulphate aerosols emitted by the current eruption.JMA reported a colorful plume at 3,800 meters asl. on Nishinoshima, south-eastbound, on August 9 at 2:20 p.m. local time. The eruption continues and a strong signal of sulfur dioxide is reported by Tropomi. JMA reported that activity of Nishinoshima continues, with ash emissions, reported by the VAAC Tokyo, partially obscured in its western part by clouds. A strong sulfur dioxide signal is noted by Tropomi. The Taiwan News reports that volcanic dust from an eruption on the Japanese island of Nishinoshima was responsible for a sudden deterioration in air quality on Taiwan's sparsely populated East Coast on Thursday evening (August 6), according to Taiwan News. meteorological experts. JMA reported that activity remained on Nishinoshima, where VAAC Tokyo reported ash plumes reaching up to 5,800 meters in early August. Their dispersion takes place in multiple directions. The Sentinel-5P / Tropomi Satellite still reports strong signals of sulfur dioxide around Nishinoshima, with this August 06, 98.45Du of SO2 at an altitude of 6 km. JMA reported for this August 4 that Sentinel-5P / Tropomi recorded 20.88 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 10 km. AIRES has analyzed these SO2 emissions over the last 40 days and estimates them between 50 and 100 kilotons per day, or about 2-4% of the annually global anthropogenic SO2 emissions. JMA reported that on July 30th, an observation was made of the gray plume emanating from the crater which reached a height of about 3,000 meters, passing through thin clouds in the sky and progressing south from the aircraft. Until now, the rugged black lava has spread over the surface of the island, but during the day it is covered in brown volcanic ash several meters thick. Scoria hill seems to remain in its old configuration (Video). AIRES analyzed the plumes emitted by the volcano, and noticed differences in spectrum between the Himawari & Modis photos of July 8 and July 30, 2020, suggesting changes and a higher silicate content. Previously, JMA reported that the activity continued on July 30th with at 9 p.m. a new eruption, accompanied by an ash plume at 5,300 meters above the crater. The dispersal was to the south, then to the west. JMA reported that on July 27th, the plume was drifting NW, then N according to VAAC Tokyo and Nasa Worldview images. An area of ​​water discoloration extends NE for a few kilometers. JMA reported that the eruptive activity continued on Nishinoshima with on July 25, 2020 at 3 p.m. a plume of brown ash at 4,400 meters above the crater, drifting north. On the Nasa worldview satellite image a discoloration of the water was visible. Sentinel-5P / Tropomi detected a strong sulfur dioxide signal near Nishinoshima, with 24.16DU of SO2 at an altitude of 8.12 km. Based on satellite data and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-21 July ash plumes rose to 3.7-6.4 km (12,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E. Satellite data showed a sulfur dioxide plume reaching the western USA on 18 July, after traveling over 9,000 km from Nishinoshima. JMA scientists observed Nishinoshima from a ship on 11 July. They reported that a large amount of ash was emitted from the summit crater; plumes rose about 1.7 km and drifted W, dropping ash into the sea. Deposits of large blocks at the foot of the cone were visible. Lava fountains that rose 200 m above the crater were observable at night, along with lightning in the ash plumes. The cone had grown to about 200 m, about 40 m higher than an estimate on 1 December 2019. The report stated that ships should stay at least 2.5 km away from the cone. VAAC Tokyo and Mirova reported that a slight thermal anomaly remained , but has decreased considerably since July 10th, when it was noted at VRP 1340 at 473 MW, against VRP 91 at 8 MW on July 11th. The extension of the plume is centered around the island, with a moderate drift towards the northeast. Eruptive activity is still continuing with an ash plume and sulfur dioxide emissions, seen by satellites, and reported by the VAAC Tokyo. Mirova always reported high to very high thermal anomalies between July 8th and 10th, between VRP 304 and 1811 MW. As of the 8th of July, Thermal anomalies always remain very high to high according to Mirova. External activity is characterized by the emission of ash plumes and vapors / gases as in the previous days. On the Sentinel-5P / tropomi satellite images, a strong sulfur dioxide signal can be detected, with 16.84 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 9.73 km.VAAC Tokyo continues to issue ash dispersal notices (According to VAAC. 1FL = 100 feet = 30.5 meters). JMA reported on July 4, 2020 at 3 p.m. a plume of gas and ash rose to 7,100 meters asl., drifting towards the west. Satellite images showed a strong sulfur dioxide signal which can be detected, with 16.04 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 8.02 km. The thermal anomalies noted by Mirova have remained intense in recent days. The JMA announced on July 4 a volcanic plume of 8,300 meters high in Nishinoshima, against the more than 3,400 meters observed by the Japan Coast guards on June 29.In the SAR intensity image of July 3, changes in the topography, which would be caused by lava, etc., were observed on the southwest and west sides of the pyroclastic cone, and the coastline changes on the south-west side of Nishinoshima.In addition, the diameter of the pyroclastic cone increased approximately 1.5 times from June 19, and topographic changes on the southern slope are visible. From the north side to the east side of the pyroclastic cone, there is a decrease in the intensity of reflection, which would be due to the fall of the ashes. NASA images show that SO2 emission from the Nishinoshima volcano eruption still cover much of the North Pacific on July 3. Part of the SO2 has dispersed through the Aleutian Islands and Alaska to the Chukchi and the seas of eastern Siberia, above 70 ° North.An overflight of the island by the Japan Coast Guards on June 29 revealed an activity that remained significant, with explosions of incandescent materials, a plume of black ash rising to more than 3,400 meters, and significant modifications at the top and on the southwest flank of the slag cone / Scoria hill. Following the current activity, part of the cone has collapsed and oxidized projections are visible along the coast. In addition, the lava now flows to the southwest.VAAC Tokyo reports this June 26th at 12h Z that ash emissions continue in Nishinoshima. Confirmed at an eastward flight altitude of 100 / Himawari-8 satellite data. A strong sulfur dioxide signal was detected on June 26 from 38.72 DU of SO2 at an altitude of 7.1 km northeast, via Sentinel- 5P / Tropomi. Activity on Nishinoshima remains significant; very high thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova between VRP 1437 and 2479 MW on June 24, 202. VAAC Tokyo has issued a new ash dispersion advisory to the northeast. The ongoing activity on Nishinoshima continues, more intense in June than in May. Thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova and Himawari-8, described as high to very high from June 21 to 23. On June 16, an ash cloud was observed heading east. On June 21 and 22, a plume of sulfur dioxide was spotted by Sentinel - 5P / Tropomi, associated with the effusive eruption. It extended in the troposphere over 5,000 km on June 22. The effusive activity modifies the morphology of the island, as indicated by the SAR images put online by GSI. VAAC Tokyo reported that on June 16, with a brown-black plume emitted at about 2,000 meters, doubled with plumes of gas and vapor emitted by lava flows and their entry into the sea. JMA reported that the activity of Nishinoshima does not weaken, with many high thermal anomalies on June 11 and 12, 2020, listed between 46 and 578 MW. The last overview by the Japan Coast Guards on June 7 shows an intense gas and ash emission activity at the crater of the pyroclastic cone, as well as the plumes of gas and vapor emitted by the arrival of lava at sea. An overview was conducted by the Japan Coast Guards on May 18, 2020. When approaching the island, the summit activity was accompanied with degassing due to the arrival of lava at sea.Strombolian explosions produced a plume of ash, and ejected materials on the blanks of the pyroclastic cone. On the thermal image, It was possible to see that the lava flowing from the effusive vent on the southwest flank of the cone is divided into two arms, one of which formed a delta at the entrance to the sea. Activity appears to be continuous, slightly up on April 29, 2020 overview The japonaise Coast Guard carried out an overview by the Japan Coast Guards on April 29, 2020. The surface of the slag cone has been renewed and deposits of sulfur can be seen in places on the northeast surface of the cone. Although it cannot be seen from the front of the image, it appears that the collapsed crater southwest of the summit that appeared on April 19 has been buried again. Between April 29 and the previous sighting on April 19, there was obviously a good activity. Thermal images are also interesting. Although the exit is the same, you can see the lava flow move clockwise through the pyroclastic cone and head south. A beautiful fan of lava in the north direction, and a flow to the east coast consists of three arms. The Japanese Coast Guard flew over Nishinoshima (Ogasawara Islands) on March 9, confirming that the gray plume emitted reached an altitude of about 1,000 meters. The lava flows on the northeast flank of the crater for about 1 km to the north shore before flowing into the sea, where a plume of gas and vapor was visible. Mirova has noted thermal anomalies, when the cloud cover does not prevent measurements, between 79 and 314 MW, for the period from 09 to 11.03.2020. As of the 3rd of March, GSI site reported topographic changes due to lava were observed on the north and east sides of the pyroclastic cone, and changes in the coastline are observed on the side North of the island. In addition, a new topographic change was observed on the southwest side of the pyroclastic cone, which would be caused by lava. The thermal anomalies transmitted by Mirova between February 29 and March 2 range from 47 MW on March 1 / 4:15 a.m. and 338 MW on March 2 / 12:45 p.m. As of the 17th of February, JMA reported that the activity that resumed since December 20, 2019, continued actively with thermal anomaliestnoted by Mirova and SAR images testifying to flows which enlarge its surface.Eruptive activity continues on Nishinoshima, with thermal anomalies noted by Mirova, and reaching 425 MW on February 2 at 3:50 a.m. Regular GSI reports show the topographic changes caused by lava flows from the northeast to the east of the island between January 17 and 31. On January 26, 2020, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 captured this image of a plume of ash and vapor emanating from volcanic island of Nishinoshima. In this image, the infrared data is superimposed on a natural color image to highlight the active flows of the volcano. According to the Global Volcanism Program, the lava flows traveled northeast and entered the ocean, generating plumes of vapor near the shore. The Japan Coast Guards reported a continued increase in emissions from January 15 to 21 from the central crater. The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima conducted from 1335 to 1412 on 17 January surveyors observed continuous gray emissions rising from the central crater of the pyroclastic cone to 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E and NE. The central crater was open to the ENE; lava flows traveled NE and entered the ocean, producing steam plumes at the coastline. GSI reported that Synthetic Aperture / SAR Radar images on board the Japanese satellite DAICHI-2 (ALOS-2) provided by the GSI, show changes in the coastline to the NNE of Nishinoshima Island (Ogasawara Islands), between 3 and January 17, 2020, in connection with a lava flow from the cone.The thermal anomalies reported by Mirova oscillated between 7 and 268 MW on January 15-17, 2020 (note that they can be masked by cloud cover and interpreted accordingly). The eruptive episodes therefore continue well, with relative enlargement of the emerged part.According to recent news he morphological evolution of the cone and the contours of the island continues.The GSI reported a modification on both the NW and SSE coast on December 20, 2019, and a significant increasing on the NNE side on January 3, based on ALOS-2 satellite images.Moderate to high thermal anomalies were observed by Mirova. Previous news 2019 - As of the 16th of December, JMA reported that the strombolian activity continued and was characterized by the emission of a plume of ash, bombs, and feeded two flows from a vent near the summit of Scoria Hill, in a west and east direction. One of the lava flow reached the ocean with emission of gas and vapor. Thermal anomalies remained moderate but constant. The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima on 15 December surveyors observed that explosions were occurring from the main crater of the pyroclastic cone every second to several seconds. Blocks were ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim; red hot blocks were scattered at the base of the cone. Gray plumes rose from the crater, and lava continued flowing E into the sea. A new crater had opened on the N flank of the cone and effused lava that flowed NW down to the sea. JMA expanded the marine exclusion zone around the island to 2.5 km the next day. JMA reported that the Nishinoshima Volcano, which has been calm since July 2018, has recovered explosive-effusive activity since 4 December 2019. The explosions are located at the main cone, and a vent that opened at the NE base of the cone produces spaterring and lava flows.This activity, in addition to the thermal anomalies recorded by satellite, was observed on December 6 during an overflight by the Japanese coastguard. The small island of Nishinoshima was enlarged when several new islands coalesced during an eruption in 1973-74. Another eruption that began offshore in 2013 completely covered the previous exposed surface and enlarged the island again. Water discoloration has been observed on several occasions since. The island is the summit of a massive submarine volcano that has prominent satellitic peaks to the S, W, and NE. The summit of the southern cone rises to within 214 m of the sea surface 9 km SSE. (GVN/GVP)

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Suwanojesima volcano ( Japan)

USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

July 24th, 2020

HVO reported that Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Monitoring data for the month of June show variable but typical rates of seismicity and ground deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions, and only minor geologic changes since the end of eruptive activity in September 2018. Water was first observed at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, one year ago. Since then, the body of water has slowly deepeaned and grown in size. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory continues to monitor the lake, Kīlauea Volcano remains at alert-level NORMAL and aviation color-code GREEN. HVO published May Monthly summary about the activity of the Kīlauea volcano, which is not erupting. Monitoring data for May shows variable but typical rates of seismicity and soil deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions and only minor geological changes since eruptive activity ended in September 2018 . Seismicity rates during the month were about 25% lower than last month. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the top and below the detection limits at PuʻuʻŌʻō and in the lower East Rift Zone. The crater lake at the bottom of Halema'uma'u continues to expand and deepen slowly. As of June 3, the depth of the lake was approximately 36 meters. A certain amount of sulfur dioxide is dissolved in the summit lake and work is continuing to try to quantify this process. HVO reported that monitoring data for February showed variable but typical rates of seismicity and soil deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions and only minor geological changes since the end of activity eruptive in September 2018. The pond of acid water at the bottom of Halema'uma'u continues to expand and deepen slowly. In early March, the dimensions of the pond were approximately 100 meters by 200 meters. The current depth is around 28 meters. As of the 6th of February, HVO reported that the seismicity rates during the month were variable but remain in the long-term values. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the top and below the detection limits at Puʻu ʻŌʻō and in the lower East Rift zone. The pond at the bottom of Halema'uma'u, which began to form on July 25, 2019, continues to expand and deepen slowly. At the beginning of February, the dimensions were: 95 meters by 194 meters. The current depth is around 25 meters.PREVIOUS NEWS 2019 - As of the 5th of December, HVO reported monitoring data continue to show steady rates of seismicity and ground deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions, and only minor geologic changes since the end of eruptive activity in September 2018. Monitoring data have shown no significant changes in volcanic activity during November. Over the past month, about a dozen DI events occurred beneath the summit. Seismic stations detected over 1800 earthquakes in the vicinity of the volcano, which is an increase of ~10% from last month. Rates of seismicity are relatively consistent throughout the month, although at the summit, episodic increased rates appear to be coincident with the inflated phase of the DI events. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the summit and are below detection limits at Puʻu ʻŌʻō and the lower East Rift Zone. The pond at the bottom of Halema'uma'u, which began forming on July 25, 2019, continues to slowly expand and deepen, and the most recent measurements are 162 meters in the east-west direction and 73 meters in the north-south direction. HVO reported that the crater lake of Halema'uma'u continues to grow; its level is measured on October 19 at 608 meters under the observation site. The steam that sweeps its surface testifies to the high temperature of the water, and the winds at the bottom of the crater. The refill is marked by areas of bluish color on a general tint of the surface of greenish yellow color. HVO reported that a recent flyover of the Pu'u O'o 'crater in the eastern rift zone of Kilauea allowed a good visualization of the bottom of the crater, drained after 35 years of eruptions. The rubble from the collapse of the crater walls filled much of its deepest part, the bottom being now about 250 meters (820 feet) below the eastern ledge. As of the 2nd of August HVO reported that the seismicity and strain ratios remained stable; low emissions of sulfur dioxide since September 2018. Insight from July 25, 2019, a green pond marks the floor of Halema'uma'u, at about 540 meters above sea level. HVO scientists flew over the summit of Kilauea in the morning of 1 August and confirm the presence of water at the bottom of Halima'uma'u crater. Observers saw reflections from the green pond. The pond has clearly expanded since the oldest photos made on July 25th. Previous news - As of the 22nd of May, HVO reported that no significant change occurred over the past week in Kilauea volcanic activity, in normal volcanic alert / green aviation code.Since the beginning of March, tiltmeters have recorded a modest inflationary trend at the top, confirmed by GPS and InSAR measurements; it is interpreted as a magmatic accumulation in the shallow portion of the summit magmatic system, 1-2 km deep.Other measurements show the filling of the magma reservoir of the deep East Rift Zone in a large area between Pu'u O'o and Highway 130, since the end of the 2018 eruption. The HVO continues to monitor Kilauea's seismicity, deformation and gas emissions closely, to detect an increase in its activity. As of the 20th of March, HVO reported that over the past week, volcanic activity has not changed significantly.Low levels seismicity persisted on the volcano, with earthquakes occurring mainly in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and inclinometers continue to display movements consistent with deep magma reservoir filling in the East Rift Zone. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Pu'u'u'ō remain low. These rates have been stable for several weeks. HVO reported that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with earthquakes occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and tiltmeters continue to show motions consistent with refilling of the deep East Rift Zone. These rates have been steady over the past several weeks. At Kilauea's summit, tiltmeters are showing deflationary tilt consistent with the beginning of a Deflation-Inflation event (D-I event); these types of events have been commonly observed at the summit for several years. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. As of the 15th of January 2019, HVO reportede that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past weeks. Deformation signals are consistent with slow magmatic recharge within the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ).Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with events occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. Slow inflationary tilt continues in the middle ERZ. Sulfur dioxide emission rates have been below detection limits in the LERZ since early September, though minor amounts of volcanic gas are still present. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. Previously,HVO reported that no more active lava observations since September 4th, 2018 on the basis of the criterias of GVN program, the phase of the eruption on the Lower East Rift Zone can be considered to be over .Kilauea remains an active volcano, and geophysical data continues to show movements in the magmatic system, including a recharge of the East Rift Zone. As of the 30th of October, HVO reported that Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Deformation signals are consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone.HVO monitoring during the past week shows low rates of seismicity at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ). Earthquakes continue to occur primarily at Kīlauea's summit area and south flank (magnitude-3.8 was the largest) with continued small aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 quake on May 4, 2018. Seismicity remains low in the lower ERZ. In the ERZ, tiltmeters near Puʻu ʻŌʻō and farther east continue to record an inflationary trend, consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone. At the summit, tiltmeters have recorded a slight inflationary trend. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions at the summit averaged 50 tonnes/day as reported on October 24, and 75 tonnes/day at Puʻu ʻŌʻō on October 23. There was no sulfur dioxide detected by our instruments in the lower ERZ. Previously, HVO bulletin ( 3rd of october) reported that On Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (ERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming from the cone was visible during the past day. Webcam images of the fissure 8 cone show that a portion of the crater wall near the northern spillway area has slowly shifted during the past 2 weeks, indicating some instability of the cone in this area. As of the 2nd of October, HVO reported that no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming has been visible during the day. On the middle ERZ, a rockfall at Puʻu ʻŌʻō produced a small ash plume around noon yesterday, October 1. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Rates of tilting throughout both the summit and the ERZ are much lower than those observed during the recent period of major eruptive activity. As of the 25th of September HVO reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming is visible during the day. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. HVO reported minor incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 12-15 September, and that small amounts of fuming rose from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the Fissure 8 cone during 12-18 September. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (less than 1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. Small collapses at Pu'u 'O'o Crater during 12-14 September generated visible dust plumes. The Volcano Alert level l remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin (11th of September) reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), minor amounts of incandescence were observed overnight from a collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone, though the amount was reduced over observations from the previous night. Very minor fuming is visible from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the cone. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none have extended outside the walls of the cone. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Aftershocks from the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May are still being generated on faults located on Kīlauea's South Flank. Small collapses continued to occur yesterday at Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater, but are much less frequent than they were over the previous two days. As of the 7th of September, HVO reported that lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible at fissure 8 from helicopter overflight or UAS (drone) views this morning. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none extend outside the walls of the cone. There is no change in overall activity from observations over the past several days. As of the 5th of September, HVO reported that seismicity remains low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. A magnitude-3.1 earthquake that occurred at 5:31AM HST this morning was located below Kīlauea's South Flank and is likely an aftershock of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake from early May. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible on the fissure 8 spillway overnight. Images from the UAS (drone) crew showed that weak lava activity continues in the fissure 8 cone as of yesterday afternoon, with no lava extending outside the walls of the cone and no flows heading down the spillway. HVO reported that on 2nd of September, seismicity remained low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. Earthquakes, probably aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May, continue on South Flank faults. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), incandescence was observed in the fissure 8 cone yesterday afternoon (09/01) with reports of activity extending into early evening. In addition to a persistent spot of spattering, lava slowly covered the 65-by-15 m (210-by-45 ft) crater floor by evening. Webcam views showed weak incandescence occasionally reflected on the eastern spillway wall from the crater overnight suggesting that the lava in the crater remained active. This morning, ground crews have no view of the crater inside the fissure 8 cone, but report the fissure 8 cone is quiet when viewed from a safe distance with no visible fume. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at the summit, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate (< 1,000 t/d) is lower than at any time since late 2007. Friday (08/31), LERZ emission rates were still too low to measure. HVO reported that during an overflight on 25 August a small lava pond was visible deep within the vent at Kilauea's Fissure 8 cone; the pond was no longer visible on 27 August. Lava continued to ooze into the ocean and produce minimal laze plumes, but by 27 August only a small single breakout from the Kapoho Bay lobe was active. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin ( 24th of August - 20:30 UTC) reported that seismicity and ground deformation are negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), only a few ocean entries were oozing lava and laze plumes were minimal from overflights early this week. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007. On Tuesday, the SO2 emissions from the LERZ were too low to measure although SO2 smells were noticed. HVO bulletin (19th of August - 22:39 UTC) reported that the lull in activity at Kīlauea Volcano continues. At the summit, seismicity and deformation are negligible. On the lower East Rift Zone, the only incandescence is at the coast near Ahalanui where a few ocean entries are oozing lava. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007 HVO reported that during 8-14 August activity at Kilauea was characterized by a slowly-circulating lava pond deep within the Fissure 8 vent (though the pond was crusted over by 14 August) and a billowing gas plume, and a few scattered ocean entries. The summit area was quiet except for occasional rockfalls into the crater. Fresh black sand from fragmented lava was transported SW by the ocean current, and accumulated in the Pohoiki harbor, creating a sandbar. The westernmost ocean entry was about 1 km NE of the harbor. Earthquake and deformation data indicated no magma movement or pressurization in the system. HVO bulletin ( 9th of August - 19h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from Fissure 8 remains low and there have been no signs of reactivation or new intrusion. Up-rift of Fissure 8, Fissures 9, 10, and 24, and down-rift Fissures 13, 23, 3, 21 and 7, continue to steam. Ground crews and overflights continue to monitor these for signs of new activity. This morning's overflight crew observed a crusted lava pond deep inside the steaming cone at a level significantly lower than when viewed Tuesday morning. HVO bulletin (7th of August - 23h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from fissure 8 remains low. The morning overflight crew observed a small active lava lake within the fissure 8 cone, a weak gas plume, and a drained upper lava channel. The surface of the lava lake was about 5-10 m below the spillway entrance. There were a diminishing number of small active ooze outs near the coast on the Kapoho Bay and Ahalanui lobes and the laze plume was greatly diminished. Active lava remains close to the Pohoiki boat ramp but has not advanced significantly toward it. As of the 3rd of August, HVO reported tha fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the channel leading northeastward from the vent. Multiple overflows developed late yesterday afternoon and evening, one of which headed north toward Noni Farms Road, starting a small fire. Field crews determined the advancing overflow had ceased by 21:00 HST but that fires were still burning. Further downstream overflows were concentrated in the wide lava field west and south-southwest of Kapoho cone, also igniting small fires in adjacent vegetation. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 18-24 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that continued to spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and entered the ocean at Ahalanui. Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred about every other day (38.5 and 53.5 hours in between a few of the events). Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low. Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele's hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater; lava occasionally overflowed the channel, and on 28 July ignited nearby vegetation. Small plumes of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles) were generated at several points along a broad 2-km-wide flow front at Ahalanui. The westernmost edge was less than 175 m NE of the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park (by 30 July). HVO bulletin ( 16th of July - 19:31 UTC) reported that Fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. The channel is full but not quite up to the rim; there were no significant overflows this morning. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. Explosions were reported from the main ocean entry this morning with at least one being quite strong. Fissure 22 did not appear active this morning but sounds were heard from it last night. No other fissures are active this morning. HVO bulletin (July 15th - 21:21 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Lava levels in the upper channel increased briefly following this morning's summit collapse-explosion event at 3:26 a.m. Another short-lived overflow of the channel at the vent spread east-southeast this morning, but did not advance beyond the existing flow field. The channelized ʻaʻā flow west of Kapoho Crater continues to be the main ocean entry at the southern edge of the flow front. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. No other fissures are active on the morning. At 3:26 a.m. HST July 15, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath the summit of Kīlauea with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.2 earthquake. Seismic activity at the summit decreased immediately following the event, but is beginning to increase at this time. Earthquakes in the summit area have resumed following 12th of july collapse/explosion event at 2:42 PM HST, which had an energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. (updated map 12th of July). HVO bulletin ( July 10th - 19:57 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava steadily into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Disruptions to the mid-channel occurred yesterday afternoon producing localized overflows along the margins of the flowfield, mostly atop earlier lavas. A significant overflow north of the cinder quarry advancing yesterday and last night towards Cinder Rd. has stalled. An overflow lobe moving around the west side of Kapoho Cone remains active this morning and small brushfires are reported along the margins. Downstream, lava appears to be reoccupying the channel leading to the ocean entry were multiple fingers of lava are active. The southern margin of the ocean entry shows little sign of movement. Yesterday's channel disruption and overflows were caused by blockages that developed along the channel. Additional blockages and resulting overflows are likely to occur as long as the activity continues. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin ( July 10 - 3:05 UTC) Early on afternoon observers reported multiple overflows occurring along both sides of the main lava channel, in an area extending from near the "Y" intersection at Pohoiki Road eastwards to an area just west of Kapoho Crater. Overflows on the upper part of the channel did not extend beyond areas previously covered in lava. Overflows further down the channel have reached beyond the flow field, including one flow lobe that is moving northeast from the main channel towards Cinder Rd. Residents are urged to heed warnings and notices from Hawaii County Civil Defense. Based on information from ground observers and morning and afternoon overflights, the lower part of the main lava channel has undergone significant reorganization. In particular, the channel that had been open near Four Corners is now mostly crusted over, and plumes from ocean entry are significantly reduced. It is likely this is due to a blockage that formed in the early morning in the main channel upstream of Kapoho Crater. Flow volumes coming out of Fissure 8 remain significant, and it is possible that changes in flow channels will continue to occur in the coming days. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. At 9:20 AM HST on July 9, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath Kilauea caldera with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. The number of earthquake dropped from 25-40/hr to less than 10/hr. We expect the earthquakes to increase over the next day until the next collapse/explosion tomorrow. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halemaʻumaʻu continues in response to the ongoing subsidence at the summit. HVO bulletin ( 4th of July - 18: 53 UTC ) Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. ( video vortex ) At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing pasty lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Ag and Beach Lots. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the flow front. As shown by the July 02 thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is oozing from the flow's molten interior into the ocean along most of its broad front. Temporary channel blockages of the Fissure 8 channel causing minor overflows were observed just north of Kapoho Crater by USGS and Civil Air Patrol overflights. Fissure 22 is spattering about 50-80 m above a conical spatter cone and feeding a short lava flow that is moving slowly to the northeast along the edge of earlier flows. (updated map - 30th of June) . HVO bulletin ( 29th of June - 8:28 pm ) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. These overflows rarely extend beyond the existing flow field. No active overflows were observed during this morning's helicopter overflight.The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots and a few burning areas were observed on the south side of the flow and west of highway 137. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the entry area. As shown by yesterday's thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is moving beneath the crust and into still-molten interior of earlier flows before it enters the sea. HVO bulletin ( 27th of June - 8:07 pm) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. Small overflows on both sides of the upslope portion of the channel occurred shortly after midnight, June 27. None of these overflows extended past the existing flow field. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The morning overflight revealed that the northern margin of the flow field at the coast is oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots. HVO bulletin (June 26th of June - 7:13 pm) reported that funtains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern portion of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 0.6 mi wide area with multiple laze plumes from smaller oozing lobes. Fissure 22 showed weak spattering and tiny flows around the base of the cone. This morning's overflight crew also observed minor incandescence at Fissure 16/18. HVO bulletin ( June 25th - 10:59 pm) reported that the eruption in the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) continues with no significant change during the past 24 hours. Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area marked by billowing laze plumes. Fissure 22 is weakly active and Fissure 16/18 was not observed on the morning.At 4:12 p.m. HST on June 24, after approximately 17 hours of elevated seismicity, a collapse explosion occurred at the summit producing an ash-poor steam plume that went undetected by the weather radar. Visual observations suggested the plume rose less than 2000 ft above the caldera before drifting downwind to the southwest. The energy released by the event was equivalent to a magnitude 5.3 earthquake. HVO bulletin 23rd of June - 18:40 UTC) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. During an overflight early this morning, geologists observed incandescence from Fissure 22, but no associated spattering or flow. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The entry areas are marked by billowing laze plumes. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 13-19 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was occasionally noted, and spattering was visible at Fissure 6 on 16 June. Hawai‘i County Civil Defense reported that by 17 June a total of 533 homes had been destroyed due to lava flows. HVO bulletin (June 17th - 8:15 UTC) reported that the Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption in Leilani Estates continued with little change. Fountains from the Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to feed lava into the well-established channel that flows to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava and mild spattering from Fissure 15 was observed late in the day. The flow field is relatively stable with little change to its size and shape for the past few days. HVO bulletin (16th - 2:59 UTC) reported that lava fountains from Fissure 8 reached heights between 100 and 130 ft with bursts up to 180 ft while the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 170 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. The early afternoon overflight found the Fissure 8 vent, channel, and entry stable with a small amount of expansion at the southern boundary of the flow near the coast and south of Vacationland. Fissure 24 (southeast of Fissure 8) seemed to be steamier and emitting more fume. Fissure 9 (southeast of Fissure 24) appeared hotter and will be checked on the ground this afternoon. HVO bulletin (June 15th - 8:27 UTC) reported that fssure 8 lava fountains reached heights of 200 ft in the afternoon, and the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 160 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (14th of June - 8:21 UTC) reported that lava fountains reaching heights of 53 m (174 ft) were observed at Fissure 8 in the late afternoon. Lava from Fissure 8 continues to flow through the well-established channel to the ocean at Kapoho, with rare, small overflows of the channel levees. A laze plume at the ocean entry was blown onshore this afternoon, and areas of upwelling offshore were present throughout the day. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (13th of june- 2:12 UTC) reported that line of closely spaced vents at Fissure 8 are continuing to erupt producing fountains encircled by a 115-ft spatter cone. This activity continues to feed the fast moving channelized flow that is entering the ocean at Kapoho. Weak lava activity continues at Fissures 16/18 as has been noted for the last several days. Incandescence was noted at Fissures 15 and 22. Lava was entering the ocean over a broader length this morning with several minor incandescent points and small plumes and two larger entries and corresponding plumes. The upwelling areas were also more dispersed than yesterday. (updated map 13th of June) . HVO bulletin (12th - 2:09 UTC) reported that three closely spaced lava fountains at fissure 8 are erupting with fluctuating heights from below the 115 ft high spatter cone around it up to 180 feet. Lava continues to be fed into the channelized flow trending north and then east to a single ocean entry at Kapoho. Weak lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was observed last night. This morning's overflight confirms that fountaining continues at Fissure 8 and that its channel is nearly full with no spillovers. Minor steam explosions were observed at the ocean entry. HVO bulletin reported that Fissure 8 now consists of three closely-spaced lava fountains, the tallest of which reached heights of 130-180 feet, feeding a strong channel to the northeast and then east to the ocean entry. During the day, minor spillovers have dribbled over the Fissure 8 channel levees but have generally stalled before reaching ground not covered by previous lava flows. Yesterday's measurements show that gas emissions from the fissure system have nearly doubled, possibly indicating an increase in eruption rate from Fissure 8. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 continued. HVO bulletin (June 9th - 8:49 UTC) reported thatLava continues to erupt from Fissure 8, with vigorous fountains reaching heights of about 200-220 feet. Observers on the late afternoon overflight reported no significant changes in the Fissure 8 flow field, which continues to supply lava to the ocean entry at Kapoho. Two vigorous steam plumes are rising from the ocean flow front and being blown inland. Strong thermal upwelling was noted in the ocean extending up to 1000 yards out to sea from the visible lava front. Heavy gas and steam emissions were noted at fissures 9 & 10, but lava emission is occurring only at Fissure 8. Low level ash emissions continue at the summit with slowly increasing seismicity, indicating that another small explosion is likely in the next several hours. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continues in response to ongoing subsidence at the summit. The number of houses destroyed since the beginning of this eruption has reached 600 including the areas of Leilani, Kapoho and Vacationland; This isthe most destructive eruption for Hawaii, listed in modern times, according to the mayor of the County. HVO bulletin ( June 8th - 8:24 UTC) reported that lava fountaining at Fissure 8 fluctuated with heights varying between 190 and 215 feet. This activity is feeding a lava channel flowing east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. The noon overflight found that the delta is about 1.2 mi wide in the Vacationland/Waopae area and observed the flow was expanding northward through Kapoho Beachlots. A large area of upwelling offshore suggests the presence of lava flowing on the ocean floor in that area. HVO bulletin ( June 7th - 00:34 UTC) reported that on the morning, lava fountaining at Fissure 8 continued to reach heights of 150-180 feet, feeding a stable channel to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Lava is entering the ocean in the Vacationland subdivision. Vacationland has been completely covered by lava, and overnight the flow expanded north by 100 m within Kapoho Beach Lots. The lava delta that formed at Kapoho Bay extended slightly overnight. The northern lobe of the Fissure 8 flow shows no signs of activity this morning, and there is only wispy smoke at the flow front. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin (June 6th - 8:28 UTC) reported that persistent lava fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching heights of 150-180 feet. This eruptive activity continues to feed a channel transporting lava to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Minor breakouts along the channelized flow have been very small and stagnated before travelling any significant distance. HVO's late afternoon overflight showed that the Fissure 8 flow is continuing to form a lava delta with limited continuing advances into the surviving parts of the Kaphoho Beach Lots and Vacationlands neighborhoods. The northernmost lobe of the Fissure 8 flow is advancing very slowly to the northeast. No other fissure vents are active. HVO bulletin (June 5th - 5:30 UTC) reported that fountaining at Fissure 8 continued feeding a robust lava channel to northeast along Highway 132 to the ocean entry in Kapoho bay. As of late afternoon the lava entry had built a delta extending approximately 700 yards into the bay. A laze plume is blowing inland from the ocean entry but dissipating quickly. The lava flow front is about 600 yds wide. A lava breakout was also occurring upslope of the Kapoho cone cinder pit but stalled about 300 yards southeast of the intersection of Railroad Avenue and Cinder Road. Sluggish lava flows are present in the vicinity of Fissure 18; all other fissures are inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 4th - 5:07 UTC) reported that fissure 8 fountaining persisted throughout the day to heights up to 220 feet, and the channelized flow continued to deliver lava northeast along Highway 132 to the Kapoho area. Lava is advancing along a 0.5-mile-wide front towards the ocean at Kapoho Bay between Kapoho Beach Road and Kapoho Kai Drive. As of 5:45 PM HST, the lava flow was about 245 yards from the ocean at its closest approach point. Other branches of the Fissure 8 lava flow were inactive. All other fissures are inactive, although observers on the late afternoon overflight noted abundant gas emission from Fissures 9 & 10 and incandescence without fountaining at fissures 16 & 18. HVO bulletin (June 2nd - 8:29 UTC) treported that fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching 180 - 220 feet in height and continues to feed a channelized lava flow to the northeast along Highway 132 and down into the Four Corners region (at the intersection of Highways 132 and 137). Small overflows from the channel are occurring along its length, including in a few places near the intersection of Highway 132 and Pohoiki road. As of 9:50 PM HST the flow front was approximately 0.28 miles from the intersection. The more western branches of the Fissure 8 flow either stalled or advanced only short distances. Fissure 18 appears to be crusted over or inactive. The flows that had been moving toward Highway 137 are either inactive or moving very slowly. Fissure 22 appears to be inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 1st - 4:41 UTC) reported that the fissure 8 continued to produce persistent fountains that reached heights up to 260 feet. A small spatter cone is forming on the downwind side of the fountain and is approximately 100 feet high. The fountains are feeding flow activity to the northeast, and minor overflows from the Fissure 8 channel are occurring along its length. One overflow covered the remaining northern part of Makamae Street in Leilani Estates. This overflow crossed Kahukai street, filling in a low area between Makamae and Luana streets. The front of the Fissure 8 flow near Noni Farms road advanced at rates up to 100 yards/hour. At 12:30 PM HST, the flow front was 1.9 miles from the Four Corners area. High eruption rates from Fissure 8 have led to the formation of a leveed channel along the western edge of the lava flow. Failure of flow levees could result in rapid advance of flows. Flow margins are extremely hazardous and should not be approached. Fissure 18 feeds the upper part of a lava flow that extends to 1.5 mi from Highway 137; the lower portion of the fissure 18 lava flow stalled about 0.5 mi from the highway. Fissure 2 is weakly active and is pooling lava around the vent. HVO bulletin (May 31st - 5:24 UTC) reported that fissure 8 maintained high fountains through Wednesday with sustained heights exceeding 200 feet and the presence of multiple secondary fountains that reached to 60 feet. This fountaining continued to feed a lava flow that moved downslope along Highway 132. Advance rates were less than 100 yards/hour for the three lobes of the flow. The flow moved north of Highway 132 in the vicinity of Noni Farms and Halekamahina roads, from which the two easternmost lobes advanced in a more east northeasterly direction while the westernmost lobe advanced in a northeasterly direction. The Fissure 18 flow also remained active, moving downslope toward Highway 137 at rates of much less than 100 yards per hour. During the day, sporadic bursts of activity were also observed from Fissures 22, 6, and 13. HVO bulletin (May 30th - 2:51 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissure 8 remained very active today fountaining to heights of 200 feet at times and feeding a lava flow that advanced atop the Fissure 8 ʻaʻā flow that was active Sunday night/Monday morning. The first lobe of this flow crossed highway 132 just before 2 pm HST Tuesday. Lava continues to advance toward the northeast. Visual observations early Tuesday afternoon also confirmed continued weak activity at Fissures 18 and 19. Fissure 18 has produced channelized flows which have advanced 1.6 mi toward the coast. HVO bulletin (May 29th - 2:35 UTC) reported that the lava flow from Fissure 8 reached Pohoiki Rd. this morning and stalled as the Fissure's activity abruptly diminished. A few fissures reactivated briefly during the day. As of the 1 pm overflight, Fissure 8, 18, 20, 22, 6/13, and 7/21 reactivated with Fissure 7/21 having the highest fountains. The reactivated fissures have not yet erupted enough lava to reach the coast so the two ocean entry sites were relatively inactive. Only a minor ooze of residual lava was entering the ocean from the Eastern channel. (map) HVO bulletin (May 28th - 4:20 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissures 22 and 13 continue to feed lava flows extending south to the lava ocean entry. Signals recorded on stations in the LERZ indicate that the lava ocean entry remained active overnight. This morning, lava activity at both vents has diminished and the ocean entries are weaker than yesterday. Fissure 6 is no longer active. Fissure 21 has been intermittently active. Fissure 7 activity is very active, producing a large spatter rampart over 100 feet tall from fountains reaching 150-200 feet. The fountains fed two perched channels--the north channel fed a lava flow that advanced toward pad E of the PGV property and the south channel a flow that was advancing to the southeast along the west border of the fissure 22 flow.Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the Overlook crater, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the Kīlauea summit, the largest occurred around noon producing an ash column to nearly 10,000 ft. The Fissure 7 north channel fed a flow that advanced into PGV property and approached pad E before it stalled this morning; however, the flow was refreshed by lava from the vent and, about noon, started to advance again covering a portion of pad E and also producing a narrow flow to the north of pad E. These flows continue to be active as of this posting. HVO bulletin (May 26th - 2:56 UTC reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that also reaches the coast, making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a lava flow that has advanced northeastward crossing Kahukai St. at about 3:30 pm this afternoon and continuing to the northeast at a slow pace. Fissure 17 is barely active.At the summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 4:17 pm sending ash as high as 12,000 feet above sea level. HVO bulletin (May 25th - 3:12 UTC) reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fairly tall fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that reached the coast yesterday making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a pahoehoe flow that has advanced eastward covering most of the area bounded by Leilani Blvd, Mohala St., and and the fissure line. Fissure 17 continues weak spattering, Fissure 19 and 23 are no longer active. At the summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after the recent explosive eruptions, are again slowly increasing. At this time, based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. HVO bulletin (May 24th - 2:47 UTC) reported that fissure 6 through 22 continue erupting lava fountains. The fountains from Fissure 22 feed a single lava channel that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. The actual point of entry has continued shifting to the west. Fountains erupted from Fissures 5, 6, 13, and 19 continued to feed a lava flow advancing to the south along the west side of the Fissure 22 flows and may reach the ocean this afternoon or evening. Fissure 17 continue weak spattering, Fissure 8 reactivated briefly this morning to erupt two small pahoehoe flows over the initial `a`a flow. At the Kilauea summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 10:30 this morning. Additional explosions are possible at any time. HVO bulletin (May 23rd - 8:22 UTC) reported that eruption of lava and ground cracking continues in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision. Over the course of the day, the most active eruptive activity in the Lower East Rift Zone shifted to the middle portion of the system of fissures. The most active fissures were 22,19, 6, 5, and 23. Fissure 17, at the northeastern end of the fissure system is only weakly active now. Fissure 6 is feeding a flow to the south, roughly parallel to the western flow from fissure 22. Fountaining of fissures 5 and 23 fed flows in the eastern part of Leilani Estates. Small ash emissions from the Overlook crater have been occurring frequently today. Moderate trade winds were blowing to the southwest and noticeable ashfall may happen in downwind locations. HVO bulletin ( May 22nd - 2:11 UTC) reported that fissure 22 is erupting a short line of low lava fountains that feed a channelized flow that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. Spattering continues from a reactivated Fissures 6 that intermittently feeds a short lava flow. Fissures 17 and 19 continue weak spattering.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents. ( video -Photos ) . At the summit One explosive eruption of ash occurred at about 1 am this morning. Several smaller ash emissions have also taken place and produced abundant ash. HVO bulletin ( May 21st - 0:15 UTC) reported that spattering continues from Fissures 6 and 17 with significant lava flows being erupted from Fissures 20. Two of these lava flows from Fissure 20 reached the ocean along the southeast Puna coast overnight; however, a crack opened under the east lava channel early this morning diverting the lava from the channel into underground voids. This may cause changes downslope in the channel system and the ocean entry.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents.At the Kilauea summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after explosive eruptions on Saturday afternoon and Sunday noon, are again slowly increasing. Based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is still billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. . HVO buletin (May 19th - 5:53 UTC) that the eruption of lava and ground cracking in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision continues. Late on afternoon, a fast-moving pahoehoe lava flow emerged from fissure 20 and traveled southeast where it crossed Pohoiki Road. Estimates from Hawaii County Fire Department aerial video at 6:30 pm indicate advance rate of 300-400 yards per hour; this rate may change with time and USGS crews are in the area to try and monitor flow advance. Other fissures remain weakly active and volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind. Smoke from burning vegetation as lava flows advance is also contributing to poor air quality. . HVO bulletin (May 18th, 2:54 UTC) reported that after the summit explosive eruption early morning seismic levels have been gradually increasing, but as of this report no additional explosions have occurred. No earthquakes greater than magnitude 3.5 have occurred in the past day.Volcanic gas emissions at the summit remain high. At the Lower East rift zone tThis afternoon, fissure 17 is still actively spattering but the flow is nearly stalled. In addition, fissures 18, 19, and 20 have reactivated and a new fissure (21) has opened between fissures 7 and 3. An area 50-100 yards wide, parallel to and north of the line of fissures between Highway 130 and Lanipuna Gardens, has dropped slightly. This long depression is currently being filled by pahoehoe lava flows from fissures 20 and 21. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. HVO bulletin (May 17th - 2:47 UTC) reported that ash emission from the Overlook crater within Halema`uma`u has generally decreased since yesterday. Although varying in intensity, at times the plume contains enough ash to be gray in color. The cloud is rising an estimated 3 to 4,000 feet above the ground, but altitudes are varying with pulses of emission. The ash cloud is drifting slowly northward from the Kilauea summit and ashfall may occur in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Volcano Village. Communities downwind may receive ashfall and should take necessary precautions. Several magnitude 3 or stronger earthquakes occurred beneath the summit today. The earthquakes were at shallow depth and resulted in cracks in Highway 11 near the entrance to Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. Some facilities within the National Park were damaged as well. The explosive eruption of 1924 at the Kilauea summit was also marked by hundreds of felt earthquakes as magma drained from the caldera. This afternoon, eruptive activity remained concentrated at fissure 17 but the spattering was decreasing in vigor. The advance of the flow has slowed significantly since yesterday afternoon; the flow remains nearly 2.5 km (1.5 mi) in length. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. Magma continues to be supplied to the lower East Rift Zone as indicated by the continued northwest displacement of a GPS monitoring station. Elevated earthquake activity continues, but earthquake locations have not moved farther downrift in the past couple of days. HVO bultetin (15th of May 23:27 UTC) reported that as of early this morning, eruption of ash from the Overlook vent within Halemaumau crater at Kilauea Volcano's summit has generally increased in intensity. Ash has been rising nearly continuously from the vent and drifting downwind to the southwest. Ashfall and vog (volcanic air pollution) has been reported in Pahala, about 18 miles downwind. NWS radar and pilot reports indicate the top of the ash cloud is as high as 10,000 to 12,000 feet above sea level, but this may be expected to vary depending on the vigor of activity and wind conditions. Ash emission from the Kilauea summit vent will likely be variable with periods of increased and decreased intensity depending on the occurrence of rockfalls into the vent and other changes within the vent. HVO bulletin (14th of May 18:36 UTC) reported that on the morning, activity is dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter more than 100 feet into the air, and an advancing lava flow from fissure 17 at the northeast end of the fissure system. As of 630 am the fissure 17 flow had traveled just under a mile roughly east-southeast parallel to the rift zone. It is turning slightly south and at this time is about one half mile south of Highway 132. Fissure 18 that became active late yesterday is weakly active. A fissure 19 has been spotted very near fissure 15 as of about 8 am just northeast of Pohoiki Road and north of Hinalo Street at the east end of Lanipuna Gardens. It is producing a sluggish lava flow. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the vents. Yesterday with the onset of activity at fissure 17, powerful steam jets have occurred intermittently near the west end of the fissure. These jets may be responsible for some of the loud sounds reported by residents and emergency workers. HVO reported that as of late today (May13rd), activity was dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter bombs hundreds of feet into the air, and several advancing lava flow lobes moving generally northeast from fissure 17 at the downrift (northeast) end of the new fissure system. As of about 7 pm, one lobe was 2 yards thick and advancing roughly parallel to Highway 132. The flow front was just over a half mile southeast of the intersection of Highway 132 and Noni Farms Road. Based on overflight images late this afternoon, additional lava from fissure 17 was also moving slowly southeast. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated. At the Kilauea summit Deflationary tilt continues. A robust plume of steam and volcanic gas, occasionally mixed with ash, has risen from the Overlook crater within Halemaumau. HVO bulletin (May12th, 2:39 UTC) reported that Volcanic unrest in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. While no lava has been emitted from any of the 15 fissure vents since May 9, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Communities downslope of these fissures could be at risk from lava inundationHVO bulletin (May 11th 4:51 UTC) reported that High levels of unrest related to the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continue. While no lava was noted erupting today from any of the 15 fissure vents formed thus far, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Earthquake activity was high in the area today. Continuing ground deformation and located earthquakes were mostly in the area around and northeast of Fissure 15 at Pohoiki Road indicating that the intrusion is migrating further to the northeast. Steaming ground cracks in the vicinity of Highway 130 continue. HVO bulletin (May 10th, 2:55 UTC) reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Visible activity this early afternoon was again focused on the northeast portion of the fissure area. Fissure 15 broke ground across Poihiki Road, generating a pahoehoe flow about 20 m (66 ft) long. During an overflight of the area about 3 p.m. HST, geologists observed a new steaming area uprift (west) of Highway 130. During a second overflight at 4:30 p.m., the area was still steaming. Rates of motion increased late this morning on a GPS station 1.5 km (1 mile) southeast of Nanawale Estates. The direction of motion is consistent with renewed movement of magma in the downrift direction (to the northeast). Rates of seismicity changed little throughout the day; located earthquakes were mostly uprift (west) of Highway 130. Gas emissions remain elevated in the vicinity of fissures. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past week and the lava lake level continues to drop. At about 8:32 a.m. HST, a large rockfall from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake triggered an explosion that generated an ash column above the crater; the ash was blown toward the south-southwest. Rockfalls and explosions that produce ash columns are expected to continue. HVO bulletin (May 8th, 18:15 UTC ) reported that of 7:00 am, the eruption along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision has paused. Strong emission of gas continues from the fissure system that is now about 2.5 miles long. This pause is likely temporary and resumption of lava emission or additional fissure outbreaks are possible at any time. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from Friday's magnitude-6.9 earthquake continue and more are expected. Rockfalls into the Overlook vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater are producing intermittent ash emissions. Seismicity at Kīlauea's summit remains elevated. USGS/HVO continues to monitor the situation 24/7 in coordination with Hawaii County Civil Defense and other authorities. Field crews are onsite this morning examining the fissure vents, lava flow of yesterday, and searching for any signs of new or resumed activity. As of the 8th of May (3:59 UTC), HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. The location of activity today was focused on the southwest portion of the area. This morning, two new fissure segments broke ground. The first (fissure 11) opened in a forested southwest of Leilani Estates about 9:30 am and was active for only 3 hours. The second (fissure 12) opened about 12:20 between older fissures 10 and 11. By 3:15 pm, both new fissures were in active but the west end of fissure 10 was steaming heavily. Cracks on Highway 130 widened from 7 cm to 8 cm over the course of the day and additional cracks were found just west of the highway on trend with the eruptive fissures. As of the 7th of May (6:59 UTC) HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Fissure 8 erupted lava fountains until about 4 p.m. HST, and the aa' flow advanced slowly northward through the afternoon, even after the lava fountains shut down. Geologists reported this early evening that the flow crossed Ho'okopu Road, a distance from fissure 8 of about about 1.1 km (0.6 miles). They also reported new ground cracks in the vicinity of fissures 8 and 9 that were emitting thick steam and gases, but no lava spattering was observed by the time of this status report. Rates of seismicity and deformation decreased in the past day. The absence of additional deformation in the past day suggests a pause in magma acculumation in the distal part of the intrusion. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past several days. Corresponding to this deflationary trend, the summit lava lake level in Overlook crater dropped about 2 m (6.5 ft) per hour during the day. The lake level has dropped an estimated 220 m (722 ft) since the collapse of Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater on April 30. Rockfalls from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake continue to produce ashy plumes above Halema'uma'u crater. Rockfalls and ashy plumes are expected to continue as the lake level drops. Earthquake activity in the summit remains at elevated levels. In the past 24 hours, about 31 magnitude-2 earthquakes occurred at depths less than 5 km (3 miles) beneath the summit area (compared to the 24-hour period when 152 magnitude-2 and magnitude-3 earthquakes. These earthquakes are related to the ongoing subsidence of the summit area and earthquakes beneath the south flank of the volcano. HVO bulletin ( Saturday, May 5, 2018, 21:54 UTC) reported that active eruption of lava and gas continues along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision. Additional fissure vents producing spatter and small lava flows developed early this morning, and additional outbreaks in the area are likely. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from yesterday's M6.9 earthquake continue and more should be expected, with larger aftershocks potentially producing rockfalls and associated ash clouds above Puʻu ʻŌʻō and Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Residents of the Puna District should remain alert, review individual, family, and business emergency plans, and watch for further information about the status of the volcano. Video. According to latest HVO bulletin (Saturday, May 5, 2018, 02:04 UTC) eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Several additional eruptive fissures or vents - each several hundred yards long - have opened over the past day. No significant lava flows have yet formed. Spatter and lava are accumulating primarily within a few tens of yards of the vent. The sixth and most recent fissure is on the eastern edge of the subdivision. Not all fissure vents remain active and no far-traveled lava flows have formed. For maps showing the locations of these features : https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_maps.html .HVO geologists will be in the area overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity using various monitoring data streams. Seismicity and deformation are consistent with continued accumulation of magma within the rift zone. Additional outbreaks of lava are expected. According to report from HVO (Friday, May 4, 2018, 08:13 UTC) the eruption in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano that began in late afternoon temporary ended by about 6:30 p.m. HST. Lava spatter and gas bursts erupted from the fissure for about two hours, and lava spread a short distance from the fissure, less than about 10 m (33 ft). At this time, the fissure is not erupting lava and no other fissures have erupted. HVO geologists are working near the fissure overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity. Geologists reported this evening that the presence of sulfur gas is quite noticeable around the fissure, typical of active and recently active fissures. The concentration of sulfur dioxide gas is high within tens of meters (yards) of the fissure. Lava flows did not advance more than about 10 m (33 ft) from the fissure. The flows are no longer active. At this time, no other fissures have erupted from along the rift zone. Tiltmeters at Kīlauea's summit continue to record deflationary tilt and the lava lake level has dropped about 37 m (121 ft) in the past 24 hours. Seismic activity has not changed significantly during the day or since the brief fissure eruption. Previously, HVO reported that the intrusion of molten rock into the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano reached the surface in the late afternoon on May 3 in a part of Leilani Estates. A fissure about 150 m (492 ft) long erupted mostly spatter and intermittent bubble bursts for about 2 hours.Lava did not travel more than a few m (yards) from the fissure.Hawaii County Civil Defence is coordinating needed response including evacuation of a portion of the Leilani subdivision. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory deployed geologists to the eruption site overnight, and other scientists are monitoring various data streams telemetered to the observatory 24/7.As of the 30th of April, in a special report HVO reported that following weeks of inflation, the floor of the crater of Pu'u O'o collapsed on April 30, 2018, between 14h and 16h30 in two episodes visibles on a thermal camera located on the edge of the crater. Bad weather conditions prevented the observatory teams to fly over the crater and cannot observe this activity.The collapse caused the release of a large amount of reddish ash around the Pu'u O'o for several kilometers on the 61 g lava flow. Following this collapse, seismometers and tiltmeters recorded an increase in seismic activity and deformation from the summit area of ​​Kilauea to an area between 10 and 16 km east of Pu'u O'o; during the night, this activity continued to spread along the rift zone to the east and the highway 130 to 30 km ... marking an area potentially at risk of eruption.The strongest earthquake of the sequence was of magnitude 4, south of Pu'u O'o 'on April 27 at 2:39. A new ladder crack, of 1 km long, has opened to the west of Pu'u O'o, characterized by heavy outgassing. its released a small amount of lava, according to the presence of small areas of spatters; it is no longer active. The level of the upper lava lake, located in the Halema'uma'u crater, has dropped 15 meters, suggesting an intrusion from the summit area during the weekend into the Pu'u O'o magmatic system towards the East; summit deflation supports this mechanism.The volcanic alert level remains at Watch and the aviation code is orange. Residents of Puna must remain alert and monitor information on the status of the volcano.During 18-24 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, and by late on 21 April had overflowed the S crater rim. As of midday on 23 April the new flows has covered about 16 ha of the floor, or about 30%. Overflows of the crater rim continued through 24 April, flowing as far as 375 m onto the N, SW, and S parts of the crater floor. HVO noted that the overflows were the first significant ones since May 2015. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 18 April geologists observed the pit crater on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, noting that overflows had built up the crater rim to several meters above the crater floor and 7 m higher compared to late March. During 11-17 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, with spattering visible from HVO and Jaggar Museum; by 16 April the lake level was 10 m below the rim of the Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 11 April a moderate swarm of over 200 earthquakes occurred at depths of 7-9 km below the summit. The largest event was a M 2.4. Seismicity returned to background levels at 0230. Three minor ledge collapses were detected on 12 April, one at 1157 and two just after 1830. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali; on 13 April most scattered breakouts were within 2.2 km from Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and one was about 5 km away. During 4-10 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand through 6 April. A rockfall at 1028 on 6 April triggered an explosion in the lava lake, damaging the webcam power system on the crater rim. During 28 March-3 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island. The Webcam images, which are updated every five minutes, can be accessed at : http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/cams/NCcam/ . From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

USA - Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaian islands)

November 20th, 2020

As of the 19th of November, HVO reported that the deformation and seismicity ratios have not changed significantly over the past week, but remain above baseline levels over the long term. The Hawaii Observatory recorded 119 low-magnitude earthquakes for the entire volcano, most at a depth of less than 8 km below ground level; 31 were located under the summit and upper flanks. A slow inflation of the summit is recorded by the GPS measurements, and corresponds to a recharge of the superficial magma chamber. The gas concentrations and the temperature of the fumaroles at the summit and at the Sulfur cone, in the south-western rift zone, remain stable. As of the 25th of September, HVO reported that over the past week seismometers have recorded around 103 small-magnitude earthquakes - all below M3.0 - below the volcano's summit and the upper flanks. The majority of these earthquakes have occurred at shallow depths less than 8 kilometers (about 5 miles) below ground level. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements continue to indicate slow, long-term inflation at the summit, consistent with the supply of magma to the volcano's shallow storage system. The gas concentrations and the temperatures of the fumaroles at the summit and at the sulfur cone in the southwest rift zone remain stable. During the past week (10-17th of September) the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) recorded 67 small-magnitude earthquakes on the volcano's summit and upper-elevation flanks. Most of these earthquakes occurred at shallow depths of less than 8 km (~5 miles) below ground level.Slow summit inflation continues to be detected by the GPS, consistent with magma supply to the volcano's shallow storage system. Gas concentrations and fumarole temperatures remain stable. As of the 30th of July, HVO recorded 105 low-magnitude earthquakes at the Mauna Loa summit area and its elevated flanks over the past week. Most of these earthquakes occurred at shallow depths of less than 8 kilometers (~ 5 miles) below ground level. Inflation continues slowly at the top, consistent with the magma supply to the volcano's shallow storage system. Gas concentrations and fumarole temperatures at the Summit and Sulfur Cone monitoring sites remain stable (below 2 ppm SO2, and ~98°C, respectively). The webcams do not show any change in the landscape. As of the 25th of June , HVO reported that over the past week seismometers have recorded 153 small-magnitude earthquakes on the Mauna Loa / Hawaii. Most of these earthquakes occurred less than kilometers (~ 5 miles) below sea level. The largest earthquake was a magnitude 2.7 (M2.7) event that occurred produced on the upper southeast flank, south of the northeast rift zone, on June 20. A second earthquake of 2.7 (M2.7) occurred in the southern caldera on June 19. Global positioning system (GPS) measurements show slowly increasing long-term peak inflation consistent with the magma supply from the volcano's shallow storage system. Gas concentrations and fumarole temperatures at the top and in the sulfur cone in the southwest rift zone remain stable at ~ 1 ppm SO2 and 97 ° C.Mauna Loa is not erupting; the volcanic alert is advisory and the aviation code yellow. As of the 23rd of April, HVO reported that over the past week, HVO seismometers have recorded 78 small-scale earthquakes on the summit of the volcano and its elevation flanks. Most of these earthquakes occurred at shallow depths less than 8 km (~ 5 miles) below ground level. The largest earthquake was magnitude 2.3 under the southern caldera. Global positioning system (GPS) measurements show continued slow top inflation, consistent with magma supply from the volcano's shallow storage system. Gas concentrations at the Sulfur cone monitoring site in the southwest rift zone remain stable. The temperatures of the fumaroles measured both at the sulfur cone and at the top did not change significantly. As of the 19th of March, HVO reported that over the past week seismometers have recorded approximately 87 small magnitude earthquakes under the upper altitudes of the Mauna Loa volcano. Most of these events occurred at shallow depths less than 5 km (~ 3 miles) below ground level. The strongest earthquake during this period was a magnitude 2.3 event on the morning of March 19. This earthquake was located in the area of ​​the radial vents to the west of the summit caldera within the volcano.Global positioning system (GPS) measurements show continued slow inflation of the summit, consistent with magma supply from the volcano's shallow storage system.Gas concentrations at the sulfur cone monitoring site in the southwest rift zone remain stable. The temperatures of the fumaroles measured both at the sulfur cone and at the top did not change significantly. The volcanic alert remains at Advisory and the aviation code at Yellow. Mauna Loa is not erupting.Massive Mauna Loa shield volcano rises almost 9 km above the sea floor to form the world's largest active volcano. Flank eruptions are predominately from the lengthy NE and SW rift zones, and the summit is cut by the Mokuaweoweo caldera, which sits within an older and larger 6 x 8 km caldera. Two of the youngest large debris avalanches documented in Hawaii traveled nearly 100 km from Mauna Loa; the second of the Alika avalanches was emplaced about 105,000 years ago (Moore et al. 1989). Almost 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is covered by lavas less than 4000 years old (Lockwood and Lipman, 1987). During a 750-year eruptive period beginning about 1500 years ago, a series of voluminous overflows from a summit lava lake covered about one fourth of the volcano's surface. The ensuing 750-year period, from shortly after the formation of Mokuaweoweo caldera until the present, saw an additional quarter of the volcano covered with lava flows predominately from summit and NW rift zone vents. (GVN/GVP)

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U.S.A. - Bogoslof volcano island (Aleutian islands)

February 20th, 2018

End eruption report - The AVO has put online a 3D multispectral image of Bogoslof, resting since August 30, 2017, end of the eruption 2016-17. The approximately 60 explosive episodes characterizing this period have significantly modeled the Bogoslof's morphology. The island has grown by a factor of three, reaching 1.6 km², but new pyroclastic materials and surge deposits are not consolidated; erosion modifies the contours of Bogoslof permanently, and in December, the lagoon of the vent opened on the ocean on the north coast, marking a gradual return to more modest dimensions ... general problem of news or remodeled volcanic islands: construction and destruction. Previous news - On 6 December AVO decreased the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Bogoslof to Unassigned, noting that no significant activity had been observed in seismic, infrasound, satellite, or lightning data during the past three months. The last detected explosive activity occurred on 30 August 2017. On 27 September AVO reported that the last explosion at Bogoslof was detected on 30 August, and no new volcanic activity was observed in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since then. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that during 20-26 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 22-23 September, indicating ongoing unrest. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 13-19 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 13-14 and 16-17 September, indicating ongoing unrest. On 17 September discolored ocean water was visible in satellite data, possibly representing outflow from the crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 6-12 September nothing significant was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. The 8 September report noted that the crater lake had been bisected by a narrow isthmus of land. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in one satellite image during 10-11 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at 0405 on 30 August and continued intermittently until 0555; the event produced a low-level ash plume that rose to around 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. Later that day seismic and infrasound data showed quiet conditions, and a low-level plume (likely steam) drifted almost 65 km SSE. Satellite, infrasound, and seismic data showed nothing notable during 31 August-5 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Three short-duration eruptive events occurred during 27-28 August. The first, a two-minute-long explosion at 1508 on 27 August, produced a volcanic cloud that rose 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The second event started at 0323 on 28 August and lasted 25 minutes. The resulting small cloud drifted ESE and quickly dissipated. The third event was detected at 1117 on 28 August and generated a small volcanic cloud that rose 7.6-9.1 (25,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were observed in a few satellite images during 28-29 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a satellite image of Bogoslof acquired at 0628 on 24 August showed elevated surface temperatures and a small plume that was most likely steam drifting 17 km S. During 24-25 August a robust steam plume drifting 70 km SE and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data. A four-minute-long explosion that began at 1629 on 26 August generated an eruption cloud that rose 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The event was also observed in seismic and infrasound data, and one lightning stroke was detected. . AVO reported that photographs of Bogoslof taken during an overflight on 15 August showed that the vent area (which had dried out during the 7 August eruption) had refilled with water. Seismicity decreased on 16 August and remained low at least through 18 August. Weakly elevated surface temperatures consistent with a warm lake were identified in satellite data during 19-20 August. Satellite data acquired on 21 August showed an approximately 125-m-diameter lava dome within the intra-island lake, just W of the 1992 lava dome. A cold volcanic plume, likely from the lava dome, drifted about 55 km S of the island. Some minor explosions were detected in infrasound data at about 0410 on 22 August. The lava dome had grown to 160 m in diameter. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that on 9 August seismic and infrasound data suggested low-level eruptive activity at Bogoslof; weakly elevated surface temperatures and a minor steam emission were identified in satellite images. No significant activity was observed in cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data during 10-13 August. Two short pulses of tremor were detected (at 0853, lasting five minutes, and at 0913, lasting three minutes) in seismic data; seismicity returned to baseline levels afterwards. A sequence of seismic events began at 0000 on 15 August; no activity was observed in infrasound, lightning, or satellite data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and theVolcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that during 2-6 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. An explosive eruption began at 1000 on 7 August, following more than an hour of increased seismicity. A pilot reported that an ash cloud rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l., prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. The eruption lasted about three hours, and was longer lived than most of the events in the eruptive sequence that started in December 2016. At 1341 AVO noted that the ash plume had formed a continuous cloud which stayed attached to the volcano and drifted S. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 8 August. Satellite images acquired on 8 August showed a significant expansion of the island towards the N with thick tephra deposits around the vent area forming a new crater lake. AVO reported that during 26 July-1 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in partly cloudy to clear satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 19-25 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 12-18 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images; weakly elevated surface temperatures were noted on 12 and 16 July. In addition no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code Aremained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Avo reported that two new explosions occurred at the Bogoslof on 10 and 11 July. The first one consists of a series of explosions that began on July 10 at 7:47 UTC and ended on 10.07 at 10:35 UTC, the AVO has passed the alerts to RED / Warning. A small cloud of ashes associated with the first episode reached 6,000 meters, and quickly dissipated in a southeasterly direction. A rapid decline in seismicity around 11:00 UTC lowered alert levels to ORANGE / Watch. - The second period of activity began around 6 pm UTC: seismicity and infrasound were increased for 8 minutes. No significant emissions were detected by satellite.On July 11, at 01:06 UTC, the seismic network recorded an eruption that lasted about 15 minutes. No volcanic clouds, lightning or infrasound were detected. Alert levels remain unchanged until data is evaluated. AVO reported that an explosion at Bogoslof was detected at 0124 on 30 June and lasted about 20 minutes. A small cloud from the event drifted about 16 km N and by 1815 had dissipated. Seismicity declined afterwards but continued intermittently at low levels. Beginning at 1248 on 2 July a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data. The event lasted about 16 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Following the eruption seismicity declined and no signs of volcanic unrest were detected in seismic, infrasound, on satellite data on 3 July; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. The ACC and VAL were again raised to Red and Warning, respectively, following an explosive event that began at 1651 on 4 July and lasted 13 minutes. An eruption cloud rose as high as 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. An 11-minute-long eruption began at 1907 on 4 July, producing a small cloud that rose 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. AVO reported that a new significant explosive eruption occurred at 20:48 UTC July 2 (12:48 AKDT July 2). AVO is raising the Aviation Color Code to RED and Alert level to WARNING for Bogoslof volcano. Satellite data and pilot reports shows a volcanic cloud with an estimated altitude of 36,000 ft asl moving towards the east. Seismic and infrasound data suggest that the ash emissions are no longer continuing. AVO reported that slightly elevated surface temperatures at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images on 23 June, and steam emissions were occasionally observed the previous week. Beginning at 1649 on 23 June a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data that lasted about 10 minutes. It produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 400-490 km E. The event prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Four additional explosions were detected, during 1918-1924, 2013-2021, 2104-2112, and 2152-2155, though any resulting ash plumes were not detected above the cloud deck at 8.5-9.1 km (28,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. On 25 June the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. At 1645 on 26 June an eruption which lasted about 14 minutes produced an ash plume that rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic and lighting data indicated that a significant explosion began at 0317 on 27 June, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. The event lasted 14 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Following a significant explosive eruption this 24 June at 0h49 UTC / 23 June 16h49 AKDT, the Bogoslof  has changed to a red aviation code. It produced a plume rising to about 36,000 ft, and was accompanied by a strong seismicity, flashes and infra-sons. The eruption lasted 10 minutes. The satellites located the volcanic cloud at 1:30 UTC, at 36,000 ft, moving northeast.AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures and a small steam emission at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were detected on 16 June, and a 13-km-long steam plume was visible on 18 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a new lava dome at Bogoslof breached the surface of the ocean on or around 6 June, and was the first observation of lava at the surface since the start of the eruption that began in mid-December 2016. The dome was an estimated 110 m in diameter on 7 June, and then grew to 160 m in diameter by 9 June. An explosive eruption began at 0318 on 10 June with a series of short infrasound signals which then, starting at about 0416, transitioned into several minutes-long continuous seismic and infrasound tremor signals. The events generated an ash-rich cloud that rose to an estimated altitude of 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. The eruption ended at 0528. Satellite data indicated that at least part of the volcanic cloud was more ash-rich than most in the current eruption period. On 11 June AVO noted no detectable activity in seismic or infrasound data after the event the day before. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Satellite image acquired on 10 June and a photograph from an observer aboard a jet aircraft on 11 June suggested that the lava dome was no longer above the surface of the water, and was destroyed during the 10 June event. A series of explosive events, each lasting 10-30 minutes, began at 1747 on 12 June and ended around 2035. Ash plumes rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. At 0817 on 13 June a six-minute-long explosion was detected in seismic and infrasound data. A plume was not observed, likely because it was too small or below detection limits. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that a short-duration (less than 10 minute) explosion at Bogoslof began at 1842 on 31 May based on seismic and infrasound data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted WNW, and dissipated over the Bering Sea. The explosion was preceded by a several hour-long swarm of very small earthquakes. Seismicity decreased in the hours prior to the explosion and remained below the detection threshold. A sulfur dioxide plume from an explosion on 28 May was visible in satellite data drifting over the Hudson Bay region of Canada on 2 June. A short-duration explosive event at 0750 on 5 June produced a small volcanic cloud observed by a pilot. Low-amplitude tremor was detected in seismic data beginning at about 1229 on 5 June but then decreased to background levels. A vessel in the area reported vigorous steaming and a white plume rising several thousand feet above sea level. A brief explosive event was detected at 0600 on 6 June. The event likely produced a low-level (less than 3 km or 10,000 ft a.s.l.) emission; a possible plume at 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. was identified in a satellite image following the detection of the activity in seismic and infrasound data, but quickly dissipated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. On 29 May the ash cloud continued to drift NE. No detectable activity was observed in data from seismic or infrasound stations located on nearby Islands, and no new activity has been observed in satellite data. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that the eruption at Bogoslof which began at 2232 on 16 May lasted about 73 minutes. Trace amounts of ash fell in the community of Nikolski on Umnak Island. Later that day the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch; no further ash emissions were detected and seismicity was low. Satellite data showed that the event altered the N coastline of the island. The crater lake was breached with a 550-m-wide gap along the N shore, and the NE shore had been extended 300 m from new tephra deposits. AVO reported that an increase in seismic and infrasound activity from Bogoslof was detected from stations on nearby islands starting at 2232 on 16 May, suggesting the beginning of an explosive eruption. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Watch. A pilot reported an ash plume rising as high as 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l., and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network detected lightning associated with the cloud. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. The eruption lasted about 73 minutes. On 19 April AVO noted that no new volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since a short-lived increase in seismicity on 15 April; AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and theVolcano Alert LevelIncreased seismicity at Bogoslof was recorded by stations on nearby islands starting around 1501 on 15 April, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The seismic activity subsided a few hours later; there was no evidence of renewed eruptive activity from infrasound, lightning, or satellite data during 15-18 April. On 5 April AVO reported that the Aviation Color Code for Bogoslof was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory based on the absence of detected activity at the volcano for the past three weeks; the last large explosion occurred on 8 March. No significant volcanic activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data during 6-11 April. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 29 March-4 April, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 28-29 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 22-28 March, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 15-21 March, and satellite views were either obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 20-21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 2236 on 7 March, indicated in seismic, lightning, and infrasound data, and lasted about three hours. Though ash was not immediately visible in satellite data, AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Later, satellite images showed a large ash cloud rising to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E. This event was the first detected eruptive activity since 19 February, and more than 1,000 lightning strokes related to the volcanic eruption cloud were detected during this event, by far the highest number observed to date. In addition the seismic levels were among the highest detected since the beginning of the eruption. Satellite images from 8 March showed that the W part of the island had grown significantly. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 9 March. Two earthquakes swarms were detected during 9-11 March; the first began at 1750 on 9 March and ended at 1400 on 10 March, and the second was detected from 1900 on 10 March to 0500 on 11 March. Mildly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 10-11 March. A third swarm began at 0500 on 12 March. A short-duration event, from 1131 to 1143 on 13 March, produced a small ash cloud that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. AVO noted that after the event, the level of seismic activity declined and the repeating earthquakes, detected for much of the previous several days, stopped. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images from 13 March. A photograph taken by a pilot showed a low-level, billowy steam plume rising from the general area of the intra-island lake. AVO reported that a new explosive eruption began on March 8 at 7:36 UTC / 7 March at 22:36 AKST at Bogoslof, characterized by about three hours of significant ash emissions. Activity was observed via seismic, infrasonic and lightning detection networks. A large ash cloud was seen by the satellites, moving east to an altitude of 10,700 meters asl. The volcano remains at a high level of instability, and its current aviation alert level is red. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in seismic, infrasound, or mostly cloudy satellite data during 22-28 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.AVO reported that during 15-16 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0955 on 17 February seismic data indicated the beginning of an explosive event, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Individual pulses of seismicity was recorded until 1140, and then afterwards seismicity was low. Satellite images and pilot observations indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. The event was also verified by infrasound and lightning data. Another short-lived explosive event began at 1546, detected in infrasound and seismic data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion at 0450 on 18 February was detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The seismic data suggested that ash emissions lasted several minutes, and then seismicity decreased. A preliminary evaluation of satellite data indicated that a cloud rose at least as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.; the cloud drifted SW. On 19 February the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Later that day seismic and infrasound data recorded a series of short-lived explosive pulses during 1708-1745. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. A plume identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 160 km SE over Unalaska Island. AVO geologists on the island described the cloud has having a white upper portion and a slightly darker lower portion. Storms in the region impacted data communications at AVO's facility in Dutch Harbor on 20 February, limiting AVO's ability to forecast and detect eruptions at Bogoslof. AVO reported that during 8-12 and 14 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0724 on 13 February seismicity significantly increased, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Satellite images acquired through 0930 showed no ash emissions above the 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. cloud deck, and no lightning was detected. AVO concluded that, despite the intensity of seismic activity, a significant ash emission was not produced during this event; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0520 on 31 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. A burst of tremor lasting nine minutes was detected starting at 0457 on 3 February. A second burst, starting at 0533 and lasting 20 minutes, was also detected by infrasound instruments, indicating an explosion. No ash cloud was detected above the meteorological cloud deck in satellite data. An event that began at 1642 produced a small volcanic plume that drifted about 40 km N below an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic tremor significantly decreased later that evening. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images acquired on 5 February, possibly related to hot deposits from explosive activity the day before. On February 3, at 13:57 and 14:33 UTC, two episodes of tremor were detected; The second, accompanied by an infrasonic signal, indicates an explosion, without cloud of ash observed by satellite.Several short bursts of seismic activity were detected at 0520 and 0608 on 30 January. An infrasound signal accompanied the first event indicating an explosion; an eruption cloud was identified in satellite data at 0530, rising to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. later that day AVO noted that bursts of explosive activity continued and intensified; more than 10 short-duration explosions were detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. Ash plumes rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 125 km SE. Trace amounts of ashfall and a sulfur odor were reported in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor (98 km E). By the next day the explosions had subsided or ended. Satellite images acquired on 31 January showed significant changes to the island. AVO stated that freshly erupted volcanic rock and ash had formed a barrier that separated the vent from the sea, suggesting that the change had resulted in the more ash-rich emissions occurring during 30-31 January. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0453 on 24 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. An hour-long seismic increase began at 0134 on 25 January though no evidence of eruptive activity was evident. Based on lightning and seismic data an explosive event began at 0650 on 26 January, and another burst of seismicity was recorded at 0706. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. An ice-rich cloud, first identified in satellite data at 0700, likely contained ash, and rose as high as 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE at lower altitudes, and NE at altitudes above about 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Lightning and seismic data again indicated an explosive event at 0824 on 27 January, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. An ice-rich cloud that likely contained ash rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E; seismicity related to ash emissions remained elevated for 48 minutes. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 1320 on 18 January, generating an ash plume that rose at least to an altitude of 9.4 km (31,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The dark (ash-rich) plume was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot, and produced lightning strikes and infrasound signals detected by sensors in Sand Point and Dillingham. Analysis of a satellite image suggested the presence of very hot material (lava) at the surface immediately surrounding the vent, which was the first such observation since the beginning of the eruption. AVO raised theAviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert level (VAL) to Warning. A second lower-altitude cloud was visible in satellite images around 1400, likely corresponding with an increase in seismic tremor that occurred from 1340-1355. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch the next day. Another explosion was detected at 1317 on 20 January, following an approximately 30-minute-long increase in seismic activity, based on seismic data and lightning detected from the World Wide Lightning Location Network. Pilots observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. Satellite images indicated an ice-rich plume and lava present at the vent. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, but were again lowered one level to Orange and Watch, respectively, the next day. Several lightning strikes north of Bogoslof indicated that an explosive event began at 1409 on 22 January. An ash plume identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, and again lowered one level the next day. Following a period of increasing seismicity, an explosive event began at 0453 on 24 January, as indicated in seismic data and lightning detection, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. Seven minutes later an ice-rich plume which likely contained ash rose too altitudes of 7.6-10.7 km (25,000-35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO reported that photos taken by a pilot on 10 January showed Bogoslof covered with dark gray ash, and a roughly 300-m-diameter submarine explosion crater on the E side of the island. Unrest continued during 11-17 January. Two short-lived explosions (five to six minutes long) were seismically detected at 1123 and 1230 on 12 January and observed by pilots. The estimated altitudes of the first and second plumes were 5.5 and 4.4 km (18,000 and 14,500 ft) a.s.l., respectively. Seismicity again increased at 2126 on 14 January and remained elevated. Six explosive events were detected between 2216 on 14 January and 0350 on 15 January. No volcanic clouds were identified in satellite data, although one lightning strike was recorded at 2232 on 14 January. Increased seismicity on 17 January indicated minor explosive activity; steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose no higher than 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.The last eruption of this volcano took place from July 6 to 24, 1992. It had Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 3 and produced a new dome.Bogoslof is the emergent summit of a submarine volcano that lies 40 km north of the main Aleutian arc. It rises 1500 m above the Bering Sea floor. Repeated construction and destruction of lava domes at different locations during historical time has greatly modified the appearance of this "Jack-in-the-Box" volcano and has introduced a confusing nomenclature applied during frequent visits of exploring expeditions.The present triangular-shaped, 0.75 x 2 km island consists of remnants of lava domes emplaced from 1796 to 1992. Castle Rock (Old Bogoslof) is a steep-sided pinnacle that is a remnant of a spine from the 1796 eruption. Fire Island (New Bogoslof), a small island located about 600 m NW of Bogoslof Island, is a remnant of a lava dome that was formed in 1883. (USGS-AVO)

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U.S.A. - Shishaldin volcano (Alaska)

June 25th, 2020

On 24 June AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin had decreased to background levels. Additionally, satellite images showed no new lava in the crater area, typical surface temperatures, and minor steaming. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. AVO issued an advisory volcanic alert and Yellow aviation code, the troubles continue with possible sulfur dioxide emissions detected by satellite and vapor in the crater visible on high resolution satellite images. The views of the web cameras were obscured by the clouds and no significant activity was detected on local seismic stations or regional infrared sensors. Although disturbances are currently at low levels, activity could intensify with little warning, and additional eruptive activity in the summit crater, lava flows, lahars and ash-producing eruptive events could happen.On 16 April AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin had decreased during the past two weeks, though it remained slightly above background levels. Additionally, satellite images showed no new lava nor changes in the crater area, and a decrease in surface temperatures. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 8-13 April characterized by occasional low-frequency earthquakes. Minor steaming from the summit crater was sometimes seen in satellite and webcam data. A small thermal anomaly was visible in satellite data during 8-9 April. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 1-7 April 2020 characterized by weak continuous tremor and occasional low-frequency earthquakes. The webcam recorded steam plumes rising from the summit crater on 1 April. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images on a few days. The Volcano Alert level remained at Watch and theAviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 25-31 March characterized by continuous low-level tremor. Steam-and-gas plumes rising from the summit crater were occasionally recorded by the webcam and identified in satellite images. Weakly- to- moderately elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 29-30 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that seismicity remained high with low level continuous tremor recorded in the past week.A weak gas plume was commonly observed on webcam images when the views were clear, and high surface temperatures were observed on satellite images.Eruptive activity appears to be confined to the summit area during this latest period of unrest, which began in mid-March. However, activity could increase with little or no warning, causing lava flows outside the crater, lahars and ash emissions.The volcanic alert is Watch, and the aviation code orange. AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin was characterized as near-continuous tremor during 18-20 March and continuous tremor during 21-24 March. Steam-and-gas plumes rising from the summit crater were recorded daily by the webcam and sometimes identified in satellite images. Elevated surface temperatures, consistent with lava in the summit crater, were also identified in satellite images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that eruptive activity continues at Shishaldin. Minor explosive activity has decreased over the past 24 hours, but seismicity remains high with almost continuous tremors. Satellite views have been obscured by clouds, and a small plume of vapor from the summit has been observed in a clear web camera image in the past 24 hours. At this time, eruptive activity appears to be confined to the summit area, but activity could increase with little or no warning, causing lava flows outside the crater, lahars, and ash emissions. The current aviation color code: ORANGE. AVO reported that weak but elevated seismicity was also recorded along with small explosion signals during 14-17 March. Elevated surface temperatures, consistent with lava in the summit crater, were identified in satellite images during 15-17 March. A small steam plume rising from the summit crater was visible in a webcam image on 17 March. AVO raised the alert level of the Shishaldin to Watch and the aviation code to orange on March 14 at 10:31 pm, following the observation on a high resolution satellite image of lava, and of what appears to be a new cone in the summit crater. A weak tremor is also detected. On 6 February AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin decreased during the previous week (though remained slightly above background levels), along with the surface temperatures at the summit identified in satellite data. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory since the eruption appeared to have paused or ceased. AVO reported that seismic activity at Shishaldin remained above background levels during 29 January-4 February. Weakly- to moderately-elevated surface temperatures were sometimes identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that seismic activity at Shishaldin remained above background levels during 22-28 January. Elevated surface temperatures continued to be identified in satellite images, though became weak during 26-28 January. Infrasound data suggested that minor explosions were occurring at the summit during 22-23 January. Small steam plumes from the summit were visible on 22, 23, and 26 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 20-21 January elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, though the N-flank flow was not active. Seismicity remained above background levels, and coincided with detections in infrasound data that suggested small explosions at the vent. Steaming from the summit was visible in webcam images. AVO reported that seismicity dropped sharply to low levels around 3:30 p.m. on January 19, 2020, and ash production increased at about the same time, producing an ash plume that reached 9,000 meters. The eruption continued to produce ash until about 10:00 p.m. when activity slowed. High surface temperatures are still apparent on the satellite images this morning. Webcam images captured after sunrise on the southeast side of the volcano show a weak plume of vapor at the top, new tephras and / or lava deposited on the upper flanks of the cone and a dusting of ash on the snow throughout the area.AVO reported that an increasing in seismicity was observed on January 7, 2020 around 5 a.m. AKST, accompanied by ash emissions; the ash cloud was visible on satellite images at a height of 7,000 meters, drifting east-northeast. The seismicity then weakened for a few hours, before increasing sharply. The plume was loaded with ashes, justifying an increase in warning levels to red aviation code, around 14:20 AKST. Satellite images show very high surface temperatures, and three lava flows are observed; volcanic lightning and infrasound are detected by regional measurement stations. Around 24:00 AKST, the seismicity fell again, and the ash emissions decreased. The alerts returned to Watch, with an orange aviation code. Ash falls are expected on the communities located to the northeast. AVO reported that the volcano still produces lava flows on the upper flanks and is the site of a short-lived explosive activity. This December 3 around 9:30 am AKST, the seismicity started to increase, to lead to a brief period of emission of ash; the ash cloud reached an altitude of 7,300 meters asl.drifting southeast, with lightning bolts. The seismicity then abruptly decreased. Thermal anomalies considered as very high, with a maximum at 1443MW, indicating a continuous effusion. The aviation code is maintained at Orange, accompanied by a SIGMET up to an altitude of 7,300 meters established by the National Weather Service. Previous news 2019 - AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 25-31 December. Seismicity was elevated with weak explosions recorded by the network during 26-27 December. The seismicity decreased to relatively low levels on 27 December and remained low through 31 December. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were periodically identified in satellite images, indicating continuing lava effusion; AVO reported that low-level explosive activity continued near the summit and effusion of short lava flows. Elevated seismicity and surface temperatures were recorded throughout the week. Satellite images December 25 and 26 confirmed an active lava flow extending ~1.5 km (1 mile) to the northwest and tephra deposits on the upper flanks of the volcano. Weak explosions were detected on a regional infrasound network over the last 24 hours. AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued during 18-24 December. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, though clouds sometimes prevented views. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by ongoing tremor and periodic weak explosions. Satellite imagery indicated that the active summit cone had grown after collapsing the week before. Minor ash emissions drifted S on 19 December and E at 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 21 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and theVolcano Alert Level remained at Watch.As of the 21st of December AVO reported that the low-level eruption continued. Seismicity remains elevated. Elevated surface temperatures were observed in partly cloudy satellite data. Minor ash emissions were reported drifting east at ~15,000 ft from the volcano's summit consistent with low-level eruptive activity. On the morning, increasing tremor coincided with a field team in Cold Bay reporting a new lava flow on the northern slope of the volcano.As of the 19th of December, AVO reported that the eruptive activity started at the end of July in Shishaldin continues, with this week a lava flow reaching about 2,500 meters on the northwest flank. Explosive low-level activity rebuilt the summit cone, which had collapsed a week before, and covered with ash the southern flank of the volcano.High surface temperatures were observed in the first part of the week, before decreasing while the activity of the lava flows decreased. The seismicity on the volcano remains high, with continuous tremors and weak explosions. AVO reported that the seismicity remained elevated through 16 December and elevated surface temperatures continued to be detected. A plume appearing to contain ash drifted from the summit on 14 December. A lava flow was reported by a pilot on 16 December; the next day satellite images showed a 2-km-long flow on the NW flank. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that eruptive activity intensified on December 13, with a possible collapse of the spatter cone and lava flows on the north and northwest flanks. The episode was accompanied by an ash cloud at 7,600 meters asl. Surface temperatures are observed by satellite.A plume of steam was visible at the top, as well as night glow. As of the 12th of December, AVO reported that a small eruption occurred and produced a plume of ashes reaching 6000-7600 meters asl, dispersing to the northwest.A burst of tremor was observed on December 12 at 7:10 a.m. local (4:10 p.m. UTC) and lasted 3 minutes, as well as lightning. A flow is visible on the satellite images and on the photos taken from Cold Bay. AVO reported that the eruption either slowed or paused during 6-7 December as evidenced by decreased seismicity and slightly elevated surface temperatures in satellite data. Temperatures again increased and were slightly elevated during 7-9 December, likely signifying renewed lava effusion. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that the thermal anomalies recorded on December 5 at Shishaldin are consistent with an ongoing lava effusion. The continuous tremor is also rising. Small emissions of steam and a little ash are observable by the webcam on the summit and the north flank. AVO reported that on December 4 afternoon and evening high surface temperatures, related to an effusion of lava, confirmed by an increase in seismicity. A lava flow on the flank of the volcano was observed by a pilot; no ashes were emitted. AVO reported that seismic levels at Shishaldin were variable but elevated during 26 November-3 December. Weather clouds sometimes obscured satellite image views and mostly prevented webcam views, though elevated surface temperatures were still visible in multiple satellite images. An active 1.5-km-long lava flow on the NW flank was visible in satellite images on 1 December. Continuous tremor transitioned to episodic bursts during the morning of 2 December, but by 3 December a decrease in seismic activity and surface temperatures suggested another pause in lava effusion. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Satellite image analysis indicates that a partial collapse of the summit cone occurred early on November 25th. This resulted in a pyroclastic flow extending up to 3 km from the summit, on the northwestern side of the volcano. A new lava flow was also generated during this period of activity that extended for 1 km along the northwest flank of the volcano.Seismicity decreased but remained elevated during 25-26 November. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were identified in multiple satellite images, and incandescence from the summit was occasionally visible in web camera images overnight. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that seismicity increased during the day of 25 November and small explosions were detected at local and regional infrasound stations. Very high surface temperatures were observed in several images. Together, these data indicate that low-intensity eruptive activity has resumed in Shishaldin. No ash plume has been detected. A partial collapse of the summit cone sometime around 1430 on 24 November produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled as far as 3 km down the NW flank. A new lava flow on the NW flank was several hundred meters long. AVO reported that the eruption at Shishaldin continued at variable levels during 13-19 November. Seismicity increased during 13-14 November, and elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite and webcam data. Minor ash emissions were visible and likely resulting from spatter cone collapses. Lava and debris flows had not advanced since 8 November; lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km and a large branched network of debris flows extended at least 5.5 km NE. Strongly elevated surface temperatures and a steam plume drifting more than 100 km SE were visible on 15 November. An incandescent lava flow on the NE flank was recorded in webcam images. Activity during 17-18 November was characterized by low seismic tremor and weakly-to-moderately elevated surface temperatures, consistent with cooling lava flows. Seismicity and surface temperatures again increased during 18-19 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that activity significantly increased during 10-11 November with lava fountaining visible in webcam views throughout the evening and night. Strongly elevated surface temperatures at the summit and along the flanks were visible in satellite data. Ash emissions reported by pilots and visible on webcam images rose as high as 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Activity decreased during 11-12 November. Strongly elevated surface temperatures were consistent with cooling lava flows. Seismicity decreased during the evening of 11 November and remained low. Minor steam-and-ash emissions were visible in webcam images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. .Since November 10th, high surface temperatures have been reported at the summit and on the flanks. Thermal anomalies were measured by Mirova on November 11, between 446 and 1,652 MW.Seismicity has increased over the past few days to find lower levels today. AVO reported that eruptive continued; the lava overflows the crater and feeds a flow on the north-west flank in elongation. This one developed in two branches on November 3rd each of them extending on approximately 1.000 meters. Debris flows / lahars also extended, extending up to 2 km on the north and south flanks; Sporadic glow was observable at night on webcams, and satellites showed hot spatter deposits on the summit cone in relation to explosive activity and / or fountaining. Small explosions were observed on the seismic and infrasonic networks. The volcanic alert remains at Watch and the aviation code at orange A pilot observed a lava flow in the morning of 2 November. Sporadic incandescence recorded by the webcam overnight during 2-3 November suggested minor explosive activity and/or lava fountaining. On 3 November lava overflowed the summit crater and traveled at least 400 m down the NW flank and 300 m down the SE flank. By 4 November the flow on the NW flank had branched and lengthened to 1 km. Lahars were as long as 2 km on the N and S flanks. Spatter deposits from explosions or fountaining were visible on the summit cone. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that Low-level eruptive activity continued during 26-29 October. Seismicity remained elevated, with periods of high-amplitude tremor. Small explosions were recorded during 27-28 October. A satellite image from 28 October showed a 850-m-long SWIR anomaly on the NW flank from a lava flow. A central spatter cone was visible. Spatter deposits on the snow at the upper flanks was evident, and tephra deposits extended about 2.5 km N. The lahar on the NW flank branched extensively at lower elevations and was at least 5 km long. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that satellite data from October 23 showed that the lava now fills the summit crater and begins to sink on the edge of the north crater at two locations.On October 24th, a 200 m (600 ft) long lava flow melted the snow and produced a large 2.9 km (1.8 mile) lahar which spreads on the north flank, reaching about 1230 m. m (~ 4000 ft) altitude. A small lava flow produced a lahar about 1 km long on the northeast flank.The 2857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." A steady steam plume rises from its small summit crater. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, it is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the west and NE sides at 1500-1800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century. Webcam . (GVN/GVP)

USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

June 17th, 2020

AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland likely continued during 10-16 June, though no activity was identified in cloudy satellite images nor detected by regional geophysical networks. AVO noted that local seismic, infrasound, and web camera data are unavailable due to an equipment failure, Cleveland continued to be monitored with regional seismic and infrasound stations on nearby islands, along with lightning and satellite data capabilities. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No significant volcanic activity was noted in often cloudy satellite views during 2-9 June; a steam plume was visible on 3 June. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that a small explosion occurred on June 1st at 10:32 am AKST; it was detected by the infrasonic surveillance network, the local surveillance stations being offline. It was accompanied by a small plume of ash observed at more than 6,000 meters asl. drifting south. Aviation code is orange. AVO reported that this eruption at Cleveland on 1 June destroyed the January 2019 lava dome and ejected a large amount of material from the summit crater. Volcanic debris flows traveled about 2.9 km down the E flank and more than 2.7 km down the N flankAVO lowered both the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code for Cleveland to Unassigned on 7 May, noting that explosive activity on 9 January 2019 (and subsequent lava extrusion in the summit crater) was followed by an overall decrease in detected surface temperature and no further surface changes. Previous news 2019 - AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow on 15 November, noting that new satellite data and reanalysis of previous data over the past week showed that lava effusion likely had not begun on 8 November. Regional seismic and infrasound data showed no evidence of eruptive activity during 8-19 November; weakly-to-moderately elevated surface temperatures were sometimes identified in satellite images and steam plumes were sometimes visible in webcam images. AVO reported that the aviation color code was raised to ORANGE and the WATCH volcano alert level by AVO in the day of November 8, 2019, regarding images from satellite that the slow lava spilling into the summit crater had probably begun. High surface temperatures have been observed throughout the week and their intensity has increased significantly over the past day. Mirova recorded thermal anomalies on November 8 of 6 and 2 MW.This activity is interpreted as being due to the recovery of the lava effusion. Vigorous steam has been observed in the webcam data over the last few days, which also corroborates the interpretation that the lava has been erupted. The presence of a lava dome in the summit crater can be used to pressurize the system, which could lead to a small explosive event and associated minor ash emissions. Previously, AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 20-24 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Satellite data showed continued subsidence of the lava dome with no evidence of new lava. On 25 February the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 13-19 February, though no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that analysis of recent satellite data suggested that the lava dome in Cleveland’s summit crater first observed on 12 January may have stopped growing on 16 January, and since then the center of the dome slowly subsided. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were evident in satellite data during 28 January-4 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the volcano alert level remained at Watch.During the past week, the latest satellite observations showed of high surface temperatures date from January 19-20, before the views of the volcano were obscured by clouds. No explosion was recorded by the seismic station and the infrasonic system.The aviation code remains orange, the possible explosions of the dome may present a danger for aviation. AVO has raised the alert level to Watch, and its aviation code to Orange on January 17, 2019. Satellite data show the existence and growth of a new lava dome since January 12, and its presence could be linked to explosive activity, commonly noticed without warning. AVO reported that a brief explosion was detected this December 29, 2018 at 3:17 UTC / December 28 at 18:17 AKST in Cleveland; a cloud of ash was spotted by a pilot at an altitude of 17,000 ft asl .Typical explosions of this volcano, small clouds of ash dissipate within hours of their emission. The aviation code is orange. AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite data on 15 December. A new small explosion which occurred at 0737 on 16 December generated a minor ash cloud that drifted NE. AVO reported that a small explosion was detected by the local seismic network in Cleveland, in Aleutian Islands, on 12 December at 11:53 am AKST / 20:53 UTC, justifying a watch / orange warning adjustment. The weather conditions did not allow the observation of n ash cloud. Previously, Low-level unrest at Cleveland continued, though on 22 August AVO noted a pause in activity and lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. Another small explosion at Cleveland was recorded by the seismic network at 1155 on 8 December. The report noted that elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images the previous day, suggestive of hot gas emissions from the summit crater vents. AVO reported that unrest at Cleveland continued during 15-20 August, though nothing significant was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Steaming from the crater was sometimes visible in clear webcam views, and elevated surface temperatures were occasionally identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. .The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks. Webcam

USA - Makushin volcano (Alaska-Aleutian islands)

September 10th, 2020

As of the 8th of September, AVO reported that seismicity at Makushin returned to background levels after steadily declining for almost three months following a sequence of earthquakes about 10 km E of the summit at a depth of 8 km that had started on 15 June.AVO reported that small earthquakes in an area about 10 km E of the Makushin's summit and at a depth of about 8 km continued to be detected during 15-21 July. Since the onset of seismicity on 15 June, the earthquakes had generally decreased in both size and rate. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from the summit crater lake. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 20-21 July. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and dvisory, respectively. AVO reported continuing numerous smaller earthquakes in an area about 10 km E of the Makushin's summit at a depth of about 8 km during 24-30 June; the frequency and magnitude had been declining since 15 June but the rate became variable on 24 June. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from summit crater lake. Earthquakes with a M 3 and M 3.8 were recorded at 1653 and 1802 on 28 June, with the larger event strongly felt in Unalaska (14 km E). The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and Advisory, respectively. AVO reported that over a period of several hours on 15 June there were two earthquakes in the vicinity of Makushin that were greater than M 4 and one greater than M 3. The events were located about 11 km SE of the summit at a depth of about 8 km, and felt in Unalaska (14 km E). Numerous smaller earthquakes were recorded, though not felt by Unalaska residents. The earthquake activity continued during 16-23 June, though at a declining rate and magnitudes. No surficial activity was visible in satellite or webcam images; only typical minor steaming from summit fumaroles was visible. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level remained at Yellow and Advisory, respectively. AVO noted that the earthquakes represented a departure from background levels and were possibly indicative of volcanic unrest; the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level were respectively raised to Yellow and Advisory. The report noted that aftershocks were continuing. These disorders could lead to a future rash, but it is not a certainty. Aftershocks are continuing, as one would expect with earthquakes of this magnitude. The volcano is monitored with a network of seismic instruments, a web camera, GPS, satellite data and regional instruments for detecting infrasound and lightning. The ice-covered, 1800-m-high Makushin volcano on northern Unalaska Island west of the town of Dutch Harbor is capped by a 2.5-km-wide caldera. The broad, domical structure of Makushin contrasts with the steep-sided profiles of most other Aleutian stratovolcanoes. Much of the volcano was formed during the Pleistocene, but the caldera (which formed about 8000 years ago), Sugarloaf cone on the ENE flank, and a cluster of about a dozen explosion pits and cinder cones at Point Kadin on the WNW flank, are of Holocene age. A broad band of NE-SW-trending satellitic vents cuts across the volcano. The composite Pakushin cone, with multiple summit craters, lies 8 km to the SW of Makushin. Frequent explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 4000 years, sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges. Geothermal areas are found in the summit caldera of Makushin and on the SE and eastern flanks of the volcano. They represent the largest and most investigated high-temperature geothermal resources in Alaska. Small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Makushin since 1786. (GVN/GVP) Webcam

USA - Great Sitkin volcano - Andreanof Island (Alaska-Aleutian Islands )

October 22nd, 2020

AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased during the previous several months and had returned to background levels by 21 October. Additionally, eruptive activity or unusual surface temperatures had not been observed in clear satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal.
AVO reported that the unrest continued with a volcanic advisory alert and aviation yellow code. The seismicity was slightly elevated for much of the past week. On Friday March 6, 2020 at 6:31 a.m. AKST (3:31 p.m. UTC), a relatively large and shallow magnitude 3.5 earthquake occurred 1 km from the summit. Since then, seismicity has returned to levels comparable to those recorded at the start of the week. Although this earthquake represents a significant increase in the seismic activity of the volcano, it does not mean that an eruption is imminent. There has been no evidence of activity in the satellite data over the past week, although sightings have been limited by cloud cover. AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had increased during the previous month and by 26 February was above background levels; the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory. No eruptive activity was evident in geophysical or satellite data. Previous news 2019 - On 15 July AVOreported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased to background levels during the past few weeks with no evidence of eruptive activity in geophysical or satellite data. TheAviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alet level was lowered to Normal.AVO reported that a small steam explosion at Great Sitkin was detected in seismic data at 1318 on 7 June. The Aviation Color Code remains at yellow and the Volcano Alert at advisory. AVO reported that a small steam explosion was detected at Great Sitkin, in the Aleutian arc on June 2 at 5:40 UTC; This volcano is monitored by a seismic system in real time, which motivated the AVO to change the volcanic alert to Advisory and the aviation code to Yellow.
On 25 February 2019 AVO reported that seismicity at Great Sitkin had decreased to background levels during the past month and there was no evidence of explosive activity. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal. The 1740-m-high Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The 1740-m-high summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 meters. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Great Sitkin since the late-19th century. (GVN/GVP) Webcam

U.S.A - Pavlof volcano (Alaska)

October 22nd, 2020

As of the 22nd of October, AVO reported that no seismic tremor at Pavlof had been recorded during the previous two weeks, nor had eruptive activity or unusual surface temperatures been observed in satellite and webcam images. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code were lowered to Normal and Green, respectively, on 14 October. As of the 22nd of September, AVO reported that seismic activity at the volcano has increased over the past 24 hours. The seismic activity was characterized by continuous tremor.No eruptive activity or emissions from the summit have been observed in cloudy satellite and web camera views.The alert level for the volcano was raised to "yellow", as an increase of volcanic tremor has been recorded. AVO reported that seismic activity at Pavlof had decreased during the past several weeks, and no eruptive activity or summit emissions had been observed since minor steaming in late February. AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level to Normal and the Aviation Color Code to Green on 3 March. Previous news 2019 - As of the 30th of December, AVO reported that in the past few days, seismic activity has increased. No eruptive activity or emission from the summit was observed. However, the seismic activity represents an increase compared to the background levels and the levels were raised at Yellow / advisory on December 28 / 20h43 Z. AVO reported that a small eruption occurred at Pavlof on October 19, detected by infrasound and seismic networks. Cloud cover does not indicate whether ashes have been emitted, but if so, they should only concern the summit area. Due to higher than normal settings, the alert level was changed to Advisory and the aviation code to Yellow. On 12 June AVO reported that elevated levels of seismicity at Pavlof, recorded since mid-May, had declined to background levels. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal. The report noted that vapor plumes were occasionally visible in webcam views and elevated surface temperatures in the summit crater were sometimes identified in satellite images; both are common occurrences at Pavlof. AVO reported that low-frequency tremor was detected at Pavlof during 14-15 May and a vigorous steam plume rising from the summit was visible in webcam images on 15 May. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow and the Volcano Alert level was raised to Advisory primarily because of increased seismicity. Steam plumes recorded by the webcam, low levels of seismic tremor, and warm surface temperatures identified in satellite data continued during 16-19 May; AVO noted that steam emissions and warm surface temperatures are common at Pavlof.The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavlof, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing Strombolian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode, when a fissure opened on the N flank, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.(GVN/GVP) Webcam

U.S.A. - Veniaminof volcano (Alaska)

June 20th, 2020

On 18 June AVO stated that periods of seismic tremor and occasional earthquakes had been recorded at Veniaminof over the past few days. The increase above background levels prompted AVO to raise the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow. Periods of low-amplitude seismic tremor decreased in frequency during 19-20 June, and
were not detected at all by 21 June. Previous news 2019 - AVO reported that seismic unrest at Veniaminof continued during 7-13 August with low-frequency earthquakes being common. Satellite and webcam views showed nothing unusual. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. Low-level tremor at Veniaminof coincided with a pilot observation of a steam plume at 1230 on 1 August, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. On 2 August AVO noted that tremor had subsided, though low-level seismicity persisted at least through 6 August. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images. A small steam plume was also visible on 3 August. On 30 April AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code for Veniaminof to Green and the Volcano Alert level to Normal, noting that signs of unrest had continued to decline over the previous four months since the eruption ended in early January. Low-level tremor, slightly elevated surface temperatures, and minor steam emissions continued and considered typical activity for a post-eruptive period. Previous news 2018 - AVO reported that a strong thermal anomaly was visible in satellite and webcam data during 14-15 December, and together with an eruption plume, was consistent with lava fountaining at the summit vent. By 16 December a lava flow was erupting from the vent. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that on December 10th, the lava emission by the intracaldeira cone from Veniaminof, in the Alaskan Peninsula, stopped, although explosive activity still occurs. Until December 13, there is no evidence of eruptive activity observed on the webcam and satellite images.
On Thursday, December 13th, the tremor reappeared intermittently, gradually becoming continuous. Since then, a plume has been observed and more vigorous activity has resumed, given the high temperatures recorded by the webcam and satellites, consistent with fountaining. AVO reportred that the eruption of lava continued during 4-5 December. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures. Steam plumes with possible diffuse ash were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images. On 6 December seismicity changed from nearly continuous, low-level volcanic tremor to intermittent, small, low-frequency events and short bursts of tremor, possibly indicating that lava effusion had slowed or stopped. Variable seismicity continued through 12 December, though there was no visual confirmation of lava effusion. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that the eruption of lava rom the cone in Veniaminof’s ice-filled summit caldera continued during 27 November-3 December. Satellite and webcam data showed eevated surface temperatures. Steam and diffuse ash plumes were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images. During 27-28 November acoustic waves were recorded by regional infrasound sensors. Continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded until the network went offline following a M7 tectonic earthquake near Anchorage on 30 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). Ash emissions from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera significantly increased overnight during 20-21 November, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning (the highest levels on four-level scales). Ash emissions rose to below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 240 km SE. On 21 November observers and webcam views in Perryville (35 km SE) indicated continuous ash emissions through most of the day; ash plumes drifted SE, extending as far as 400 km by around 1445. A short eruptive pulse was recorded during 1526-1726, and then afterwards ash plumes rose to below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Low-altitude ash emissions on 22 November drifted 100 km S. Minor ashfall was reported in Perryville. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level to Orange and Watch, respectively, because of decreased ash emissions. Elevated thermal anomalies were identified in satellite data overnight, and incandescence was visible from a Perryville webcam, suggesting continuing lava effusion which had been obscured by the increased period of ash emissions. Lava effusion was persistent through 27 November. AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera, continued at low levels during 14-20 November. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and lava effusion. Relatively continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded. Steam and diffuse ash plumes were periodically identified in webcam and satellite images; plumes rose as high as 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. on 16 November. Recent satellite data showed that the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera, continued at low levels during 7-13 November. Satellite and webcam data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and lava effusion. Continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded. Steam and diffuse ash plumes periodically identified in webcam and satellite images rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and W. Recent satellite data showed that the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that the eruption from the cone in Veniaminof's ice-filled summit caldera, continued during 31 October-6 November. Satellite data showed elevated surface temperatures from minor lava spattering and flows. Low-amplitude continuous tremor was recorded. The webcam in Perryville, 35 km SE, periodically recorded diffuse ash emissions and incandescence from the cone. Based on a pilot observation and satellite data, a diffuse ash plume rose to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 5 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). As of the 30th of October, AVO reported that the eruption continues characterized by minor spattering and effusion of lava from the intracratal cone, confirmed by satellite temperature measurements.Diffuse ash emissions have been observed on the webcam during previous days; ashfalls occurs sometimes on the surrounding communities depending on the wind conditions. Based on satellite data acquired on 25 October the lava flows had traveled as far as 1.2 km from the vent, and the area of the flow field had doubled in the past month. Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath the ice sheet. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). AVO reported that on October 18, the emissions were particularly strong, with a plume dominated by steam, with the presence of sulfur dioxide and a small amount of ash, and extending for 30 km to the northeast. The effusion of lava continues, as indicated by a relatively continuous tremor.Constant steam emissions can be seen on the Perryville webcam. AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 10-16 October, as evidenced by elevated surface temperatures in satellite data, and low-level continuous tremor. Satellite data indicated that the E part of the S-flank flow field remained active. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface. (GVN/GVP)

U.S.A. - Semisopochnoi volcano ( Alaska)

April 2nd, 2020

AVO reported that seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated during 25-31 March and no surface activity was observed on most days, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that activity at Semisopochnoi had decreased compared to the previous week. Seismicity remained elevated during 19-24 March and no surface activity was observed on most days, though weather clouds often prevented visual confirmation. A steam plume was visible in a satellite image on 21 March and weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in one satellite image during 21-22 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. As of the 16th of March, AVO reports that the increased seismicity of Semisopochnoi is in transition to continuous tremor, with small explosions. Satellite images show a robust plume of steam and minor ash deposits in the vicinity of the northern edge of the Cerebus crater. The volcanic alert level is Watch, and the aviation code is orange. AVO reported that seismicity has increased in recent days, characterized by almost continuous tremor and frequent signals of small explosions.The AVO consequently raised the volcanic alert to Watch on March 15 and the aviation code to orange.No signs of eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi were detected in infrasound and satellite data over the previous several weeks, prompting AVO to lower the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 26 February. A robust steam plume rose from the main vent that same day. Short bursts of tremor and earthquakes persisted during 26 February-3 March. AVO reported that intermittent, low-level tremor was detected at Semisopochnoi during 19-25 February. Brief periods of elevated tremor were recorded during 19-20 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. A series of explosions and tremor bursts at Semisopochnoi were detected by the seismic network beginning on 14 February, prompting AVO raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the volcano alert level to Watch. Tremor bursts lasting from three to twelve minutes every few hours were recorded the next day. Ash plumes were not visible, though a weather cloud deck persisted between 1.5 and 4.6 km (5,000 and 15,000 ft)a.s.l. Seismic data continued to record small explosions and tremor bursts lasting from six to ten minutes every few hours on 16 February, but by 17 February there were almost no events recorded. Weather clouds continued to obscure views of the volcano.AVO raised the alert level to WATCH this February 15 at 12:19 p.m. AKST following an increase in its activity, characterized by a series of small explosions and earthquakes. Tremor puffs last 3 to 12 minutes every hour/ As low-level ash emissions can accompany these explosions, and be masked by cloud cover between 1,500 and 4,500 meters, the aviation code has changed from Yellow to ORANGE. On 9 January AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code for Semisopochnoi to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory, noting that explosions had not been detected since 19 December 2019. In addition, seismic tremor had last been recorded on 29 December 2019; seismicity subsequently declined but remained above background levels. Previous news 2019 - AVO reported that during 17-20 December seismicity was characterized by tremor bursts and small explosions, though cloudy weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. Elevated seismicity was recorded on 21 December. Nothing significant was detected during 22-24 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 10-17 December activity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated, with bursts of tremor and small explosions detected in both seismic and infrasound data. An 80-km-long gas-and-steam plume possibly containing ash was visible in satellite images during 11-12 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a strong tremor at Semisopochnoi was recorded by local seismic and regional infrasound networks beginning at 0026 on 7 December, heralding the start of an eruption and prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The meteorological cloud deck over the volcano was at around 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.; no ash signals were detected above this altitude. A period of intermittent explosions was detected, and afterwards seismicity remained elevated at least through 9 December. Previously, AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level for Semisopochnoi to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow on 18 September noting a decrease in seismic activity over the past few weeks and an absence of tremor since 15 September. Low-levels sulfur dioxide emissions persisted, and the crater lake continued to fill with water. AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi possibly continued during 4-10 September. Seismic activity was relatively minor and characterized by intermittent low-frequency earthquakes. Satellite images were mostly cloudy, though a low-altitude steam plume drifting 50 km S was visible on 8 September. The Volcano Alert level remained at Watch and theAviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that during 17-23 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes; seismic data went offline starting sometime on 17 August, though was available by around 22 August. Ground-coupled airwaves, indicative of explosive activity, were sometimes recorded in seismic data; an infrasound signal was recorded during 23-24 August. Cloudy weather often prevented satellite views of the volcano, though a steam plume was visible on 18 August and sulfur dioxide emissions were detected during 21-22 August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that during 14-17 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes; seismic data became unavailable starting sometime on 17 August. Cloudy weather often prevented satellite views of the volcano, however some recent clear views indicated that the N cone crater had a smooth featureless area, indicating water or tephra at an elevation several meters below the previous floor. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that during 7-13 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes. No unusual activity was observed in satellite images, though views were often cloudy. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that during 31 July-6 August seismicity at Semisopochnoi remained elevated and was characterized by periods of weak, continuous tremor and discrete low-frequency earthquakes. Satellite images were mostly cloudy, though a possible steam plume was visible during 5-6 August. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. On 24 July AVO reported that satellite data from the previous week indicated that the 100-m-wide crater lake in the N cone of Semisopochnoi’s Cerberus three-cone cluster was gone, and a new shallow inner crater about 80 m in diameter had formed on the crater floor. The lake had persisted since January 2019. Seismicity during 25-30 July was characterized by periods of continuous tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, and small explosion signals. Small steam plumes were visible in periodic, cloud-free satellite images, along with minor sulfur dioxide emissions. The Alaska Volcano Observatory raised the level of the Semisopochnoi to Watch / Orange Aviation Code on July 18 around 10:38. An increase in seismic activity began during the night. A strong tremor signal, and an infrasonic signal are reported east of Adak Island at 23:39 AKDT: this event probably resulted in ash emissions and, at the current level of persistent disturbances, similar events could occur without Warning. The weather cloud is located approximately 10,000 ft (3,000 m) above Semisopochnoi and no ash signal has been detected above this height. A small plume extending 18 km from the Cerberus vent was visible in yesterday's satellite data but did not contain an ash signal.An increase in seismicity above background levels on 4 July at Semisopochnoi prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert level to Watch (the second highest level on a four-level scale). Elevated seismicity continued through at least 9 July. No eruptive activity was detected in regional infrasound data, and cloudy conditions obscured satellite views of the volcano..Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is 1221-m-high Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island's northern part. The three-peaked 774-m-high Mount Cerberus volcano was constructed during the Holocene within the caldera. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the northern flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the southern side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical 855-m-high Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented historical eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone within the caldera could have been active during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

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Pu'u'u cone ( Kilauea volcano)

ITALY - Etna volcano ( Sicily)

November 16th, 2020

INGV reported that during the period from November 9 to 15, 2020,an intracrateric Strombolian activity with discontinuous ash emissions occurred at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), also a strombolian intracrateric activity at the Northeast crater (NEC) and at the Bocca Nuova crater (BN); degassing was observed at the VOR; the deformation did not showed significant changes. As of the 14th of November, INGV reported that a strombolian activity, still very modest but practically continuous, occurred from the Crater of the South-East. On the same day, it was possiblre to observe sporadic emissions of ash (cold material) from the New Mouth (Bocca Nuova), more specifically the " BN-1 ", the westernmost of the two mouths which have been reopening for a few month inside the crater, also known as  " The 1968 Mouth ". INGV report about activity of Etna between October 26 and November 1: Strombolian activity at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was variable in intensity with discontinuous ash emissions and the ejection of pieces of lava. At the level of the northeast crater (NEC), activity persisted, of the superficial intracrateric Strombolian type, with the formation of small lava flows confined near the slag cones, the products of this activity remaining confined in the crater. At Bocca Nuova, small intracrateric collapses and the consequent emission of light ash indicate the beginning of the craterization of the eastern part. The Voragine crater showed occasional explosive activity with material ejections above the crater rim. The seismic activity of fracturing remains modest and the amplitude of the tremor at the average level. The infrasound activity is moderate. The other parameters are without major changes. INGV reported that activity of Etna between October 19th and 25th, 2020 remained similar and continued in alternating phases since mid-July of this year consisting of strombolian activity of varying intensity at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), which produced discontinuous ash emissions and the ejection of lava shreds; a deep intracrater Strombolian activity is observed at the Northeast crater (NEC) and degassing at the Voragine (VOR) and Bocca Nuova (BN) craters accompanied by rare and light ash emissions. INGV press release dated 23rd of October.2020 / 8:32 UTC announced that the increase in explosive activity at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), reported in the previous press release (Etna Communiqué 'Update n. 87 at 06:41 UTC), is no longer observable, like the associated ash cloud. However, strombolian activity of varying intensity remains at the NSEC, which fuels sporadic and light ash emissions that are rapidly dispersed in the summit area. Sporadic and light ash emissions could be also be observed from the Bocca Nuova (BN) crater. The temporal trend of the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor and the location of its source, like infrasound activity, did not show significant changes. Signals from soil deformation monitoring stations do not show significant changes. INGV reported that degassing, more or less colored by the ashes continued at the mouth of the saddle of the NSEC during the day of October 22. The National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etneo Observatory, announced that in the early hours of the day on October 23, a moderate and variable intensification of Strombolian activity was observed at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). The explosive activity produced an ash cloud which, in the distal zone, rose for about 4.5 km s.l.m. dispersing towards SSE.The mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed a stationary trend, in the range of mean values.The location of the source of the quake waslocated near the area of ​​the New Southeast Crater, at a depth of about 2900-3000 meters above mean sea level. INGV reported that activity of the summit craters continues on October 10th, with gas emissions at the NE crater (NEC), fumaroles in the Bocca Nuova and Strombolian activity and ash emissions at the Selle vent of the new crater SE (NSEC). Mirova reports a high thermal anomaly on October 11 of VRP 170 MW. INGV OE reported that on October 7th an increase in explosive stombolian activity at the Etna NSEC, with the production of an ash cloud rising over 4.5 km towards the SEE; ashes fell on the Citelli refuge. The tremor remained within the mid-range, and the infrasonic activity was characterized by low occurrence. No significant changes in soil deformation measurements. As of the 7th of October xplosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Toulouse warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 and is moving at 30 kts in E direction.As of the 26th of September INGV reported that from 13:30 UTC, Strombolian activity at the new south-eastern crater increased slightly in intensity. The eruptive activity of varying intensity produced a cloud of volcanic ash that reached a height of about 4 km above sea level, dispersing eastward. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor does not show significant variations, remaining on average values. Regarding infrasound activity, the current strong wind does not allow a detailed assessment of its performance.The signals from the soil deformation monitoring stations show only a modest variation at the level of the tilt station of Pizzi Deneri and GNSS of Cratere di Nord-Est. From 16:00 UTC, ash emissions from the new southeast crater ceased. There remains an activity of Strombolian explosions, sporadic and weak, accompanied by discontinuous and soft ash emissions, which are quickly dispersed near the area of ​​the summit of the volcano. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor remains at average values. On September 24th,an explosion occurred around 11 p.m., accompanied by loud rumbling (distinctly audible from ethnic countries). Material ejected from the mouth covered the entire NSEC (New South-East Crater) complex.As of the 20th of September, INGV reported that the activity of the volcano continued with little changes, characterized by mild to moderate, near continuous strombolian explosions from the saddle vent of the New SE crater.Some of the eruptions throw incandescent lava bombs onto the upper outer slopes of the crater. INGV weekly bulletin, posted on September 15, reporting that a Strombolian activity occurred alternating with the emission of ash at the New Southeast Crater, an intracrateric Strombolian activity at the northeast crater, and degassing at the craters of Voragine and Bocca Nuova. In detail, this activity is characterized by strombolian intracrateric activity, with discontinuous ash emissions, are observed at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) During the more energetic phases, the ejections of coarse materials reached heights of several tens of meters on the edge of the crater and the products sometimes fell outside the crater, settling on the southern flank of the cone. Volcanic ash emissions were observed sporadically, with the formation of diluted clouds that were rapidly dispersed by winds in the atmosphere. The observations made during the inspection on September 9 showed the continued intense degassing of the pit crater, formed in the center of the crater depression of the Bocca Nuova. To the northwest of it, a new crater formed on September 3; it continues to widen due to the collapse of the vertical wall materials. During the period analyzed, the Voragine crater was affected by modest degassing of the main slag cone and occasional light ash emissions. Finally, during the week, intracrater Strombolian activity continued at the Northeast crater. INGV reported that the activity between August 24 and August 30 concerned all the craters. The New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was characterized by explosive intracrateric activity, significantly variable in frequency and intensity, with ejection during the most energetic phases of coarse pyroclastic material on the crater rim. This activity produced the progressive widening of the mouth of the "saddle cone". The Etna geophysical monitoring network system reported that on 30th of August from 12:33:13 p.m. 12:33 UTC a rapid increase in infrasonic activity was recorded associated with a sharp increase in explosive activity at the summit craters, which, since 17:16:16 UTC, has led to EW1 alert levels (explosive activity above the norm). INGV informed that around 14:55 UTC on August 29th, the emission of ash at the new south-eastern crater has ceased. There remains an intense degassing, sometimes accompanied by a discontinuous and light explosive activity. As of the 29th of August, INGV reported that that activity of the new SE crater of Etna was characterized, from the morning of August 28, by a discontinuous and modest ash emission which produces a strongly volcanic cloud. diluted, light gray in color. The volcanic cloud, which reaches a height of about 4.5 km above sea level, was quickly dispersed eastward by high-altitude winds. As of the 26th of August, INGV reported that Strombolian activity continues at fluctuating intensity from the saddle vent of the New SE crater characterized by occasional ash emissions. An explosion occurred at 15:30 local time on 25th of August that generated plume of ash which reached approx. 14,763 ft (4,500 m) altitude and drifted SE. Ash fall was reported in Viagrande and Trecastagni areas. Fluctuating seismicity continues including periods of average amplitude tremor. The seismic station records internal tremor at 2900-3000 m altitude in area of New SE Crater. INGV reported that on the morning of August 14th, an increase in Strombolian activity was observed at the NSEC / New south-eastern crater (saddle cone) of Etna producing an ash emission which generates a dark plume of ash dispersed by the wind in a south-southeast direction and with ash falls in the region of Pedara, Trecastagni and Viagrande. The plume height reached between 700 and 1,200 meters above the summit, justifying the passage of the aviation code from orange to red.The fall of coarse pyroclastic material on the sides of the NSEC cone was reported by ground crews. This explosive activity was characterized by persistence and fluctuation in intensity and was associated with modest ash emissions. INGV reported that almost continuous Strombolian activity has been underway at the Southeast Crater, one of Etna's four summit craters since mid-July 2020. Although the activity is almost continuous, it fluctuates widely, with episodes of more intense activity every 4 to 10 hours. One of these episodes occurred on the evening of August 10, 2020 and lasted with variations in frequency and intensity of the explosions until the early hours of August 11, with bomb projections on the outer flanks of the cone. A plume of gas and ash rises about 3,500 meters above the vent. An increasing of the strombolian activity occurred at the NSEC's "saddle cone" on the night of August 9th, followed by ash emissions with an impressive plume seen from Torre del Filosofo at 3,000 meters.INGV reported that during the period from July 27 to August 3, 2020, the activity of the summit craters of Etna was characterized by an intracrateric Strombolian activity of the northeast crater (NEC), by a sporadic Strombolian activity and weak volcanic ash emissions from the Voragine crater (VOR), a modest Strombolian activity and discontinuous ash emissions with the formation of a diluted volcanic cloud towards the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and degassing activities by all the summit craters.INGV reported that two craters showed Strombolian activity on July 30, respectively at 1:46 am, with nocturnal incandescence; and 10:50 am local, with plumes of gas, sometimes loaded with ash : the Voragine and the "saddle cone" of the New Southeast Crater.INGV reported that during the week from July 13th to 19th, intracratical explosive activity was observed mainly affecting the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and the Voragine (VOR) of Etna, with low ash emissions which quickly dispersed to high altitude and with materials thrown on the crater edges. On July 15, surveillance cameras recorded a slight increase in the variable Strombolian explosive activity of the aforementioned craters, with ash emissions that quickly dispersed near the summit area and with spatter projections above the edges. from the crater. This Strombolian activity continued at the "saddle cone" on July 21 in the early hours.The other summit craters were mainly characterized by outgassing activity.The fracturing seismicity remains moderate and the amplitude of the tremor on average values. Low infrasonic activity. Etna's soil deformation monitoring networks did not show significant changes during the week SO2 flux is at a medium-low level. INGV reported that a weak Strombolian activity was observed on July 11, 2020 in the evening at the saddle vent located between the new and the old southeast cone of Etna. Previously INGV reported that from June 29 to July 5, 2020 (bulletin posted online on July 7) a modest deep intracrateric strombolian activity and degassing at the new southeast crater. The degassing activity also concerns the craters of Bocca Nuova, Voragine and the northeast crater.In particular, observations made during the inspection on July 3 showed that the pit formed at the center of the depression of the Bocca Nuova crater is affected by a modest degassing from below. Fumaroles developed in the southern sector of the bottom of the crater and also along the flows of Voragine in the BN until the end of April. The Voragine crater is affected by a modest degassing of the main ash cone. The North-East crater presents degassing activity from below which occasionally (July 2), was accompanied by a weak intra-crater strombolian activity. Finally, during the week, a modest intra-crater strombolian activity continued at the vents of the "saddle cone" of the New South-East Crater. This activity does not produce hot materials visible on the surface, but rather a night glow, and is associated with an intense pulsed degassing. INGV reported that during the period from 1st to 7th of June 2020, the activity of Etna was characterized by eruptive activity in the New Crater of Southeast (NSEC) and the degassing of a variable character from the other summit craters. A modest intracratric strombolian type activity continued at the NSEC without interruption of time in the saddle cone reported in the previous bulletin. On the surface, this activity produced an intense pulsating degassing, which at night resulted in lightning flashes of variable intensity, discontinuous and weak emissions of ash which quickly dispersed in the atmosphere and occasional expulsion of shreds of lava at - above the edge of the cone crater. For a few days, the activity of the crater of the Voragine had strongly decreased. This morning May 24, 2020, activity showed a slight increase for a few hours, and one of the explosions produced this magnificent ring of vapor, seen from the region of Monte Grosso, on the south side of the volcano.INGV Osservatorio Etneo, reported that from 02:12 UTC, strombolian activity increased in the saddle cone of the new crater of south-eastern of Etna. Explosive activity produced a cloud of volcanic ash reaching 4,500 m (above sea level) dispersed by the wind to the southwest. The VONA went red at 07:12 hours, before finding the Orange level at 13:16 hours. Explosive activity also continues at the Voragine crater with periodic emissions of ash, which disperse rapidly near the summit area. The magnitude of the volcanic tremor, compared to yesterday, has undergone a moderate increase, with large fluctuations around medium and high values. Currently, the amplitude values ​​are high and the source of the tremor continues to be located near the New SE crater. The infrasonic activity has shown a moderate increase and the sources are mainly located in the New SE crater. The soil deformations do not show significant variations.INGV reported thatt Strombolian activity was recorded by surveillance networks at 12:12 local time (10:12 UTC) at the saddle cone located between the old and the new cone of the Crater of South-East of Etna. Strombolian activity began to increase from 08:45 UTC in the New Southeast crater, and is accompanied by a modest emission of volcanic ash, which is blown by the wind towards the northeast. From a seismic point of view, since 09:20 UTC, the amplitude of the volcanic tremors has shown an increase in high values. The source of the volcanic tremor is located near the new southeast crater about 2,900 m above sea level. The infrasonic activity also showed a slight increase, with events being located at the new southeast crater. The deformation on the ground shows no significant impulsive variation associated with continuous activity. However, a trend of northward movement at the Pizzi Deneri and Northeast crater stations initiated in early May continues.INGV reported that From 00.45 hours UTC on May 16, 2020, the surveillance cameras revealed an explosive strombolian activity in the New Crater of SE of Etna, with regard to the vent called the "saddle". This activity quickly intensified, producing a modest cloud of ash that the winds dispersed at high altitude to the north. From the seismic point of view, there is no significant variation in the recorded signals. The source of the volcanic tremor is located at the new SE crater, at a depth of about 2900 m above sea level. From 6:45 h UTC, the strombolian activity at the NCSE ceased. The explosive activity remains at the Voragine crater, although it has decreased in intensity and frequency, according to the location by INGV staff on May 15. INGV reported that during the first hours of May 10, 2020, a new episode of modest Strombolian activity took place in the "saddle cone" of the New Crater southeast of Etna. The INGV also reported that the surveillance networks recorded at 03:27 hours (01:27 UTC), a continuous strombolian activity, with an ejection of products beyond the crater. Some blocks partially accumulate at the edge of the crater while others roll along the slopes. At the same time as the eruptive activity of the New Southeast Crater, there is also an increase in the eruptive activity of Voragine, with ballistic ejections beyond the crater edge. From approximately 04:00 hours, there was a significant decrease in Strombolian activity in the New Crater of Southeast, where a strong degassing remains. At La Voragine crater, an explosive activity was less strong and frequent than the previous hours. As for the amplitude of the volcanic tremor, it showed a sudden increase from 11:30 p.m. UTC on May 9, reaching its maximum value around 12:30 p.m. UTC on May 10, and then remained at high values. A rapid decline was observed, with a return to waaverage levels around 02:20 UTC on May 10. The location of the source of the tremor was located near the area of ​​the New Southeast Crater, at a depth of about 2800-3000 meters above mean sea level. INGV reported that activity was characterized between 1st to May 7th, 2020 by a continuous degassing of the BN / VOR / NEC crater sectors (Bocca Nuova, Voragine, NE crater) and SEC / NSEC crater (SE crater and new SE crater). Explosions continue from the easternmost slag cone inside Voragine. This activity is often violent with the projection into the atmosphere of coarse pyroclastic fragments. Strombolian activity continues at the bottom of the northeast crater. Since around 5:00 p.m. on May 8, there has been a slight increase in ash emissions from the NSEC, this pulsating activity has formed a plume of diluted ash towards the ESS. INGV personnel present near the new southeast crater observed a strong degassing, with deep roars and associated ash emissions. As for the amplitude of the volcanic tremor, it oscillates on medium-high values; the source of the tremor is located near the new southeast crater, at a depth of about 2,800 to 3,000 meters above mean sea level. INGV reported that during the week of April 27 to May 3, Etna presented a strombolian activity to Voragine (VOR) and to the new southeast crater (NSEC). At La Voragine, an inspection on April 30 revealed that the effusive activity of the vent of the principal cone had stopped, in progress since September 12, 2019, and the lava field is being cooled. Strombolian activity continues on the other hand at the level of the intracrateric cones of the VOR, with gray-black ash emissions several hundred meters high, during the main cone explosions. During the night of May 3-4, the strombolian explosions from the VOR crater appeared particularly energetic, and the coarse material produced fell outside the edges of the crater, settling on the southern flank of the Bocca Nuova crater. It was also observed that the depression that formed inside the BN of the crater has increased compared to what was observed during the inspection of April 18, 2020. During the week, a pulsatile degassing of the new Southeast crater continued. The presence of flashes at night showed that strombolian activity continued at the level of the "saddle cone", without expelling incandescent materials. Sometimes this activity was accompanied by the emission of reddish ash, quickly dispersed in the atmosphere. INGV reported that eruptive activity at the new southeast crater on April 19 began around 06:30 UTC local 8:30 am with a sudden increase in the tremor, showing strombolian activity at the "saddle cone" of the NSEC; from 07:15 h UTC, it gradually evolved into a pulsating lava fountain. From 07:50 UTC, modest lava flows are observed at the top of the NSEC and remain confined to the upper eastern and southern flanks of the cone. The activity generated the emission of an ash plume which was quite weak at the beginning and which gradually increased in intensity from 08:45 UTC, reaching around 5,000 meters in height. The ashes fell on the eastern side of the volcano for the most part in the Bove Valley and fallout of fine materials were also reported on the city of Zafferana. From 09:55 UTC, the lava fountain activity gradually diminished until it stopped. Finally, it was reported that strombolian activity at the crater of La Voragine, which started in September 2019 continued with slight fluctuations compared to what has been communicated so far. From a seismic point of view, after a significant drop in the tremor, the eruptive episode was announced by a rapid increase in the volcanic tremor from 5.40 hours GMT - 7.40 local hours, which reached the highest energy level at 7.00 hours GMT (9.00 local time). The sources of the signal were located in the area of ​​the New Southeast Crater at shallow depth. The episode was accompanied by remarkable infrasound activity, which is also decreasing. The INGV announced at 23:55 (21:55 UTC), the return of parameters to normal activity. Previously, INGV reported that from 20.50 hours UTC on April 17th, we observe at Etna a sudden increase in the magnitude of the volcanic tremor which reached the maximum value at 21.26 hours UTC, attesting to high values. This activity was accompanied by a moderate increase in infrasound activity, which is localized in the area of ​​the SEC / NSEC craters. In addition, from the network of surveillance cameras, it is possible to observe, with regard to the "saddle cone" of the New Crater of Southeast, gleams attributable to an intracrateric strombolian activity, associated with an accentuation of the thermal anomaly that has long characterized the same area. Strombolian activity at La Voragine crater, which began in September 2019, continues with small fluctuations; The lava emitted by the cone complex of Voragine filled the crater of Bocca Nuova, where a new pit crater / collapse well is present in the central part. INGV reported that strombolian and intracrateric effusive activity continued at Etna, between April 6 and 12 from the Voragine crater. Strong degassing of the new southeast crater and the northeast crater was noticed during the same period. The activity inside the Voragine crater, in progress for 7 months, continued with slight fluctuations. This activity consists of three-mouthed Strombolian explosions, which build slag cones in the crater and an effusive activity, mainly from a mouth located on the south side of the largest cone. The explosive activity was more continuous at the largest cone, formed as the first, from September 12, 2019. As of the 11th of April, INGV reported that activity at three of the four summit craters of Etna continues, although slightly decreased compared to the last weeks. This activity consists of Strombolian explosions and emission of an intracratric lava flow with Voragine (VOR), an intense and very noisy degassing in the Northeast Crater (NEC), and a fluctuating incandescence with a strong degassing in the "cone of the saddle "from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC).INGV reported that for the period from 9 to 15 March an abundant degassing activity could be observed of the upper craters: the northeast crater (NEC), produced emissions of ash which immediately dispersed into the atmosphere on March 13, and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was also characterized by sporadic ash emissions accompanied by audible roars even at long distances.In the intra-crater area of ​​Voragine, a strombolian-like eruption continued. This activity was produced by two separate ash cones. In the main cone, active since September 12, 2019, the explosive activity was generated by a single mouth located in its summit crater and characterized by sporadic events of high intensity with bombs and shreds of lava expelled between intervals of several minutes of rest. INGV reported that during the period from March 2 to 8 activity of the upper craters of Etna was mainly characterized by Strombolian explosions and an effusion at the level of Voragine (VOR), and degassing with intermittent intermittent ash emission of strombolian ash from the new south-east crater (NSEC) and the north-east of the crater (NEC). At the seismicity level, there was a low seismic fracturing activity and a stationary state of the volcanic tremor parameters. The infrasonic activity remained moderate. No significant deformation. The flow of SO2 was at an average level. The flow of CO2 from soils is at medium-low levels. INGV reported that between February 24 and March 1, 2020, activity was characterized by an effusive strombolian activity in the crater of Voragine, and an activity of the northeast craters and the new southeast crater, characterized by discontinuous ash emissions and discontinuous strombolian activity. A drone observation shows a cone of slag in the Voragine, flanked on the south side, by a mound provided with a mouth feeding active lava flows. These flows have formed a large, partially cooled lava delta in recent months. At the NEC, sporadic explosions and emissions of ash were observed, and occasional intracratric strombolian activity is reported at the vents located at the bottom of the crater.Activity at the NSEC level is reported at the level of the saddle cone, strombolian, with continuous ash emissions; the soil is fractured and produces fumaroles. INGV monitoring data between February 17 and 23, reported that a strombolian and effusive intracrateric activity occurred in the Voragine crater. Discontinuous ash emissions were observed at the northeast crater and at the new SE crater. Low seismic fracturing activity was reported; amplitude of the volcanic earthquake in the middle level. The Etna soil deformation monitoring networks have not shown any significant change to report during the last week. INGV reported that during he week of February 10th to 16th, 2020 eruptive activity was characterized at Etna by a strombolian and effusive intracrateric activity of the Voragine crater, an episodic strombolian activity in the New Southeast Crater, and an ordinary degassing activity with soft and discontinuous ash emissions from the northeast crater. INGV reported that during the week of February 3rd to 9th, Etna activity was mainly characterized by eruptive activity from the Voragine crater (VOR), by discontinuous ash emissions from the northeast crater (NEC) and new South-East crater (NSEC) and ordinary degassing of the other summit craters. Intra-crater strombolian activity at the VOR crater continues, emitting shreds which extend beyond the edge of the crater by a few hundred meters and which has led to a further increase in the ash cone, particularly in the northern part.The effusive activity flowing from the southern flank of the intracraterial cone continues in the adjacent Bocca Nuova. Field observations and images recorded during the helicopter's overflight revealed that lava filled the eastern sector (BN-2) and reached the crater of the western well (BN-1). INGV reported that strombolian activity continues on January 30.INGV reported continuing eruptive activity at Etna's Voragine Crater (VOR), New Southeast Crater (NSEC), and Northeast Crater (NEC) during 21-26 January. Intracratric eruptive activity continued in Voragina during the period from January 20 to 26, with Strombolian explosions and the emission of a lava flow, which rises on the south side of the intracratric cone, with spill in the adjacent Bocca Nuova. By the end of the week, lava had completely filled the eastern well of the Bocca Nuova (BN-2). During the week, an increase in the frequency of Strombolian explosions is observed, which led to rapid growth of the cone, especially in its northern part.The cone in VOR produced Strombolian explosions which increased in frequency and resulted in rapid cone growth (especially the N part). Lava traveled down the S flank of the cone and into the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater, filling the E crater (BN-2). Activity at NEC was characterized by discontinuous Strombolian activity and periodic emissions of very diffuse ash plumes. During 21-22 January there were several episodes of ash emissions at NSEC, originating from the vent that had opened on 11 December 2019 on the side of the saddle area. Ash emissions rarely rose form the E vent. INGV reported that activity of Voragine intensified during the night from 10th to 11th of January with a lava flow in the direction of Bocca Nuova, separated in two arms.The thermal anomalies, noted by Mirova, are between 32 and 177 MW. On the day of January 10, a plume of ash also rose above the southeast crater. INGV reported that the pyroclastic cone, which has been building since September in the Voragine crater, emitted a small lava flow on January 9 in the afternoon; it pours into the crater of Bocca Nuova. In the evening of January 8, the INGV noticed a glow in the Northeast craters and Voragine. On January 9, around 6:20 am local, a glow was observed at Voragine and at Bocca Nuova, followed by a Strombolian explosion at Voragine at around 6:23 am local. At 7:03 local, this January 9, an explosion is observed thanks to the thermal camera with the cone of the Selle of the new south-eastern crater. INGV reported that low summit activity continued. On January 1, ash emissions and a Strombolian explosion were observed at the Voragine crater. Emissions of ash are captured at the "saddle cone" of the NSEC in the afternoon of January 1.On January 2, a Strombolian activity marks the Northeast crater at 6.30 local time. On January 3, hot spots at the NE and VOR craters can be observed on the Sentinel-2 satellite image. Previous news 2019 - INGV reported that during the period from December 16 to 22, 2019, the activity marked the NSEC, NE and Voragine craters: of strombolian type in the New Southeast Crater - of strombolian type intra-crater with sporadic ash emissions in the north crater and at the crater of Voragine.INGV observed a moderate increase in seismicity due to fracturing; the amplitude of the tremors fluctuated between medium and low values.Low infrasound activity was noted.No significant variation to report on the deformation side, but a trend towards inflation continues SO2 fluxes were at an average level. The CO2 flux from the soil was at average values, showing a recovery compared to last week.The partial pressure of CO2 in the aquifer does not show significant variations. INGV reported that during the night of December 11 to 12, 2019, Etna showed a strombolian activity at the crater of Voragine, two vents of the new southeastern crater (NSEC) and the crater northeast. Also reported the opening of a new small vent on the eastern flank of the "saddle cone" of the NSEC, which from the end of December 11 produced intermittent and weak strombolian activity, sometimes simultaneously and sometimes alternately with the more oriental vent of the same NSEC. INGV reported that four craters showed activity between 2 and 8 December 2019 : Strombolian activity characterized the Voragine, the Bocca Nuova and the new crater southeast, and the crater northeast. From December 7, the amplitude of the tremor increased. Sulfur dioxide flows remained at a moderate level, and those of carbon dioxide in the soil have a slight tendency to increase. At NSEC level, there are small black ash puffs on December 9 and night glow, also visible at NEC and Voragine. INGV reported that from 18:00 UTC on 6 December, the cameras of the CCTV system of the INGV show, in addition to the Voragine / Bocca Nuova activity, a gradual intensification of Strombolian activity at the New Crater of South-East of the Etna, who manifested already from 16:00 UTC with weak and discontinuous explosions. The activity produces, for the moment, the fallout of incandescent material along the slope of the cone. An increase in the tremor is observed around 22:10 local.This activity continued on December 7, characterized by thermal anomalies between 71 and 169 MW, according to Mirova. On December 8th, values ​​of 54 and 144 MW are recorded at 0:15 and 1:50. This morning, ashes are emitted by the crater northeast. INGV reported that since the 6th of December in the morning, a Strombolian activity occurred at the Voragine and a new lava flow was observed from the base of the cone of scoria located in this crater; lava flowed in the Bocca Nuova. INGV reported that this phenomenon has already been observed on 18-20 September2019. An explosion was recorded by the thermal camera at the eastern mouth of the new southeastern crater / NSEC. From 18:00 UTC, CCTV cameras showed a gradual intensification of strombolian activity at the New Southeast Crater, which has already manifested itself since 16:00 UTC with weak and discontinuous explosions. The activity produced the fallout of incandescent material along the slope of the cone. An increase in the tremor was also observed around 22:10 local. INGV reported that eruptive activity at Etna's summit craters continued during 25 November-1 December. Strombolian explosions at Voragine Crater (VOR) occurred at intervals of 5-10 minutes, and many incandescent jets rose above the crater rim. Some explosions created incandescent flashes in emissions rising above the crater rim. A cone which had started forming on the crater floor in mid-September had continued to grow according to observations by field guides. Sporadic ash emissions began at New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on the evening of 30 November, and a single Strombolian explosion was recorded on 1 December. Incandescence from Bocca Nuova Crater was intermittently visible at night. INGV reported for the period from 4 to 10 November that the Strombolian intra-crateric activity of Bocca Nuova (BN), Voragine (VOR) and the new crater South-East (NSEC) of Etna were maintained, accompanied by modest emissions of ash; the Northeast Crater (NEC) degasses, with occasional ash emission. At the seismicity level, earthquakes linked to fracturing remain low, and tremor levels oscillated between medium and high.The deformation does not showed significant variations from the previous period. INGV and Etna Guides reported that the activity of the summit craters was still relevant during the past week. The NEC / Northeast crater is home to Strombolian activity and regular ash emissions - The NSEC / new southeastern crater continued degassing. - The central crater continued an explosive activity from five vents that eject bombs and scories that exceed the edge of the crater; the explosions were still violent and accompanied by strong detonations. INGV reported that the volcano continued to emit ash from the summit craters, particularly the northeast crater and Voragine, on 16 October from 05:30 UTC; the fine ashes are scattered to the east. The aviation color code is orange. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor is maintained at average values, without significant variations. INGV reported that on themorning of October 5th a gradual increase in ash emissions occurred to the northeast crater of Etna; the ash clouds have spread to the east. The intensity of the tremor has no significant variation. An overflight on the same day of the summit craters allowed to observe continuous emissions of brown ash by the NEC, as well as an explosion with a small plume of ash by the Voragine. INGV reported that a pulsating ash emission was observed at craters Northeast and Voragine on October 1st, 2019. It has intensified since 8:50 GMT on webcams images. The INGV also reported that the amplitude of the tremor does not show significant variations from the previous days. As of the 27th of September, INGV reported that from 5:00 GMT an emission of ash was observable at the crater northeast of Etna. The ashes dispersed to a south sector.This activity follows the last week which was characterized by explosive strombolian and effusive intracrateric activity at the crater of Voragine, coupled with sporadic ash emissions at the NEC; the other craters continued the normal degassing.ESA's Sentinel satellites analyzed sulfur dioxide emissions and thermal anomalies over the same period. INGV reported that Strombolian activity from vents at the bottom of Etna's Voragine Crater (VOR) continued during 16-22 September. On 18 September guides observed intensified explosive activity at VOR characterized by the ejection of scoria and ash from several vents to heights of tens of meters. A lava flow from the cone had descended the W flank of the cone to its base, and then flowed several hundred meters S and branched into the Bocca Nuova Crater. Similar activity was observed on 19 September, though by 22 September the lava flows were cooling and Strombolian activity from VOR vents had become less frequent. Gas emissions rose from Northeast Crater (NEC); an ash emission was noted on 22 September. .INGV reported that regarding the location of the source of volcanic tremor that, on Saturday, September 14, was mainly below the crater Voragine, it is located since the beginning of September 15 essentially under the crater Northeast. The volcanic tremor source is currently at an altitude of 2700-2900 m above sea level, with a tendency to deepen. During the weekend, infrasound activity showed a slight increase in the frequency of events. The sources of the events are mainly Voragine and, to a lesser extent, Bocca Nuova and the Northeast crater. INGV reported that on September 13, ash emissions were observed at the NEC, scattered in the summit area. Strombolian activity, with emission of coarse materials, animates the Voragine; it continued in the evening of 14 September, with some explosions, visible from Tremestieri Etneo. The flux of SO2 measured by the FLAME network of Etna on the 13th at 15:30 UTC showed a daily average value of about 2000 t / day, which is below the attention threshold of 5000 t / day. As of the 12th of September, INGV reported that as of 10:00 UTC the eruptive activity at Voragine Crater has intensified further, going from occasional ejections of ash to strombolian activity almost continuous, which does not produce significant ash emissions. Strombolian activity is accompanied by strong detonations in Zafferana Etnea, Aci S. Antonio, Pedara and surrounding areas. The SO2 stream measured over the FLAME Etna network at 12:00 UTC recorded an average daily value of about 4800 t/g, at the limit with the attention threshold of 5000 t/g. SO2's intraday data indicated maximum flow values between 6000 and 8000 t/g. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor remains at high values, the location of the source of the tremor is confined to the area of Voragine Crater, at altitudes ranging between 2800 and 3000 meters on the sea. As of approximately 09:00 UTC, infrasonic activity has increased in the rate of occurrence, which is located at voragine Crater. Soil deformation monitoring networks found no particular anomaly.The emission of ash from the northeast crater ended on 25 August 2019 at 8:38 am local time, according to the monitoring networks of INGV. The average magnitude of the volcanic tremor shows average and low values, comparable to those of last week. Even the infrasound signal does not show any significant changes. The clinometric and GPS (HF) networks show no significant changes and show a trend similar to that which existed before the ash activity of the Northeast crater. INGV reported that since last August 6, there has been ash emissions from the Northeastern crater (NEC) of Etna. Sometimes these emissions are more dense and abundant, forming a plume which is dispersed by the wind mainly near the eruptive vent toward the south and east of the volcano. Due to these events, much of the NEC's inner north wall collapsed. INGV and Etna Observatory, reports that monitoring and surveillance systems have detected a sudden increase in the average magnitude of the volcanic tremor on the 27th in the morning from 05.30 h. UTC. This increase continued with steady growth until 08.15 h. UTC, the surveillance cameras showed intense branching gas emissions at the base of the south side of the new crater of the Southeast. From 09:20 h. UTC, a further increase in the average magnitude of the volcanic tremor was observed, accompanied by explosive activity located on the new crater of the Southeastand signaling the opening of an eruptive mouth. Explosive activity resulted in the formation of a dense ash-rich gas plume that dispersed, drifted by the wind, on the eastern part of the volcano, at a maximum altitude estimated at about 4500 meters at sea level. At 11:10 UTC, INGV field team staff reported that explosive activity affected the entire extent of the eruptive fissure, which extends from the NSEC summit to its southern base. The explosions succeeded each other without a break in continuity and generated dense emissions of volcanic ash. From the southern part of the eruptive crack emerged a lava flow that extended to the southwest and to the south. At 11.35 UTC, the most advanced front reached and passed the northern base of the Barbagallo Mountains, at about 2.850 m at sea level, with a spread towards the bottom of an area between the Frumento Supino mounts and pyroclastic cones from 2002-2003.With regard to the deformation, one records at the same time as the increase of the tremor, slight variations of inclination at the top stations of the crater of Piano (about 2 MRAD) and Pizzi Deneri (some tenth of microradiants). GPS stations show no significant variation. At 12:21 UTC (1421 local time), a sequence of powerful explosions occurred at the NSEC, producing a cloud of ash rising 7.5 km above sea level. At the same time, eruptive activity continued without notable variations in the area adjacent to the "saddle cone" (active in January-April 2017) and on the southern flank of the NSEC. Around 2 pm UTC, the INGV personnel present in the summit area informs that the lava flow is well fed and is developing rapidly, with a front advancing rapidly towards the valley, after having passed the pyroclastic cones of 2002-2003. A helicopter flight by Joseph Nasi / Butterfly helicopters, around 16:30, reveals the activity spread between the "saddle cone" of the new southeastern crater and the two fractures to the south and southwest. The explosive activity continued in the evening from the two vents immediately under known as the "Cone of saddle" (active between January and April 2017), and activity of "Spattering" and emission of lava of two fracture on the south and southwest sides of the new south-east crater. This activity is similar to some of the eruptive episodes of the March-April 2017 period, but the most advanced lava flow has developed much more rapidly between the 2002-2003 cone (monte Barbagallo) and the old cone of monte Frumento Supino. As of the 21st of July INGV reported that since 20th inthe afternoon of July , eruptive activity ceased from the new Southeast crater. Lava is no longer being emitted from the vent on the north flank of the NSEC and the lava flow emplaced during the past few days does not show any movement and is cooling. Sporadic emissions of brownish ash continue from the Bocca Nuova crater. INGV, Observatoire Etnéen, reported that the intense Strombolian activity at the new crater South-East (NSEC) of Etna, which had resumed the afternoon of July 19, suffered a drop brutal between 20:10 h and 20:15 h. UTC, to stop at 20:30 h. During the night, the rate of lava emission from the effusive vent on the north side of the NSEC, and the lava fronts that were at about 2200 m stopped and are being cooled. However, although at a very low rate, the effusive activity continued, and at 21:30 h 21:30 UTC started a very large emission of ash from the Northeast crater (NEC) duration up to at 02:25 UTC this 20th of July. During the night, there were also some small explosions at the NSEC. As of 03:30 am UTC, the visual and thermal surveillance cameras recorded a further increase in explosive activity at the NSEC. Since then, this activity has continued with fluctuations between Strombolian explosions and ash emissions; the emission of lava from the effusive vent on the north side of the NSEC continues. Currently, the active flows are in the upper part of the Leone Valley, around an altitude of 2600 m. Emissions of ash from the new vent and the SEC are also observed.The analysis of MODIS images shows an increase in heat flux over the last 24 hours: thermal anomalies went from 1,746 MW on July 19 at 9:25 am to 4,878 MW the same day at 8:30 pm; They drop to 1,632 MW on July 20 at 0:45, and to 337 MW at 21:15 (source Mirova).This activity disrupted the operation of Catania International Airport on Saturday. Osservatorio Etneo, of INGV, announced that moderate eruptive activity, which began on 14 July at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC), is continuing and has shown a gradual intensification. On July 17, there was frequent ash emissions, which produced only minor anomalies in the images recorded by the thermal surveillance cameras. Since the beginning of the morning, however, the activity consists of Strombolian explosions, which occur every 1 to 2 minutes, but every 20 to 30 seconds, at the end of the morning. The explosions projected glowing pyroclastics a few tens of meters above the vent located in the eastern part of the NSEC. The ejectas frequently fell on the upper flanks of the cone. With respect to the volcanic tremor, a gradual increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor has been recorded since 2030 UTC, from low to medium. This was accompanied by migration and superficialization of the volcanic tremor source to the NSEC region, as well as an increase in the frequency of infrasonic events.This activity continued in the day of 18 July, and remained stable, without emitting ash or lava flow until around 23h. On July 19, a vent was opened around 01:07 at the NSEC's west base, in the same way as at the beginning of the May 30 eruption. A small lava flow is visible at first light of dawn.In addition, at 05:48 UTC, an ash emission occurred in the northeastern crater, causing a plume to form that quickly dissipated into the atmosphere. The first issue was followed by other smaller issues that continued during the production of this report [but ceased thereafter]. In contrast to the NSEC activity, ash emissions from the northeast crater produced no abnormal signals in the images recorded by the thermal surveillance cameras. INGV reported that since the morning of July 14, 2019, a weak explosive activity was in progress at the new crater of the Southeast Etna / NSEC. At first, it was brown ash emissions, but during the day, this activity became Strombolian. This activity continued on July 15th and 16th in the morning. INGV and Etnéan Observatory, reports that at 10.33 UTC hours on 6 July, there is a sudden increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor. INGV staff observed a Strombolian activity in the field at the new crater southeast of Etna, with products falling down the sides of the crater.INGV reported that an explosive pulse, accompanied by ash emission, was observed at the northeast crater of Mount Etna on June 2 at 10:06 UTC (local-2). The ash emitted quickly dispersed into the summit area.A low-frequency seismic signal and a transient infrasonic signal were recorded. INGV reported that an explosive activity occurred with ash emission began at Voragine crater of Etna in the afternoon of June 13, with a frequency and intensity very variable and discontinuous over time. The phenomenon is located on the crater bottom of the Voragine, where a new mouth has opened, which produces ashes that disperse quickly in the summit area. Associated with the ash, we also have material fallout on the terrace of the crater. A visit of the INGV teams on the morning of June 15 confirms the emission of ash, spaced between 1 and 10 minutes; the explosions are for the most part silent, sporadically accompanied by noise and emission of materials which concerns in part the outside of the crater rim. Regarding the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, no significant variation was recorded. However, in recent hours, while remaining confined to low values, there appears a slight and gradual upward trend. Infrasonic signals attest to a low level of activity.On the 13th and 14th of June, plumes of ashes, then emissions of water vapor, gas, and a little ashes were noticed at the Etna's crater of Voragina; they come from a new vent located on the northwest wall of the crater, distinct from the collapse pits opened in August 2016 and between January and April 2019. INGV reported that the eruptive activity that lasted from May 30th until the night of June 5-6, 2019 changed the shape of the new southeast crater cone of Etna.The thermal image shows, at the base of the cone, an eruptive vent. In addition, the southeast flank of the cone is cut by a "dry" fracture (which did not emit lava), and ends up in a rather warm zone, affected by intense fumarolic activity and sulfur deposits. INGV reported that the northern lava flow stopped, while the southern one stopped on June 6. The eruption was finally declared finished by INGV at 11.01 am local time.INGV reported that the analysis of the surveillance camera's images and the observations made by the INGV staff during the morning of May 5, 2019 have revealed that the explosive activity of the segment of the eruptive fissure at 2850 m altitude has ceased (for the moment). Only a slight outgassing persists.The emission of lava by the mouth, at an altitude of 2850 m, is in sharp decrease and remains confined near the mouth itself. The lava field is generally cooling.During the last 24 hours, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor did not show any significant changes, showing small fluctuations between the low and average values. INGV reported that from the analysis of the webcams images and field visits carried out on3 of June in the evening and the 4th of June in the morning showed that eruptive activity was continuing from the eruptive fissure at the altitude 2,850 meters .The explosive activity has decreased, and the spattering reaches about ten meters high. The active lava fronts are located between 2,500 and 2,300 meters approximately.The amplitude of the tremor seems to have stabilized after a decline on May 30 in the morning, and a small rise on June 4. INGV reported that a small explosive and effusive activity continued on June 3 at the open vent opened May 30 at the southeastern base of the new southeastern crater. As of the 2nd of June in the evening, INGV reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing . On 1st of June INGV reported that the sustained Strombolian and effusive activity was still continuing at the two fissures that opened in the north-east and south-east sectors of the New Southeast Crater (Nuovo Cratere di Sud Est). The northern lava flow extends toward the northern wall of the Valle del Bove and subsequently turns eastward, reaching a maximum distance of about 2 kilometers on the morning of May 31, at an estimated altitude of about 2050 meters. The second, southern lava flow is apparently more vigorously fed than the earlier, and emerges from a ground crack near the upper portion of the eruptive fissures that fed the eruption of December 2018. This flow expands towards the southeast along the western internal wall of the Valle del Bove, partially covering the lava flows of 2018. After skirting Serra Giannicola Piccola, in the early hours of 31 May the flow reached the bottom of the valley, with advancing lava fronts at about 1700 meters above sea level. Its estimated total length is about 3 kilometers.INGV reported that the eruption which began in the early hours of 30 May 2019 from new fissure vents on both the NE and SE sides of the New Southeast Crater continued with little change. Two lava lava flows, well fed, are moving into the Valle del Bove accompanied by loud strombolian activity at the vents. INGV reported that in the early morning (aroud 5:40 AM) on May 30, a new subterminal eruption (almost summit) started at Etna. Two eruptive fractures were opened: one on the northeast flank of the new southeastern crater, the other at the south-south-east base of the NSEC, where a modest Strombolian activity and the emission of small lava flows. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor began to increase towards the end of the evening on May 29th. INGV reported that gas emissions of variable intensity were observed rising from Etna’s summit craters during 14 and 17-19 May; weather conditions prevented views on the other days during 13-19 May. Ash emissions periodically rose from vents in the S and E parts of New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Several Strombolian explosions at NSEC ejected incandescent pyroclastic material a few dozen meters above the crater rim during 17-18 May. INGV reported that during 22-28 April ash emissions rose from Etna’s Bocca Nuova Crater, Northeast Crater (NEC), and from the E vent in New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Pulsating incandescence from NSEC’s E vent was recorded at night by webcams. A new vent on the inner wall of Voragine Crater was noted on 30 April. Strombolian activity from the BN-1 crater deep within the Bocca Nuova Crater was visible on 28 April and continued through 5 May; field inspections on 30 April revealed that two vents in BN-1 were active and producing explosions at a rate of one every 2-3 seconds. Bombs and lapilli were ejected above the crater rim but deposits remained mostly within the confines of the crater or near the rim. Strombolian activity was visible at NSEC during 29 April-5 May. On 2 May, beginning at 0131, discontinuous explosions at the E vent produced emissions of fine tephra that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and quickly dissipated. During 5-6 May the frequency of explosions increased for brief periods in conjunction with a slight increases in volcanic tremor amplitude. INGV reported that an explosion occurred at the north-eastern crater of Etna on April 26 at 18:39, accompanied by an ash emission towards Linguaglossa. Small falls of ash were reported.The NE crater did not show much since the collapse of its southwestern edge on February 22nd. INGV reported that during 8-14 April gas emissions of variable intensity rose from Etna’s summit craters. During each night webcams recorded pulsating flashes from the E vent in New Southeast Crater (NSEC) which became more intense towards the end of the week. A minor ash emission from Bocca Nuova Crater was visible at 0520 on 8 April. On 19 February INGV summarized Etna's fissure eruption that occurred high on the SE flank during 24-27 December 2018, noting that 3-4 million cubic meters of lava erupted and covered an area of 1 square kilometer. After the event seismicity gradually decreased. The last significant event was a ML 4.1 recorded on 8 January 2019; afterwards seismicity was characterized as frequent events with modest magnitudes. Since the beginning of January ash emissions intermittently rose mainly from Northeast Crater (NEC) and more sporadically from Bocca Nuova. News sources noted that the Catania Airport (Aeroporto di Catania di Sicilia) was closed during 26-27 January. Preliminary assessments of some of the ash deposits showed they contained no juvenile material. During 11-17 February ash emissions of variable intensity rose from NEC and were notable on 14 and 18 February. Volcanic tremor amplitude did not significantly vary compared to the previous week, having average values overall. The Catania Airport announced the partial closure of airspace and flight delays during 17-18 February due to ash emissions. INGV reported that during 6-10 February webcams at Etna recorded gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and Voragine Crater, and occasional ash clouds from Northeast Crater INGV reported that strong strombolian explosions were observed at the northeast crater from 8:40 am on February 8, accompanied by a dense ash plume pushed by the wind blowing from the north to an east and south-east sector.INGV reported that ash emissions from the northeast crater and Bocca Nuova continue; a few falls of ashes are reported on Pisano and Zafferana Etnea. The fallout of ash on the top of the volcano reveals a two-color landscape well sliced, black and white !INGV reported that ash emissions were still ontinuing on January 22nd from two summit craters, the Northeast crater and the Bocca Nuova. According to an local information an opening of a new vent occurred in the central crater; it is about 40 meters northwest another opened in August 2016. INVG reported that on January 11, and last night, Etna experienced different explosions on Voragine and / or the northeast crater, accompanied by large ash plumes.Details about eruptive phase provided by the INGV : The eruptive fissure extended from the southeastern base of the new southeast crater to the west wall of the Valle del Bove, reaching a minimum altitude of about 2,400 meters above sea level. A second small eruptive fissure opened a little further north, at about 3,000 meters above sea level, between the new southeastern crater and the northeastern crater, and produced almost exclusively low Strombolian activity. for a few tens of minutes.During its propagation, the open eruption fissure in the Valle del Bove fed lava flows that completely crossed the west wall of the valley, reaching its bottom and settling at 17:00 UTC on December 24, at varying altitudes of 1650 and 1800 meters.In the early hours of December 25, the eruption is still in progress. A lava flow continues to flow into the Valle del Bove, fed by the eruptive fracture whose lower mouth is located at about 2400 m altitude, along the western wall of the valley.Summit craters, particularly New Bocca craters and Northeast craters, produce continuous Strombolian activity that feeds a gaseous plume rich in volcanic ash. The seismic swarm that accompanies the eruption continues; since yesterday morning, in about twenty-four hours, more than 900 seismic shocks have been recorded by the seismic network of the INGV Osservatorio Etneo.During the night, from midnight, seven earthquakes were recorded, including one of M 3.3 at 01:09, with its epicenter 4 km north of Aci Sant'Antonio; an earthquake of M 4.8 at 3:18, with its epicenter 2 km north of Viagrande, was felt by the population and caused damage to Santa Venerina, Fleri and Lavinaio. Previous INGV report noted that the new eruptive phase, started yesterday December 24 , is the first flank eruption of Mount Etna for more than ten years on this site. the new fissure opened in the morning at about 3,000 meters above sea level at the base of the new south-east crater on the western flank of Valle del Bove, feeding a lava flow.The entire summit area is deformed, and strombolian activity also concerns the northeast crater and the Bocca Nuova. The present activity poses no danger for the inhabitants; only ashes and lapilli issued to a southeastern sector forced the partial closure of the Catania airport at 13:00 UTC, diverting incoming flights to other locations. Ashes falls and lapilli were reported on Zafferana, Santa Venerina and the south-east sector.Previously, INGV reported that on 24th of December, from 8:50 am local time, an intense seismic swarm is observed on Etna. During the first three hours, more than 130 earthquakes occurred, the largest of which were of magnitude Ml = 4.0 (at 13:08), located in the area of ​​Piano Pernicana, on the northwestern side of the volcano, 2 km deep and 6 km west. from Zafferana Etnea) and Ml 3.9 (located in the area of ​​Monte Palestra on the NW side of the volcano). The seismic activity was accompanied by a gradual increase in degassing from the summit crater area, initially with sporadic ash emissions from the Bocca Nuova and the Northeast crater, which ended around 12.00 pm to a dense and continuous plume of black ashes.After about five minutes, intense Strombolian activity began at the south base of the new south-east crater, probably triggered by an eruptive fissure, and with the opening of several mouths towards Serra Giannicola (flank eruption). At the same time, Strombolian activity is also increased at Bocca Nuova and Crater Nord-Est. At 12:01 local time, the Etneo Observatory Office (OE-INGV) issued a Red VONA for the issuance of ashes to the aeronautical authorities.Geodetic networks, GPS and inclinometers, show obvious deformations of the area of ​​the summit. As of the 19th of December, strombolian and effusive activity continues in the growing cone of the "Puttusiddu" of the NSEC / New southeast crater of Etna.The Bocca Nuova has night glow, and a thermal anomaly always marks three craters: the NSEC, the Bocca Nuova and the northeast. INGV reported that during 3-9 December activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian explosions at the cone in NSEC became more frequent on 4 December. In addition, lava effusion became continuous with small overlapping flows traveling about 500 m down the E flank of the cone. Incandescent blocks generated by the lava flows rolled to the base of the cone, and occasional small collapses produced minor ash plumes. Strombolian activity and occasional ash emissions were characteristic of vents in the W part of Bocca Nuova’s (BN-1) crater floor. Gas emissions at Voragine Crater continued from a vent on the E rim of the crater, and Strombolian explosions were evident at NEC. As of the 6th of December, Sentinel data reported that three craters were still active , the Northeast, the Bocca Nuova and the new crater Southeast and its lava flow, marked by thermal anomalies reported by Mirova between 16 and 162 MW they days. INGV reported that three craters were still active this November 22 at the top of Mount Etna: a Strombolian activity occured at the Bocca Nuova, and the "puttusiddu" of the new crater southeast. The crater northeast was also continuing its activity.INGV reported that a seismic swarm hit the western part of Etna between 05:55 and 15:21 (local time) today, 20 November 2018. The monitoring networks of the INGV-Osservatorio Etneo have recorded more than 40 seismic events. with a magnitude of Ml between 1.6 and 3.5.The earthquake of greater magnitude (Ml = 3.5) occurred at 6:06 am and was located about 5 km northeast of the municipality of Adrano, at a depth of about 22 km. Meanwhile on 20th of November INGV reported that weak trombolian activity continues at the craters at the top Bocca Nuova, Crater Northeast and Nuovo Crater Southeast, which continued for several weeks. In particular, the small scoria cone present in the eastern vent of the New Southeast Crater (NCSE) also emits, on the evening of November 20, a small lava flow that remained however confined in the eastern vent of the same place. NCSE.INGV reported that during 29 October-4 November activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), SE Crater (SEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian explosions at NSEC occurred from a few minutes to a few hours. The explosions sometimes produced ash emissions that quickly dispersed; ashfall was deposited around the crater and in the Valle del Bove. Strombolian activity and gas emissions were characteristic of the N vent in the W part of Bocca Nuova's (BN-1) crater floor. Spattering from the southernmost vent was also visible, as well as gas emissions. Gas emissions at Voragine Crater from a vent on the E rim of the crater were less intense compared to previous months. NEC activity was characterized by Strombolian explosions sometimes accompanied by minor ash emissions. .According to local news several explosions on October 30 at the end of the day at the New Crater Southeast. INGV reported that during 15-21 October activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), Southeast Crater (SEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian activity at the N vent in the W part of Bocca Nuova's (BN-1) crater floor ejected incandescent material higher that the crater rim. Spattering from the southernmost vent was also visible. Gas emissions increased at Voragine Crater from a vent that formed on 7 August 2016 on the E rim of the crater, and the crater continued to gradually widen and deepen. NEC activity was characterized by gas emissions and explosive activity of variable frequency and intensity. Fumarolic plumes rose from the rim and crater walls of NSEC and SEC. The E vent in NSEC produced Strombolian explosions and ash emissions which rapidly dispersed. INGV reported that during 24-30 September activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, with periodic Strombolian activity from vents in Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater (NEC), and New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Strombolian activity at the N vent in Bocca Nuova (BN-1) ejected incandescent material almost as high as the W crater rim. No eruptive activity was observed at BN-2, though it produced explosions deep in the crater. A new high-temperature vent producing gas emissions was noted on 1 October in the same place a fumarole had been observed the previous week. Ash emissions from NSEC were sometimes accompanied by ejected incandescent material. Gas emissions increased at Voragine Crater from a vent that formed on 7 August 2016 on the E rim of the crater. NEC produced frequent brown-gray ash emissions, and ejected blocks and bombs, from a vent located in the W part of the crater floor. Activity at New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was characterized by modest and occasional explosions and Strombolian activity. Beginning at 1700 on 23 August Strombolian activity from the cone in the saddle between the Southeast Crater (SEC) and NSEC cone complex rapidly intensified; explosions ejected tephra 100-150 m above the vent rim. At 1730 Strombolian activity occurred at NSEC's E vent, and a lava flow from the same vent traveled a few hundred meters towards the Valle del Bove. Just after 1730 lava overflowed the vent in the saddle cone and flowed N; Strombolian activity at that vent continued through the night and then stopped no later than 0620 on 24 August. At 0622 Strombolian activity from a vent on the S flank of NSEC produced a small lava flow that traveled a few dozen meters. During 25-26 August the activity at the saddle cone gradually decreased, and ash emissions were weak and occasional. INGV reported that during 6-12 August activity at Etna was similar to the previous week, characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters, Strombolian activity, and ash emissions. Strombolian explosions continued from vents in Bocca Nuova, and were particularly visible at night. Activity at Northeast Crater (NEC) consisted of frequent ash emissions and Strombolian explosions. Explosions at the E crater on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) generated gray-brown ash plumes that sometimes rose several hundred meters above Etna’s summit and quickly dissipated. Based on two field inspections and webcam data, INGV reported that during 30 July-5 August activity at Etna was characterized by gas emissions at the summit craters and Strombolian activity. Three vents at the bottom of the Bocca Nuova crater were active, with gas emissions rising from two vents and sporadic Strombolian activity occurring at a third. Three vents were also active at the bottom of Northeast Crater (NEC); one produced ash emissions, one steam emissions, and Strombolian explosions at the third ejected incandescent material as high as the crater rim. After several months of quiet conditions, explosive activity resumed at the E crater on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). The activity began at 0608 on 1 August with a brownish-gray ash emission that rose several hundred meters above the summit. The event was followed by more ash emissions and then Strombolian activity in the evening. INGV reported that during 9-15 July gas emissions continued to rise from Etna’s summit craters. Visibility of the fairly continuous, low-energy, Strombolian activity deep within the Northeast Crater (NEC) and Bocca Nuova was sometimes hindered by gas emissions. Ejected incandescent material fell back into the crater. Strong and prolonged roars (up to several tens of seconds) from NEC were sometimes accompanied by gray-brown and reddish ash emissions. Collapses of the crater’s inner walls widened the crater. Gas emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) were weak and sometimes pulsating.Following the latest INGV report about four new degassing vents in the northeast crater of Mount Etna, a Strombolian activity can be heard at Bocca Nuova, whose crater is filled with swirling gas on July 12th.Thermal anomalies were reported on July 12th and 13th, respectively by 2-6 MW and 24 MW, by Mirova.That is the first manifestation of the volcano since the eruption at the new crater southeast / NSEC. Previous news - On Etna, the "puttusiddu" vent has continued to emit small ash emissions since February 16, at an accelerated frequency of 1 to 2 episodes per hour; these emissions also include the ejection of incandescent fragments. Previously, INGV reported that activity at Etna during 22-28 January was relatively unchanged compared to the previous weeks and was mainly characterized by variable-intensity gas emissions from the summit craters. Weak and sporadic ash emissions rose from the New Southeast Crater (NSEC). On 22 January ash fell in areas on the S flank and also in Catania, though the crater which produced the ash emission was unknown due to poor visibility. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank. (webcam). . www.ct.ingv.it . Live cam Etna - Etna monitoring page - New Etna Southwest crater webcam

ITALY - Stromboli volcano (Eolian Islands)

November 22nd, 2020

LGS reported that A new major explosion occurred on 21st of Novembe at 9pm UTC. INGV reported that on November 16th at 09:17:50 UTC, an explosion, considered as major, was observed at Stromboli, in the center-south zone, accompanied by a plume ash about 1,000 meters high. A small pyroclastic flow rolled down the Scira del Fuoco to sea level, where it continued for some 200 meters. Shortly after the eruption, ashes and lapilli fell; the color of the particles, a few mm., brown to red-brown (old materials present in the vent), however a small amount of lighter pumice was also present in the ash (small fraction of fresh magma which has produces the eruption). From the seismic point of view, the phenomenon, clearly visible on all the seismic stations of Stromboli, was characterized by a sequence of explosive events which started at 9:17 (UTC) for a duration of 4 minutes. Regarding the magnitude of the volcanic earthquake there are no significant variations. INGV reporte that at 8:04:20 UTC / 9:04 p.m. local on November 10, a major explosion occurred at Stromboli from the south-central crater terrace.The event lasted about 6 minutes and produced an eruption column that rose higher than the Pizzo [sopra la Fossa]. The products of the explosion were mainly distributed on the Sciara del Fuoco and caused a turnover of pyroclastic products, while a small proportion fell on the Pizzo sopra la Fossa. The event lasted until 20:10:00 UTC, with at least three explosions of minor intensity than the Big Blast.In terms of seismicity, the event, which was visible on all seismic stations in Stromboli, was characterized by a sequence of explosive events that started at 20:03.50 (UTC). Surveillance networks indicate that at 11:11 p.m. local time (22:11 UTC), the parameters of the eruptive activity returned to normal levels. INGV reported that during 19-25 October activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity from Area N (north crater area) and in Area C-S (south-central crater area). Explosions from two vents at the N1 vent (Area N) ejected lapilli and bombs 80-150 m high, and produced ash emissions. Explosions at two N2 vents ejected a mix of coarse and fine material at a frequency of 5-10 events per hour. Explosions from vents in Area C-S also ejected both coarse and fine material 250 m high at a frequency of 1-3 events per hour. Following observations made by INGV-OE staff during the Stromboli inspection on August 22, the morpho-structural arrangement of the crater terrace consisted of three eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and by at least three eruptive vents located in the Center-South crater area. All the vents are placed inside the epression which occupies the crater terrace. In the area of ​​the north crater, the N1 crater, with three emission points, produced explosions of low to high intensity (the products of some explosions exceeded 200 m in height) of coarse materials (lapilli and bombs) which are fallen profusely with a radial distribution. The mouth N2 showed a low intensity explosive activity (less than 80 m in height) of coarse material. The average frequency of the explosions varied from 3 to 10 events / h. In the Central-south zone, the explosions were mainly of fine materials, mixed with coarser ones, of medium-high intensity (the products emitted often exceeded 250 m in height). The frequency of the explosions varied from 2 to 8 events / h. INGV and LGS published details about 19 July explosive activity : the sequence of explosions was characterized by 4 explosions, the largest of which resulted in the fall of lava material along the Sciarra of Fire and Lace which then slipped into the sea. The explosion produced a 1 km high column of ash and the ejection of large material (>50 cm). A small amount of the ejected material also reached Smooth and Rocks. The explosive sequence was just preceded by an increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor that reached its peak at the major explosion and then returned to normal levels. Fortunately there was no damage or injuries. From 10 o'clock, the volcano has returned to normal activity. Previous news - INGV surveillance network recorded on July 19th at 0300 UTC a major explosion. The products of the explosion were distributed throughout the crater terrace and on the Sciara del Fuoco. From the seismic point of view, the phenomenon was characterized by a brief sequence of explosions and an increasing in the amplitude of the tremor up to 3:10 UTC. INGV reported that during 6-12 July activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity mainly from three vents in Area N (north crater area) and three vents in Area C-S (south-central crater area). Moderate explosions from both areas ejected lapilli, bombs, and ash with decreasing frequency and intensity through the week. INGV reported that during the past week, normal Strombolian-type explosive activity was observed accompanied by degassing and spattering activities. The total hourly frequency of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(10 events / h on July 3) and high values ​​(21 events / h on June 29). The explosive activity was mainly produced by 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and by 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. All the vents are placed inside the depression which occupies the crater terrace. Previously, INGV reported that during the week from May 1st to May 7th, 2020, the explosive activity remained stable at a low level and was mainly localized in the SW crater until May 1, then decreased slightly and mainly moved towards the central crater. This activity is accompanied by a slight swelling (max 40 mbar) also located in the C-SO secctor. The number of VLP events stable at high values ​​until May 5 then increased to average values ​​(between 10.5 and 10.9 events / hour). The seismic tremor is stable on the average values. INGV reported that volcanic activity of Stromboli was characterized between 17 and 23 April by Strombolian explosions rich in pyroclastic material located mainly in the NE crater and continuous degassing in the C / SW crater. This activity is associated with a high to very high number of VLP earthquakes and acoustic pressures with variable values ​​between between medium and high (max 1.08 bar).INGV and LGS reported that on April 14, at 4:12 UYC, the LGS surveillance network recorded a deflation of the ground, presenting all the typical characteristics of the lava overflows recorded in 2014 and March 31, 2020. The webcams did not corroborated the effusion, which is most likely intracratric, and concerned small volumes. The INGV OE reported on April 15 from 7:16 UTC a lava overflow from the north crater of the Stromboli terrace. Glowing blocks detach from the lava front and roll into the Sciara del Fuoco. A VLP seismic signal is observed and reported by the LGS, comparable in amplitude and frequency to the signal recorded on March 31 which accompanied a small lava overflow. The signal is associated with a fall of blocks of approximately 20 minutes (7:16 a.m. - 8:00 a.m. UTC). The depth of the VLP seismic source is compatible with a magmatic column which has been very shallow for weeks. The VLP seismic signals remained at very high values. Explosive activity at the NE crater, increased over the past week, has rapidly decreased overnight, starting at 23:00 UTC yesterday. The thermal anomalies of April 14 are between VRP 10 and 14 MW, those of April 15, between 21 and 73 MW. Previously, INGV informed that the surveillance networks recorded from 23:40 hours UTC approximately on March 30, 2020, a lava overflow from the crater terrace of Stromboli; lava reached the coast line at approximately 1:50 a.m. UTC on March 31. At the same time as volcanic phenomenology, there is a seismic signal associated with episodes of rolling incandescent blocks along the Sciara del Fuoco and small landslides that generate clouds of dust. LGS of the Department of Earth sciences of the University of Florence recorded an increase in the seismic tremor at Stromboli, accompanied by events of roll (such as "rockfall"), the longest of which (approximately 3 minutes) took place on March 29 at 16:57 UTC. This phase of increase in tremors is associated with an overflow, that is to say an overflow of lava, from the NE crater as in the images of the Labronzo camera and caused the collapse of small portions of the edge of the crater. At the moment, there is no significant change in the other parameters monitored. This activity is still ongoing. INGV reported that during the period from March 16 to 22, 2020, the explosive activity was mainly produced by at least 3 (three) eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and at least 3 (three) eruptive vents located in the area of Center-South crater. All the vents are placed inside the depression which occupies the crater terrace.In the northern zone, the explosions were mainly of low to low intensity (less than 80 m high) to high (more than 150 m high) of coarse materials (lapilli and bombs); the abundant fallout has covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del fuoco and the blocks are rolled until they reach the coast line. The INGV specifies that on March 19 from 2:50 p.m. UTC and until 4:30 p.m. UTC, intense spattering activity animated one of the north mouths overlooking the Sciara del fuoco, and gave birth to a modest rheomorphic flow in the upper part of the Sciara for a few hundred meters. the average frequency of explosions in the North zone was variable, between 7 and 9 events / h. The explosive activity of the Center-South zone caused explosions of mainly fine materials (ashes) mixed with large grains of medium to high intensity (150-250 m in height). The frequency of explosions from the CS area was variable, between 5 and 16 events / h. INGV reported from 9th to 15th of March, the explosive activity of Stromboli was mainly produced by at least 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and by at least 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. All the mouths are placed inside the depression which occupies the crater terrace. In the North zone, the explosions were mainly of variable intensity, from low (less than 80 m high) to high (greater than 150 m high) of coarse materials (lapilli and bombs). in numerous explosions, abundant fallout products covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del fuoco and the blocks rolled to the coast. The average frequency of explosions in zone N varied between 8 and 11 events / h. The explosive activity of the Center-South zone produced explosions of mainly fine materials (ash) sometimes mixed with coarse medium intensity (less than 150 m high) sometimes high (the products exceeded 250 m in height). The frequency of explosions in the CS zone varied between 6 and 14 events / h. INGV reported that between February 24 and March 1, 2020, an explosive activity of normal Strombolian type continued accompanied by degassing activity; the hourly rate of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(11 / h on 26.02) and high average values ​​(17 / h on 24.02). At least three vents, in the area of ​​the North crater, expelled bombs and lapilli, which covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del Fuoco, where blocks rolled to the sea. Three vents, in the center-south zone, were the site of mainly fine material explosions.All the vents are located in the depression of the terrace. Normal activity was observed during period from 17th to 23rd of February with explosive strombolian type accompanied by degassing. The hourly rate of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(12 events / h on February 21) and high values ​​(21 events / h on day February 17). The intensity of the explosions was mainly medium to high in the region of the North Crater and medium in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. In the morning of February 21 and 22, 2020, INGV-OE staff carried out an inspection to monitor the explosive activity and the orphological changes of the crater terrace. INGV reported that a normal activity was observed during the period from February 10th to 16th, 2020. Explosive strombolian type, accompanied by degassing; the hourly rate of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(12 events / h on February 11) and average-high values ​​(18 events / h on February 16). The intensity of the explosions was mainly medium-low in the region of the North crater and medium-high in the zone of the Center-South crater. INGV reported that as of the 3rd of February from around 08:20 h UTC, via surveillance cameras, a modest overflow was observed from the northern area of ​​the Stromboli crater terrace, which is currently confined to the summit area. The flow front disintegrates on steep slopes and causes the rolling of material along the Sciara del Fuoco. The magnitude of the volcanic tremor does not show significant associated variations.The daily number of VLP earthquakes is high (18 episodes / hour). The thermal activity recovered from the cameras is average. The flow of SO2 results in low values ​​(59 t / d), like the flow of CO2 (121 t / d). The explosive activity is centered on the NE crater sector, with the emission of gas, ash and slag. The Central and SW crater sectors are characterized by continuous degassing. INGV reported a small lava flow on January 18 from 9:36 pm UTC located in the northern area of ​​the Stromboli crater terrace; it remains confined in the summit area, and following an overflow at the very beginning of the day on January 19, materials roll in the Sciara del Fuoco. This activity did not last and is considered to have ended in the report from 19.01 at 10:03 UTC. Normal seismicity persists and the deformations of the soil do not show significant variations. News 2019 - .INGV reported that activity of Stromboli has increased slightly in recent days. The number of VLP earthquakes remains high, with 19.4 episodes per hour on 28.12 - 18.8 on 29.12 - and 20.4 on 30.12 (standard values: 5-12 / h.) The amplitude of the tremor is middle, and the exit speed of the pyroclasts is around 24 m / s, average, and estimated by the images of thermal cameras. Tiltmeters do not show significant deformation. Thermal activity remains average. The flow of sulfur dioxide in the NE sector of the terrace fluctuates between 115 and 20 tonnes / day. According to the L.G.S., volcanic activity remain stable at an average level. INGV reported that a normal activity was observed during the period from December 16 to 22, 2019, of explosive Strombolian type, accompanied by degassing and splashing activities; the hourly frequency of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(13 events / h on December 17) and very high values ​​(32 events / h on December 20). The intensity of the explosions was mainly at a medium-low level in the area of ​​the North crater and medium-high in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. The seismological parameters do not show significant variations.No change to report on the deformation side.SO2 flux is at medium-high level The isotopic ratios of dissolved helium in the thermal layer remain unchanged at the mid-low values.As of the 23rd of December INGV reported that during the past 24 hours, explosive activity occurred from the crater sectors southwest and northeast, with about twenty explosions per hour, very noisy (sound pressure of more than 5.4 bar compared to normal around 1 bar). The seismic tremor is high.INGV reported that during the week of December 2 to 8 eruptive activity was characterized by explosive Strombolian explosions, at an average rate of 12 hourly episodes (06.12) to 24 hourly episodes (08.12), accompanied by degassing and spattering located in the north and south-central crater areas. Seismicity and deformation do not showed significant variations. The sulfur dioxide flux remained at a medium-high level. INGV reported that during 25 November-1 December activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing explosive activity mainly from three vents in Area N (north crater area) and at least three vents in Area C-S (south central crater area). Low-to-medium-intensity explosions from Area N occurred at a rate of 7-11 events per hour and ejected lapilli and bombs 80-150 m above the vents. Ejected tephra fell onto the flanks and some blocks rolled a few hundred meters along the Sciara del Fuoco. Medium-intensity explosions from Area C-S occurred at a rate of 4-8 events per hour and ejected coarse material to heights less than150 m above the vents. Material was deposited along the upper parts of the Sciara del Fuoco. INGV reported that a normal Strombolian explosive activity accompanied by degassing continued; the frequency of explosions remains between medium to high with 16 to 23 episodes per hour. The parameters of seismicity and deformation do not show significant variations. The flow of SO2 remains at an average level. The Civil Protection has raised the alert level from orange to yellow on November 7, without changes in the prohibited navigation zone in front of the Sciara del Fuoco, nor concerning the prohibition of access above 290 meters. As of the 24th of September, INGV reported that normal Strombolian explosive activity and degassing continued. In the northern crater zone, 5-6 explosions per hour, with a peak at 9 episodes, between 80 and 150 meters high, produced coarse materials, lapilli and bombs, which rolled into the Sciara del Fuoco.Activity in the south-central zone was characterized by an average explosive of 11 episodes per hour, with peaks at 15 episodes, and an expulsion at heights of up to 200 meters of fine to coarse material. Seismology and deformation do not show significant changes and the sulfur dioxide flux remains at an average level. INGV reported that the typical strombolian activity continued and affected the north and south-central of the crater terrace.Drone surveys, conducted from 11 to 13 September, identify at least seven active mouths in the northern zone and eight in the central-south zone. The number of VLP earthquakes was 31 episodes / hour on average. There was no significant variation in soil deformation. Degassing was characterized by a characteristic low-average level. INGV reported that, during the flight over August 30 by the INGV staff and through camera image analysis, it was observed that the south-central lava flow had ceased. It started around 01:50 UTC on August 30th. As a result, the lava field gradually calms down. The flow of SO2 detected by the FLAME network from 09:00 UTC showed a moderate decrease placing the degassing regime at a medium-high level. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor over the past few hours has shown a gradual decrease, reaching values ​​comparable to those observed before the explosive sequence described in update release number 32. Currently, the amplitude shows fluctuations around mid-high values. On 29 August 2019 at 20:43:41 UTC, the geophysical monitoring network recorded a new powerful explosive event at Stromboli , associated with geophysical parameters (seismic, ground deformation and sound pressure) that are higher than the ordinary explosive activity .The seismic event (speed of 4.0 x 10-4 m / s and displacement of 4.5 x 10-5 m) exceeds the values ​​of ordinary activity The infrasonic network indicates that the explosion generated pressures of about 250 Pa, at a distance of 450 m, and located the explosive event in the area in relation to the Central / SW crater. This event was accompanied by a strong signal of soil deformation (1.17 μrad in the OHO inclinometer of Rina Grande), preceded by about 2 minutes of a net swelling of the soil. Following the explosion, there is an increase in seismic tremor to very high values ​​and an increase in the lava flow from the crater NE crater of Sciara del Fuoco. As of the 28th of August a second paroxysmal explosions occurred at Stromboli. . Similar to that of July 3, 2019, although less strong. INGV noted that Stromboli has already experienced such explosions separated by several years, or decades, but never in a lapse of so short time. This strong explosion occurred at 10:17 UTC without any particular changes in the monitored parameter levels before and after the episode, which remained high to very high. Only an increase in SO2 flux (264 t / d) is reported from high to very high values ​​that preceded the paroxysmal event of a few hours. A strong deformation of the ground was observed ( inflation) has been recorded onlyl five minutes before the explosion. The MODIS image at around 10.15am (UTC) measured a very high thermal anomaly of 3.799 MW, equivalent to effusive flows of about 15 m3 / s, an order of magnitude higher than the effusive flows recorded from the July 3, 2019 (0.3-3 m3 / s). The paroxysm generated an eruptive column of 2,000 meters in height and the ejection of large ballistic material up to 200-300 meters from the coast; a pyroclastic flow occurred in the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco and spread over several hundred meters on the surface of the sea, creating a small tsunami; according to the images of the webcams and the weather, its approximate speed was 180 km / h. Then, INGV reported that strombolian activity on the crater terrace was slightly down. An aerial observation from an helicopter of the coastguards of Catania on August 23, showed the opening of many igneous vents in this area. INGV reported that from 18 August at 0h35 UTC, the thermal camera of Punta Dei Corvi / on Stromboli, showed the resumption of effusive activity from a probably ephemeral vent at altitude 550-600 meters, above the area of ​​the central crater . The products issued run along the Sciara del Fuoco. A Modis image at 1:50 UTC records a thermal anomaly of 125 MW to 148 MW, compatible with this activity.The explosive activity continues without significant modification. INGV reported that Stromboli's crater terrace activity was analyzed during 5-11 August through webcam views, and field inspections during 7-8 August. At least nine vents in Area N (north crater area, NCA) were active on 7 August, three of which had well-formed spatter cones, with Strombolian activity ejecting material 150 m high. A large scoria cone in Area C-S (South Central crater area) jetted material 200 m high. Lava from Area C-S vents continued to travel down the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, reaching 500-600 m elevation. INGV and LGS reported that the explosive activity of Stromboli has increased since the beginning of August at the level of the central craters / south-west and the cones of the NE sector, with explosions rich in ash and scoria at 200 meters height above the terrace; these materials accumulate in the crater zone and on the Sciara del Fuoco, where they produce frequent rock slide events. The effusive activity in the SW sector shows an increase in the supply rate which has now reached values ​​of about 1.2 m³ / s, and corresponds to an increase in SO2 levels. All measured parameters suggest a new phase of feed rate increase and the arrival at the surface of a gas-rich magma coinciding with phases of sharp increases in both peak explosive activity and ratios. effusion. INGV and LGS reported that the volcano is still showing a high explosive activity, mainly in central / southwest and northeast craters, with ash-rich explosions and ejection of centimeter sized projectiles. An active overflow of lava marks the upper area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco, visible on July 30 at 12:49 local / 10:49 UTC on the thermal camera on the northern edge of the Sciara at 400 m. altitude, and from the ROC camera at 11:52.The parameters are consistent with the explosive and effusive activity: oscillations of the tremor at high values, an average of 28 VLP earthquakes / hour, thermal anomalies between 202 MW and 49 MW, tendency of the flow of sulfur dioxide to the increase. Thermal data from satellites and cameras recorded during the last 12 hours on July 17 indicate an increase in the effusive activity of the south-west crater of Stromboli. MODIS images acquired over the last 12 hours, in favorable meteorological and satellite conditions, show elevated thermal anomalies up to 744 MW (01:50 UTC) which correspond to an increase in effusive activity, with effusive velocities (TADR) estimated at about 2 m3 / s (+/- 0.6 m3 / s).The increase in thermal luminance measured by MODIS is confirmed by the SENTINEL image acquired at 10:00 UTC on 17/07/2019, which shows a clear increase in the lava front surface. From the images, it is possible to estimate a maximum stream length of about 600 m and a maximum width of 80 m. The lava front is installed at an altitude of about 300 m. In line with the increase in effusion activity, there is a further increase in the SO2 flux measured by the UV Roccette camera which attests to a very high level. This increase is visible on the images of the Ginostra thermal camera, showing a well-fed and organized flow in several branches.The LGS reported for July 14th and 15th an increasing in thermal activity which corresponds to an increase in effusive activity: from 276 MW at 21:05 UTC on the 14th, it has risen to 347 MW at 1:20 UTCINGV reported that a powerful explosive and effusive activity continues in Stromboli. This magmatic feed continues at a very shallow level and fills the crater terrace which is now much wider than the geometry preceding the explosion of July 3, 2019. Due to the absence of parts of the edges of the crater terrace, the Magma escapes in recent days through a series of overflows both in the western portion (Ginostra side) and in the central area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco (eastern crater side).Since 6 am UTC on July 15, there has been characterized by an increasing of the release of gas from the NE portion of the crater terrace, with SO2 flux reaching very high values ​​(254 t / d, at 9:45 UTC)On the evening of July 12, the northern crater area was more active, with a series of overflows in the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco, while the emission of a modest lava flow continued from the center-south crater zone. According to the INGV's surveillance cameras and field observations, strombolian this activity continued from the north and south-central zones of the terrace. Lava flows are emitted from the central-south zone and reach the mid-slope in the Sciara del Fuoco. The July 12 Sentinel 2 image shows hot spots on the terrace and in the Sciara del Fuoco. LGS inspection carried out in Punta dei Corvi at 15:30 on 10 July with the help of the thermal camera has allowed to observe several active lava overflows at the summit, from which two flows start along the central and south part of Sciara del Fuoco.The southern front rises to about 600 m., while the front of the central part of the Sciara reaches about 400 m. altitude. These flows bring hot materials to the bottom of the slope where they accumulate as small deltas. INGV reported that from 8 pm local time on July 8, 2019, an overflow of lava from the south-west crater of Stromboli generated a lava flow of up to 500 m along the Sciara del Fuoco. The overflow is also confirmed by the analysis of the images of the thermal camera of Punta Dei Corvi, restored after the paroxysmal explosion of July 3th, 2019.A thermal anomaly of 125 MW recorded at 20:50 UTC on 08.07, and 211 MW at 01h UTC, by Mirova This heat flux value is in agreement with the current lava overflow, indicating an effusion rate of about 0.5 mc /s (LGS - 08.07.2019). INGV reported that a paroxysmal eruption occurred on 3 July 2019 – at 16:46 Local Time (UTC+2). The eruptive column, at least 2-km-high, produced severe ash and lapilli fall-out on the volcano flanks, affecting especially the village of Ginostra located in the eastern part of the island. In particular, two main explosive events were distinguished at 14:46:10 H and 14:46:40 H UTC, respectively. The sequence was preceded at 14:44 h UTC by lava overflows of all the active vents of the crater terrace towards the Sciara del Fuoco. One person died during hiking on the trail “Punta del Corvo” downward to Ginostra and several other persons would be injured. The fall-out has also triggered several fires in various sectors of the upper/intermediate volcano flank .After the paroxysm of 14:46 UTC, no other high intensity explosive event was observed. The seismic route returned to the levels preceding the explosive sequence and, thanks to the surveillance cameras, it was possible to observe normal strombolian activity and cooling of the relapsed material deposited along the Sciara del Fuoco, which produces continuous rolling towards the coast. INGV reported that a major eruption occurred on 25th of June at about 11 PM involving the central Southern area of the terrace.Pyroclastics material has fallen onto the Sciara del Fuoco and inside the crater terrace. The seismic signal associated at this event lasted 4 mn. After this strong eruption, no further explosive event occurred. INGV reported that during 3 and 6-9 June activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian explosions and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace. Explosions from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N (north crater area, NCA) occurred at a rate of 1-4 per hour, ejecting material 80 m high and producing ash plumes. Explosions from two vents (S1 and S2) in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 3-8 per hour, ejecting material 80-150 m high. Gas plumes rose from vent INGV reported that during 15-21 April activity at Stromboli was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents within the crater terrace, though activity intensified on 19 April. Explosions originated at a rate of 3-16 per hour mainly from two vents (N1 and N2) in Area N (north crater area, NCA) and at least four vents (including C, S1, and S2) in Area C-S (South Central crater area). Explosions from the N1 vent ejected lapilli and bombs mixed with ash no more than 150 m high. Low-intensity explosions at the N2 vent ejected tephra to heights under 80 m. Vent C produced gas emissions. Incandescent material from S1 jetted as high as 150 m above the crater. Explosions from two vents at S2 ejected tephra more than 150 m high. Previously on 21st of January, the Italian Experimental Geophysical Laboratory / LGS reports strong Strombolian activity at the northeastern vent of Stromboli, and strong explosions at the other six vents on the platform.The new cinder cone that has recently been built around the northeastern vent shows spattering and a strong nocturnal incandescence, and explosions with projections at about 150 meters, sometimes up to 250-300 meters, every 10- 20 minutes. INGV reporterd that since December 24, 2018, Stromboli has recorded seismic signals of frequency and waveform compatible with a phenomenon of fracturing in the summit zone spattering has been on the rise since December 26, at the crater terrace, where seven vents are active. The Civil Protection issued an advise of "early warning" on January 4, defining a "high level of activity", motivating the ban on access to the volcano above 400 meters above sea level, except in the context of operations monitoring.The level of activity increased further in the evening of January 5, 2019, especially in the northeastern vents, where a new cinder cone grew and produced explosions and spattering. Previously, a new " strong explosion" was recorded on August 18 on Stromboli by the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV). Particulary, at 17:08 (local time), an intense explosion involved the vent of the south-central zone located on the crater terrace. The explosion produced a small cloud of ash, which dispersed rapidly, and the ejection of pyroclastic material, which fell mainly on the crater terrace and on top of the Sciara del Fuoco. The seismic signal associated with the event lasted a little over 4 minutes. Subsequently, the volcano returned to its normal Strombolian activity.INGV reported that activity at Stromboli during 9-15 July was characterized by ongoing Strombolian activity and degassing from multiple vents. Explosions mainly from two vents in Area N (north crater area) and three vents in Area C-S (South Central crater area) occurred at a rate of 14-19 per hour, except four per hour were recorded on 15 July. Low-intensity explosions from the N1 vent (NCA) ejected lapilli and bombs as high as 80 m. Explosions at the N2 vent (NCA) ejected tephra 120 m high. Vent C (Area C-S) produced gas emissions and sporadic spattering. Low-intensity explosions at S2 (Area C-S) ejected tephra less than 80 m high. INGV reported typical activity at Stromboli from 7 to 13 May, with 2-4 hourly low-intensity explosions to heights of less than 80 m (300 ft) above the crater, in the North crater area. Fine ash as well as lapilli and bombs were ejected. The South Central crater area vents produced between 5-12 hourly, low-intensity explosions, also to heights of less than 80 m above the crater. Continuous degassing was also observed from these vents. On 13 May there was an increased frequency of explosions, with 16 events/hour. No significant variations were reported in seismological, deformation, or geochemical parameters. INGV reported that on the morning of April 24, an intense explosive sequence occurred on the Stromboli volcano that involved the vents of the south-central zone located on the crater terrace.A first explosion occurred at 11:05 local / 09:05 GMT, emitting abundant ash mixed with incandescent material and large blocks of lava fallen in the summit area and along the Sciara del Fuoco. The delivered products have exceeded a height of 250 m above the crater terrace, as evidenced by the video surveillance cameras Observatory Etneo INGV-OE.This explosion was followed by a second explosive event on 11.06, characterized by a modest fountain.At 11:10, the closing event of the sequence with an ejection of pyroclastic materials of lower intensity, compared to the first explosion.Overall, this explosive sequence produced a cloud of ash that quickly dispersed into the southeast quadrants of the island. The ejection of coarse pyroclastic materials was radial with fallout on the crater terrace and along the Sciara del Fuoco. This highly explosive sequence has been associated with geophysical parameters, seismicity, soil deformation and sound pressure, which can be classified as major explosions, more violent than those developed during ordinary Strombolian activity.INGV reported that a high-energy explosive sequence began at vent C at 2027 on 19 March and lasted about 40 seconds. The first explosion ejected ash and incandescent material that fell in a radial distribution around the crater. Two subsequent explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 80 m. Tephra fell along the Sciara del Fuoco, towards the NE parts of the island. At 2028 an explosion at N2 ejected lapilli 100-120 m high. INGV reported that on the evening of 18 March 2018 , a violent explosive sequence involved the eruptive vents of the crater terrace of Stromboli. A first explosion at 19:27 from the vent of the south-central zone was accompanied by the emission of ashes, incandescent materials and large lava blocks, more than 350 meters above the terrace that fell on the summit area of ​​the Sciara del Fuoco.A second explosion, 40 seconds later, occurred from the vent in the northern zone, with ash and material emitting at about 100 meters high; the ashes dispersed to the east.This episode was accompanied by a strong signal of ground deformation, preceded by about 2 minutes of soil inflation. Similar violent explosions, more violent than those of a typical Strombolian activity, occurred several times in 2017: March 7th, July 26th, October 23rd, November 1st and December 1st. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean."Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout historical time. The small, 926-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a horseshoe-shaped scarp formed as a result of slope failure that extends to below sea level and funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli since Roman times.www.ct.ingv.it - Live webcam

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Iceland - Reykjanes peninsula

October 21st, 2020

IMO reported that at 1:43 p.m. on October 20, an M5.6 earthquake occurred in Núpshlíðarháls, about 5 km west of the Seltún geothermal area on the Reykjanes peninsula. The earthquake was felt widely across the country, particularly in the southern part of the Reykjanes peninsula and in the capital region, about 25 km from the epicenter.The earthquake was felt also in the Westman Islands and Borgarnes. To date, more than 250 aftershocks have been detected, the most important of the period between 3:27 pm and 3:32 pm The most important was M4.1, the other earthquakes between 3.0 and 3.8 . There is no sign of volcanic unrest in the area. IMO reported that at 7:06 p.m. and 7:08 p.m. on August 29, earthquakes M3.6 and M3.0 occurred just west of Kleifarvatn on the Reykjanes peninsula. Two earthquakes of similar magnitude, M3.4 and M3.0 occurred in the same location at 4:23 pm and 4:39 pm yesterday. The earthquakes were felt in the Reykjanes Peninsula, the capital region and Akranes. Smaller aftershocks have since occurred and are expected to continue.IMO reported that on August 26, 2020 at 4:15 PM, an M4.2 earthquake occurred about 10 km NE of Grindavík. Another M3.7 earthquake occurred in a similar location at 1:43 p.m. IMO has received many felt reports from the southwestern part of Iceland regarding these earthquakes. At 5:06 am on August 27, an M2.9 earthquake was detected near Fagradalsfjall but a swarm of earthquakes is still in progress there. In total, the IMO reported five earthquakes of magnitude equal to or greater than 3 over the last two days. IMO reported that an earthquake between M5 occurred on 20th of July at 23:36 in the area of ​​Fagradalsfjall, a tuya formed during the Pleistocene. The earthquake was widely felt in the southwestern part of Iceland. A considerable number of aftershocks occurred, the most significant were M3.5 at 00:08, M3.4 at 00:55, M3.0 at 02:19 and M3.4 at 03:09 and these were also felt in the southwest of Iceland. At 5:46 am, an M4.6 was detected. Rockfall was reported at Festarfjall, about 6 km SW of the epicenter of the earthquake. On July 18 at 05:56 a.m., an M4.1 earthquake was detected 4.1 km north of Grindavík. Earthquakes around Grindavík have continued in recent months due to deformation in the area. As of the 18th of July, IMO reported that a magnitude 4.1 earthquake occurred 4.1 km from Grindavik, on the Reykjanes Peninsula. It was preceded by another of magnitude 3; 2. Both were felt in Grindavik and Reykjanesbaer. The persistent seismic activity is, according to the IMO, in relation to the deformation due to magmatic intrusions in the earth's crust. IMO reported that the seismic swarm at the Eyjafjörður was still in progress. Since the crisis began on June 19, the National Meteorological Office's earthquake system has located more than 13,000 earthquakes, including three magnitude 5 earthquakes. There were still many small earthquakes in the region and it is still likely that there will be more larger earthquakes. As of the 11th of July, two earthquakes of more than magnitude 3 were measured just west of Herðubreiðartöglar on the Reykjanes peninsula.The first of magnitude 3.2 at 2:15 p.m. and the second at 5:47 p.m. of magnitude 3.1, but a report was received that the second earthquake was found in Drekagil by Askja.Earthquakes have persisted in the Grindavík region in recent months due to landslides. IMO reported that on July 8 at 5:41 p.m., an earthquake of magnitude 4.2 occurred approximately 13 km from the CP of Gjögurtá. The Icelandic Meteorological Office has received reports that the earthquake occurred in many parts of the Eyjafjörður region. The seismic swarm is still in progress. Since the onset of the crisis on June 19, the IMO has located more than 10,000 earthquakes. Three earthquakes larger than 5 were detected in the hryvnia, the largest being on June 21, the size of 5.8 at 30 km NNE from Siglufjörður. Other earthquakes of magnitude greater than 5 were 5.6 and 5.4 magnitude on June 20 and were located more than 20 km northeast of Siglufjörður. There are still many small earthquakes in the region, and larger earthquakes are likely to occur. IMO reported that the seismic swarm at the Eyjafjörður was still in progress. On 2nd of July at 7.20pm, an earthquake of magnitude 3.6 was detected between Olafsfjörður and Dalvik. IMO reported that the seismic swarm in the Tjörnes fracture zone, north-east of Siglufjörður, was still in progress. During the night of June 27th at 4:52 p.m., an earthquake of magnitude 4.0 was measured at approximately 35 km NNE from Siglufjörður, this morning at 6:02 a.m., another of magnitude 3.2 was measured at approximately 20 km northeast of Siglufjörður. On June 26th, the automatic system measured more than 700 earthquakes in the region, an earthquake> 3.0 was detected at a magnitude of 3.2 at 1:55 p.m. about thirty kilometers northeast from Siglufjörður. IMO reported that a third injection of magma since the beginning of the year was occurring beneath the Reykjanes peninsula. Data suggested that the current inflationary period began in mid-May, though earthquake activity did not increase until around 30 May. During 30 May-15 June the seismic network recorded more than 2,000 events, with the largest, an M 3.4, with more than 70 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 3, the largest reaching M 5.6 and 5.7. In total, the IMO has located more than 2,000 earthquakes since the start of this crisis.IMO also reported considerable rock collapses in Tröllaskagi, but also accident reports in Malmö. A power outage in Kelduhverfi was also reported after the second earthquake. There is a considerable risk of rock accidents and landslides on steep slopes in the northern fjords and on the Tröllaskagi and Flatey Islands. The seismic swarm is still in progress and may move east along the Húsavík-Flateyjarm gang. Larger earthquakes cannot be excluded. IMO recorded on 13 June a seismic swarm probably assiciated with a intrusion which was located about 1 km W of Thorbjorn at a depth of 3-4 km, and had an estimated volume of about 1.2 million cubic meters. This third intrusion was similar to the previous two intrusions, characterized as a sill that was a few hundred meters wide and about 6 km long. In total about 12 cm of uplift has been recorded since January. The Svartsengi geothermal plant noted no chemical changes in the geothermal system, though measurements showed increased fluid flow in the rocks within the system, along with the opening of old cracks and the formation of new ones. IMO reported that at 8:27 p.m. on June 13, an earthquake of magnitude M3.5 occurred approximately 3.7 km north of Grindavík, on the Reykjanes Peninsula. Residents of Grindavík felt the earthquake. It is part of a swarm of earthquakes in progress since May 30, and about 2000 earthquakes have been detected there since, mainly small earthquakes, sometimes more intense, including 3 of M between 2.5 and 2 , 9 and one of M3.5 on June 13. Observations of the area indicate signs of re-swelling around Þorbjörn. IMO reported that seismic activity has resumed on the Reykjanes peninsula since May 30. The IMO reports about 300 earthquakes since midnight, the strongest of M 2.7 felt in Grindavik.During the week of May 20 to 27, 120 earthquakes were counted. New GPS, InSAR, and radon measurements taken on May 26 indicate soft re-inflation near Þorbjörn; a longer-term series of measures is necessary to understand the processes and assess the risks. The phase of uncertainty declared by the Protecton Civile is still in force. IMO reported that uplift detected in the Thorbjorn area decreased in the beginning of April and stopped later in the month. Seismicity, which had occurred across three main volcanic systems: Eldey, Reykjanes-Svartsengi, and Krisuvik, had significantly decreased. These data indicated that the injection of magma beneath Thorbjorn had stopped, though there were indications of deformation over a larger area. On 4 May the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. IMO reported that seismic swarms continue. On April 11 at 9:55 am, an earthquake of Magnitude 3.2 occurred 4.6 km northwest of Grindavik, preceded by another of M2.8 at 9:32, both felt in Grindavik. Seismicity remains continuous in the Reykjanes peninsula, probably according to the IMO following three magmatic intrusions as reported on April 3. IMO reported that GPS measurements, along with detailed analysis and model calculations of the available data, now testify to a new magma deposit west of the Reykjanes Peninsula under Rauðhólar and Sýrfell.IMO reported that on March 25, at 9:44 am, an M3.4 earthquake occurred just north of Grindavík. The earthquake was felt in Grindavík. Considerable seismic activity has continued in the region in recent weeks due to the deformation of the region. The phase of uncertainty due to the uplift by Mt. Þorbjörn that declared civil protection is still in force.This confirms the data that was collected in collaboration with the Institute of Earth Sciences, ÍSORs, HS Energy and the Icelandic Meteorological Office after the start of activities in Thorbjörn.One model places the magmatic intrusion about 8-13 km deep, which is probably deep in the earth's crust at a depth considerably higher than the two magma deposits at Thorbjörn. IMO reported that activity in Grindavík remained high during the week of March 16 to 22 after a swarm of earthquakes that started on March 12. This is the same area as where previous earthquake swarms occurred earlier this year. About 1,000 earthquakes have been located on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The biggest earthquake of the week was M4.2 on March 18, about 5 km NW of Gunnuhver on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The earthquake was widely felt in the southwestern part of Iceland. On March 19, an M3.5 earthquake occurred 3.5 km NW of Grindavík. An M3.0 earthquake occurred on March 20 by Kleifarvatn on the Reykjanes Peninsula, where a small swarm of earthquakes occurred on the same day. IMO reported that on March 20, at 8:30 p.m., an earthquake swarm started close to Krysuvik. By midnight, 60 earthquakes had been detected in the region. The biggest M3 happened at 9:21 p.m. No reports were received. Then the activity decreased.IMO reported that on March 19 at 16 h 53, an earthquake of M3.3 was detected approximately 3 km NW of Grindavik. Few aftershocks followed. The IMO has received feeling reports from the Reykjanes Peninsula. On March 18 at 03:42 am, an M3.0 earthquake occurred approximately 5 km VNV from Grindavík. The uncertainty phase due to the uprising in Reykjanes is still valid according to the Ministry of Civil Protection. The latest distortion results around Mount Thorbjorn on the Reykjanes Peninsula indicate that inflation causing an uprising in the region has resumed. The uprising is slower than when it was measured in January, but seems to be in the same place. The most likely explanation for the signal is that the influx of magma has started again. IMO reported that at 10:32 a.m. on March 18, an M4.2 earthquake was detected approximately 3 km northwest of Gunnuhver on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The latest distortion results around Mount Thorbjorn on the Reykjanes Peninsula indicate that inflation causing an uprising in the region has resumed. The uprising is slower than when it was measured in January, but seems to be in the same place. The most likely explanation for the signal is that the influx of magma has started again. IMO reported that on March 12, 2020 at 10:26 a.m., an M5.2 earthquake occurred about 5 km from the NE in Grindavok. Several aftershocks have been detected. This earthquake was the largest earthquake detected on the Reykjanes Peninsula since October 2013 when an M5.2 earthquake occurred near Reykjanes. the earthquake was felt in large areas southwestern Iceland. Two earthquakes occurred at 18:40 (M3.4) and 18:42 (M3.3) about 3 km ENE from Grindavok. Reports were received from Grindavok that they had been felt there. IMO reported that on March 4th, seismic activity increased again at the southwest tip of Reykjanes, where a seismic swarm started on February 15. Three earthquakes of magnitude greater than 3 were detected, the strongest of 3.4 M, out of the 300 earthquakes of the day.On the other hand, the seismic activity near Thorbjorn is in significant decrease. Inflation is no longer observed, likely following the cessation of the magmatic influx. The state of uncertainty declared by the Civil Protection is still current. IMO reported that the earthquake in Reykjanestá continued and was the most active, with around 450 earthquakes detected this week and there was also the largest earthquake of the week, M3.1 on 22 February.On 25 February IMO reported that seismic activity at Reykjanes, in an area N of the town of Grindavik had significantly decreased during the previous few days, and inflation was not detected in GPS and InSAR data. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. Preliminary data suggested a small deflation signal beginning mid-February, though further analysis was needed for confirmation. The report warned the public not to explore lava tubes in the Eldvarp area as gas measurements showed a dangerous level of oxygen depletion; there are no pre-unrest measurements existing for comparison. As of the 17th of February, IMO reported that the seismic activity north of Grindavik has decreased, but is still above average. The last strong earthquake detected last week is of magnitude3.2 (11 fecal at 6:46 pm west of Þorbjörn.Crustal deformation is still relevant, decreasing. The explanation given by scientists for inflation and seismic activity is a magmatic intrusion located between 3 and 5 km deep west of Þorbjörn. This activity will likely stop without a rash. IMO reported that continuous seismic activity was measured near Grindavík, on the Reykjanes Peninsula. Since midnight on February 2, about 150 earthquakes have been detected, the strongest of magnitude 3.3 at 9:00 a.m. Since January 21, more than 1,000 earthquakes have been located in the region, including about 700 during the weekend and most were located in the SW / NE direction, about 2 km from Grindavík.The latest GPS analysis shows inflation in the area west of Thorbjörn. In total, the land has risen more than 4 cm since January 20. Satellite images show the same evolution.The IMO note that these events could end without the emission of external lava. IMO reported that continued seismic activity was observed in the vicinity of Grindavík on the evening of January 31. At 10:22 pm, an earthquake of magnitude 4.0 and at. 22:24 was another size of 4.3, both about 5 km northeast of Grindavík. Seismic activity spreads some cracks north of Grindavík. Considerable seismic activity is expected to continue. The earthquakes were reported in Reykjanes, in the capital region and in Borgarfjörður. These are the largest earthquakes that have been detected in the hryvnia.The ground in Thorbjörn is still rising, inflation is 3-4 cm at the highest bridge. Previously, IMO reported that the inflation trend is similar to that seen since the start of the seismic swarm on January 21; it is measured at more than three centimeters.Seismic activity has been reduced since the morning of January 29. Continued seismic activity is however expected in the region and the biggest earthquakes still concern the region near Grindavik. As of the 29th of January, IMO reported thatIn the Reykjanes peninsula, the seismic swarm continues. The largest earthquakes were M3.7 and M3.6 on January 22 and> M3 on January 27.The aviation code is yellow. IMO reported that an inflation has been measured since January 21st and it‘s centered just west of Mt. Thorbjorn on Reykjanes peninsula. The inflation is unusually rapid, around 3-4 mm per day and has accumulated to 2 cm to date. It has been detected both on continuous GPS stations and in InSAR images. The inflation is most likely a sign of magma accumulation at just a few km depth. If the signal is indeed a magma accumulation it is very small, first volume estimate is around 1 million cubic meters (0,001 km3).The activity has only been ongoing for a few days and it is uncertain if it will escalate to more serious activity. The inflation is occurring on plate boundaries and within the volcanic system of Svartsengi which is either considered a separate system or part of the Reykjanes volcanic system. The last known eruption was during Reykjanes fires, which occurred between 1210-1240 AD. Within that period a several eruptions occurred within that system, thereof there were three eruptions in Svartsengi system. The eruptions were effusive (non-explosive) fissure eruptions erupting on 1-10 km long fissures. No explosive eruptions are known from this system. The largest eruption in the swarm, from 13th century, formed Arnarseturshraun lava (estimated 0,3 km3 and 20 km2). The duration of these eruptions are usually from a few days up to several weeks. Seismic activity is very common in this area and is linked to the plate boundaries, geothermal activity and possible magma intrusions. The largest earthquakes measured in this area are about M5.5.

Iceland - Grimsvotn volcano

October 12th, 2020

As of the 11th of october, according to the Icelandic Met office, several signs of increasing activity (frequency of earthquakes, inflation, geothermal activity and rising heat flow) are noticed at Grimsvötn, which saw its aviation code change from green to yellow on September 30. Local volcanologist explains that an increase in seismicity and heat flux is observed 6 months to 2 years before an eruption. The water level of the subglacial lake, present above the Grimsvötn, increased sharply and reached higher values ​​than in 2004 and 2010, marked by jökulhlaup (glacial debacles) ... the sudden pressure relief destabilizes the volcano, and may cause an eruption. Increased monitoring of the volcano is required during this period of increased activity.As of the 30th of September, IMO has changed the aviation color code of the Grímsvötn volcano from green to yellow. Volcanic activity at Grímsvötn has gradually increased over time, as indicated by several regularly monitored geophysical and geochemical parameters that are now above known background level:- Seismicity over the past month has been above average.- Geothermal activity has increased in recent months with clear signs of cauldron deepening in several places around the caldera.- The deformation of the surface has exceeded the level it was at before the 2011 eruption.- Magmatic gases were measured in geothermal emissions this summer.- In addition, the water depth in the subglacial lake is comparable to the level prior to the 2004 and 2010 floods, which increases the likelihood of flooding in the months to come.Several datasets now indicate that the Grímsvötn volcano has reached a level of unrest comparable to that seen before the historic eruptions.For these reasons, the aviation color code has changed from green to yellow. This does not mean that a rash is imminent. As of the 12th of June, IMO reported that a research team measured an increase in volcanic gases from the Icelandic volcano Grímsvötn. The water surface of the subglacial lake in the caldera is high and a jökulhlaup (a glacial debacle) could occur in weeks / months, which can trigger an eruption following a discharge of weight on the magma chamber, according to Magnús Tumi Guðmundsson, professor of geophysics at the University of Iceland. Higher seismic activity, increased geothermal energy, and magmatic gas flow indicate that Grímsvötn is preparing for an eruption, according Magnús Tumi. Grímsvötn, Iceland's most frequently active volcano in historical time, lies largely beneath the vast Vatnajökull icecap. The caldera lake is covered by a 200-m-thick ice shelf, and only the southern rim of the 6 x 8 km caldera is exposed. The geothermal area in the caldera causes frequent jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) when melting raises the water level high enough to lift its ice dam. Long NE-SW-trending fissure systems extend from the central volcano. The most prominent of these is the noted Laki (Skaftar) fissure, which extends to the SW and produced the world's largest known historical lava flow during an eruption in 1783. The 15-cu-km basaltic Laki lavas were erupted over a 7-month period from a 27-km-long fissure system. Extensive crop damage and livestock losses caused a severe famine that resulted in the loss of one-fifth of the population of Iceland.The last major eruption of the Grimsvötn dates back to 2011, and emitted 0.8 km³ of tephra, preceded by smaller eruptions in 1998 and 2004.

Iceland - Oraefajokull volcano

July 15th, 2018

The IMO changed the status of Öraefajökull on 13 July. This volcano shows clear signs of instability, coupled with a phase of inflation for a year and a half, reflected by an increase in seismic activity and deformation, which are persistent. The probable cause of this inflation is one injection of new magma, with an estimated volume of about 10 million m³, a volume comparable to the intrusion under the Eyjafjalajökull before the eruption of 2010.Despite a drop in geothermal activity since the end of December, new resistivity measurements indicate the presence of altered rocks at superficial levels within the caldera due to high temperatures. IMO reported a seismic swarm is in progress at Öraefajökull; it began on June 26, 2018 with a magnitude 3.1 earthquake and continues with earthquakes of lesser magnitude.A magnitude 2.1 earthquake occurred outside the volcano, while appearing connected to it. Previous news 2017 - On 22 December 2017 IMO reported that activity had been fairly stable during the previous weeks, though still above background levels; the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. In December the largest earthquake detected was a M2.5, but most events were smaller than M1. Earthquakes were located close to the caldera 2 and 10 km. The Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that that on 17 November the Aviation Color Code for Oraefajokull was raised to Yellow because satellite images and photos showed that a new ice cauldron had formed within the caldera the previous week. The new cauldron was about 1 km in diameter and 15-20 m deep, and signified a recent increase in geothermal activity. Scientists conducted an overflight on 18 November; in addition, while on the ground, they took water samples, measurements of electrical conductivity, and gas levels at the Kvojokull outlet-glacier, a valley glacier on the SE flank of Oraefajokull . There was no obvious sign of flooding in the Kvoro river. A sulfur odor, which had been reported for about a week, was also noted. An increase in the seismic activity was recorded for the last few months (the largest earthquake, an M 3.4, occurred on the 3 October), but was low for the past few days. IMO noted that there were no signs of an imminent volcanic eruption, though there was considerable uncertainty about how the situation will evolve. Oraefajokull Iceland's highest peak, is a broad glacier-clad central volcano at the SE end of the Vatnajokull icecap. A 4 x 5 km subglacial caldera truncates the summit of the dominantly basaltic and rhyolitic volcano. The extensive summit icecap is drained through deep glacial valleys dissecting the SW-to-SE flanks. The largest-volume volcano in Iceland, 2119-m-high Oraefajokull was mostly constructed during Pleistocene glacial and interglacial periods. Holocene activity has been dominated by explosive summit eruptions, although flank lava effusions have also occurred. A major silicic eruption in 1362 CE was Iceland's largest historical explosive eruption. It and another eruption during 1727-28 were accompanied by major jokulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) that caused
property damage and fatalities. (GVN/GVP)

ICELAND - Bardarbunga volcano

July 15th, 20205

IMO reported that shortly before midnight on July 13 at 11:41 p.m. an earthquake of magnitude 3 shook the southeastern part of the Bárðarbunga caldera and about an hour later on July 14, another earthquake of magnitude 3.6 shook the region. Previous news 2015 - On 26 April the Icelandic Met Office (IMO) lowered the Aviation Color Code for Bardarbunga to Green (the lowest on a four-color scale). No further signs of unrest had been noted since the end of the eruption on 27 February; seismicity within the caldera and the associated dyke intrusion continued to decline.Previously, the Icelandic Met Office reported that the eruption at Bárdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, which began on 31 August 2014, had ended on 27 February; the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow. During an overflight scientists did not see any incandescence from the vents, although gas emissions persisted. Radar measurements showed that no increase in the extent of the lava field had been detected since mid-February.During 17-19 February, Icelandic Met Office reported continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, though the overall intensity of the eruption continued to decrease. Only one active vent was present in the crater, and the lava level in that crater continued to sink. The eruption plume rose no more than 1 km above the ground and drifted NE, and the lava channel was crusted over beyond the uppermost 200-300 m. The lava tube continued to feed the N and NE parts of Holuhraun, inflating the lava field. The reduced effusion rate was no longer able to sustain active breakouts in an area 17-18 km ENE from the vent. A 24 February report noted that the rate of subsidence was less than 2 cm per day and lava flows decreased substantially. Seismic activity continued to decrease although it was still considered to be strong. During 11-17 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; the overall activity was persistent, but lower compared to recent weeks and months. Seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 85 square kilometers on 14 February; measurements from 4 and 12 February showed almost no changes in the extent of the field. During 4-10 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A 6 February statement noted that although there was a visible reduction in activity during the previous two weeks, seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS easurements showed that subsidence continued.During 27 January-3 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, with a lava-flow rate of about 100 cubic meters per second. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. On 27 January the plume rose an estimated 1.3 km. A map made on 21 January showed that the lava field was thickening and not expanding significantly; the erupted volume was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers (15% uncertainty). During 21-27 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Ba¡rdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded along the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Very high values of sulfur dioxide, about 84,000 mµg/m3, were recorded at the eruption site on 21 January; this value was the highest recorded at ground level since the eruption started. Total subsidence of the Bárdarbunga surface since mid-August was 61 m, and the volume of erupted lava was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers. The lava field covered 84.7 square kilometers on 22 January. A report issued on 27 January stated that the average rate of lava emission during the previous three weeks was just less than 100 cubic meters per second, herefore the intensity of the eruption was slowly decreasing.During 14-20 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.3 square kilometers on 15 January. During 7-13 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.1 square kilometers on 10 January. During 31 December-6 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Subsidence continued at a rate of 25 cm/day. The lava field covered 83.4 square kilometers on 6 January. Preliminary analysis of radar measurements taken during an overflight on 30 December showed that the lava is on average 10 m thick in the E part, 12 m thick at the center, and about 14 m in the W part. The maximum thickness, near the craters, was about 40 m at the E margin of the lava lake. A preliminary estimate for the volume of the lava was 1.1 cubic kilometers. Total subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga surface since mid-August was 59 m. During 24-30 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. The lava field covered 82.8 square kilometers as of 29 December.During 10-16 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A decreased rate of subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field covered just over 78.6 square kilometers on 15 December.During 3-9 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection reviewed data from the beginning of the eruption on 31 August to 3 December and found a decreased rate of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera from up to 80 cm/day to 25 cm/day, with most of the subsidence concentrated at the center of the caldera. Data also showed a decline in the intensity of the eruption at Holuhraun, although seismic activity remained strong. After 100 eruptive days the lava field covered just over 76 square kilometers on 9 December, making it the largest lava field in Iceland since the Laki eruption (1783-1784). Additionally, the gas emissions have had an impact all over Iceland for the first time in 150 years.During 26 November-2 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Based on a field report from 25 or 26 November the activity was characterized as pulsating; lava surged from the vent for 2-3 minutes, every 5-10 minutes, causing bulges in the upper parts of the lava channel. Measurements obtained during an overflight on 26 November indicated that the total amount of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera was about 50 m, with an estimated volume of 1.4 cubic kilometers. The rate of subsidence in the center of the caldera had decreased slowly compared to the first month of the eruption. Observers in Dyngjusandur, NE of the vent, photographed the plume at 1441 on 27 November and indicated that the top of the plume was 3.1 km above Dyngjusandur, and the base of the aerosol-laden lower part of the plume was about 1.4 km above the sand plain. A thermal image from 1 December showed several changes to the lava field: in just over 24 hours a new lava extrusion at the NE margin traveled 450 m; a new flow traveled N, just W of the lava lake; and a new flow was forming S of the lava lake, and then to the E of that flow. The lava field covered just over 75 square kilometers on 1 December. During 18-25 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; FLIR thermal images of the craters on 18 November showed that the most intense area of thermal convection was at the northern part of the eruption site, called Heimasjta. Lava flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. On 20 November observers characterized the eruption as pulsating explosions in the crater every 10-15 minutes, followed by a gush of lava down the main channel with splashing on either side During 12-18 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; lava from the lava lake in the main vent, Baugur Crater, flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Seismicity remained strong, although a report on 14 November noted that the number of earthquakes over M 5 seemed to be decreasing. The lava field covered 71.9 square kilometers on 14 November.During 5-11 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued, and seismicity remained strong. The lava field was 60 square kilometers on 9 November. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted.During 29 October-4 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued; by 31 October the depression was about 42 m. The lava field was 65.7 square kilometers on 31 October. As of the 28th of october, effusive activity is still continuing. Lava is still issuing and is covering about 0.79km2/day. caldera subsidence continued at a rate 50cm per day. During 15-21 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued at a rate of 30-40 cm per day, concentrated in the NE part of the caldera, and on 15 October was an estimated 0.75 cubic kilometers. On 18 October a M 5.4 earthquake was detected at 0940 in N Bardarbunga making it one of the biggest earthquakes since the start of the eruption. The lava field continued to grow and the lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 60.7 square kilometers on 19 October. From 15th to 16th of October seismic activity increased. About 130 earthquakes were recorded. Lava flows are still running to the North ans to the East. During 8-14 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field continued to grow, with lava production unchanged. Seismic activity was low in the N part of the dyke and around the eruption site.During 1-7 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued. Seismic activity at the N part of the dyke and around the vents declined, although the lava field continued to grow and lava production continued at the same output. Lava field measured more than 50 km2. On 5 October a new lava front at the S edge of the main lava flow advanced E. During 23-30 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga caldera continued and had reached 27-28 m by 24 September. On 29 September the subsidence rate slowed slightly and was about 40 cm per 24 hours. Lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 46 square kilometers on 30 September. During 17-23 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Chemical analysis and geophysical modeling indicated that the source of the magma was at a depth of more than 10 km. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera and crustal movements signified that the volume of magma in the dyke slightly increased. On 21 September the lava field measured 37 square kilometers. Field scientists estimated that about 90% of the sulfur dioxide gas from the eruption originated at the active craters and the rest rose from the lava field. Dead birds were also found around the eruption site. A report on 22 September noted that the total volume of the erupted lava was 0.4-0.6 cubic kilometers and the flow rate was 250-350 cubic meters per second. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bárdarbunga caldera; the volume of the depression was an estimated 0.6 cubic kilometers on 23 September During 10-16 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Lava flows continued to advance at a consistent rate toward the E and W, and by 13 September, the lava field measured 24.5 km2. The main flow had entered the river bed of Jokkuls Follum and continued to follow its course; steam rose from the river where the lava was in contact but no explosive activity occurred. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera; approximately 23 m of total subsidence was measured during a survey on 14 September. Seismicity persisted mainly around the caldera and the Dyngjujokull glacier. The largest earthquakes, M 5.5, M 5.3, and M 5.0, were detected on 10, 11, and 15 September respectively. IMO reported continued elevated SO2 emissions during 10-16 September and issued warnings to the public in the municipality of Fjarjarbyggen on 13 September. As of the 4th of September in the afternoon IMO reported that eruptive activity was continuing. Lava fountaining slightly increased during previous hours et lava emissions continued. (total covered surface is now about 10.8 km2. Lava tongue strench about 4km distance to the Northeast. During the past hour a graben formed below the Dynjujokull icecap. The seismicity remained at a high level. As of the 3rd of September, IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing and characterized by small lava fountaining above the central part of the fissure and lava flows emissions around. In the morning the lava rate emisssions was 150 m3/s. The surface covered from the beginning of the eruptive phase is 6,5 km2 and the total volume between 30-40 millions/m3 (about 1/10 of the estimated dyke volume). Seismic activity remained important and a strong eartquakes mag 5.5. occurred in the morning located close the caldera. During 27 August-2 September the Icelandic Met Office reported ongoing seismic activity at Bárdarbunga volcano. On 27 August an overflight showed a 4-6-km-long row of cauldrons 10-15 m in diameter S of Bárdarbunga. The Aviation Color Code remains at Orange. As of the 1st of September in the morning , IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing, characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emission along the fissure. As of the 31st of August IMO reported that a new eruptive phase (second one) started probably on Sunday early morning. At 5:49 AM webcam showed an eruptive activity at the same place of the previous activity along the fissure. Eruptive activity was characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emissions. Seismic activity remained important, mainly concentrated along a - 15 km line strenching from from Dynjujokull icecap to the area of the 29th of August eruption. As of the 30th of August, IMO reported that the first fissural eruptive phase ended. The new bulletin reported that the eruptive activity culminated between 00:40 AM - 1:00 AM, then dropped. At about 4:00 AM the short lava flows were not longer supplied. Alert level lowered from red to orange. Previously, as of the 29th of August, IMO reported that an 100 m -long eruptive fissure opened at midnight at about 10 km North Vatnajokull. Webcam images showed red glowing and small lava fountaining above the basaltic fissure. Later bulletin reported that the fissure strenched 400 m to 1 km long. The activity dropped at 2:40 AM . On the morning webcam showed only a small gas plume issued from the fissure. On 26 August the location of the seismicity was located primarily along the 10 km long tip of the dike that extended 5 km beyond the glacier margin. During 22-26 August several earthquakes in the 4.7-5.7 magnitude range had been detected at or near the volcano. On 23 August seismic tremor indicated a small lava-eruption 150-400 m beneath the Dyngjuj0kull glacier, prompting a change in the Aviation Color Code to Red. On 24 August observations from an overflight indicated there was no eruption and the Aviation Color Code was changed to Orange. However the seismic activity remains important with 700 eathquakes from Sunday 00 AM to 2:30 pm (two with more than 5 in magnitude). As of the 23rd of August, RUV reported that a possible mall sub-glacial volcanic eruption has started near Bardarbunga volcano, under the icecap of Dyngjujökull glacier in the northern part of Vatnajökull Glacier, according to the Icelandic Met Office. All air traffic is now prohibited in a large radius around the volcano. The National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police has raised the alert phase to emergency phase accordingly. Furthermore, the Met Office has raised the aviation color code from orange to red resulting in the air space above the eruption site being closed. The eruption is considered a minor event at this point. Because of a pressure from the glacier cap it is uncertain whether the eruption will stay sub-glacial or not. The Coast Guards aircraft, TF-Sif, is currently monitoring the area and there are no visible signs of a plume at this moment. Nothing indicates floods because of the eruption. At this stage measurements taken are based on a small event. The Jökulsárgljúfur canyon has been closed and evacuation of tourists in that area and around Dettifoss waterfall has started. The situation at this stage does not call for evacuation of habitants in Kelduhverfi, Öxarfjördur and Núpasveit. People in those areas are encouraged to watch news closely and have their mobiles switched on at all times.This story, by the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV), was updated on 23 August 2014, at 15.13 GMT - Previously, during 13-19 August the Icelandic Met Office reported increased seismic activity at Bardarbunga volcano. On 16 August more than 200 earthquakes were reported under the NW Vatnajokull ice cap, and GPS stations have shown an increasing signal upward and away from the volcano since early June 2014. On 16 August the Aviation Color code was increased to Yellow. On 18 August the Icelandic Met Office reported an earthquake swarm to the E and another to the N of Bardarbunga. A M4 earthquake was recorded that was the strongest in the region since 1996. By 18 August there had been 2,600 earthquakes detected at the volcano; earthquake locations from N and E swarms had been migrating NE, but in the evening activity of the N swarm had decreased significantly. That same day the Aviation Color code was raised to Orange. The large central volcano of Bárdarbunga lies beneath the NW part of the Vatnajokull icecap, NW of Grimsvotn volcano, and contains a subglacial 700-m-deep caldera. Related fissure systems include the Veidivotn and Trollagigar fissures, which extend about 100 km SW to near Torfajokull volcano and 50 km NE to near Askja volcano, respectively. Voluminous fissure eruptions, including one at Thjorsarhraun, which produced the largest known Holocene lava flow on Earth with a volume of more than 21 cu km, have occurred throughout the Holocene into historical time from the Veidivotn fissure system. The last major eruption of Veidivotn, in 1477, also produced a large tephra deposit. The subglacial Loki-Fogrufjoll volcanic system located SW of Bárdarbunga volcano is also part of the Bárdarbunga volcanic system and contains two subglacial ridges extending from the largely subglacial Hamarinn central volcano; the Loki ridge trends to the NE and the Fogrufjoll ridge to the SW. Jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods) from eruptions at Bardarbunga potentially affect drainages in all directions. ( Icelandic Met Office) - Webcam and seismic recording

ICELAND - Askja volcano

November 13rd, 2019

On 13rd of November the Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that seismic swarm which started on Thursday, November 7, just east of Askja, continued. This morning at 7:30 am, an M3.1 event occurred in Askja. About 1000 earthquakes have been recorded in the area since the beginning of the swarm. The largest earthquake was M3.4 and occurred on November 9th. In addition to this swarm, an earthquake> M3.0 has been detected during the swarm so far and about 20 earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 2.0. No volcanic tremor has been detected in the area. This is more like fragile-type tectonic earthquakes related to continental drift. Swarms of earthquakes occur regularly around Herðubreið and Askja. IMO monitors the activity 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Askja is a large basaltic central volcano that forms the Dyngjufjöll massif. It is truncated by three overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 8 km wide and may have been produced primarily from subglacial ring-fracture eruptions rather than by subsidence. A major rhyolitic explosive eruption from Dyngjufjöll about 10,000 years ago was in part associated with the formation of Askja caldera. Many postglacial eruptions also occurred along the ring-fracture. A major explosive eruption on the SE caldera margin in 1875 was one of Iceland's largest during historical time. It resulted in the formation of a smaller 4.5-km-wide caldera, now filled by Öskjuvatn lake, that truncates the rim of the larger central caldera. The 100-km-long Askja fissure swarm, which includes the Sveinagja graben, is also related to the Askja volcanic system, as are several small shield volcanoes such as Kollatadyngja. Twentieth-century eruptions have produced lava flows from vents located mostly near Öskjuvatn lake. (GVN/GVP) - Icelandic volcanoes data base


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CAPE VERDE - Brava volcano island

August 11th, 2016

According to the Universidade de Cabo Verde in a report posted on 4 August, Instituto Nacional da Meteorologia e Geofisica (INMG) recorded increased seismicity at Brava beginning at dawn on 2 August. In response authorities evacuated 300 people, based on a news report. Earthquakes were felt by residents during 3-4 August. Scientists and technicians from the
Universidade de Cabo Verde (UniCV), Instituto Vulcanologico das Canarias (INVOLCAN), and Serviso Nacional da Protecion Civil (SNPC) began monitoring carbon dioxide emissions though found nothing unusual during 4-7 August. . Brava Island, 20 km west of Fogo, is the westernmost of the southern Cape Verde islands. The 10-km-wide island contains 15
morphologically youthful craters located along two or three lineaments intersecting along the crest of the island. The youthfulness of the craters and numerous minor earthquakes in recent years indicate that a significant volcanic hazard still exists (Wolff and Turbeville, 1985). Most of the younger eruptions originated from the interaction of phonolitic magmas with a large groundwater reservoir contained within an older volcanic series characterized by thick welded ignimbrites and block-and-ash flow deposits. Carbonatitic lavas are also found on Brava.

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European volcanoes Catalog online

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Etna from space

FRANCE - Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion island)

October 8th, 2020

As of the 7th of October, the seismic activity continues to decrease. During the day of 07/10/2020, 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes deep under the eastern flank, 2 long-period earthquakes, and 1 earthquake classified as "undetermined" (because of low magnitude) were manually pointed.No shallow landslides / collapses were recorded in the eastern flank sector for the last 24 hours. As of the 5th of October, OVPF reported that seismic activity is still recorded under the Piton de la Fournaise (summit zone and eastern flank) even if it continues to decline. Thus for the day of 04/10/2020, 16 deep volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the eastern flank, 1 earthquake classified as "indeterminate" (because of low magnitude) and 16 landslides/superficial collapses in the eastern flank area, were manually pointed. OVPF bullletin (4th of October - morning) reported that seismic activity is still recorded under the Piton de la Fournaise (summit zone and eastern flank) even if it continues to decline. Thus for the day of 03/10/2020, , 25 deep volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the eastern flank, 4 earthquakes classified as "indeterminate" (because of low magnitudes) and 24 landslides/superficial collapses in the eastern flank area, were manually pointed. No superficial volcano-tectonic summit earthquakes were recorded.As of the 3rd, OVPF morning bulletin reported that seismic activity was still recorded under the Piton de la Fournaise (summit zone and eastern flank). So for the day of 02/10/2020, 2 surface summital volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 24 deep volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the eastern flank, 3 long-lived earthquakes, 15 earthquakes classified as "indeterminate" (because of low magnitudes) and 37 landslides/superficial collapses in the eastern flank area were manually pointed.OVPF reported that seismic activity is still recorded under the Piton de la Fournaise (summit zone and eastern flank). So for the day of 01/10/2020, 8 summit surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 35 deep volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the eastern flank, 1 long-term earthquake, 14 earthquakes classified as "indeterminate" (because of small magnitudes) and 52 landslides/superficial collapses in the eastern flank area, were manually pointed.OVPF reported that after a decrease in the number of earthquakes, the seismic crisis (in the strict sense of the term), which began on September 28, 2020 at 12:04 p.m. local time, ended at around 12 p.m. local time on September 30. On the other hand, the seismicity still persists with on average over the last hours, 4 earthquakes or landslides / hour. Given the sharp decrease in the number of earthquakes, the term "seismic crisis" is therefore no longer applicable at present. During the day of 09/30, the deformations continued on the eastern flank of the volcano, so the GPS station "GPNG" of the OVPF located in the upper part of the Grandes Pentes, at 1414 m altitude, has continued its eastward slide of 10 cm, or about 70 cm in total since the onset of the crisis, and has risen by about 25 cm since the onset of the crisis. The persistence of seismicity and deformation under the eastern flank shows that the intrusion of magma towards the eastern flank is still active and that an eruption cannot be excluded. The observatory teams remain mobilized. As of the 29th of September, OVPF reported that seismic crisis that began on September 28, 2020 at 12:04 p.m. local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues; even if a decrease in the number of earthquakes has been observed since the start of the day on 29/09 and is even more marked on 30 September. During the day of 29/09, the deformations continued on the eastern flank of the volcano, so the GPS station "GPNG" of the OVPF located in the upper part of the Grandes Pentes, at 1414 m altitude, slid eastward by 50 cm, or 60 cm in total since the beginning of the crisis, and rose about 20 cm since the beginning of the crisis. Since the beginning of the crisis and until on Wednesday 30th, 09:30, 2300 earthquakes and 442 landslides/superficial collapses have been recorded by the OVPF. This seismicity is still located below the summit and under the eastern flank of the volcano (between 1.6 and 5.2 km deep OVPF reported that seismic crisis that began on Monday 28th of September at 12:04 local time continued. Between 12:04 p.m. and 9:30 p.m., more than 1,300 earthquakes were recorded by the OVPF. This seismicity is localized under the summit zone and under the eastern flank (between 1.6 and 5.2 km deep). One hundred and twenty-one landslides were counted during the day of September 28, at the summit cone and in the Enclos Fouqué. The seismicity and the source of the deformations show a migration of the magma in depth towards the eastern flank of the volcano. At 6 a.m. on Tuesday 29th, more than 2,000 earthquakes were recorded. The strongest VT earthquake, M 2.5, lasted 48.36 s. OVPF reported that since September 20, a resumption of seismicity has been observed under the Piton de la Fournaise. Between September 20 and 22, 21 earthquakes, of magnitude less than or equal to 1, were recorded and located under the Dolomieu crater between 1.7 and 2.2 km deep. This seismicity is accompanied by a resumption of inflation (swelling) of the base and top of the Piton de la Fournaise building. This building inflation remains very low for the time being and will need to be confirmed over time over the next few days. This seismicity and deformation are synonymous with a pressurization of the superficial magmatic reservoir located about 2-2.5 km below the summit. OVPF reported that since the July 3rd intrusion, seismic activity has remained low and inflation has stopped around July 13th. In July, OVPF recorded at the level of the Piton de la Fournaise massif a total of 224 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (0 to 2.5 km deep) under the summit craters; 2 deep earthquakes (2.5 to 5 km deep); 247 collapses (in the Crater Dolomieu and at the ramparts of the Enclos Fouqué and the Rivière de l'Est). OVPF reported that the seismic crisis, which began on 3 July 2020 at 07:20 local time, ended at about 08:00 local time. This episode was accompanied by surface deformations that remained extremely weak and localized at the top of Piton de la Fournaise. Since then, no resumption of seismic activity or deformation has been observed. Several hours, without any activity, testify to the deep shutdown of the magma in the building. However, given the recovery in inflation observed since 16 June, a medium-term eruption cannot be ruled out.As of the 3rd of July, OVPF reported that since 07:20 local time, a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magmatic reservoir and is spreading to the surface. This crisis lasted half an hour, then activity dropped, and there is no acceleration. An eruption is likely in the short term in the next few minutes or hours. Additional information will follow regarding the area affected by this magmatic propagation to the surface. however all options remain open. OVPF reported on June 27th that 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the largest of which is M2.01 occurred under the summit cone. The GPS of the summit area and in the far field record an inflation, witnessing the pressurization of a surface source and a deep source. SO2 emissions at the top of the volcano are below the detection threshold, and CO2 emissions from the ground show a decreasing trend at all stations. OVPF reported that since 16th of June, a resumption of seismicity has been observed under the Piton de la Fournaise. Thus 18 surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes (2 km below the summit) were recorded under the summit zone between 16 and 22 June. This seismicity is accompanied by a resumption of inflation (swelling) of the base and top of the Piton de la Fournaise building (Figures 2 and 3). This inflation of the building is synonymous with a pressurization of the superficial magmatic reservoir located around 1.5-2.5 km below the summit.OVPF bulletin of April 14, 2020, reported a resumption of inflation (swelling) in the summit area. The GPS of the summit area recorded an inflation, witnessing the pressurization of a surface and deep source ... For two days, a resumption of inflation and a significant presence of CO2 were noted. This means that the magma is still present and going up. OVPF reported that sharp drop in the intensity of the tremor was observed on 06/04/2020, around 1:30 p.m. local time (09:30 CET;, heralding the end of the surface eruption. No hypothesis is ruled out as to the future situation (final shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity at another site), taking into account the high seismicity recorded since the day of 5/4/2020 00h (TU time) and until 09:00 (TU time; 13:00 local time) on this day: with 243 superficial tectonic earthquakes (2km deep) recorded under the summit craters. Although since the end of the eruption seismic activity has decreased considerably. Following a reconnaissance flight of the SAG and the PGHM carried out on 6th of April in the morning at around 10 a.m. local time, the flow front was able to be precisely located. The active front (south flow arm) was 360 m above sea level, about 2 km from National Highway 2 (compared to 550 m altitude and 2.7 km from the road yesterday at 10:30 a.m. for the north flow arm). Thermal images acquired last night by an OVPF/IPGP team estimated a speed of 40-60 m/h of the flow front on the evening of 5/4/2020. As of the 6th of April - 7:30 am OVPF reported that the eruption that began on 02/04/2020 on the eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise, at around 12:20 p.m. local time, continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively stable over the last 24 hours.A strong seismicity is still recorded at Piton de La Fournaise. Since the day of 5/4/2020 00h (TU time): 189 surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes (2km deep) have been recorded under the summit craters. These earthquakes are still located under the southeastern part of Dolomieu Crater. These earthquakes testify to the weakening of the environment, either by a flow of fluid or the emptying of a reservoir, most certainly in connection with the power of the eruptive site and its resurgence of activity. Given this fragility, a risk of collapse of the Dolomieu crater (or part of the crater) is not excluded.Estimated surface flows, from satellite data via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne) and MIROVA (University of Turin) platforms, although still strongly disturbed by cloud cover around piton de la Fournaise, are still on the rise. Over the last 12 hours, average flows have been estimated at 30 m3/s.The thermal images made by an OVPF team yesterday evening and the images of the webcams of the OVPF of that night show that the lava front is still very active (Figures 4 and 5). Last night, the OVPF team on site reported that the northern-most flow fronts had stopped, with activity focusing on a new lava arm to the south. The flow front on this new flow arm certainly progressed tonight. OVPF reported that on April 3, at 6:25 a.m., the lava front could be estimated at around 1,000 m above sea level at the top of the Grandes Pentes, and 3.8 km from the national road, according to visual feedback from the webcam of the OVPF / IPGP located in Piton Cascades. The eruption has stabilized on the central part of the eruptive fissure. The number of fountains is reduced little by little and soon the eruption will only be active on one or two mouths. In the meantime, the projected pieces of lava fall back and build a spatter-rampart which has already grown well.The estimated surface flows, from satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) are greatly disturbed by the cloud cover around the Piton de la Fournaise. Estimates since the start of the eruption fluctuate between 2 and 45 m³ / s with an average around 7-10 m³ / s. As of the 2nd of April 4:30 pm , OVPF reported that the eruption that started on April 2, 2020 around 12:20 local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues. Following the seismic crisis, no earthquake had been recorded. This particular case of propagation without seismicity is to be related to an environment already weakened by the eruption of February 2020 and those of 2019, which took place on the same flank. A second particular characteristic: the eruption started very quickly, in less than 2 days from the first warning sign, because very little magma had been emitted on the surface in February, making it available quickly. An overview of the SAG and the PGHM confirmed the opening of a crack on the eastern flank of the volcano about 1.7 km from the center of the Dolomieu crater at around 1900 m above sea level. This crack is located slightly below the eruption of February 10-16, 2020. During this overflight, the lava fountains did not seem to exceed 30m in height. A significant signal of sulfur dioxide, with 31.37 DU, is observed by Tropomi above La Fournaise. The estimated surface flows, from satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) are greatly disturbed by the bad weather conditions observed around Piton de la Fournaise. The rare measurements carried out, relate to flows of the order of 4 m³ / s but these are probably underestimated. As of the 2nd of April, 12:45 pm OVPF reported that following the morning's seismic crisis, between 8:15 a.m. and 8:51 a.m. local time, and after a lull of more than 3 hours, a volcanic tremor, synonymous with the arrival of magma at near the surface, has been recorded since about 12:20 p.m. local time. According to the OVPF records, the source of this tremor is located on the eastern flank, at inside the Enclos.OVPF reported that seismic crisis was recorded on the instruments on April 2, with 92 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes detected between 8:15 am and 8:51 am local time. This seismic crisis was accompanied by rapid deformation (of the order of 10-20 micro-radians). This indicates that magma has left the surface magmatic reservoir and has spread to the surface. OVPF bulletin 17th of February - Following the stop of the volcanic tremor on 16/02/2020 at 14:12 local time, no resumption was observed. The eruption stopped on 16/02/2020 at 14:12. No earthquakes have been recorded since the eruption stopped. Note that a satellite acquisition on 16/02/2020 at 10:35 a.m. local time still showed a thermal anomaly at the eruptive vent. This anomaly, as well as persistent gas puffs on the morning of 16/02/2020, indicated low residual subsurface activity until the final stop of the trestle at 2:12 p.m.OVPF report - OVPF report 16 th of February 4am - After falling rapidly during the day yesterday (15/02/2020) from 14:00 (local time), a residual tremor was recorded on the seismological stations closest to the eruption until 14:12 local time (6/02/2020). Since then only a few sporadic puffs of gas are recorded on seismological stations. OVPF bulletin 16th of February 8:30 am -Aerial observations this morning by helicopter company pilots report that no more surface activity was visible at around 7:30 a.m. to 8:00 a.m. local time at the eruptive site. Nevertheless, a residual tremor whose intensity has been increasing since about 4:40 a.m. local time is still recorded on the seismological stations closest to the eruption as well as a degassing, meaning that there is still magma close to the surface at the eruptive site level. 14th of February - 2pm - The eruption continued. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively stable over the last 48 hours Note the presence of some fluctuations, certainly related to a resonance effect within the volcanic cone that was closing laterally. Two volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded today under the summit craters.The lowest-altitude (1400 m) lava front observed at the beginning of the eruption was no longer active during the day yesterday and the maximum extension of the now active flows was around 1900 m altitude, below the bottom of Marco Crater. Last night's observations from the RN2 confirmed that the active flow front has only little progressed. OVPF report - 13th of February (3:30 pm) noted that improved weather conditions provided access to the eruptive site on foot and overflight. These two missions showed tonly the eastward flow was still active. Its front was at about 12:00 (local time) below Marco Crater at an altitude of about 1900 m, about 6.5 km from the RN2. A cone less than 30 m high, began its construction around the 3 vents remaining active in themorning. These vents, located at an altitude of about 2200m, produced modest lava fountains of 10 to 15 m in height (above the volcanic cone under construction). As of the 12th of February OVPF reported that he eruption continued. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively stable over the last 24 hours (Figure 1). The increase in the tremor observed at around 3 a.m. local time (11 p.m. GMT) was related to the arrival of a rainy and stormy front on the volcano that noises the signals.An accurate mapping of the lava flow dated 10/02/2020 in the evening by the OI2 platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) from satellite data showed a larger extension of the flows than previously estimated, with a lava field on the upper part of the terminal cone and a flow arm that has flowed southward. During the flyover on 10/02 between 1 3pm and 1.30pm, the high part of the summit, which was heavily cloudy, had not been able to observe them. These most upstream and southern flows were most likely not active until the first hours of the eruption. Currently only the north arm that flows eastward remained active. This new mapping shows a lava front at an altitude of about 1400 m. It is noteworthy that the highest fissuresat altitude (not visible during the 10/02 flyover and now inactive) opened in the same area as the fissuresin the eruptions of February 18 and June 11, 2019. This location shows that the dike ("superficial conduit set up in a reservoir and allowing the flow of magma to the surface") that fed this eruption has partially taken up in depth a "path" already opened during previous eruptions, explaining the speed that magma took to reach the surface (23 minutes between the beginning of the seismic crisis and the opening of the first eruptive cracks on the surface). As of the 11th of February, OVPF reported that the eruption, which began on 10/02/2020 at around 10:50 a.m. local time, continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption), after decreasing continuously and relatively stable since 20:00 local time (16:00 GMT) on 10/02. OVPF report 10th of February - 4:30pm - Following an aerial reconnaissance in the early afternoon, the fissures were able to be located. Several fissures opened on the eastern flank of the terminal cone between the upper part of the terminal cone and 2000 m altitude (at Marco Crater). All of these fissures extend for a distance of about 1 km. During the flyover (1pm-1.30pm local time), the lava fountains did not exceed 10 m in height. Due to the location of the eruptive fissures and steep slopes in the area, the lava flows had reached 13:15 local time 1700 m above sea level and the flow front was less than 150 m from the broken of the main slopes. Nevertheless, the lava front was severely slowed by a flat zone.Previous morning news : OVPF reported that following a seismic crisis on February 10th, 2020, 10:27 am local time on February 10, 2020, accompanied by rapid deformation, the volcano erupted around 11 a.m. on Monday morning as confirmed by the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory. the site of the eruption is located on the eastern flank of the volcano."The eruption is visible from the National Road at the level of the Burned. The eruptive vent is located at 2000 meters above sea level. The first photos and videos showed a flow emanating from a fissure, which quickly divides into several arms and which has already traveled a good distance on the slope. Previous news - OVPF reported that following the short seismic crisis recorded on January 7 between 9:28 p.m. and 9:44 p.m. UT, seismic activity continued under the Piton de la Fournaise (with respectively 8, 9, 11 and 1 volcano-tectonic earthquake (s) ( s) superficial (s) registered under the summit craters on January 8, 9, 10 and 11). On January 12, between 6:17 p.m. and 6:24 p.m. UT, a new seismic crisis was recorded under the summit area of ​​Piton de la Fournaise with 41 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes. A total of 51 earthquakes were recorded during the day of January 12. OVPF reported that the number of volcano-tectonic earthquakes wasincreasing: 14 on January 6, and 40 on January 7, 2020 under the summit cone. The OVPF reported a magnitude of 1.04 / duration 8.96 sec. for the strongest on 07.01. - Previous news 2019 - In the bulletin of December 30 OVPF reported that , CO2 concentrations in the far field (plain sectors of Cafres and plain of Palmists) have been increasing since October 25-27, in agreement with an increase in magma towards the surface. The alert level remains vigilant for the moment.OVPF reported that for the past week of December, inflation (swelling) of the base and the top of the volcano has been observed again by the deformation network. This resumption of volcano inflation is synonymous with the prelsurization of a deep source located under the summit craters.In parallel, the CO2 concentrations in the far field soil (Plaine des Cafres and Plaine des Palmistes sectors) are still increasing since the end of the eruption of October 25-27. These CO2 concentrations are in agreement with a deep rise in magma. These two parameters CO2 concentration and resumption of inflation) are in agreement with a pressurization of the surface magmatic reservoir (located between 1.5 and 2.5 km deep) due to its re-supply by fluids deeper magmatic. For the moment the seismicity does not show a significant increase: only 9 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded in the last week (between 23 and 29 December). As of the 27th of October at 5PM OVPF reported that the eruptive activity started on October 25, 2019 at 2:40 pm local time stopped on October 27, 2019 at 16:30 local time, after a phase of activity in" gas piston "of about 1 hour however no assumption is discounted as to the evolution of the situation to come (final shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity further downstream), given the observables following: - 29 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded during the day yesterday,- "Piston gases" are always registered,- very little lava was emitted on the surface..Previously, the day before, OVPF reported the front of the lava flow was at 17:00 on October 26 about 250m from the national road 2. The front of the flow has increased by about 150m in 9h. The progression of the flows is now on average slopes of 19% (against 16% on the morning). The slow progression of the lava front of these last hours is explained by the decrease of surface flows and by the slopes which are lower than those traversed by the lava during the day of 25/10/2019. On the morning of October 27, the activity is generally located at a single fountain of lava from the eruptive cone; a third lava front, which had rounded Piton Tremblet on Saturday afternoon, stopped; and the lava front near the RN2 has frozen and no longer glows. Previously, OVPF reported that two eruptive fissures opened at around 14:40 on October 25 at an altitude of 1,400 meters near the southern rampart near the Piton Passage (1976), and least two lava flows were formed advancing very rapidly in the Grandes Pentes. The activity was intense, with lava fountains about thirty meters high, and the progression of the front of the main stream was of the order of 250 meters per hour. The location of the eruption is very close to the position of the previous eruption, and low in altitude. Around 17h local, the main flow was under the Piton Tremblet, evolving at the interface of the 2007 flows and the forest area; following overflows in the vegetation, fires broke out, quickly taken into account by firefighters. Three passages of the Dash 8 with retardant product release were made to limit the magnitude of the fires.The lava then flowed in the Grand Brûlé. Various parameters will influence its progression: the feed and the flow down slightly, the nature of the terrain less steep. On the morning of October 26 at 8 am local lava was located 400 meters from the lava road. The OVPF / IPGP teams are on site to perform the first lava sampling and temperature measurements. As 11am local time the eruptive activity time continued. After 3 hours of stability, the intensity of the tremor began a gradual decline that continues this morning. Since the beginning of the eruption, 37 summit surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded. No earthquakes were recorded in the eruption area. Yesterday, OVPF reported that since 4:15 local time on October 25, a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise.This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. An eruption is likely in the near future in the next minutes or hours.The prefecture has decided to go on alert 1 of the specific device ORSEC volcano from 07:00 this morning. Previous news - OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption of August 11-15, inflation was recorded again. CO2 fluxes in the soil also remain important.This shows that magma continues to accumulate in the superficial reservoir and that an eruption is possible in the medium term (days / weeks). OVPF reported that since the eruption stopped on 15/08/2019 at approximately 22:00 local time, 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded. These earthquakes are located under the summit zone. The deformations recorded by the OVPF measuring devices on the ground do not show any discernible signals since the end of the eruption.It should be noted that the deformation field associated with the eruption of 11-15 August 2019 did not extend outside the Enclos Fouqué (as of 15/08/2019 5:47 a.m., the date of the satellite acquisition. Previously OVPF reported that the eruption stopped again on August 15th, 2013 at approximately 22:00 local time, after a little more than 6 hours of activity of "gas piston" or "puffs of tremor". The eruptive activity on the surface is currently stopped, only persistent degassing at the level of eruptive fissures and glowing at the lava flows that are being cooled. Following the eruption stopped on 15/08/2019 at about 04:20 local time, the eruptive tremor resumed at 8:30 a.m. This was confirmed by on-site observations, the activity of lava fountains resumed within the same eruptive cone.OVPF reported that the eruption that began on 11/08/2019 at 16:20 local time stopped on 15/08/2019 at about 04:20 local time.The eruptive activity on the surface is stopped for the time being, only a degassing at the level of eruptive fissure and redness at the lava flows that are being cooled. Howeve ra residual tremor wasstill recorded on the NTR station, located on the Tremblet's Coupé Nose and the recording of deep earthquakes that indicate that deep magma movements are still present.Bulletin of the OVPF (13th of August - 11AM) reported that the eruption continues. After a decline in the late afternoon yesterday, the intensity of the eruptive tremor was relatively constant since 21:00 local time (17:00 UT). An aerial reconnaissance was carried on the morning with the help of the SAG and the PGHM. In total, two eruptive fissures, about 1400 m apart, opened on 11 August 2019 in the eastern, south-east sector of the upper Slopes at 1700 and 1500 m above sea level. On the morning at 09:30 (local time), only the lowest fissure at altitude was active which formed three separate cones by accumulation of lava fountain deposits. An area of fumarole not related to an eruptive crack or lava flow was observed between the two fissures at an altitude of about 1100 m. The three active flows from these cones joined in a single channel whose front was on the morning at 09:30 at 665 m altitude (near Piton Tremblet), about 2.1 km from the road . Estimated surface flows, based on satellite data via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), are in the range of 2 to 9 m3/s at the beginning of the eruption. Small fires were observed along the lower part of the flow as a result of its entry into a heavily vegetated area.An overflight of the eruptive site on August 12 at 9:15 found that only the lowest elevation crack (1500 m) was active and fed a flow whose front was at 665 m altitude, or 2.1 km from the road. As of the 12th of August the bulletin of the OVPF (4PM local time) reported that the eruption began on August 11, 2019 at around 4:20 p.m. local time and continues. The intensity of the eruptive tremor (witness to the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively constant since 08:00 local time (04:00 T.U). At 3 p.m. local time, the lava front was visible from the RN2 and had reached an altitude of about 1000 m (200 m, taking into account the uncertainties associated with remote observations). OVPF reported that after 9:30 of seismic crisis, the volcanic tremor, synonymous withspread deep from the southeastern edge of Dolomieu crater towards the east flank, southeast. At 4:00 pm local time), the spread continued in this direction.The source of this tremor is located on the eastern flank, southeast, inside the Enclos Fouqué, in the sector of the Great Slopes / les Grandes Pentes.No visual confirmation of a start of eruption could be made at 16:04 UTC on webcams due to poor weather conditions and OVPF could not not confirmated the arrival of lava on the surface. Nevertheless the presence of a tremor shows the emission of hot and incandescent gas on the surface, and the possibility of lava emission in the short term or already in progress. Previously OVPF reported that on Sunday 11th of August since 07:00 local time, a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis was accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. An eruption was likely in the near future. Previously,a fter a sustained activity during the night of the 20th-30th of July, the eruption has weakened and stopped this day, the 30/07/2019 at 04:30 local time (00:30 T.U), after a gradual decline of the volcanic tremor.The eruption started on July 29, 2019 continued during the day. The intensity of the eruptive tremor (witnessing the intensity of the eruption) has decreased by a factor of 2 since the beginning of the eruption.Three fissures, open in echelon, on the northern flank of the volcano (600 m from the Formica Léo) over a total length of about 450 m, poured lava on the remains of the July 2018 flow, and built by accumulation three small slag cones.The first observations, on site and by helicopter, of the OVPF teams always showed at 17h (local time) an activity on the three fissures with lava fountains of the order of 20-30m high maximum and flows of aa type lava extending for a short length (about 500 m) given the relatively flat topography.As of the 29th of July (12:15 local time) OVPF reported that following the seismic crisis started that day at 05: 13 local time, volcanic tremor synonym of arrival of magma near the surface is recorded since 12:00 hour local. Records of the OVPF, the source of the tremor is located on the northern flank.No visual confirmation of an eruption early could be carry out for the moment on the webcams of the fact of the bad weather conditions and we cannot confirm the arrival of the lava to the surface. However the presence of a tremor shows the show the possibility of emission of lava and gas hot and glowing surface, short term. Previously OVPF reported that since 5:13 am local time on 29.07.2019 , a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magma reservoir and is spreading to the surface. According to OVPF an eruption is likely in the near future in the next minutes or hours. Previously : The eruption started on June 11, 2019 at 06h35 (local time) stopped on June 13, 2019 around 12:00 pm local time. Records only detected noise associated with bad weather on the volcano. SO2 levels in air at the OVPF stations, located on the perimeter of the Fouqué enclosure, have returned to background noise values. On June 12, the OVPF did not report any significant deformation or volcano-tectonic earthquake. A decrease in sulphur dioxide levels was observed, and CO2 emissions from the soil showed high and stable values in the distal zone (plains of the Cafres) and were again increasing in the proximal zone (Gîte du Volcan). The images of the OVPF's webcam located in Piton des Cascades allowed to locate the lava front this morning at around 1200-1300 m altitude. OVPF reported trhat the second eruption of the year is still continuing. The lava spreads at the foot of the summit cone on a shelf, fed from a vent at 2200-2250 meters; it will have to cross this zone before reaching the Great Slopes and be visible from the RN2. The OVPF reported for Tuesday, June 11 a total of 178 volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit cone, the strongest being of magnitude 1.38 and lasting 13.4 sec.As of the 11th of June, OVPF reported that after a restless month of May (359 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes between 0 and 2 km deep, 3 deep earthquakes with more than 2 km, and 229 collapses in the crater Dolimieu and the ramparts of Enclos), and a crisis Seismic recorded from 6:03 local June 11, the Piton de La Fournaise erupted at about 6:35. OVPF reported that following a reconnaissance this morning (around 09:30 local time), the eruptive site could be confirmed. At least four eruptive fissures opened on the south-south-east external slope of the Dolomieu crater. The cloud cover did not allow to see the presence of other vents especially at lower altitude, nor to locate the front of flows. Lava fountains less than 30m high and well-drained lava flows escaped from the three lowest cracks. The two highest cracks, near "Petit Plateau" were no longer active or in extinction when flying over. A rapid progression of the flows on the east flank was observed because of the steep slopes in this sector.  According to Aline Peltier, OVPF director " this second eruption of the year started exactly in the same place as that of February, but it takes a different direction, the last one has spread towards the North-East, this one goes towards the South. " A rapid progression of the flows on the east flank was observed because of the steep slopes in this sector. Previous eruption - OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption on March 10th, glowing areas were always observed on the surface, three days later on the image Sentinel 2 bands 12,11,4 ... the coatings remaines warm. As for geophysical and geochemical records, seismicity has dropped and CO2 emissions from the ground are decreasing in the proximal (Gite du Volcan) and increasing distal (Plaine des Cafres) on March 16th. The obsservatoire reports 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit cone and 10 landslides for the enclosure and the summit cone. OVPF reported that following the stop the surface eruptive activity on March 10 at 6:28 local time, a seismicity is still recorded under the summit area of ​​the volcano. About 26 superficial superficial earthquakes and 1 deep earthquake have been recorded since the end of the eruption on March 10 at 6:28 am local time and 19:30 local time. Because of this seismicity, no hypothesis is disregarded as to the evolution of the future situation (final shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity on another site). The sudden stop of this eruption was preceded by a very intense surface activity and lava fountains a hundred meters high were postponed to 23h on 9 March. The lava volumes emitted on the surface between February 18 and March 10 could be estimated at about 14.5 (+ or - 5) Mm3 from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne) and MIROVA (University of Turin). OVPF reported that the front of lava progressed quickly this Friday night 8th of March and went from 1.000 meters of altitude this Friday morning with 700 meters of altitude towards 22h.OVPF also reported that the intensity of the eruptive tremor continues the rise started 48 hours ago. Over the last 36 hours, the surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 50 m3 / s (these measurements can be affected / reduced by cloud cover). It should be noted that most of the measurements remain however less than 30 m3 / s and that following the cloud cover these measures are no longer possible since 9:30 this morning. Previously, OVPF reported that the activity was intense during the night with a reverberation of the incandescence on the clouds, visible from the 4 webcams. The Mirova site lists a very high thermal anomaly on March 7th at 10:20 pm, of 3,281 MW. As of the 6th of March, following the opening of a new crack yesterday, new eruptive fissures opened this morning. 6 points of emission were visible this morning around the Piton Madoré. The OVPF will perform aerial reconnaissance as soon as weather conditions permit.As of the 6th of March, OVPF confirmed the opening of a new crack, upstream of the eruptive site, on the northwest flank of Piton Madoré.This new lava emission point was probably opened on March 5th between 9:00 am (local time, crack not present during the flight of an OVPF team) and before 7:00 pm (local time, time of day). acquisition of a satellite image on which an extremely weak signal can be detected at the level of the new crack (OI2 data, Clermont Auvergne University). On the morning, according to the photos and satellite images just provided, a small cone was already being formed and a new flow had begun to progress north of the main eruptive site. Due to the location of this new crack in the vicinity of the active vent since February 19 and associated low flow rates, its seismic signal coincides with that of the 19 February vent. As of the 5th of March, OVPF reported that the eruptive activity continued. Despite slight fluctuations in intensity and an upward trend in recent days, the intensity of the tremor has remained at a relatively constant level for 24 hours. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 7 m³ / s. Note that low values ​​(or zero values) are recorded when cloud cover does not allow acquisition.The cone closed laterally but still has an open vent at its summit On the morning around 8:30 local time, the cone had a base 100 m in diameter, a height of 25m and an eruptive vent at the top of 50m about diameter. As of the 4th of March OVPF reported that despite slight fluctuations in intensity and relative consistency since February 25, an upward trend seems to be emerging in recent days. Now, the crater in cone at the foot of Piton Madore is blocked and lava comes out through tunnels. The total SO2 emissions to the atmosphere recorded by the OVPF's NOVAC network since the beginning of the eruption are estimated at 2.5 kton, a value in the norm of the average of the Piton de la Fournaise eruptions.A cartography of the lava flow dated 01/03/2018 carried out by the OI2 platform (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne) from satellite data shows that a third pouring arm has been put in place to the north. between 28/02/2018 and 01/03/2018. During this time the other two arms already in place do not seem to have progressed.A new satellite acquisition on March 1st shows that this new arm split in two during the day of March 1st. As of the 1st of March OVPF reported that despite slight fluctuations in intensity since February 25, the eruptive tremor remained relatively constant for several days. Over the last 36 hours, 3 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 16 m3 / s. Note that low values ​​(or zero values) are recorded when cloud cover does not allow acquisition. A mapping of the lava flow dated 28/02/2018 carried out by the OI2 platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) using satellite data confirmed the slow progression of the lava flow (300 m in 5 days). The casting front is located 1200m above sea level and only the north arm is currently active. OVPF reported that on 27th of February, despite some fluctuations, the intensity of the eruptive tremor remained relatively constant, and the flows fluctuate in an area below 15 m³ / sec.Over the past 36 hours, 8 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded.After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals.The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high.The flow went down slowly towards the sea. As of the 26th of February, OVPF bulletin reported that the eruptive activity that began on February 19, 2019 continues. Despite some fluctuations, the intensity of the eruptive tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) remains relatively constant. Over the last 36 hours, 11 upper superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the building related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high.Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC-University of Auvergne), fluctuated between <1 and 13 m3 / s. According to Mirova, the radiative power remains high, with 1927 MW this 25 February. OVPF reported that over the past 36 hours, 10 superficial superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (above sea level) have been recorded. After a deflation of the volcano related to magma transfer that occurred on 18/02/2019, the deformations of the summit zone do not show any particular signals. The CO2 concentrations in the near field soil (volcano deposit area) remain high. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), fluctuated between 2.5 and 13 m3 / s. Observations from the OVPF webcam located in Piton des Cascades show that the casting front has not progressed or very little since 21 February. According to the observations carried out during an overflight on the 22nd of February in the morning of the eruption zone, by OVPF, showed that the contour of the flow has slightly changed even if its propagation remained is slow. The eruptive cone continued to grow and is now occupied by a lava lake from which ejecta escape during the explosion of bubbles arriving at the surface. A well-channeled flow escapes downstream of the cone. After 1 km (and 200 m of negative elevation) it is no longer one but two lava arms that are observable. The separation of the flows is at the level of Guyanin crater. The longest lava arm has traveled a distance of 1900 m from the eruptive vent and is still 4.3 km from the road and 5.3 km from the ocean. The different lava fronts are currently in the Grandes Pentes. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were between 2.5 and 15 m³ / s. The amount of lava emitted since the resumption of activity on 19/02/2019 is between 1 and 3 million cubic meters.Observations from the RN2 by an OVPF team, on February 20th, showed that the flows continued their progression in a discontinuous way (with periods of stagnation - stagnation of the lava front - and periods of faster progression) and that the main pouring front had crossed the "broken of the Great Slopes". A point was made this February 22 around 7:30 on the advance of the lava flow, following an overflight by a team of the OVPF. Over the last 24 hours, the lava front changed and was still located in the upper sector of the Grandes Pentes. On the other hand, the flow showed two visible arms on the s morning, one to the north and the other to the south of the Guyanin piton. Over the last 36 hours, surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were between 2 and 8 m3 / s.The eruptive tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) is relatively stable since February 20 at 06h local time.OVPF reported that effusive activity continued on the 20th of February. The eruptive tremor remained relatively stable since 6am local / 2h UTC. Only one crack was active and the eruptive activity has built a cone rampart breached towards the lava flow. According to OVPF the lava is at 1,200 ° C, and the gases are measured up to a temperature of 1,000 ° C. In the evening, the incandescence could be observed on the Cascades webcam; Mirova noted a thermal anomaly of 1,357 Mw at 6:15 pm, a little stronger than that recorded at the beginning of the phase on 19.02 at 19:10, of 1.072MW. 5 volcano-tectonic earthquakes and inflation were recorded by OVPF, testifying to the pressurization of a superficial source and a distant source. As of the 20th of February, in the morning OVPF point reported that the crack opened yesterday at 1800 meters altitude on the east side of the Dolomieu, and an active fountain feeds two lava flows, whose front advances at a speed of about 1 km / h. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne), remain low and are between 3 and 7 m3 / s. The first flow cuts the crater Madoré and stops upstream of the crater Guyana,forming a small lava lake. The second lava arm descends the slopes to join the part of the Grand-Brûlé destroyed by the fire of January 2019. It spreads over 1,600 meters, and to continue towards the sea, depends on a sufficient supply upstream. As of the 19th of February, following the eruptive pause, OVPF reported renewed activity : at 3 pm local this February 19, a new seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is for the moment accompanied by no rapid deformation. Around 17h, tremor occurred and opening of a new crack began just above the Cassé des Grandes Pentes and the the lava flowed rapidly and descended the slopes .At 17:50, the first observations showed a gas plume by a team of the OVPF in the area of ​​"Signal de l'Enclos" (south-east flank). OVPF reported that the eruption stopped on 18/02/2019 at 22:00 local time. Some lava flows glowing remained nevertheless visible, but these will probably gradually cool down with the end of their feeding by the eruption. At this time, no assumptions are possible about the evolution of the future situation (definitive shutdown, resumption of activity on the same site, resumption of activity further downstream), given the persistence of seismicity. As of the 18th in the afternoon OVPF reported that the eruption started on February 18, 2019 continued, with a slight drop in tremor intensity observed since 14:45 local time (10:45 UTC). This drop in tremor may be linked to a drop in activity on one or other of the two cracks. Surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne), were included at the beginning of eruption between 25 and 40 m3 / s, values ​​classically observed in beginning of eruption at Piton de la Fournaise. The flows were visible from the Route des Laves, and the webcam of Piton Cascades. As of the 18th of February 2019, OPVF reported that following the new seismic crisis started at 09:16 local time and always accompanied by rapid deformation. the volcanic tremor, synonymous with the arrival of magma near the surface, has been recorded since about 9:48 am local time and an eruptiion started.  But in the first time the fog prevented the exact counting of the fissures and their precise location. According to latest news at 10 AM from OVPF at least two eruptive fissures and a dozen lava fountains" are located on the eastern flank of the massif. Previous news 2018 - The cone of the last eruption, from September 15 to November 1, was named after the writer and storyteller Creole Daniel Honoré, who died on October 18, 2018 at the age of 79 years.As of the 1st of November, OVPF reported that on midnight UT, which is 4:00 local time, on 01 November 2018, no more signs of activity was recorded at Piton de La Fournaise. The eruption started on September 15, 2018 at 4:25 am local time seems stopped on November 01, 2018, at 04:00 local time. As of the 30th of october OVPF reported that eruptive activity is still slowly continuing. The volcanic tremor dropped since 24h ago. As of the 25 of October OVPF reported that the eruption started on September 15 continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor is stable since 24h ago. As of the 19th of October, OVPF reported that the effusive eruption is still continuing. The volcanic tremor dropped slowly since several days ago. Previous observations carried out on 8th of October from Bert Piton and from the air by OVPF teams located the lava front. Since September 30, the northern front has progressed of 1.8 km and was, on October 8 at 08:00 AM local time, 500m of the great slopes, the southern and central fronts did not move. On the morning the north lava front was less than 120 m from the southern wall of Enclos Fouqué.OVPF bulletin (4th of October) reported that the eruption is still continuing. The volcanic tremor increased since yesterday 10 pm ( local time) and then doubled. The surface activity remained weak. As of the 3rd of October (2 am - local time) OVPF reported that eruptive activity was still continuing. - Estimated lava flux on the surface from stallite data, via HOTVOLC (OPGC – Université Clermont Auvergne) was between1 m3/s et 3 m3/s during the past 24h. OVPF bulletin ( 2nd of October) reported that the the eruptive activity is still continuing. The intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained stable during th"e past 24h. OVPF reported that the eruption continues.An overflight of the eruptive site by a team of the OVPF, reported a falling surface activity with rare lava projections at the level of the eruptive vent, and resurgences of lava from the main lava tunnel of small extensions (<600 m). Apart from a slight increase in early afternoon on September 30, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity at the surface) has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) were less than 2 m3 / s over the last 24 hours. OVPF reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing on 28th of September. The tremor remained stable during past 24hthAs of the 27th of September, OVPF reported that the eruption continues. The intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours. Estimation of the lava effusion rate on the surface from satellite data , via HOTVOLC (OPGC – Université Clermont Auvergne) are still between 1 m3/s et 3 m3/sduring the past 24h.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded during the day of 25 September or during the current day.No significant deformation is noticeable.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne) are maintained and are always between 1m3 / s and 2m3 / s over the last 24 hours. The cone continue to growth; The lava flows are running by a tunnel and emerge by resurgences located about 150m downstream of the cone. As of the 26th of September, OVPF reported that the eruption started on September 15th is still continuing. Following a slight increase at the beginning of the day, the intensity of the volcanic tremor has returned to a relatively stable level with some minor fluctuations. The surface flows were estimated from the satellite data, via the MIROVA platform (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - University Clermont Auvergne),between 0.5 and 5.3 m3 / s on September 24th..The cone continues to growth and main lava flow is still running toward the south then heading south-east. As of the 24th of September, OVPF reported the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity on the surface) has slightly increased since 8:00 am local time (04:00 UTC time) and thus doubled in intensity during the day.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded during the current day. No significant deformation are noticeable since the onset of the eruption. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) are maintained and are always between 1 m3 / s and 3 m3 / s over the last 24 hours.The decrease in SO2 flux by a factor of about 6 compared to the beginning of the eruption is maintained and is confirmed by the notable decrease in SO2 pollution at the summit of Piton de la Fournaise; the plume is now smaller and almost confined in the Enclos Fouqué and drifted to the south and west. The cone is still growing and a lava flow is still issuing to the south from an opening, then heading to the south-east. The eruption began September 15 at 4:25 local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues. The volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity on the surface) has undergone many fluctuations in the last 24 hours.A deep volcano-tectonic earthquake (about 2.6 km below sea level) was recorded under the east flank of the volcano during the day of 21 September. No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded during the current day.No significant deformation are noticeable since the onset of the eruption.Surface flows estimated from satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) are between 1 m3 / s and 3 m3 / s over the last 24 hours.OVPF reported that after several hours of increased seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise a seismic crisis began at 0145 on 15 September, accompanied by rapid deformation. Tremor began at 0425, contemporaneous with the opening of fissures on the S flank near Rivals Crater. Around 1000 an estimate of the lava flow rate, based on satellite data, was 30 cubic meters per second. During an overflight about an hour later observers noted five fissures. The central fissure was the most active, producing lava fountains 30 m high; two lava flows that merged downstream had already flowed more than 2 km towards the wall of the Enclos Fouqué. By the afternoon of 16 September the estimated flow rate was between 2.5 and 7 cubic meters per second. Only three vents were active and a cone had started to form. lava flows continued to advance during 16-18 September.Previous eruption : OVPF reported that following the end of the eruption on July 13 at 22:00, strong seismic activity is still recorded at Piton de La Fournaise. Since the end of the eruption and until 15:30 July 14th, 51 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (<2 km below the surface) have been recorded, an average of about 3 events per hour. The majority of these earthquakes are located under the northern edge of the crater Dolomieu. This shows that the feeding system of the deep volcano remains under pressure. No significant deformities were observed this day. The OVPF survey this morning made it possible to map all the lava flows emitted during the July 13 eruption (Figure 1) and to estimate its volume at around 0.3 million m3. These flows covered approximately 400 m of markers on the hiking trail leading to the summit. OVPF reported that the eruption started on July 13, 2018 between 03:30 (beginning of the tremor recorded on the OVPF seismic stations) and 04:30 (first light visible on the OVPF webcams) local time was decreasing on July 13 around 18 h , with only three zones of explosions and not very active flows; it stopped this July 13 at 22:00 local time, after a phase of continuous dercreasing of the tremor and about 3 hours of gas pistons. No more glow was visible on the OVPF webcams at the level of eruptive cracks, only a few glows remained perceptible at the level of uncooled lava front.Previously, OVPF reported that following the seismic crisis that began shortly before midnight on July 12, the volcanic tremor appeared very gradually on the seismic recordings at about 03:30. local time on July 13th. According to the OVPF recordings, the source of this tremor is located on the northern flank of the volcano.The first glowing of the eruptive activity appeared on the OVPF webcams at 4:30 local time. Four fissures opened over 1 km long in the Rosemont Chapel area. On the first photos they can see a fissures sections already surrounded by spatter walls, and the lava flows running on the ground.The Prefecture has the alert 2-2 "eruption ongoing in the enclosure". Access to Enclos Fouqué and the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose trail are prohibited. Previous eruption - Latest OVPF bulletin (June 1st - 15h local time) reported that the eruption started on April 27, 2018 at 23:50 local time, stopped today at 14:30, after more than 18:30 of piston gas phase. OVPF bulletin ( May 31st - 14h30 ) reported that the eruption is still continuing. The main cone reached about 22-25 m high. a strong degassing still occurs from the vent of the main cone. Measured temprature showed about 800-900°C. The lava flows are almost exclusively in tubes.OVPF bulletin (May 30th - 15h30 local time) reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing but the volcanic tremor continued to decrease slowly. previously, OVPF reported that field observations made of May 25th, confirmed a weak activity. The lava flows are almost exclusively in tubes and at nightfall, a single incandescent zone in the lava field near the vent could be observed. A strong, almost continuous degassing continues. The tremor has stabilized at a relatively low value, the inflation of the volcano has stopped and the surface flows estimated yesterday are very low, less than 0.03 m³ / s. OVPF bulletin (May 24th - 15h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing. Only the main cone emits a few surface lava ejection. No active flow could be observed on the surface, most of the activity taking place in lava tubes.Surface discharges could not be estimated from satellite data in the past 24 hours due to cloud cover on the volcano. OVPF bulletin ( May 21st - 16h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing but the volcanic tremor decreased slowly since 72 h ago. The effusive activity is still occurring mainly in lava tubes. OVPF bulletin (18th of May - 15h local time) reported that the eruption is still continuing. the intensity of the volcanic tremor has remained relatively stable over the last 24 hours.The effusive activity is still predominantly in the lava tunnel. The flow activity is still predominantly in lava tubes but the resurgences are more numerous these past two days, especially at the foot of the secondary cone. During the last two days, the morphology of the main cone (the most active) has evolved with the building of a small outgrowth at its summit and a narrowing at the vent. The lava projections have become rare. The SO2 flux (recorded on the OVPF NOVAC stations) continues to decrease, consistent with a decrease in surface lava flow. Nevertheless, CO2 concentrations in the top air and CO2 concentrations in soil in the Plains region remain high. OVPF bulletin (May 11th, 15h local time) reported that the eruption was still continuing without change. As of the 10th of May ( 18:30 h local time) OVPF reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing. The volcanic tremor remained at the same level during the past 24 h. Main activity is still occurs from the central cone and charactérized by lava ejection at about 10 - 20 m m high above the cone and a lava flow emission in the lava tube. According to aerial photo (stereophotogrammetry process) the main cone reach about 21 m high with a diameter at the base of 100 meters. As of the 7th of May (3:30 pm local time) HVO reported that the intensity of tremor continue to slighly decrease. Fieldwork carried out the day before, showed that the main eruptive activity was concentrated on the central cone vent characterized by ejection of lava at about 10 m high and emission of lava flow from a main lava tube.As of the 6th of May, OVPLF reported that the intensity of the volcanic tremor has decreased very slightly since 24 hours. An overflight of the eruptive site carried out on the morning indicated at 10:30 (local time) activity mainly in lava tubes. Only two lava arms were visible from the main tunnel of the central vent, which is now the only one to show regularly projection of lava.The lava front has not progressed in recent days.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded today were between 1 and 2.5 m3 / s. As of the 5th of May, OVPF reported that the tremor remained relatively stable. The field reconnaissance carried out yesterday showed an activity mainly focused on the central vent with a cone now completely closed from which lava projections escape. The activity in the lava tunnel is now well developed and frequent breakthroughs in the roof of these tunnels let escape many little flows. The surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin), recorded today were between 1 and 3.5 m3/ s. It should be noted that these measures are only partial as a result of the bad weather conditions on the Fournaise massif during the last 24 hours. A very slight deflation of the volcano is still recorded on the OVPF deformation sensors. As of the 4th of May, OVPLF reported that the eruptive activity was continuing. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of eruptive intensity at the surface) is still relatively stable.As of the 2d of may, the surface flows estimated from the satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded this day were in the order of 1 to 3 m3 / s. A very slight deflation of the volcano begins to be recorded on the OVPF deformation sensors. This parameter will be followed in the next few days.No volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded in the last 24 hours under the Piton de la Fournaise volcano. IRT- OVPF HD Webcam direct - During 29-30 April tremor levels were relatively stable, with a few fluctuations related to morphological changes at the eruptive site such as cone building. During an overflight around 1020 on 30 April scientists observed three active vents (S of Rival Crater). The third vent, in a 5-m-high cone, was mostly closed over, though it continued to produced lava flows. The middle and most active cone was about 30-40 m long and 10-15 m high, and had a vent with a lava lake. Large bubbles of lava rose from the lake and exploded into lava fountains. Lava fountains from the northernmost vent rose no more than 15 m high. Lava flows had traveled 150 m and 1.2 km; the longer lava flow had reached the S rampart and traveled an additional 400 m E along it. . Satellite data, via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand), recorded today were between 2 and 6 m3 / s.On the morning, three eruptive vents were still active with lava flows emission toward the Southwest. The lava front has reached the base of the rampart.No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. Previously, as of the 27th of April OVPLF reported that following the seismic crisis started at 20:15 local time on Friday, April 27, 2018, the Piton de la Fournaise erupted at 11:50 pm According to the first observations of the Volcanological Observatory, the eruption started on the south flank of the volcano, in the Rivals crater area, and was characterized by a very active eruptive fissures with lava fontaining and lava flows emission .Three other eruptive fissures also opened with emission of lava flows. These differents arms joined and a large lava flow was running south towards the rampart which extends to about 200- 300 meters. Previously, as of the 4th of April the morning bulletin of the OVPLF reported that following a decreasing of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) at 1 o'clock (local time, 21h UTC), surface eruptive activity started on April 3, 2018 at 10:40 am local time stopped. day, April 4, 2018 at 4:00 am (local time, 00h GMT), after a gas piston phase. As of the 3rd of April a new afternoon bulletin of the OVPLF reported that following a reconnaissance made by a team of the OVPF at the ramparts of the Enclos, the eruptive activity has been located on the north flank of the volcano against the top of the broken slopes. A helicopter overflight of the eruptive site by a second team of the OVPF in the middle of the afternoon allowed to locate more precisely the eruption. A long crack about 1km long opened in 7 distinct segments, two with emissions of lava fountains. The last active segment is just at the foot of the rampart close the bottom of the Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose. At 16:00 local time, many landslides were recorded by the OVPF network in the rampart at the Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose area, and many fumaroles were observed on site at this level. This situation presents a real and imminent danger of collapse. As a result, the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose trail is currently closed to pedestrian traffic from Piton Partage. Previous news - OVPLF recorded since 5:50, Tuesday, April 3, 2018, an increase in the number of earthquakes of increasing intensity and persistent deformations at the top of the volcano. Just before 11:00, the monitoring system of the volcanological observatory recorded an eruptive tremor towards the rampart at the level of the Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose. A strong seismic signal indicating that the lava was close to the surface recorded by the observatory or already at the surface. Previous news 2017 - OVPLF reported that since mid-October 2017 , a change is observed on the recordings of the volcanological observatory with: a renewed of inflation of the volcano: The GPS of the summit zone and in far field record an inflation, probably in relation with reactivation of the pressure of a superficial and a deep source. - low concentrations of SO2 (coupled with CO2) and H2S (coupled with H2O vapor) observed in the summit emissions of Piton de la Fournaise. - a slight seismicity under the summit craters. On 24th of October, 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VT) were recorded under the summit cone, including a magnitude of 0.27 with a duration of 3.72 sec. All these parameters will be followed and confirmed in the next days.Previously, The OVPF confirmed the end of the eruptive phase at Piton de La Fournaise on August 28, 2017 at 3:00 pm / 11 pm UTC on 27.08., following the disappearance of the tremor signal. However, since the end of this eruptive phase, a recovery of the activity, observed usually outside the eruptive phase, could be observed. No hypothesis are made about the future situation, taking into account the following observations: - Five volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded under the southeastern area of ​​the Enclos since the end of the eruptive phase. - No distortion is no longer noticeable. - CO2 concentrations in the soil at the site remain high.Despite the end of activity from the geo-physical data and the stopping of the feed (end of the tremor, vibration associated with the passage of magma and gas containing ), no hypothesis is excluded, a new eruptive activity could be occurs in the days and hours ahead. During the 45 days of the eruption, from July 14 to August 28, 2017, less than 10 million m³ of lava were released on the surface. After high lava flows (22-30 m³ / s) recorded on the first day of the eruption, the average flows estimated by satellite thermal imaging via the MIROVA (University of Turin) and HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) platforms, decreased gradually throughout the eruption, from 5 to <1 m³ / s. This gradual decline in lava flows was accompanied by a decrease in SO2 flows into the air. Previously mainly based on seismicity, OVPF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 14 July continued during 16-22 August; weather clouds prevented visual and satellite observations most of the week. Volcanic tremor rapidly increased in the early evening on 15 August, concurrent with the presence of ephemeral lava fountains, at the cone and another area, visible in webcam images. The signal fluctuated at high levels until the evening of 19 August, when it began to stabilize at low levels. Satellite data from 19 August indicated a decreased lava-flow rateAs of the 18th of August OVPLF reported that the eruption continues, with variations in the tremor and surface activity. The slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano since the beginning of August (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption) seemed stopped . On the morning of August 18th, weather conditions are better and we can see, on the webcam of Piton de Bert, a degassing at the eruptive site and at various points of the lava flow. As of the 16th of August, OVPLF reported that the eruption that began on 14 July continues. The volcanic tremor increased rapidly in early night on August 15th. Then, since the beginning of the day (the 16.08 / 00h local), characterized by variation with a periodicity of approximately 4 minutes. The slight inflation of the terminal cone of the volcano observed so far (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption) appeared to be decreasing. Despite unfavorable weather conditions, the camera in place at Piton de Bert allowed to associate these changes in the level of the volcanic tremor with changes in surface activity: fountains of lava, ephemeral, could be observed both at the level of the eruptive cone than from the eastern end of the lava flow essentially at the beginning of the night. As of the 13th of August, OVPLF reported that after a month of eruption, the tremor was stabilized since 48 hours, following a phase of slight increasing. No volcano-tectonic earthquake was recorded under the summit craters during the day of 13 August. The slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano was always observed (<1 cm since the beginning of the eruption). Despite the bad weather conditions of the weekend, some observations were carried out on the site on 13.08 afternoon by OVPF team. No more projections were observed even if gas puffs were heard and were visible in the form of flares. Further downstream, about 2 km from the eruptive mouth, about 400 m from the Crater Gros Bénard and 500 m from the lava pond, pahoehoe flows were observed. The presence of clouds, this WE and today, unfortunately did not make it possible to carry out the estimates on the flow by the use of satellites. As of the 11th of August, OVPLF reported that the tremor remained at a low level of intensity, and a slight inflation of the entire terminal cone of the volcano is observed, less than 1 cm from the beginning of the eruption, and far field, witness of the pressurization of a source in surface and in depth. OVPF reported that the eruption continued through 8 August, though tremor levels and surficial activity slowly declined. Satellite data indicated a minimum flow rate of 1-2 cubic meters per second. Some active lava flows were visible at a distance of 520 m from the cone, though most of the flow activity was confined to lava tubes. There were some breakouts from the lava tube; a substantial breakout on 5 August fed a lava flow that traveled hundreds of meters over several hours. During 7-8 August small amounts of material was ejected from a small vent on the N flank of the eruptive vent. As of the 3rd of August OVPLF reported that the eruption continued, but the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) continued to decline very gradually. The decline in the eruptive tremor is reflected on the ground by a decline in activity. During an overflight carried out on 2 August by the OVPF, no projection was visible at the level of the eruptive cone. The main vent, active these days, is now completely blocked. The second vent, of smaller size, showed an extremely low level of magma with strong degassing. At 10.30 am (local time), only a few lava arms were visible on the surface, the nearest being 520 meters from the eruptive cone, with the rest of the activity occurring in the lava tube.As of the 31st of July OVPLF reported that , the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) remains at a level equivalent to 50% of the value observed at the beginning of the eruption. No earthquakes have been recorded in the past 48 hours.The ground reconnaissance carried out on July 30, with the assistance of the Air Force Section and the PGHM, enabled the OVPF members to carry out various surveys on site. The eruptive cone continues its edification, it is now completely closed and presents a main vent characterired by intermittent projections. A second, smaller vent on the northern edge of the cone is significantly less active, only a few projections are rarely observed. Most of the activity occurs now in lava tunnels. Fractures within these tunnels allow escape arms of lava flows with a small lateral extension. This activity remains confined in the near part of the effusive cone. The flow front has not changed since the last survey and is still 2.8 km from the eruptive vent. Estimates carried out by satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) show a minimum flow rate of 1-2 m3 / s. The trend observed on deformation sensors, in particular GPS, seems to stabilize or reverse (to deflation). Previously, as of the 29th of July, OVPLF reported that the intensity of the tremor has increased in the last 48 hours. The intensity reached sixty percent of the value observed at the beginning of the eruption. A slight inflation continued, and the flows carried out by satellite methods are of minimum 2 m³ / s. OVPLF reported that the intensity of the tremor has risen slightly since the 25th at the beginning of the day, although it is necessary to take account of noise caused by bad weather conditions. A team observed yesterday in the field the continued growth of the cone; At 17:30 local, two mouths were visible, a main breached on south-east side, and a secondary one on the north wall of the cone. A main channel is clearly visible downstream of the cone and has overflows; The lava also flows through tunnels, with vertical growth of the lava field. A slight recovery in inflation is recorded both at the level of the summit zone and the far field, reflecting the pressurization respectively of a superficial and deep source. A volcano-tectonic earthquake is reported under the summit cratersBy 21 July several lava tubes had formed, and fractures within the tubes produced small lava flows. During an overflight on 22 July scientists noted that the lava flow was over 2.8 km long with a maximum width of 0.6 km; the front of the flow had not advanced in the past seven days. Three main vents were active within the main cone and a fourth was just sporadically active. As of the 21st of July, OVPLF reported that observations carried out on 21 July by the OVPF teams showed that the eruptive cone downstream of the eruptive fissure continued its edification Three main eruptive vents were visible on the inside. On the morning only the central eruptive vent remained active towards the east. No earthquakes were recorded this day. A slight deflation was always observed at the top of the terminal cone. Estimates carried out by satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) show flow rates between 1 and 3 m3 / s. The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) has been increasing for 24 hours. This is to be related in particular to the closure of the cone which increases the pressure on its walls. Numerous lava tunnels have been formed downstream of the cone. Fractures within these tunnels allow many lateral extension arms to escape. As of the 19th of July, OVPLF reported that At after a sharp drop in its intensity during the night of 17 to 18 July, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of surface eruptive intensity) is relatively constant on July 18th, intensity equivalent to that observed on the second day of the eruption. This decrease of the volcanic tremor is to be related to a morphological change of the eruptive cone that is being formed. Compared to the observations of the previous day, a collapse has breached the cone to the east, leaving an easier opening and flowing of lava on the surface. Currently the activity focuses on 6 vents inside the cone.A slight deflation was observed at the top of the terminal cone. Since July 16, SO2 fluxes at the eruptive vent are decreasing and CO2 concentrations in the soil measured at the Volcano gîte at low level. Deflation of the summit zone as well as low CO2 concentrations in the soil mean that there is currently little or no deep feeding. HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin) estimations carried out by satellite methods indicate flow rates between 1 and 4 m3 / s. OVPLF reported that the eruption begun on July 14 at 00:50 local time continues. After an increase in intensity during the night from July 15th to 16th, the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) has been held on July 16 at a constant level since 8h local time (4h UTC). On July 17th, the intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) decreased between 7h and 13h local time (3h-9h UTC) before experiencing again phases of major fluctuations. These variations in the intensity of the tremor are conventionally recorded during the first days of eruption of the Piton de la Fournaise and correspond to the formation of the eruptive cone at a single point. This eruptive cone undergoes phases of construction and wall collapses which modify its morphology and the pressure at its center, explaining these variations of the tremor. An earthquake was recorded on yesterday's day near Piton Crac on the eastern flank of the volcano. A slight deflation (deflation) is observed at the top of the terminal cone. Estimations carried out using satellite methods via the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) report minimum flows similar to those of the previous day in the order of 1 to 3 m3 / s. OVPLF reported that seven lava fountains were visible at the beginning of the eruption, but only 3-4 remained active o 14th of July in the evening, located at the low point of the eruptive fissure. According to the MIROVA site, the thermal anomaly, which decreased in intensity (871 MW on 14.07 at 19:20 against 5,897 MW on 14.07 at 7:10 am), is reported about 4 km from the summit which suggests a lava flow length of about 3,000 meters. OVPLF reported that on July 13, at 10:10 pm, the seismicity increased markedly, and about 10:30 PM, a seismic crisis accompanied by a rapid deformation were recorded and the magma roses towards the surface. At 0:50 local on July 14, one (or some) eruptive fissures opened on the southern flank of Piton de La Fournaise. .At 0930, the eruptive fissure extended over 450 meters. Seven lava fountains with a maximum height of 30 meters were active. The fountain the most downstream began to build a cone from which escaped two arms of lava flow. The front of the flows could not be located because of the cloud cover on the east of the volcano. The prefecture raised the alert to level 2-2. Few later the eruptive fissure emitted two distinct lava flows. Since July 10, 2017, the seismic activity, on the verge of the summit area of ​​Piton de la Fournaise, has resumed significantly. Thus 155 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (<2 km deep) were recorded under the summit zone during the last 7 days. The majority of these earthquakes are located below the southern edge of the Dolomieu crater between 500 and 1000 m above sea level..The previous last activity bulletin of the OVPF dated on 24 May indicates that the volcano has resumed its inflatory process. Over the past 36 hours, three superficial volcanic tectonic earthquakes, less than 2 km deep, have been recorded below the summit. The recent measurements carried out by the observatory teams highlight two new areas of fumaroles, located along the path of the magmatic intrusion. It spread to the edge of the Enclosure and its degassing via dry fractures, generated the tremor recorded on May 17th. The alert level 1 / eruption probable or imminent, remains in effectDuring a field visit on 22 May scientists mapped the deformation associated with the 17 May event and measured displacements that did not exceed 35 cm. On 23 May OVPF reported that the 17-18 May activity resulted in two new zones of fumaroles that followed the trends seen in seismic and deformation data. According to the OVPLF the situation of the Piton de La Fournaise remains unpredictable, which can evolve towards an end of the intrusion as towards the propagation and opening of fissures more or less distant. The Observatory reports a high seismicity, with, since 18 May at 01h local time, 51 superficial VT earthquakes (0-2 km deep) and 26 deep VT earthquakes (> 2 km deep), located under the summit zone and the sector NE of the Enclos, notably at the foot of the Piton de Crac. Deformations slowed down, and carbon dioxide concentrations stopped rising at high levels. On 18 May, the appearance of H2S, SO2 and CO2 in the fumaroles of the summit zone testifies to the continuation of an injection from the summit zone.   Previously, after a lull since early March, inflation has picked up at Piton de La Fournaise, at a relatively low rate compared to 2015, 2016 and early 2017; The OVPF indicates an elongation between the top stations of 0.1-0.2 mm for 0.5-1 mm previously. The resumption of inflation is accompanied by a slight seismicity: 22 superficial volcanic-tectonic earthquakes were recorded from 1 to 17 April, between 0 and 2 km below the summit craters, 10 of them on the one day of 14.04. Two deep earthquakes were recorded under the eastern flank of the volcano at 2-3 km below sea level. In parallel, CO2 concentrations in the soil measured on the western flank of the volcano (at the volcano house and at the level of the Plaine des Caffres) show an upward trend.Previously, OVPLF reported that the inflation of the terminal cone, that was maintained during the eruption, continues.One week after the end of the eruption of 31 January - 27 February 2017, the Piton de la Fournaise volcanological observatory recorded two superficial volcanic tectonic earthquakes (0 to 2 km deep) in one week under the summit craters.OVPLF reported that the volcanic tremor stopped around 10:10 local time on February 27, 2017. At midday, the projections stopped to leave place to an active plume of light color. After nine hours of persistent residual degassing, the eruption stopped at 19:30. However, the terminal cone inflation continues at both the top and bottom levels (recharge of the superficial magma chamber), and carbon dioxide concentrations in the soil at the heel remain high.During this eruption, less than 10 million m3 of lava flows were emitted on the surface (between 3 and 8 Mm3 according to the estimation methods). The outlines and the volumes of the surface runoffs have changed little during the last two weeks of eruption due to extremely low surface flows in the second half of the eruption (<1 m3 / sec). The deformations associated with magma migration to the eruptive site (January 31st) focused on the southern and eastern part of the volcano and did not exceed 30 centimeters. During the eruption and since its eruption on 27 February, inflation (swelling) of the terminal cone continues continuously (about 1 cm of elongation of the summit in one month). At the same time, CO2 concentrations in the soil at the level of the volcano deposit remain high and the deep seismicity (ca -20 km below sea level) under the western flank of the volcano (Plaine des Palmistes) began to increase Since about 17 February. These parameters demonstrate depth pressurization and upwelling of fluid from the deep to the more superficial storage areas below the summit craters (ca. 2 km below the surface). Previously, as of the 26th of February, OVPLF reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing but the Tremor dropped since several days. No seismicity was recorded during the day. Since the night of last Friday, the volcanic tremor is slightly increasing; The inflation of the volcano in its summit area continues. A slight inflation at the base of the cone (bottom of the enclosure) is now perceptible. On the other hand, outside the enclosure, no deformation is currently observable. Visual observations from Piton de Bert during the night from Saturday to Sunday show a few projections at the active vent, a lava flow mainly in lava tube, and rare outlets for lava at level of the flow. Some skylights (opening in the roof of a lava tunnel) were also observable. As of the 20th of February, OVPLF reported that the downward trend of the volcanic tremor (an indicator of surface eruptive intensity) observed over the last few days is confirmed, as well as a resumption of inflation of the volcano in its summit zone. Given the weather, no observations could be made on the ground during the day by the observatory teams. OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise fluctuated during 14-20 February. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, and a few branches at end of tube were active. As of the 16th of February OVPLF reported following the decline that occurred the day before, the volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) is constant again, at a level equivalent to that at the beginning of the eruption. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the summit of Piton de la Fournaise. No significant distortions have been observed over the last few days. Observations made on the ground this morning by the observatory teams indicate that the activity is continuing mainly in "lava tubes". Only a few flows of small extensions were visible a hundred meters downstream of the eruptive cone.OVPF reported that during 10-14 February volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise was high, with levels reaching those observed at the onset of the eruption on 31 January. The eruptive vent was perched on top of a cone that was 30-35 m high and 190 m wide (at the base). The lava level inside of the cone was low, or about half of cone's height, and incandescent material was ejected from the vent. Lava was mainly transported through a lava tube, though a few branches at end of tube were active. As of the 10th of February, the eruption continued at Piton de La Fournaise. The volcanic tremor (indicator of surface eruptive intensity) remains at a high level of intensity. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the summit of Piton de la Fournaise. The inflation of the building continues, reflecting the pressurization of the surface reservoir and the maintenance of a rise of fluids. SO2 fluxes are relatively low. A well designed cone of 30-35 m. high and 190 m. wide, has been erected, capped by a single active mouth, from which escape projections contribute to its growth. He was unofficially named Piton Carlos by the local media. The level of the lava is approximately half the height of the cone (February 10, 8:50 am) and the thickness of the lava accumulation at the outlet of the vent is about 14 m. Most of the activity is done by lava tube, and surface flows are therefore low (estimates between <1 and 2.4 m3 / s according to the satellite data of the HOTVOLC platforms (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin). Only a few small arms are visible at the exit of some tubes. These observations are consistent with the low flux of SO2. Outlet temperatures at the vent are between 1200 and 1250 ° C. Larger shots identified the main channels and highlighted tubes areas.The flow front at the top of the "Grandes Pentes" is frozen and no longer progresses. As of the 8th of February, according to the OVPLF, the volcanic tremor (surface eruptive intensity indicator) remains at a high level of intensity comparable to that seen at the beginning of the eruption (note that the higher values ​​recorded over the last 24 hours may be Influenced by wind and rain which disrupt the signals). No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise. Concerning the long-term deformations, the tendency to a slight recovery of the inflation of the building seems to be clarified. This parameter will be followed and confirmed in the next few days.The storm prevented field observations, but the processing of the COSMO-SkyMed radar satellite images (carried out by the OI2 platform - OPGC Clermont Ferrand) made it possible to carry out a mapping of the lava flow as it was at 07 February . This technology and the applied treatment make it possible to identify the surfaces newly covered by the flows and to get rid of the presence of clouds. On the other hand, the resolution of the rendered contours is less than that of the treatments applied in aerial photographs. The length of the lava flows reached an extension of the order of 2,800 meters in eight days ... or at a relatively slow speed of about 15 meters per hour, and is located in the heights of the "Grandes Pentes". As of the 6th of February the eruption at Piton de La Fournaise was still continuing without a drop in activity. The volcanic tremor continues to increase gradually reaching a level higher than that observed at the beginning of the eruption. No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise. The distal stations of La Plaine des Cafres (site of the observatory and Piton Bleu) of measures of concentration of CO2 in the soil register a decrease since the beginning of the eruption. The bad weather conditions and the pre-alert cyclone did not allow any recognition by the members of the observatory. OVPLF reported that the eruption of the Piton de La Fournaise, begun on January 31, 2017 at 7:40 pm local time, continued as mentioned with the bulletin of the OVPF of 3 February at 16h local: The volcanic tremor (surface eruptive intensity indicator) was maintained at an average level of about 24 hours (about half that observed at the beginning of the eruption) before experiencing fluctuations again around 11 am local time ( 07h UTC) today. No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise building. Analysis of the previous day's data indicates the construction of an eruptive vent of 128 m in its longest length and about 35 m high in its highest part (02/02/2017). It should be noted that this morphology is subject to rapid variations; In fact the growth of a cone at the beginning of the eruption is always rapid and then subjected to sets of stabilization / destabilization.The surface flows estimated from the satellite data over the last 24h, via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (University of Turin) platforms range from 5 m3 / s to 10.1 ± 2.5 m3 / s. As of the 2nd of February, according to OVPDLF the volcanic tremor remains at an average level (about half that observed at the beginning of the eruption), with less fluctuations in the last 8 hours compared to the first 24 hours - No significant deformation was recorded during the day on the terminal cone. - No seismicity was recorded during the day under the Piton de la Fournaise building. - The CO2 concentrations in the soil at the Volcano Gîte remain at high values.The observations and observations made this morning 3rd of February by the observatory allowed: - Shooting of thermal images. Outlet temperatures at the vent are between 1200 and 1250 ° C . - Monitoring the edification of the eruptive cone. The eruptive cone continues its edification. A main fountain is at the origin of the construction of a southern wall more prominent than the north wall. A second lava fountain is always visible. Surface flows estimated from satellite data via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - Clermont Ferrand) and MIROVA (Turin University) platforms range from 3 m3 / s to 7 m3 / s. First eruption 2017 of Piton de La Fournaise: Following signs of seismicity at the end of January, a seismic crisis was triggered on the 31st of January from 15:22, justifying the passage on alert 1 / probable or imminent eruption. The volcanic tremor, and the arrival on the surface of the magma, is recorded since 19:40. The Orsec-volcano plan goes on alert 2-2 / eruption in progress. Access to the Enclos Fouqué and the installation of a helicopter in the area of ​​the volcano are prohibited. The first images of the webcam of Piton de Bert suggest two active vents and the glow of a lava flow. In the morning, the images show an active zone downstream on the crack, characterized by several 20-30 meter lava fountains, located at 1,100 meters at the SSE of Château-Fort. The height of the eruptive vent is estimated at about ten meters. It lets escape a flow a'a which separates in several arms; At 7:40 local, the lava flow covered a distance of 600 to 750 m. with respect to the vent. Cracks open at the beginning of the eruption are no longer active, but remain marked by fumaroles. Previous last year activity : -as of the 18th of September, OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise stabilized during 14-17 September. Field observations on 15 September revealed that the two volcanic cones that had formed on the lower part of the fissures had begun to coalesce. Lava from the northernmost cone flowed N and NE, and by 0900, was active midway between Piton Partage and Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose. The height of the lava fountains grew in the afternoon, rising as high as 60 m, likely from activity ceasing at the southernmost cone and focusing at one main cone. On 16 September the main cone continued to build around a 50-m-high lava fountain; lava flows from this vent traveled NE. Tremor rose during the night on 17 September, and then fell sharply at 0418 on 18 September, indicating the end of surficial activity. During 11-18 September the erupted volume was an estimated 7 million m3. . As of the 11th of September a bulletin of the OVPLF reported that seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise was low in August, following an elevated number of volcano-tectonic events the second half of July. Gas emissions were low and dominated by water vapor; CO2 emissions had been elevated during 21-27 July. Inflation had stopped in early August and slight deflation was detected through 2 September. Seismicity increased on 10 September, and elevated levels of SO2 at fumaroles were detected. A seismic crisis began at 0735 on 11 September, characterized by several earthquakes per minute. Deformation suggested magma migrating to the surface. Volcanic tremor began at 0841, synonymous with the beginning of the eruption. Several fissures opened in the N part of the l'Enclos Fouqué caldera, between Puy Mi-côte and the July 2015 eruption site, and produced a dozen 15-30-m-high lava fountains distributed over several hundred meters. Tremor levels decreased by a factor of four, and by 2100 were stable. The eruption continued on 12 September. . - (OVPLF ) The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Reunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. (OVPF information) - Journal de l'île de la Réunion - ). Live webcam - IPGP

FRANCE - Soufriere Guadeloupe

October 3rd, 2020

OVSG reported that a new sequence of volcanic earthquakes began on September 29, 2020 at 5:33 am local time in the area of the La Soufrière of Guadeloupe. On October 2, the OVSG networks recorded 228 earthquakes of M <1, not felt; the hypocenter is located 2.5 km under the dome of La Soufrière. The alert level remains at yellow / vigilance.OVSG reported tha the new sequence of volcanic earthquakes that began on Saturday September 12, 2020 at 7.20 a.m. local time in the La Soufrière area continued on 14th of September with 146 recorded earthquakes of very low magnitude (M <1). .OVSG reported that the sequence of volcanic earthquakes that began on Saturday August 15, 2020 at 2:47 a.m. local time (Saturday August 15, 2020 at 6:47 a.m. UTC in the volcanic aera of La Soufrière of ​​Guadeloupe continues on 16th of August. Since the start of this sequence, the OVSG-IPGP networks have recorded 372 very low magnitude earthquakes (M <1). No earthquakes were reported felt. The events are located at a depth of <2.5 km below the top of the dome of La Soufrière. OVSG reported that since the beginning of 2018 a cyclical process of injecting deep magmatic gases at the base of the hydrothermal system of the Soufrière of Guadeloupe, at a depth between 2 and 3 km below the summit. It generates a recurrent process of overheating and overpressure of the hydrothermal system which results in disturbances in the circulation of hydrothermal fluids; the evolution of the activity of fumaroles at the summit, as evidenced by the projection of hot, acid mud over a few meters; increased swarm volcanic seismicity; some volcanic earthquakes felt, four between February and April 2018, including an earthquake of magnitude M4.1 on April 27, 2018, the strongest since 1976, deformations of small amplitude and limited to the dome of La Soufrière of the order of 3- 7 mm / year and the continued opening of summit fractures, the fluctuation of the flow rates of fumarolic gas from a pressurized hydrothermal reservoir, an increase in thermal anomalies in the soil at the top of La Soufrière. These phenomena are not yet clearly associated with an anomaly in the other monitoring parameters which could indicate a possible rise in magma. The latter would typically, but not systematically, manifest itself through numerous deep or felt earthquakes, large-scale deformations beyond the dome, and the emission of sulfur gases at high temperature (> 150 ° C). La Soufrière de la Guadeloupe volcano occupies the southern end of Basse-Terre, the western half of the butterfly-shaped island of Guadeloupe. Construction of the Grand Découverte volcano about 0.2 million years ago (Ma) was followed by caldera formation after a plinian eruption about 0.1 Ma, and then by construction of the Carmichaël volcano within the caldera. Two episodes of edifice collapse and associated large debris avalanches formed the Carmichaël and Amic craters about 11,500 and 3100 years ago, respectively. The presently active La Soufrière volcano subsequently grew within the Amic crater. The summit consists of a flat-topped lava dome, and several other domes occur on the southern flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from NW-SE-trending fissure systems that cut across the summit and upper flanks. A relatively minor phreatic eruption in 1976-77 caused severe economic disruption when Basse-Terre, the island's capital city, which lies immediately below the volcano, was evacuated. (GVN/GVP)

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TANZANIE - Lengai volcano

October 30th, 2012

News and recent photos taken in September 2012 at the summit crater. Previously, as of the 22nd of February 2010 GNN/GVP reported that periodic eruptions from a small fissure and steam emissions from an area of the crater rim next to a part that had collapsed were observed on 11 February, and three fresh black hornitos were noted on the W part of the crater floor, a cone-shaped grey hornito in the middle of the floor and a new black lava flow to the S were seen during 14-15 February. Previous Informations : June-August 2009: a few reports received during the summer, including ones documenting visits in August by Thomas Holden , in July by David Gregson , and in June by Tobias Fischer , indicate that Lengai continues to produce small effusive eruptions within the pit crater. Thomas Holden reported that on his climb in late August (exact date unknown) he saw active lava flows. Tobias Fischer witnessed flows and a small lava lake ~5m in diameter in June.  David Gregson did not see significant activity but heard sounds of activity at depth. Although the activity appears to have returned to the typical eruptions of fluid natrocarbonatite lava for which Lengai is so well known, no samples of the new flows have been obtained for analysis due to their inaccessability deep inside the pit crater.  It is not known how similar the new lava is in composition to the lavas produced prior to the 2007-2008 eruption. (From Fred Belton website) Previous information : qccording to Frederick Belton team which climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on 18 June 2009reported that the new active cone covered the former crater floor entirely except for an area N of the summit. The new cone's W, N, and E sides stood about 30 m above the rim of the former crater and enclosed a deep crater. The visitors saw a few small vents on the crater's floor. Frequent emissions of ash-poor plumes originated from the SW part of the crater's floor, producing light ashfall. They heard continuous loud rumbling noises, occasional gas-jetting sounds, and rockfalls. As of the 21st of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania erupted on 19th of February, according to an aviation report. Ash was observed to 38,000 ft. Pilots have been advised to avoid flying near the volcano. The activity at Lengai seems to be increasing. In the past two weeks, explosions have ejected ash plumes rising several kilometers. On 15 Feb., Dutch pilots observed and photographed an eruption plume rising to estimated 12 km (36,000 ft). The Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 15 February and rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 24th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a visitor to Ol Doinyo Lengai informed that it erupted on 14 January. According to this visitor "shower of stones" fell at their location about 50 m from the summit and a lava flow went another direction. Typical ash eruption from the new ash cone in the N crater. A small group from Volcano Discovery , local mountain guides and partners stayed near and on Lengai volcano during 17-21 January. During this period, Lengai continued to erupt ash to several 100 metres above the new ash cone during phases lasting several hours alternating with periods of quiet when only a weak plume of very fine gray ash and gas was issuing out of the new ash cone. Photos from an eruptive phase of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano consisting in near continuous ash emissions from its new crater and taken from the summit during a recent expedition in January 2008 have been posted at the Discovery: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcano-tours/photos/lengai/0108.html . These photos also document the impressive recent changes on the volcano and help to illustrate the significant hazards present when climbing Lengai or staying at its top. The Toulouse VAAC reported previously that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by visiting scientists on 20 December and rose to an unreported altitude. As of the 20th of October, John Seach has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes. As of the 7th of September, according to Matthieu Kervyn De Meerendre, University of Gent (Belgium) has reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai has re-erupted again. A large eruption (?) seems to be taking place at Lengai volcano, this time for real On 4 September 2007, reports started coming in that a large (natrocarbonatite) lava flow is descending the West flank. A considerable ash plume was visible on satellite data. Over 30 thermal anomalies have been detected by the MODIS team since August 23 - more than during the large eruption in March 2006. On 4 and 5 Sep, the thermal anomaly at the summit was extremely strong. From this and satellite imaginery, it seems that there was a short overflow to the East and a major overflow to the West starting on September 1st (it could be a bush fire on the volcano flank ignited by lava). New overflows on 5 Sep seem to be taking place on the W and NW flanks. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep craters walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

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CONGO - Nyamulagira volcano

August 2nd, 2019

The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that collapses of Nyamuragira's inner crater walls observed in May 2019 continued during 1-31 July. Lava fountaining from a small cone was visible. The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during early April Nyamuragira’s lava lake, which had returned in April 2018 after almost a year of quiet, continued to be active. Beginning on 12 April 2019 seismic and lava-lake activity both declined. MIROVA data showed that the thermal radiative power was at moderate levels the first half of the month then declined to low levels during the second half. Previously according recent news the activity in progress since 18 April 2018 has continued; the zone of activity in the caldera is located in a pit crater, almost full. A recent helicopter expedition took place in Februar and taken an aerial photo of the caldera and its activity. Slight thermal anomalies were detected by Mirova, when cloud cover permitted, between 3 and 21 MW on 23 February 2019. Previous news 2018 - As of the 22th of July 2018 the new eruptive phase occurred at the the volcano where  a small lava lake has formed, the magma is a few meters from the surface and seems to fill the whole surface of the crater; this activity is spectacular but without danger ". Previous news 2014 - On 29 June 2014 NASA reported that Nyamuragira vented steam and other volcanic gases and there was a glow from the lava lake. NOAA reported that an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite detected high SO2 concentrations above Nyamuragira. The University of Hawaii reported that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite data detected thermal anomalies and issued six MODVOLC alerts for the volcano's N side. Previously, according to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January 2014 showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyamuragira. Previous 2012 news about last eruption - As of the 28th of January, MODVOLC is still recording thermal anomaly on the volcano and probably the eruptive activity is still going on. (photos from M.Rietze).The initial scoria cone appeared inactive and second cone formed to the N of the first cone. Both cones were about 300 m high. The second cone was extremely active during the duration of the observations (about 15 hours) with fire fountains over twice the height of the cone; lava flowed N. The observers, about 1.5 km away, felt the heat from the eruption as well as lapilli fall. The VolcanoDiscovery Team observed the fissure eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November 2011 during 22-25 January 2012 from the newly formed cinder cones located about 10 km E of the summit crater. They reported three coalescent cones with the largest cone containing a small lava lake. The lake ejected spatter every few seconds as high as 200 m above the summit; individual bombs reached the base of the cone. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout about 2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow about 20 m wide. Burning forests were reported to the NNE. Satellite imagery acquired on 3 January from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed an active lava flow to the NE of the central vent over the fissure located 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater. A sulfur dioxide-rich plume was also detected.According to OMI data, SO2 plume is still rose above of the volcano suggesting tha the eruption is continued. As of the 8th of December, the eruptive activity is still continuing. Thermal anomaly and gas plume are still visible from satellite image. On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. An observer aboard an overflight a few days before noted that the lava did not appear to have moved any further N. A photo taken from the Rumangabo headquarters (7.5 km NE of the eruption site) on 16 November showed a tall cinder cone with lava fountains rising above the rim. The eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November, after two days of intense seismic activity, was located along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of the main crater, close to one of the 1989 eruption sites. Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. After a 3-hour hike, the team viewed the eruption from the S and noted roaring and lava fountains, as well as thunder and lightning. The observers also noted that the ground was covered by black pumice. On 11 November about 100 people, including staff, rangers, carpenters, porters, and volcanologists, traveled to a similar but safer location to set up a camp for visitors. The eruption site was described as a flat area with a 500-1,000-m-long fissure, oriented perpendicular to the Albertine (Western) rift. Lava fountains rose as high as 300 m above a cinder cone. Slow-moving lava traveled N. GORISK noted that radar images acquired on 11 November showed the largest deformation ever detected by the method (InSAR) since the early 1990's over Nyamuragira. A very preliminary analysis of the observed deformation suggested an affected area of more than 250 square kilometers. The ground rose more than 50 cm at the eruptive site where the spatter cone was developing. Another 15 cm of deformation was detected within the Nyamuragira caldera accompanied by deflation on the flanks. Satellite images acquired on 12 November showed that the lava flow had traveled approximately 11.5 km during the six days of the eruption. As of the 15th of November, The eruptive activity was still continuing characterized by lava fountain about 300 m high and lava which overflowed on the North flank of the volcano.(video) .As of the 7th of November, Rangers from the Virunga National Park reported that an eruption began last night on Nyamuragira in the Democratic Republic of Congo in central Africa. The eruption was observed from the park headquarters and it was reported that it appears to be a flank eruption. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira (Also spelled Nyamulagira) is a massive basaltic shield volcano N of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 sq km of the East African Rift. The 3058-m-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. About 40 historical eruptions have occurred since the mid-19th century within the summit caldera and from numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

CONGO - Nyiragongo

December 10th, 2019

As early December On-site observer reported that the vent opened in March 2016 on the upper terrace surrounding the lava lake showed a important activity in early December, with fountaining and intracratory flowsThe Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during 1-31 July the level Nyiragongo's lava lake had dropped, making it not visible in the daytime. Incandescence from the lake continued to be visible at night. Activity also declined at a small eruptive cone that formed in the crater in 2014. The Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) reported that during 1-28 April Nyiragongo’s lava lake continued to be active, extending the episode of ongoing activity to almost 17 years. A secondary cone which had formed on 29 February 2016 was also active, as well as three other vents surrounding it. Sulfur dioxide emissions reached a high of at least 5,000 tonnes per day, greater than March highs of 2,900 tonnes per day, but still below the alert threshold. The Nyiragongo lava lake is still subject to sporadic overflows : on March 30 and 31st, 2019, an overflow was reported by local observation and confirmed by thermal camera images, indicating that the lava would recover the bottom of the crater, as well as the activity at the level of the small intracalderic cone.The thermal anomalies are considered by Mirova as "very high" since the end of March, with a VRP of 1919 MW on March 30, and 1145 MW on April 1st. Previous News 2017 - After the lateral eruption in 2002, the lava lake had re-formed and was contained in the pit crater, with rose and drop elevation.The lava lake was surrounded by spatters formed during its projections and overflows in 2010. At the end of February 2016, a new vent opened. Its activity quickly formed a spatter cone, leaning against the wall of the crater, and surrounded by lava flows. In 2017, the bottom of the Nyiragongo crater rose of 45 meters after the eruption of the little volcano in 2016, leaving the lava lake 85 meters below the second terrace.Previous news 2016 - On 12 April 2016 the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma reported that activity at Nyiragongo had declined since 6 April, and that the level of the lava lake had dropped. A report dated 17 April stated that some volcanic earthquakes had been located within 5 km E and 10-15 km N of the crater; continuous volcanic tremor was recorded during 0200-0400 on 17 April. In a photo dated 19 April an incandescent vent atop a spatter cone appears to be in the same location as a lava lake that had been first noted on 1 March. Since Monday, February 29, 2016 around 4 AM, we were alerted by the Virunga National park, the operators of the stations and the surrounding population Nyiragongo volcano rumbles heard every minute from the volcano. On urgent request from the provincial committee of security in North Kivu, the team of scientists from the Goma Volcano Observatory sits on the summit of Nyiragongo crater since  March 1st, 2016 until now for direct observations of the activity of the lake lava of the volcano. Preliminary results of these observations are: Appearance of a secondary lava lake on the East side of the crater of Nyiragongo. Weakening of the eastern part; collapses source platforms to the origin of the often heard by the surrounding population rumblings that volcano.   The manifestations of this new secondary active lava lake are in the extension of the fracture that connects the Nyiragongo to its Baruta adventive cone toward to the direction of   Kibumba  zone.   Nyiragongo volcano is in a phase of intense activity and require a particular  attention. This activity is concentrated within the central crater towards the East (towards the Kibumba area) where a new secondary  lava lake is observed. From : PRELIMINARY REPORT OF CURRENT ACTIVITY OF  Nyiragongo VOLCANO FROM  29 FEBRUARY TO 2 MARCH 2016. KASEREKA MAHINDA, SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR OF GVO. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. (From GVO) - Nyiragongo Photos gallery - January 2011 (German group)
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ETHIOPIA - Erta Ale volcano

September 8th, 2020

From the comparison of images from the Sentinel-2 satellite, we can noted that the thermal anomalies present on August 31, 2020 in the Erta Ale caldera at the level of the two pit craters, are oriented more towards that of the north crater on September 5, 2020. , with conservation of a bluish degassing and a weak thermal anomaly in the southern pit. As of the 21st of August, Sentinel-2 images revealed hot spots at the Erta Ale caldera, both at the north and south pit-crater. No more thermal anomaly in the far field. As of the 11th of August, Satellite images shows some thermal anomalies, moderate to low, have been noted at Erta Ale in recent days by Mirova. Sentinel-2 / atmospheric penetration shows two hot spots. According to a recent visit observers reported that the lava has returned to the southern pit crater of Erta Ale, Ethiopia. Following this information on a possible reactivation of the lake on June 12, the examination of the Sentinel-2 images showed a radical change between two passes of the satellite. On June 12, a weak pixel marked a thermal anomaly ... on June 16, this thermal anomaly seems to cover the entire south pit crater, while no spot no longer marks the secondary lava field. Sentinel2 and Mirova noted that the thermal activity of Erta Ale changed slightly between December 25 and 30, 2019. The hot spots reappeared at the southern pit crater, and south of the caldera, but at a position more to the west than previously. Mirova notes moderate thermal anomalies between 8 and 44 MW for the above-mentioned period, and 35 Mw for 01.01.2020 / 22.35. According to observation and photo on early December, an activity resumes in the pit crater south, with lava flow emitted by a hornito.The northern pit crater is still degassing, and small warm spots are visible south-east of the caldera in the "new" lava field. Some thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova: between 10 and 61 MW, the highest on November 30th. Previous news - Sentinel-2 images showed that thermal anomalies in the far field have disappeared. On August 17th, 2019, large lava flows are visible about 3.5 km southeast of the caldera, which has a larger hot spot at the lava lake. As of the 29th of April, Mirova and Sentinel 2 satellite images showed that the activity was divided into two parts: a degassing at the level of the old lava lake in the caldera, and some radiative spots in the far field, of VRP between 10 and 117 MW. As of the 23rd of March, the Mirova site reported a "high" thermal anomaly at 19:20, with a VRP of 117 MW. On the Sentinel 2 satellite image of March 20, there are three hot spots: - the first, weak, at the level of the southern pit crater of the caldera, masked by an important degassing; - the second, at the SSE of the caldera, caused either by an overflow of lava, or even visible thanks to a skylight, the distribution of lava being mainly in lava tunnels; - the third, on active flows, about 15 km from the summit, north of the distal lava delta. Previous news 2018 - As of the 12th of May 2018 information reported that the thermal anomaly, discribed in recent days by Mirova and the Sentinel 2 satellite SWIR, remained high and comes mainly from the distal lava field and the intracaldeira pit crater.A weak manifestation of breakout between the position of the "new" lava lake, which no longer radiates on these images, and the distal field. Previous news 2017 - The last Sentinel2 image dated December 12 illustrated a strong outgassing of the caldera pit crater and thermal activity at the lava zone on the flank and in the northeast lava field. According to recent news in December there are three active lava lakes more or less connected. A previous clear image of the Erta Ale massif in Ethiopia, taken on October 16 by Sentinel 2, showed the changes in the current lava flows.The northeastern lava field, which had enlarged at the beginning of October in the distal part, shows a front divided into several arms; two of them have reached the sedimentary plain, a rare phenomenon. If there is no significant difference in elevation, the lava field will probably slow down in the days to come. Skylights are visible between this lava field and the source, located on the rift zone. The southwest lava field is no longer visible, due to a weakening of supply for weeks. The lava lake, present in the pit crater of the caldera, is still active. According to recent information following the flooding of the lava lake in February - March 2017, a collapse occurred in April and the eruptive activity of the volcano shaped a new volcanic landscape. A second lava lake formed south of the caldera fed lava flows and lava fields to the northeast and southwest. In September 2017, the southwest lava field does not grow, but continues to thicken. In the northeast, the lava flow continued to feed the lava field, whose front is more than 16 km from the point of emission. Previous news - A photo taken on 17th of August by the satellite Sentinel showed a developping lava flow. The flow has increased by nearly 2,000 meters on the northeast side, the lava flows being essentially through tubes, with only some surface effusions. On the south-west side, the flows have not really progressed, but have widened. The lava originates from the new lava lake located off caldera. The new flank eruption continued to be active throughout the first half of 2017 and greatly intensified in early June when overflowing of the ca 200 m diameter lava lake created new pahoehoe lava flows both in northeasterly and southwesterly direction. Satellite images confirm that there has been a continuous outpour of lava from the new fissure eruption which seems to be building a new shield with different active vents from where pahoehoe lava flows, but not much fountaining or degassing occurs.ESA/Copernicus Sentinel 2 satellite images of the Erta Ale volcanic rangeshow that between 8 and 18 June 2017 the SE fissure lava field drastically increased, with the most active lava flow growing from a ca 950 m to about 3200 m length in the timespan of 10 days. Previously, Satellite images acquired and processed by Planet Labs showed the new lava flows and gas-and-steam emissions from several vents (about 1.5 km SE from the overflow area at the SE caldera rim) on 23 January, and more new lava flows on 27 January. Both images showed lava flows advancing WSW, about 2.5 km S, and about 3 km NE. According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 26 January showed two distinct infrared hotspots representing the SE lava flows. On 27 January Simon Carn stated that the eruption produced the largest SO2 emissions from Erta Ale ever measured from space. On the morning of the 18th, all the vicinity of the south pit crater was covered with lava. In the afternoon of the 18th and the 19th, the outbreaks were more sporadic, the level of the lake fluctuating and fountains of lava Have reached more than 50m high. During the evening of 20 January explosions of very large gas bubbles ejected spatter 30 m high. Crater rim collapses affected the N crater where a new oval-shaped pit crater (150 x 30 m and 20 m depth) formed during a 24-hour period. A large collapse also occurred in the S part of the crater. The activity was accompanied by ash emissions that rose as high as 800 m. The report noted that on 21 January new fissures opened SSE from the summit caldera, producing large amounts of lava. The thermal anomaly observed by Mirova shows a maximum recorded on January 21, with 13,434 MW, passing on January 22nd between 7368 MW and 5882 MW, then decreasing the 23.01 from 5.2013 MW to 1.900 MW. As of the 16th of January 2016, according to Volcano Discovery correspondents from Ethiopia, the lava lake of Erta Ale has overflown. The first lava over-spilled the rim of the containing crater at midnight of 15-16 Jan 2016.On January 16th, from 3pm on January 17th, the lava has overflowed 70% of the edge of the lake, feeding flows that quickly covered up to 1 km ² of the caldera. It seems that the situation is similar to the spectacular events in November-December 2015 when the lava lake last overflowed. More details will be posted as soon as possible. During Volcano Discovery expedition November-December , the level of the lake had already been occasionally as close as only 1 meter beneath the rim. for three continuous days (19-21 November 2015). Upon team arrival on the morning of the 19th, the lava lake was only about 2-3 m below us. Local guide explained that the lava lake had been very active in the past few weeks and risen so highly for the first time since its overflow in late 2010. Previous News 2012 - According to a member of Activ website, and following a recently 2012 fieldtrip a lava lake lies within the South pit-crater of the Erta Ale caldera. This lake was about 15 m depth with 50-60 m diameter. Important degassing occured from incandescent hornitos within the North pit-crater. News 2010 - As of the 5th of March 2010, according to Rafael Werndli reports an unusually hight lava level in the pit crater on Erta Ale in mid February 2010. The lake surface was approximately 20m below the pit's edge. The lava lake had a diameter of 100 to 110m. Occesional floodings of the uppermost terrace were observed. In addition a hornito was active in the north crater, ejecting scoriae and small lava flows. PREVIOUS INFORMATION AND REPORTS : As of the 20th of February 2008, the Stromboli-On-Line website has reported that upon their return to volcano Erta Ale, they found it to be in eruption on the 8th of February and have confirmed this information. Volcanologique de Geneve (SVG) trip on 8-9 February 2008 noted extensions of ropy lava in the N crater. The lake was little changed from the group's last visit in 2005. The group visited the N Crater, and, given its constant degassing, was able to take gas samples. They also measured the lake's surface temperature (700°C). The descent into this crater, seemingly easy, was made difficult by a mantle of very unstable lava scoria. An elevated level of the lava lake halted a subsequent descent.Previous information reported that on 7th of October 2005, according to Ethiopian newspaper an earthquake measuring 4.2 on the Richter scale, jolted northern Ethiopia (Teru area in Afar) on Tuesday triggering eruption of the Erta Ale. According to M; Manahlo Belachew, an expert in the seismology department of Addis Ababa University, the quake which strick the remote region afar is the 11th tremblor to rumble across the region since last month. As of 5th of October a hot spot was visible on the Erta Ale from the MODIS images which could confirmed an eruptive activty this day. Previous new report about recent activity of the Erta Ale : group of scientists assessed the visible changes at Erta Ale on 26 September after activity began around 24 September. In comparison to observations made in November 2004, they found that the southern main crater/pit had widened significantly, with portions of the previous crater walls having collapsed into the lava lake. A new cone-shaped construct had grown within the southern main crater where there had been a platform. A lava lake occupied the entire width of the inner crater/pit. In the northern crater/pit, there was a solidified lava bulge and abundant “smoking” along the crater walls. No incandescent lava was visible in the pit. Based on descriptions by local residents of seeing “red and glowing light shooting and rising into the air above the volcano,” the scientists believe that a Strombolian eruption probably occurred, emitting a significant volume of fresh magma within, and possibly out of, the pit. As of 4th of 0ctober, Personal source reported from Addis Ababa University that the recent earthquake that occured in Afar state has caused landslide and big fissure in Teru locality kebele 02 of the state near the active volcano Mount Erta Ale, a team of geologists who have just returned from the site disclosed. The earthquake observed from September 10 -24, 2005 is the culmination of volcanic activities in the area since millions of years ago, geologists Dr. Derge Ayalew and Dr. Gezahegn Yirgu told WIC. The geologists said the landslide and fissure are indicators that there would be a possible volcanic eruption in the future. The Physical Observatory of the Addis Ababa University recorded on Sunday earthquake that measured 5.5 on Richter scale following earthquake. In Erta Ale the volume of material inside the Crater is actually increasing i.e. rising up to the Crator rim. Due to all this recent geological activity the government is starting to evacuate the people residing around these areas. Previous Erta Ale visit : an international team led by SVE carried out a new visit at the Erta Ale from 22nd of January to 23rd of January 2005. During these two full days at the summit the eruptive activity showed no significant change since our previous observation carried out in November- Décembre 2004. Degassing activity was still occuring from 3 of the 4 coalescents hornitos located in the SW part of the South crater, but decreased slightly in comparison with our December observations. There were about 10 m high and represented the only portion of the lava crust covering the crater floor where gas emissions were in evidence. One of the hornitos contained glowing molten lava visible from a window located in the upper part. During the clear day of Sunday 23rd of January, members of the team abseiled down within the crater to collect recent lava poured out from the hornitos during partial collapse. Degassing activity (mainly SO2) from the North crater has also slightly decreased in comparison with early December 2004. From a small terrace located in the NW part of the crater it was possible to observe the degassing activity from several hornitos ( some of them were several meters high in the central part of the " lava bulge ") - Near the NW wall of the crater two small red glowing areas were visible at the summit of two other hornitos. Seismic activity of the volcano, together with infrasound signals were recorded by a portable system of the University of Hamburg. Preliminary results of this deployment will be reported soon at this place. Informations : Henry Gaudru, SVE Geneva ; Alexander Gerst , University of Hamburg, Germany ; Georges Kourounis, Derek Tessier, Brian Fletcher (Toronto - Canada) , Motomaro Shirao (Tokyo- Japan) . A previous visit of the SVE-SVG group (4th of December 2004) have permits to observe an important change in the activity of the volcano. The lava lake activity stopped within the South pit crater and a solidified lava crust has filled the whole part of the crater floor (about 15 m below the crater rim). Three (4) coalescent hornitos (about ten meters high) have built on the solidified lava crust in the SE part of the South crater. During the night between 4th of 5th of December, some incandescent degassing lava was visible at the summit of two hornitos. Moreover, we have also noted that a new activity has recently occured within the North crater. A solidified lava bulge uplifted and filled more than 4/5 of the crater floor (about 20-25 below the crater rim). Strong and noisy degassing activity was occcuring in the central part of the lava bulge from several small hornitos. From the smell and bluish color, these gases contained a high quantity of SO2. During the night , ten small incandescent vents were visible at the periphery of the lava bulge. In the morning, two plumes rose above the volcano. Information : Henry Gaudru (SVE) and Co (SVG) - Erta Ale report in case of problem with this link look directly at "articles page" Recent Erta Ale photos 2011

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INDIA - Barren Island volcano - Andaman islands

November 5th, 2020

After a one year calm period with little or no activity, it seems to have picked up again since around 6 November last year. On 5th of November at around 06:45 local time Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin recorded an explosive eruption at the Indias's only active volcano that generated an ash plume, which reached approx. 5,000 ft (1,500 m) altitude and drifted SW. Previously in 2019 , A slight activity occured at the Barren Island since Sept. 25, 2018.Thermal anomalies were identified by Mirova on October 24 and 27, 2019, when cloud cover allowed, and a hot spot was visible on the Sentinel-2 images of October 24th. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 and 16 March ash plumes from Barren Island rose to altitudes of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) and 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l., respectively, and drifted W and SW. Based from Sentinel2 and Mirova data the volcano is still active in early March.The intensity is moderate, marked by a few small thermal anomalies at 5 and 10 Mw, respectively on March 5th and 6th. A Sentinel 2 image of March 7 shows a hot spot at the cinder cone's crater, located in a caldera covered with lava and pyroclasts. Based from Sentinel2 and Mirova data the volcano is still active in end of February. The satellite images of the last days show small plumes of ash, and a glow targeted on the crater. Mirova confirms a thermal anomaly of 22 MW on February 27th. A probable intermittent phase of Strombolian activity continued. Darwin reported intermittent ash emissions with a plume rising over 900 meters traveling westward.Low to moderate thermal anomalies are identified by Mirova on January 24 and 25, 2019.This activity is part of a new eruptive phase started around September 25, 2018. Previously, information reported that the effusive eruption continued on Barren island. An image of the Sentinel 2 satellite of 23 October 2018 showed the active lava flow to the north-west of the cone and significant degassing at the upper vent and lesser at the peripheral level, where the flow is likely to reach the ocean.Thermal anomalies were detected by Mirova, between 204 and 10 MW for 22, 23 and 24 October. According to the Mirova sites and the Sentinel 2 images, a new eruption started on September 25, 2018. A lava flow is visible on the north flank, associated with a strong thermal signal, on the satellite photo of September 28, taken by Sentinel 2; she probably reached the north-west coast. Previously, The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), part of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), reported that a new eruption at Barren Island began on 23 January 2017. Scientists aboard a research vessel were collecting sea floor samples when they observed a sudden ash emission. The team moved closer, about 1.6 km from the volcano, and noted small eruptive episodes lasting 5-10 minutes. Ash emissions were visible in the daytime, and lava fountains feeding lava flows on the flanks were visible at night. The team revisited the volcano on 26 January and observed similar activity during the four hours they stayed. They sampled sediments and water in the vicinity of the eruption and recovered volcanic ejecta. The eruptive' phase ended on May 2017. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the center of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.

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Mayotte - Submarine volcano

October 30th, 2020

As of the 29th of Ocotober according to a note from BRGM Mayotte the volcano is still active. Two earthquake swarms are constantly observed. There are 20 to 30 earthquakes per day, which are not felt by the population. A new flow was observed in the same place as the previous ones. It extends over 6 km² and up to 60 meters thick ". On the primary seismic swarm (closest to Mayotte), the acoustic plumes already observed during previous missions and associated with fluid emissions from the area called "Fer à Cheval" ("Horseshoe"), are still present, 10 km to the East from Mayotte. A new plume was observed in the same area. Six plumes are therefore recorded today in this zone. The latest assessment of the underwater eruption east of Petite Terre, following the oceanographic campaign (MAYOBS 13–2) which took place on the Gauss ship of the Fugro company from May 4 to 11, 2020 tele-operated by IFREMER, IPGP, BRGM and CNRS, made it possible to acquire seabed surveys and images of the water column over an area of ​​approximately 1,500 km². The seabed surveys already allow us to observe that the morphology of the volcano discovered in May 2019 about 50 km east of the Mayotte coast has not shown any major changes since August latest. The relief of the seabed of this entire area (known as the volcano area) has however been changed over an area of ​​approximately 5 km² to the northwest of the volcano. This development could result from new magma flows, the thickness, extent and volume of which are being evaluated. They sign the persistence of volcanic activity as well as the identification of two new plumes of hot fluids at 1,400 m deep above the earthquake generation zones (seismic swarm). REVOSIMA reported A strongly felt earthquake in the order of M5.8 was recorded on March 21, 2020 at 06:42 UT (09:46 local time Mayotte) by the Mayotte volcanological and seismological monitoring network (REVOSIMA). The epicenter was located this time between the islands of Mayotte and Anjouan, 50 km NW of Mayotte and 30 km deep.REVOSIMA reported that Between 16 and 29 February 2020, 592 earthquakes -"Volcano-Tectoniques" (high frequency), 288 earthquakes -"Long Period" (low frequency) and 16 earthquakes -"Very Long Period" (very low frequency) were detected. That's 896 seesimes in total! Long-period signals, a new category, have already been observed since the beginning of the crisis, but they were not classified until now. The main seismic activity is still concentrated 5-15 km from Petite-Terre, at depths of 20-45 km. An earthquake was reported to be felt on February 23 at 1:20 p.m. Surface movements measured since the beginning of the crisis by Mayotte GPS stations indicate: - a movement of The Mayotte GPS stations eastwards of about 20 to 22 cm - a subsidence of about 9 to 17 cm depending on their location on the island - a slowdown in travel has been observed since April-May 2019. REVOSIMA bulletin 13 (16-31 of January 2020) -reported that during the last fifteen days of the underwater volcano of Mayotte The number of earthquakes has decreased by 35% compared to the previous fortnight, with main seismic activity still concentrated 5-15 km from Petite-Terre, at depths of 25-45 km. This drop is to be qualified due to breakdowns in the “RaspBerry Shake” seismometer network, which resulted in an increase in the threshold for automatic detections. A lower seismicity in number and energy (low magnitude between 1 and 2.5), already visible on the sea bottom recordings in February 2019, is also still recorded near Petite-Terre about 5 km east (at depths of 25-40 km) or even under Petite Terre. Two earthquakes were reported as felt: one on January 26, 2020 / 5:43 a.m. UT from M3.5, the other on January 28 / 11:06 a.m. UT from M4. The REVOSIMA always records seismic signals of very long period VLP type (very low frequency, between 5 and 100 seconds) similar in particular to the event recorded on November 11, 2018. Over the past 15 days, 3 VLP Earthquakes have been recorded. These VLP signals are usually associated in the literature with resonances and fluid movements (magmatic or hydrothermal). The surface displacements measured since the beginning of the crisis by Mayotte GPS stations indicate: - a movement of all GPS stations from Mayotte to the east of approx. 19 to 22 cm east; - a subsidence of about 9 to 16 cm depending on their location on the island. A slowdown in travel has been observed since April-May 2019. Complete bulletin www.ipgp.fr/fr/actualites-reseau. According to REVOSIMA bulletin # 9 - 16 at 30.11.2019 - the new underwater eruption site in Mayotte has produced at least 5.1 km3 of lava since the beginning of its construction.Over a period of 11 months (July 2018 - beginning of surface deformations recorded in Mayotte - June 2019), the eruptive lava flow is about 150-200 m3 / s.Since the discovery of the volcanic edifice, three new remote exit points have been identified that have produced:- in the south about 0.2 km3 of lava in 28 days (18 May-17 June 2019) for an average minimum flow of about 83 m3 / s;- in the west, about 0.3 km3 of lava in 44 days (between June 17 and July 30, 2019) for an average minimum flow of 79 m3 / s;- north about 0.08 km3 of lava in 20 days (between July 31 and August 20, 2019) for an average minimum flow of about 44 m3 / s.These eruptive flows remain high. These eruptive volumes and flows, especially at the beginning of the crisis, are exceptional and, given the uncertainties, are generally the highest observed on an effusive volcano since the eruption of Laki (Iceland) in 1783 whose average eruptive flow had been estimated at 694 m3 / s over 245 days of eruption.REVOSIMA reported that the underwater eruption located 50-60km east of Mayotte is still characterized with seismic activity centered at 5-15km from Petite Terre, at depths of 25-47km. Epicentres are also located 5km or even below Petite Terre, due to the emptying of the magma chamber.The seismic activity remains stationary with a still high number of earthquakes, 544 from 16 to 31 October, an average of 38 per day, with the recording of a clear recrudescence of seismic energy released.Since the beginning of the crisis, the GPS stations recorded a displacement towards the East of the island of 19 to 21 cm, and a subsidence (subsidence) of 8 to 16 cm, more to the East than to the West of the island. Previous news - August 2019 - Local journal reported that the latest scientific data reported no significant evolution during the last month, main seismic activity still concentrated at 5-15 km from Petite-Terre, at depths of 20-50 km. A lower seismicity in number and energy (low magnitude between 1 and 3) is also still recorded near Petite-Terre about 5 km to the east (at depths of 20-50 km), as well as the data. sea-bottom seismometers have shown this since February 2019. Previous information : operation Mayobs 2, from 11 to 17 June 2019, aimed at improving knowledge of the new underwater volcano off the island of Mayotte, has just given an initial assessment. In summary, three sources of volcanic origin are identified to date. 1) At 50km to the east, a volcano 800m high and 4km in diameter grew in 10 months. 2) To the south a lava flow 2km long and 75 meters high formed in one month.3) The earthquake swarm remains located about ten kilometers east of Petite Terre but deep, between 20 and 50km in the Earth's crust. Above the swarm zone, a probable plume of gas was detected, but without magma outpouring. This gas, which apparently emerges from faults, will be analysed through deep samples. It does not rise to the surface. Sources: Mayotte Prefecture press release, and Journal de Mayotte. Since May 2018, a succession of earthquakes has mobilized scientists, and missions including the installation of new measuring devices and an oceanographic campaign carried out by the ship Marion Dufresne, returning to Mayotte on May 15, 2019 in order to explain these events. Recent several French missions have highlighted a new underwater volcano 50 km from Petite-Terre; located at a depth of 3,500 meters, it has a base of 4-5 km in diameter and a height of about 800 meters. A 2 km plume of volcanic fluid sits over it, but does not reach the marine surface.Mayotte, also known as Mahore, Maore, or Ngazidja by the Comorians, was formed in four main stages: a) there are 8 Ma: The emersion of two shield volcanoes and the formation of phonolitic lava domes: Mount Choungui - b) Between 1.8 and 1.4 Ma: Combani and M'Tsapéré formation; c) - 500,000 years ago, an explosive volcanism formed the craters Kawéni and Kavani - d) - A very recent explosive volcanism, dated to 80,000 years, forms the small earth with the Dziani.

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Piton de la Fournaise - Eruptive fissure - 16th November 2002 - Photo Laï-Yu (JIR)

PHILLIPINES - Mayon volcano

May 14th, 2020

PHIVOLCS issued a vigilance notice on May 13th, 2020 due to the risk of lahars. Prolonged and abundant precipitation caused by tropical storm Ambo is likely to generate post-eruption lahars in the main drainages, in particular the Miisi, Binaan, Anoling, Quirangay, Maninila, Masarawag, Muladbucad, Nasisi, Mabinit, Matan-ag and the canals of Basud. In question, the remobilization of the materials deposited by the pyroclastic density currents and the ashes of the eruption from January to March 2018. The Mayon is still on alert level 2 / moderate level of instability. The volcano emits white plumes of vapor, and has a weak night glow. Inflation of the middle to high part of the volcano, started in late 2019, continues today. PHIVOLCS reported that during 7-14 April white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon rose as high as 400 m above the summit and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that the seismic monitoring network recorded two (2) volcanic earthquakes and one (1) rockfall event during the 24-hour observation period, as of April 8. Moderate emissions of vapor-laden white plumes that crept downstream before drifting west-southwest, northeast, and north-northwest were observed. On April 9th, moderate emissions of white plumes loaded with vapor, are reported from a height of 400 meters, before drifting to the northwest and west-northwest. A faint glow at the summit crater could be observed at night. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 339 tonnes / day on April 07, 2020. Recent electronic tilt data showed inflation of the middle to upper parts of the volcanic edifice that began in last quarter of 2019. This follows a trend inflation that started in February 2019 as recorded by continuous GPS monitoring. PHIVOLCS reported the that on 4th and 5th of February during the last two nights , glowing was observed at the summit crater probably caused by hot magmatic gases, and the slow rise of magma towards the surface. The emission of a plume of white vapor, weak to moderate is reported, crawling on the slopes before dissipating towards a western sector. No volcanic earthquake was recorded; Sulfur dioxide emissions are measured at an average of 115 tonnes per day, and inflation has persisted since early 2019. The alert remained at 2. Previous news 2019 - PHIVOLCS reported on July 2, 2019 for the Mayon, sixteen volcanic earthquakes and six episodes of rock falls observed in the last 24 hours; On the day of July 3, 7 volcanic earthquakes and six rock falls were recorded. Inflation has marked the volcano since June 2018, confirmed by measures between 9 and 14 April 2019.The latest sulphur dioxide levels measured on June 14, 2019 are 680 tonnes per day. The alert level remains at 2/moderate level of instability. previously, PHIVOLCS reported that during 13-19 March white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted mainly W and SW, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. PHIVOLCS reported that the phreatic activity continues at the Mayon. At the seismicity level, 6 volcanic earthquakes and 3 episodes of rock falls were recorded. Between the eruptions, a plume of steam was visible. Sulphur dioxide emissions were measured at 763 tonnes/day, and the nocturnal filament noted. On 14 March, at 18h55, a new phreatic episode was accompanied with a plume of ash at 500 metres above the summit, then drifting towards the southwest. Six phreatic events on 13 March, recorded at 0906, 0939, 0946, 0955, 1000, and 1059, produced ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted W. A phreatic event at 1855 on 14 March generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that three eruptive phreatic episodes on March 12, respectively at 3:10 pm, 3:18 pm and 3:34 pm; three volcanic earthquakes accompanied these explosions, which generated small plumes of ash at 500 m., 1,000 m. and 500 m above the summit, then drifted southwest. Emissions of gas and steam have been observed from early morning until early afternoon, initially creeping, then rising 250 meters above the summit. Nighttime glow could be observed. The alert level is at 2 / level of moderate instability. PHIVOLCS reported that 6 volcanic earthquakes and 2 rock falls occurred during the last 24 hours.Two of these earthquakes were related to episodes of phreatic eruptions of March 7 at 8:11 AM and March 8 at 6:27 AM, which generated gray ash plumes at a height of 500 and 300 meters, respectively. Moderate steam plumes were then emitted. The alert level remains at 2. PHIVOLCS reported that the activity was characterized on March 6 and 7 by a daily volcanic earthquake; on March 7th 2019, nocturnal glow was observed, as well as a fall of rocks.Networks of deformation measurements were still recording mid-slope inflation since June 2018. The alert level remains at 2. Previously in 2018 - PHIVOLCS reported that during 5-11 December white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted mainly WSW. Crater incandescence was sometimes visible at night. A four-minute long event recorded by the seismic network began at 1224 on 9 December, and produced a grayish-brown ash plume that drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that during 27 November-4 December white steam plumes rose daily, and crater incandescence was visible almost nightly. At 0533 on 27 November a phreatic event generated a grayish-white ash plume that rose 300-500 m and drifted SW. A one-minute-long event that began at 0941 on 30 November produced another grayish-white ash plume. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.PHIVOLCS reported that crater incandescence was visible at night during 24-27 November. Two phreatic explosions were recorded during 0759 and 0805 on 26 November. The events generated grayish ash plumes that rose 300-500 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that two phreatic eruptions occurred on November 26, respectively at 7:59 and 8:05 accompanied by a plume of gray to gray-white ash rising between 300 and 500 meters above the summit. The sulfur dioxide flux was measured at an average of 1,943 tonnes / day on 25 November. Inflation of the south-east sector was measured between October 22nd and 31st, 2018, while a sector north is deflating it, following a magmatic intrusion deep in the volcano.The Phivolcs reminds not to enter the zones of permanent danger of 6 to 7 km according to the sectors. The alert level remains at 2. PHIVOLCS reported that during 14-20 November white steam plumes emitted from Mayon drifted downslope and then in multiple directions. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. PHIVOLCS reported that at 1243 on 8 November and at 0739 on 12 November small, short-lived brownish ash plumes from Mayon, associated with a degassing events, drifted WSW and SW, respectively. There was no accompanying seismic or infrasound record from these events. On 11 November a volcanic earthquake was associated with a short-lived lava fountaining event at 0840. The event lasted for 36 seconds based on the seismic record and produced a brownish-gray ash plume that drifted SW. Crater incandescence was visible most nights during 7-13 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks. As of the 6th of November 2018, Phivolcs reported, on the basis of the Mayon seismic survey, three volcanic earthquakes, a current of pyroclastic density and two avalanches of rocks occurred during the last 24 hours.Sulfur dioxide emissions are measured at an average of 800 tonnes per day at the end of October, as well as inflation in the southeast sector of the volcano, following a possible aseismic magmatic intrusion.PBeautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2462 m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. Historical eruptions at this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from strombolian to basaltic plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1200 people and devastated several towns.

PHILIPPINES - Bulusan Volcano

October 28th, 2020

On 26 October PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Bulusan to 0, indicating normal conditions, though warnings remained to not enter the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). The decision was based on monitoring data that showed sulfur dioxide flux remaining below detection levels since 2018, deformation continuing a deflationary trend since May 2019, and the frequency of volcanic earthquakes declining to baseline levels (0-2 earthquakes/day) beginning in late September 2020. Very diffuse white plumes rose from the summit vents.
As of the 19th of July 2020, PHIVOLCS monitoring network recorded forty-eight (48) volcanic earthquakes during the observation period of the last 24 hours. Ground deformation data from continuous GPS measurements indicates an inflation cycle followed by deflation of the building from late February 2020, while the long term trend since May 2019 indicates that the building is still deflated. These parameters indicate that volcanic processes are underway under the edifice and may be caused by deep degassing or hydrothermal activity or magmatic intrusion.PHIVOLCS recorded since July 13 an increase in the number of volcanic earthquakes in Bulusan: it counts 33 in 24 hours on the 13th and 27 earthquakes in 24 hours on the 14th (period from 8h to 8h morning) A very low emission of white plumes charged with vapor from the southeast vents was observed. Ground deformation data from continuous GPS measurements indicated short-term inflation of the building since late February 2020. These parameters indicate that volcanic processes are underway under the building which may be caused by deep degassing or hydrothermal activity or magmatic intrusion.
PHIVOLCS raised Bulusan's alert status from alert level 0 (normal) to alert level 1 (abnormal) on July 6, 2020. The monitoring network of the Bulusan volcano recorded a total of fifty-three (53) volcanic earthquakes since July 03, 2020, including forty-three (43) low frequency events that are associated with hydrothermal or magmatic gas activity weak and shallow in the building. In the last 24 hours (06.07 - 07.07 at 8h), the seismic monitoring network of the Bulusan volcano has recorded nineteen (19) volcanic earthquakes associated with weak and shallow hydrothermal or magmatic gas activity inside the building. A very low emission of white plumes loaded with vapor from the lower south-east vent was observed. Previously, PHIVOLCS lowered the Alert Level for Bulusan to 0 (on a scale of 0-5) on 25 January 2020, noting that activity at the volcano was at baseline levels. Specifically, sulfur dioxide flux had been below detectable levels since 2018, the frequency of volcanic earthquakes had been at baseline levels (0-2 earthquakes/day) since May 2019, and overall ground deformation data indicated that there was no pressurization from subsurface magma. Weak gas emissions from hydrothermal activity continued. PHIVOLCS reminded the public of the 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 36,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century. Information : PHIVOLCS -

PHILIPPINES - Taal volcano

August 26th, 2020

PHIVOLCS reported that since August 22 a number of volcanic earthquakes increased: 16 reported on 22.08 at 8 a.m., 20 on 23.08, 24 on 24.08, 27 on 25.08, and 26 on 26.08. The vents in the main crater and along the Daang Kastila trail feature weak to moderate fumaroles up to 50 meters in height, drifting NE and an S sector. PHIVOLCS reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes increased, with 16 earthquakes in the last 24 hours on 08/22/8:00 a.m., and 20 earthquakes in the last 24 hours at 08/23/8:00 a.m. Fumaroles were reported at a height of 10 meters on the 22nd, and 5 meters on the 23.08.2020. As of the 14th of August, PHIVOLCS reported that In the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano network has recorded three (3) volcanic earthquakes. Weak activity of steam or fumaroles rising 20 meters high before drifting northeast was observed from the vents in the main crater. Mirova reported thermal anomalies on August 12 / 5:40 p.m. for 10 MW VRP, and on August 14 / 5:10 a.m. for 794 MW VRP (centered to the east of Taal Lake, of undetermined cause). As of the 10th of June, PHIVOLCS reported that the Taal remained on level 1 / abnormal alert in recent days, with 1 to 5 volcanic earthquakes recorded per day. During the past 24 hours, weak fumarolic activity, rising to ten meters before drifting to the southwest is observed at the main crater and the vents along the Daang Kastila trail. As of the 23rd of April, PHIVOLCS reported that In the past 24 hours, the Taal surveillance network has recorded thirty-nine (39) volcanic earthquakes, mainly associated with rock fracturing processes under and around the volcano. Twenty-four of them were volcano-tectonic earthquakes in the municipality of Mabini and Balayan Bay. The largest of these events occurred yesterday at 11:06 a.m. and 11:19 a.m. and was recorded at magnitudes M4.5 and M4.6 and was felt at Intensity I respectively at Agoncillo and Lemery, in the province of Batangas, and Intensity III to Mabini and Bauan. , Intensity II in Taal and San Nicolas, and Intensity I in Agoncillo and Lemery, province of Batangas. Low vapor emission or fumarolic activity was observed in the main crater vents and in the crack vents along the Daang Kastila trail. Alert level 1 (abnormal) is maintained on the Taal volcano. PHIVOLCS reported that during 8-9 April steam plumes rose 100-300 m above the Taal's main vent and drifted SW. Weak steaming (plumes up to 20 m high) from ground cracks was visible during 8-14 April along the Daang Kastila trail which connects the N part of Volcano Island to the N part of the main crater. PHIVOLCS had lowered the Alert Level to 1 (on a scale of 0-5) on 19 March and recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone. PHIVOLCS reported that on March 29th, 93 volcanic earthquakes occurred, associated with the fracturing of rocks, including 6 of magnitude between M1.8 and M3.4, felt in the barangays Banyaga, Bilibinwang and Subic Ilaya. Low emissions of steam plumes are observed at the main crater and at the vents along Daang Kastila Road. On March 30, the emissions observed reached only 50 to 100 meters in height, drifting to the southwest. THE number of volcanic earthquakes has decreased and is now only 17 events.The alert level remains at 1 / abnormal; the prohibited zones remain around the main crater and the Daang Kastila crack. As of the 19th of March PHIVOLCS lowers the alert status of the Taal volcano from alert level 2 to alert level 1; alert level 1 means that the volcano is still in an abnormal state and should not be interpreted as the disturbances have ceased or the threat of an eruption has disappeared. Surface activity decreased with a low emission of plumes loaded with steam from 50 to 100 meters high from fumaroles or active gas conduits on the main crater and along the crack of Daang Kastila on the northern flank from Volcano island.PHIVOLCS reported that during 4-10 March weak steam plumes rose 50-100 m above Taal’s Volcano Island lake and drifted SW and NE; moderate steam plumes rose 300-500 m and drifted SW during 8-9 March. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 4,212 people in 11 evacuation centers, and an additional 32,631 people were staying at other locations as of 6 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 5th of March - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50-100 meters high before drifting southwest. The Taal Volcano Network recorded twenty-eight (28) volcanic earthquakes that are mostly associated with rock fracturing processes and that included two (2) low frequency events that are associated with magmatic fluids beneath the edifice.PHIVOLCS reported that during 26 February-2 March steam plumes rose 50-300 m above the vent and drifted SW and NE. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 4,314 people in 12 evacuation centers, and an additional 132,931 people were staying at other locations as of 3 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone. PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 29th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 meters high before drifting northeast. The Taal Volcano Network recorded forty-five (45) volcanic earthquakes that are associated with rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLC BULLETIN 28th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 meters high before drifting northeast. The Taal Volcano Network recorded twenty-two (22) volcanic earthquakes that are associated with rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 26th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 meters high before drifting northeast. The Taal Volcano Network recorded thirty-two (32) volcanic earthquakes that are associated with rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLCS reported that during 19-24 February steam plumes rose 50-100 m above the vent and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were below detectable limits during 19-20 February. According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 4,113 people in 15 evacuation centers, and an additional 191,451 people were staying at other locations as of 25 February. PHIVOLCS recommended no entry onto Volcano Island, the area defined as the Permanent Danger Zone. PHIVOLCS bulletin 19th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100 meters high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection due to weak plume activity. The Taal Volcano Network recorded thirty (30) volcanic earthquakes that are associated to rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN - 18th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100 meters high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection due to weak plume activity. The Taal Volcano Network recorded forty-one (41) volcanic earthquakes that are associated to rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLCS bulletin 17th of February 8am - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 100 to 200 meters high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 58 tonnes/day on February 16, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded sixty-five (65) volcanic earthquakes that are associated with rock fracturing processes beneath and around the edifice.PHIVOLCS Bulletin 15th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection due to weak plume activity. The Taal Volcano Network recorded seventy-seven (77) volcanic earthquakes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater. Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection due to weak plume activity. The Taal Volcano Network recorded seventy-seven (77) volcanic earthquakes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 14th of February - After step-down to Alert Level 3 last 26 January 2020, Taal Volcano’s condition in the succeeding three weeks has been characterized by less frequent volcanic earthquake activity, stabilizing ground deformation of the Taal Caldera and Taal Volcano Island (TVI) edifices and weak steam/gas emissions at the Main Crater. DOST-PHIVOLCS is lowering the alert status of TaalVolcano from Alert Level 3 to Alert Level 2 to reflect the overall decreasing trend in the level of monitoring parameters. PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 13th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 59 tonnes/day on February 12, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded seventy-one (71) volcanic earthquakes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater. PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 12th of February reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 67 tonnes/day on February 11, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred-one (101) volcanic earthquakes including four (4) low frequency events. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 11th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 50 to 100m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 105 tonnes/day on February 10, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded eighty-seven (87) volcanic earthquakes including one (1) low frequency event and two (2) harmonic tremors having durations of one (1) to three (3) minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS BULLETIN 10th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes rising 20 to 50m high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 116 tonnes/day on February 8, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded seventy-seven (77) volcanic earthquakes including eleven (11) harmonic tremors having durations of one (1) to four (4) minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.According to the Disaster Response Operations Monitoring and Information Center (DROMIC) there were a total of 17,088 people in 110 evacuation centers, and an additional 211,729 people were staying at other locations as of 10 February. PHIVOLCS bulletin 8th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by moderate emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes rising 200 to 300m high before drifting southwest. Weak steaming from fissure vents along the Daang Kastila trail is currently ongoing. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 54 tonnes/day on February 7, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred fifteen (115) volcanic earthquakes including three (3) low-frequency events. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS bulletin 7th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by moderate emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes rising 200 to 300m high before drifting southwest. Weak steaming from fissure vents along the Daang Kastila trail is currently ongoing. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was again below instrumental detection due to weak plume activity. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred eighteen (118) volcanic earthquakes including five (5) low-frequency events and one (1) harmonic tremor that lasted less than three (3) minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS bulletin 6th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes 50 to 100 meters high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred thirty-two (132) volcanic earthquakes including three (3) low-frequency events and eleven (11) harmonic tremors having durations of two (2) to three (3) minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS blletin - 5th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes 50 to 100 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 55 tonnes/day on February 4, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one-hundred fifty-six (156) volcanic earthquakes including two (2) low-frequency events and eighteen (18) harmonic tremors having durations of one (1) to three (3) minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS bulletin - 4th of February - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of steam-laden plumes 50 to 500 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 231 tonnes/day on February 3, 2020. The Taal Volcano Network recorded two hundred twenty-three (223) volcanic earthquakes including eight (8) low-frequency events and one (1) harmonic tremor that lasted nearly three minutes long. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS bulletin - 3rd of February reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by moderate to voluminous emission of dirty-white to white steam-laden plumes rising 800 meters high before drifting southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 97 tonnes/day on February 1, 2020. Taal Volcano’s seismic monitoring network recorded one hundred thirty-four (134) volcanic earthquakes during the 24-hour observation period including one (1) low-frequency event. Two of these events at 4:20am and 5:42am registered respectively at magnitude M3.2 and M2.3, the first having been felt at Intensity IV in Laurel and Agoncillo, Intensity III in Lemery, Batangas and Intensity II in Tagaytay City. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater. As of the 1st of February, PHIVOLCS reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by wispy to weak emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes 50 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 65 tonnes/day. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred eighty-two (182) volcanic earthquakes including one (1) low-frequency event and one (1) harmonic tremor that lasted 3 minutes. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.PHIVOLCS bulletin - 31st of January - Activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by moderate emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes 500-700 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection. For the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, recorded one hundred sixteen (116) volcanic earthquakes including two (2) low-frequency events. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.As of the 30th of January, PHIVOLCS bulletin reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes 300 - 500 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection. For the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, recorded one hundred thirty-seven (137) volcanic earthquakes including two (2) low-frequency events and one (1) harmonic tremor that lasted for 97 seconds. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater.As of the 29th of January PHIVOLCS bulletin reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by moderate to voluminous emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes 600 - 800 meters tall that drifted northeast. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 64 tonnes/day. For the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, recorded one hundred twenty three (123) volcanic earthquakes including three (3) low-frequency events. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater. As of 28th of January bulletin, PHIVOLCS reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak to voluminous emission of white to dirty white steam-laden plumes 100 - 800 meters tall that drifted southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was below instrumental detection. The Philippine Seismic Network (PSN) plotted a total of seven hundred fifty-five (755) volcanic earthquakes since 1:00 PM, January 12, 2020. One hundred seventy-six (176) of these registered at magnitudes M1.2-M4.1 and were felt at Intensities I-V. Since 5:00 AM on January 27, 2020 until 5:00 AM today, there were three (3) volcanic earthquakes plotted that registered at magnitudes M1.5-M2.2 with no felt event. For the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, recorded ninety-two (92) volcanic earthquakes including four (4) low-frequency events. These earthquakes signify magmatic activity beneath the Taal edifice that could lead to eruptive activity at the Main Crater. PHIVOLCS bulletin on January 27th, 2020 reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak to moderate emission of white steam-laden plumes 50 to 800 meters high that drifted northeast. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 87 tonnes/day. The Taal Volcano Network recorded one hundred seventy (170) volcanic earthquakes including four (4) low-frequency earthquakes. Alert Level 3 is maintained over Taal Volcano. PHIVOLCS reported that Taal activity over the past 24 hours was only characterized by low to moderate emissions of white vapor plumes 100 to 800 meters high; sulfur dioxide emissions are measured at an average of 409 tonnes per day. This apparent calm seems contradicted by seismicity: the seismic network of Taal recorded 420 volcanic earthquakes, including 11 low-frequency earthquakes ... meaning that the magmatic intrusion could be still present. Alert level 4 remains effective, as well as the order to evacuate the area of ​​14 km radius around the crater. As of the 24th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that the activity in the main crater of the Taal volcano over the past 24 hours has been characterized by a low to moderate emission of white plumes loaded with vapor at 50 to 500 meters in height from the main crater which drifted to the southwest. Sulfur dioxide emissions were measured at an average of 224 tonnes / day. In the past 24 hours, the Taal volcano network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the NHP, has recorded four hundred eighty-six (486) volcanic earthquakes, including four (4) earthquakes. low frequency earth. As of the 22nd of January, PHIVOLCS reported that a low to moderate emission of white plumes loaded with vapor at 50 to 500 meters in height was observed at the main crater of Taal, drifted towards the southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 141 tonnes / day. In the past 24 hours, the Taal seismic network, which may record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, has recorded four hundred sixty-seven (467) volcanic earthquakes, including eight (8) earthquakes to low frequency.Alert level 4 remains in effect on the Taal volcano. Activity in the main crater of Taal in the past 24 hours has been characterized by a low emission of white plumes loaded with steam at a height of 50 to 500 meters from the main crater which drifted to the southwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 153 tonnes / day.In the past 24 hours, the Taal seismic network has recorded 481 volcanic earthquakes, including 8 of low frequency. The alert level remains at 4. PHIVOLCS Bulletin 21st of January - 8AM - reported that activity in the Main Crater in the past 24 hours has been characterized by weak steam emission that generated ash plumes 500-600 meters tall and dispersed ash southwest of the main Crater. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission was measured at an average of 344 tonnes/day. The Philippine Seismic Network (PSN) plotted a total of seven hundred eighteen (718) volcanic earthquakes since 1:00 PM, January 12, 2020. One hundred seventy-six (176) of these registered at magnitudes M1.2 – M4.1 and were felt at Intensities I – V. Since 5:00 AM on January 20, 2020 until 5:00 AM today, there were five (5) volcanic earthquakes plotted, registered at magnitudes M1.6-M2.5 with no felt event. For the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, recorded four hundred forty-eight  (448) volcanic earthquakes including seventeen (17) low-frequency earthquakes. Such intense seismic activity likely signifies continuous magmatic intrusion beneath the Taal edifice, which may lead to further eruptive activity. Alert Level 4 still remains in effect over Taal Volcano. This means that hazardous explosive eruption is possible within hours to days. DOST-PHIVOLCS strongly reiterates total evacuation of Taal Volcano Island and high-risk areas as identified in the hazard maps within the 14-km radius from Taal Main Crater and along the Pansipit River Valley where fissuring has been observed. PHIVOLCS reported that activity in the main crater over the past 24 hours has been characterized by a steady emission of steam and rare weak explosions that have generated ash plumes 500 to 1,000 meters tall and ash scattered at southwest of the main crater. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 4,353 tonnes / day.In the past 24 hours, the Taal volcano network, which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the NHP, has recorded six hundred seventy-three (673) volcanic earthquakes, including twelve (12) earthquakes in low frequency. Such intense seismic activity probably means a continuous magmatic intrusion under the Taal building, which can lead to additional eruptive activity. Alert level 4 remains in effect on the Taal volcano. As of the 19th of January, PHIVOLCS reported that activity in the main Taal crater, in the Philippines, in the past 24 hours has been characterized by a steady emission of steam and rare weak explosions that have generated white to white ash plumes of 500 to 1,000 meters from height and scattered ash southwest of the main crater. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 1442 tonnes / day. In the past 24 hours, the seismic network of the Taal volcano which can record small earthquakes undetectable by the PSN, has recorded seven hundred eighty-seven (787) volcanic earthquakes, including fifteen (15) earthquakes earth at low frequency. Such intense seismic activity probably means a continuous magmatic intrusion under the Taal building, which can lead to additional eruptive activity. Displacement maps for the Taal area were established by combining the ascending and descending interferograms provided by Sentinel; they show a larger extension than the vertical deformation. Alert level 4 remains in effect on the Taal volcano.As of the 18th of January, PHIVO